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Anti-aging Research/Recommendations

I know this is a lot of information but you can't cover anti-aging in a couple paragraphs.  If you want the shorter version, sign up for my newsletter or bookmark the newsletter archives, which will take about six minutes per week to read.

In addition to diet and exercise, below is what I feel is important (in no specific order).  I'm not a doctor so always check with your doctor before starting any nutritional program.  For a good reason to keep on top of things via my newsletter, see:  Only half are receiving optimal treatment for conditions - HealthDay, 6/25/03 - "Most people receive only about half the health care considered optimal for their conditions ... That rate holds for prevention measures, treatment of chronic problems such as high cholesterol and blood pressure, and even immediate conditions like headaches and hip fractures"Click here for past newsletters.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medication.

  1. Insulin Plays Central Role In Aging, Brown Scientists Discover - Science Daily, 6/4/04 - "insulin regulates its own production and that it directly regulates tissue aging. The principle: Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke" - [Abstract] Related articles:
    1. Riverside Professor Receives First Age-Reversal Prize - Science Daily, 1/7/05 - "According to Spindler's research, the fewer calories an animal consumes - provided malnutrition is avoided - the slower an animal ages and the lower the death rate from cancer, heart disease and diabetes" - Some theorize that calorie restriction slows aging because it keeps insulin level low (there are other ways that may keep insulin low such as PGX, chromium, Glucophage (metformin), Actos (pioglitazone), Avandia (rosiglitazone), etc).  See:
      1. Insulin and Aging - Brown University - "Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke"
      2. Resisting Insulin - USC Health Magazine Cover Story, Fall '06 - "Insulin, according to a slew of new studies, may play a role in everything from cancer to hypertension to cardiovascular disease"
      3. Growth hormone, insulin may be key to longevity - WorldHealth.net, 5/24/06 - "it is reasonable to suggest that treatment(s) causing an improvement in insulin sensitivity combined with modest reduction in insulin release would reduce risk of age-related disease and likely also delay aging"
      4. Click here for much more on insulin and aging and ways to reduce insulin.
  2. Acetyl-l-carnitine and alpha lipoic acid.  See the three abstracts (1, 2, 3) in the Feb. 2002 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  That combo "reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay" and "increased metabolism" in rats.  The Life Extension Foundation lists acetyl-l-carnitine as number two in its top 10 recommendations.  Specific picks are the  - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com and alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com 3 each per day taken together.  Also, see:
    1. Carnitine Improves Symptoms of Male Aging - Medscape, 4/14/04 - "Carnitine is more active than testosterone for improving symptoms of male aging such as sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue ... In this trial, 120 patients were randomized to receive testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day, propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day, or placebo for six months" [Abstract] - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com and GPLC at Amazon.com.
    2. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61 - "Dietary administration of ALCAR and/or LA significantly reduced the extent of oxidized RNA, the combination being the most effective. Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay. These results suggest that feeding ALCAR and LA to old rats improves performance on memory tasks by lowering oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function"
    3. Effect of combined treatment with alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine on vascular function and blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007 Apr;9(4):249-55 - "Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function ... Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3% (P=.008), consistent with reduced arterial tone. Active treatment tended to decrease systolic blood pressure for the whole group (P=.07) and had a significant effect in the subgroup with blood pressure above the median (151+/-20 to 142+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03) and in the subgroup with the metabolic syndrome (139+/-21 to 130+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03)" - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
    4. Lipoic Acid Explored As Anti-aging Compound - Science Daily, 5/17/07 - "mice supplemented with lipoic acid have a cognitive ability, behavior, and genetic expression of almost 100 detoxification and antioxidant genes that are comparable to that of young animals" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com.
    5. R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia. 2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24 h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com and acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
    6. Lipoic acid significantly restores, in rats, the age-related decline in vasomotion - Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 25 - "In old animals, endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings was decreased, GSH levels and its redox state in aortic endothelia were over 30% lower and nSMase activity and endothelial ceramide levels were three-fold increased, relative to young (2-4 mo) rats. LA treatment of old animals improved relaxation in aortic rings, reversed the changes in endothelial GSH, in nSMase activities and in ceramide levels. Similar effects on GSH levels and nSMase activity in old rats were also induced by treatment with GSH monoethylester. Activation (by phosphorylation) of eNOS was decreased by about 50% in old rats and this age-related decrease was partially reversed by LA treatment" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
    7. Complementary and Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 - "There have been several controlled clinical trials suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD"
    8. Jarrow Formulas’, Inc. Introduces ALCA 500(TM) (Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate Dihydrochloride) - NPI Center, 3/8/05 - "Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate (ALCA) represents an advancement in the carnitine and arginine fields as this new dietary supplement offers potential benefits in affecting levels of nitric oxide over and above the traditional benefits of carnitine" - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
    9. Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun 26 - "Seventeen trials comprising a total of 1133 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. Green tea consumption significantly reduced the fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) concentrations by -0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.15, -0.03 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and -0.30% (95% CI: -0.37, -0.22%; P < 0.01), respectively. Further stratified analyses from high Jadad score studies showed that green tea significantly reduced fasting insulin concentrations (-1.16 μIU/mL; 95%CI: -1.91, -0.40 μIU/mL; P = 0.03)" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    10. Common Nutrient May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD, 1/6/05 - "a 1,000 milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
    11. Supplemental Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy - Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome symptom significantly improved with ALC"
    12. Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 - "The National Academy of Sciences has published three new reports showing that aging may be partially reversible with currently available supplements"
    13. Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "By enhancing membrane stability, energy production, and neurotransmission, ALC may improve mental function. In addition, it may also have anti-inflammatory effects that reduce free radical generation. . . ALC's ability to bind cortisol and increase nerve growth factor production within the hippocampal region may explain its positive effects on neurons."
    14. Sperm Booster? - WebMD, 1/1/01
    15. The Anti-Aging Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Life Extension Magazine, 5/00 - "When acetyl-L-carnitine was administered, their heart rates became almost completely restored to the metabolic function level of young control rats . . . acetyl-L-carnitine is critical to youthful cellular function in the brain, heart, liver, peripheral nerve and immune system.  Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine becomes an even greater consideration when we realize the potential antiaging effects this amino acid may produce when taken in combination with coQ10 and alpha lipoic acid"
    16. Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice - Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "acetyl l-carnitine significantly reversed age-associated mitochondrial decay. It increased cellular respiration, membrane potential and cardiolipin levels"
    17. Lower AGE with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 - "Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ... ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
    18. Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
    19. Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for male infertility: a systematic review - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:383-90 - "the administration of LC and/or LAC may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm kinetic features in patients affected by male infertility"
    20. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 - "ALC treatment is efficacious in alleviating symptoms, particularly pain, and improves nerve fiber regeneration and vibration perception in patients with established diabetic neuropathy"
    21. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging - Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6 - "Carnitines proved significantly more active than testosterone in improving nocturnal penile tumescence and International Index of Erectile Function score. Testosterone significantly increased the prostate volume and free and total testosterone levels and significantly lowered serum luteinizing hormone; carnitines did not"
    22. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 - "Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay"
    23. Mitochondrial decay in aging. Reversal through supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone - Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:214-23 - "ALCAR supplementation (1 month) resulted in significant increases in cellular respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cardiolipin values"
    24. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach - Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203 - "ALC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease in younger subjects, and the use of the trilinear approach to estimate the average rate of change may prove valuable in pharmacological trials"
    25. Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study on CSF neurotransmitters and neuropeptides - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995 Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly decreased after treatment; plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction. Since both CSF beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible explanation is that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity"
    26. Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 2/18/08 - [Abstract] - "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and ambulatory activity in old rats" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com and alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  3. Metabolic Aging Theory Turned Upside Down - BetterHumans.com, 5/31/04 - "the most metabolically active 25% of mice lived 36% longer than the least metabolically active" [Abstract]
    1. Green Tea Boosts Metabolism Without Increasing Heart Rate - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/04 - "daily consumption of green tea extract was associated with an increase in the metabolic rate equivalent to a statistically significant 4% increase in 24-hour energy expenditure" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    2. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1870-5 - "Feeding ALCAR in combination with LA increased metabolism and lowered oxidative stress more than either compound alone" - See acetyl l-carnitine alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
    3. Pill 'could lead to longer lives' - BBC News, 3/31/05 - "the mice with the highest metabolic rate lived around 25% longer than those with the lowest ... When mice were given thyroxine, they had increased metabolic rates and lived longer ... However, a leading specialist in human hormone disorders said the findings would "not be true for humans""
    4. 'Bad metabolism' blamed for clogged arteries - MSNBC, 5/25/05 - "Our study suggests 'bad' metabolism does lead to inflammation in blood vessel walls and can contribute to heart attacks and strokes ... The scientists believe a deficiency in essential fatty acids that are required in the human diet may contribute to changes in metabolism in the wall of blood vessels"
    5. See my metabolism page for other ways to increase it.
  4. Weight Control:
    1. Does Orlistat, OTC Diet Pill Alli, Live Up To Its Name? - Science Daily, 6/12/07 - "people taking orlistat and following low-fat diets lost almost five percent of their initial body weight, about seven to15 pounds, over four months" - See Alli at Amazon.com.
    2. CLA: The New Miracle Weight Loss Pill? - WebMD, 5/24/04 - "Both CLA groups lost weight -- about 4 pounds; the placebo group stayed the same ... The CLA syrup group had a 9% body fat loss; the CLA pill group had 7% loss; the placebo group had no body fat loss" [Abstract] - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
    3. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese - Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):550-60 - "randomised into two groups supplemented with either 3 x 4 g/d CLA or placebo for 6 months. CLA significantly decreased BFM at month 3 (Delta=- 0 x 9 %, P=0 x 016) and at month 6 (Delta=- 3 x 4 %, P=0 x 043) compared with placebo. The reduction in fat mass was located mostly in the legs (Delta=- 0 x 8 kg, P<0 x 001), and in women (Delta=-1 x 3 kg, P=0 x 046) with BMI >30 kg/m2 (Delta=-1 x 9 kg, P=0 x 011), compared with placebo. The waist-hip ratio decreased significantly (P=0 x 043) compared with placebo. LBM increased (Delta=+0 x 5 kg, P=0 x 049) within the CLA group ... Adverse events did not differ between the groups" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
    4. Effects of metformin on the body composition in subjects with risk factors for type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Mar;7(2):189-92 - "In the metformin group, there was a decrease in fat weight from 25.9 +/- 9.4 to 20.8 +/- 9.2 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in lean weight from 57.05 +/- 13.6 to 61.9 +/- 16.5 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in basal metabolism from 1735 +/- 413 to 1878 +/- 505 calories/day, p < 0.05 and an increase in body water" - See metformin at IAS.  Note:  That's a 19.7% decrease in fat (25.9-20.8)/25.9 = 19.7%, a 8.5% increase in lean weight (61.9-57.05)/57.05 = 8.5% and a 8.2% increase in basal metabolism (1878-1735)/1735 = 8.2%. - Ben
    5. Vinegar as a Sweet Solution? - Science News, 12/18/04 - "a 2-pound weight loss, on average, over the 4 weeks in the vinegar group" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com.
    6. Vinegar may help dieters eat less - Nutra USA, 9/7/05 - "Both glucose and insulin responses were about 25 per cent lower at 90 minutes when the volunteers had consumed the highest level of vinegar compared to the reference meal ... This level of vinegar is equivalent to about two to three tablespoons" - See vinegar supplements at Amazon.com (1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations. 
    7. About 5% of Long-term Niacin Users Evolve Into HDL Hyperresponders - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/06 - "Overall, these patients lost 4% of body weight while on niacin treatment" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
    8. Green Tea Fights Fat - WebMD, 1/26/05 - "the first group drank a bottle of oolong tea fortified with green tea extract containing 690 milligrams of catechins, and the other group drank a bottle of oolong tea with 22 milligrams of catechins ... After three months, the study showed that the men who drank the green tea extract lost more weight (5.3 pounds vs. 2.9 pounds) and experienced a significantly greater decrease in BMI, waist size, and total body fat" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    9. Get the diet scoop: 6 promising supplements, 6 to avoid - CNN, 2/16/07 - "promising ... Caffeine ... EGCG ... Chromium ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) ... 5-HTP ... L-dopa or L-tyrosine"
    10. Acomplia Shows 'Modest' Weight Loss - WebMD, 10/17/06 - "In a year's time, they lost about 11 more pounds, on average, than those taking the placebo" - See Acomplia at International Antiaging Systems.
    11. Biology Dictates Diet Success - WebMD, 5/15/07 - "The low-glycemic-load diet was effective for a lot of the individuals who were high-insulin secretors and who previously had challenges losing weight and keeping it off"
    12. Soup First Cuts Calories Later - WebMD, 5/1/07 - "Participants consumed 20% fewer calories when they started their meals with soup"
    13. Low Glycemic Index Diet Best For Weight Loss And Cardiovascular Health - Science Daily, 7/26/06 - "Between the two high-carbohydrate diets, lowering the glycemic index doubled fat loss"
    14. Rosiglitazone decreases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Jun 6 - "Part of the beneficial effects of rosiglitazone may be mediated by a reduction in the 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression and activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat"
    15. Telmisartan But Not Valsartan Increases Caloric Expenditure and Protects Against Weight Gain and Hepatic Steatosis - Hypertension. 2006 Mar 27 - "Telmisartan, but not valsartan, promoted increases in caloric expenditure and protected against dietary-induced weight gain ... Telmisartan reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and decreased adipocyte size to a much greater extent than valsartan and was also associated with a significant reduction in hepatic triglyceride levels" - See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
    16. Vitamin Supplements May Slow Middle-Age Weight Gain - HealthDay, 9/10/04 - "the people who had taken multivitamins, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and chromium had less weight gain over the previous 10 years than other respondents"
    17. Low-glycemic-index plan is better than low-fat or low-carb diets, study says - HealthDay, 8/26/04 - "After two to four months, the researchers found that the rats given the high-glycemic-index diet had 71 percent more body fat and 8 percent less lean muscle mass, compared with rats on the low-glycemic-index diet"
  5. Vitamin C
    1. Paleolithic Nutrition: Your Future Is In Your Dietary Past - The Nutrition Reporter - "This theory regarding how our evolutionary ancestors lost their ability to produce vitamin C is generally accepted by scientists, Stone's other theory is more controversial. He contended that people never lost the need for large amounts of vitamin C, even though they lost the ability to make it. Based on animal data, he estimated that people might require 1.8-13 grams of vitamin C daily."
    2. Alternative Medicine: Vitamin C - The Epoch Times, 11/28/04 - "Guinea pigs and primates are the only mammals known that do not manufacture vitamin C in their gut. Other mammals not only manufacture vitamin C (ascorbic acid), but do it on an as-needed basis. For daily maintenance they manufacture what would be equivalent to a 150-pound man taking 5 to 50 grams a day"
  6. Vitamin E - Why taking just the alpha-tocopherol form (found in most supplements) may cause more harm than good:
    1. Carotech Communication Regarding Johns Hopkins vitamin E Meta-analysis - NPI Center, 11/12/04 - "a high dosage of alpha-tocopherol alone has been shown to deplete the body's gamma-tocopherol. Despite alpha tocopherol's action as an antioxidant, gamma tocopherol is required to effectively remove the harmful peroxynitrite-derived nitrating species"
    2. Supplementation of Diets with alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Serum Concentrations of gamma- and delta-Tocopherol in Humans - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3137-40 - "Compared with placebo, supplementation with alpha-tocopherol reduced serum gamma-tocopherol concentrations by a median change of 58% ... and reduced the number of individuals with detectable delta-tocopherol concentrations ... In view of the potential benefits of gamma- and delta-tocopherol, the efficacy of alpha-tocopherol supplementation may be reduced due to decreases in serum gamma- and delta-tocopherol levels." - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family) at Amazon.com vitamin E products.
    3. Effect of oral supplementation with D-alpha-tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation - Medline, 8/91 - "gamma-Tocopherol significantly decreased in plasma and LDL during vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation"
    4. Non-nutritive bioactive food constituents of plants: tocopherols (vitamin E) - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):89-94 - "in food, gamma- and delta-tocopherol are a more potent antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol. Tocopherols as a group are the key antioxidants in human cell membranes and are also important in protecting the LDL particles"
    5. Mixed tocopherols inhibit platelet aggregation in humans: potential mechanisms - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "ADP-induced platelet aggregation decreased significantly in the mixed tocopherol group but not in the alpha-tocopherol and control groups"
    6. Antioxidants and Risk of Alzheimer Disease - JAMA, 11/13/02 - "Dr Morris and colleagues1 and Dr Engelhart and colleagues2 found an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin E from food, but not from supplements, with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD).3  I would like to suggest a mechanism for this finding.  The predominant dietary form of vitamin E, gamma-tocopherol, but not the form found in supplements, alpha-tocopherol, has been demonstrated to inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) production of prostaglandin E2 in macrophages and epithelial cells"
    7. Nourishing Your Noggin - WebMD, 9/22/04 - "For a long time, people believed that a common component of vitamin E called alpha tocopherol was most important, but another form called gamma tocopherol is definitely a protective antioxidant in brain disorders"
    8. Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol? - Science Daily, 5/12/05 - "Vitamin E ... consists of both tocopherols and tocotrienols ... the tocotrienols (TRF) seem to have greater antioxidant properties ... taking any form of Vitamin E for a long time can be harmful ... The most effective dose in rats was 8 IU kg/day. Extrapolated to humans, a person with an average body weight of 154 pounds would get around 560 IU"
    9. Tocotrienol-Rich Rice Bran Oil A New Natural Cholesterol-Fighter - mercola.com, 5/12/05 - "This good news certainly supports other studies that have shown the antioxidant effects of tocotrienols to be 40 to 60 times more effective than alpha tocopherol"
    10. NOW Foods Introduces Advanced Gamma E Complex - NPI Center, 5/22/03 - "Gamma and alpha tocopherols must both be present in the correct ratios to provide Vitamin E’s broad range of benefits"
    11. Technical Communication from CAROTECH INC, Edison, NJ (In Response to the latest Scientific Review on Vitamin E, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine) - NPI Center, 8/1/04 - "There are 8 forms of vitamin E in nature - 4 forms of tocopherols and 4 forms of tocotrienols (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and corresponding tocotrienols). The idea that one single form of vitamin E – alpha-tocopherol out of eight fractions is the “magic” vitamin E and assuming that the other forms are worthless denies the very fact that nature put these seven other tocopherols and tocotrienols out there for a reason"
    12. Delta-tocotrienol - The 21st Century Vitamin E? - Dr. Murray's Newsletter, 3/19/03
    13. The effect of gamma-tocopherol administration on alpha-tocopherol levels and metabolism in humans - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun 1 - "The plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration decreased significantly during gamma-tocopherol administration"
    14. See mixed vitamin E at Amazon.com or Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family) at Amazon.com.
  7. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) - Vitamin D is toxic in high doses but from what I've read over the years, this worry has caused many to be deficient.  Plus some supplements have the lesser effective D2 (ergocalciferol) form.  400 IU might sound like a lot but is only .01 milligrams (10 micrograms).  See:
    1. Vitamin D Appears to Cut Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 10 ng/mL, a level of 50 ng/mL reduced the risk for breast cancer by 50%. This level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D would require an average intake of 4000 IU of vitamin D per day, although the authors note that intake of 2000 IU per day combined with sun exposure of approximately 12 minutes per day with 50% of the skin exposed could also help patients achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 50 ng/mL ... Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 12 ng/mL, a level of at least 33 ng/mL or more was associated with a 50% reduction in the risk for incident colorectal cancer ... vitamin D intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day would confer an appropriate balance between protection against colorectal cancer and adverse events related to hypervitaminosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
    2. A Ray Of Sunshine In The Fight Against Cancer: Vitamin D May Help - Science Daily, 2/13/08 - "It sounds too good to be true … a little inexpensive pill that could block the development of some cancers, strengthen bones, prevent multiple sclerosis and alleviate winter depression ... But it’s not science fiction. The “new aspirin” could be Vitamin D ... during the winter, Canadians take at least 1,000 units a day of Vitamin D"
    3. Lack Of Vitamin D May Increase Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 1/7/08 - "those with blood levels of vitamin D below15 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) had twice the risk of a cardiovascular event such as a heart attack, heart failure or stroke in the next five years compared to those with higher levels of vitamin D ... Overall, 28 percent of individuals had levels of vitamin D below15 ng/mL and 9 percent had levels below10 ng/mL. Although levels above 30 ng/mL are considered optimal for bone metabolism, only 10 percent of the study sample had levels in this range" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
    4. The Impact of Low Vitamin D on Cardiovascular Outcomes - Physician's Weekly, 8/27/07 - "serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, or vitamin D, appears to be associated with important cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults ... The adjusted prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and high serum triglyceride levels was significantly higher for patients with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D"
    5. Study Shines More Light On Benefit Of Vitamin D In Fighting Cancer - Science Daily, 8/21/07 - "For the first time, we are saying that 600,000 cases of breast and colorectal cancer could be prevented each year worldwide, including nearly 150,000 in the United States alone ... The serum level recommended by the study would correspond to intake of 2000 International Units per day of vitamin D3 for a meaningful reduction in colorectal cancer"
    6. Why the optimal requirement for Vitamin D(3) is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults - J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90:575-9 - "If 70nmol/L is regarded as a minimum desirable target 25(OH)D concentration, then current recommendations of 15mcg per day do not meet the criterion of an RDA"
    7. High Blood Levels Of Vitamin D Protect Women From Breast Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/22/08 - "Women with a very low blood level of 25(OH)D have a considerably increased breast cancer risk. The effect was found to be strongest in women who were not taking hormones for relief of menopausal symptoms"
    8. Low Vitamin D Linked to Increased CV Risk Factors - Medscape, 6/15/07 - "Adults with low serum levels of vitamin D are more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and high triglycerides than are adults with higher vitamin-D levels"
    9. Deficiency In Exposure To Sunlight Linked To Endometrial Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/07 - "In general, endometrial cancer incidence was highest at the highest latitudes in both hemispheres ... This is the third environmental paper from this research team to show a strong association between vitamin D and cancer using global incidence data (GLOBOCAN). The first paper, which illuminated a similar pattern for kidney cancer, was published Sept. 15, 2006, in the International Journal of Cancer. The second, on ovarian cancer, was published Oct. 31, 2006, in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
    10. Cancer Benefit From Vitamin D? - WebMD, 6/8/07 - "Women in the four-year study took 1,500 milligrams of calcium supplementation either alone or with 1,100 International Units (IU) of vitamin D each day ... women who took both supplements wound up with nearly 60% less risk of cancers at the end of the study compared with women who took placebo"
    11. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients - Nutr J. 2004 Jul 19;3(1):8 - "winter wellbeing/depression scores improved with both doses of vitamin D"
    12. Scientists: Sunshine May Prevent Cancer - CBS 2 Chicago, 5/21/05 - "vitamin D increasingly seems important for preventing and even treating many types of cancer ... In the last three months alone, four separate studies found it helped protect against lymphoma and cancers of the prostate, lung and, ironically, the skin. The strongest evidence is for colon cancer"
    13. Vitamin D3 more potent than D2, further evidence - Nutra USA, 6/21/04 - "Calculating the difference in potency by measuring the area under the curve revealed an even greater difference with D3 more than nine times more effective than D2" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
    14. Vitamin D May Ease Depression - WebMD, 8/3/04 - "Vitamin D supplementation ... may also relieve depression ... Basically, what vitamin D does is increase levels of the [chemical] serotonin in the brain ... About 90% of patients in my hospital are vitamin D deficient"
    15. Vitamin D Is For Cancer Defense - Nutrition Science News, 3/00 - "Few vitamins can provide such an array of health benefits as vitamin D"
    16. Scientists concerned about vitamin D levels in the U.S. - USA Today, 10/28/03 - "Heaney cited one study that men needed 1,000 IUs a day during Nebraska winters to keep their vitamin D levels from dropping ... A study of 2,600 healthy Britons given 800 IUs a day saw their risk of bone fractures drop 33%, he said, suggesting today's doses are insufficient to protect bones"
    17. Vitamin D May Prevent Arthritis - WebMD, 1/9/04 - "women whose diets were highest in vitamin D had the lowest incidence of rheumatoid arthritis ... Holick says most people need to take 1000 IU of vitamin D each day. And he says even this amount may be inadequate in people who have no exposure to the sun"
    18. Is Type 1 Diabetes an Environmental Disease? - Dr. Murray's Newsletter, 2/5/03 - "children who regularly took vitamin D had an 80% reduced risk of developing type 1 diabetes while those that had vitamin deficiency actually had a 300% increased risk of developing the disease"
    19. Vitamin D Supplementation Appears to Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Development in Women: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/13/05 - "When they compared the highest and lowest quintile cohorts of vitamin D intake from all sources, the researchers found the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes was 0.72" - I read that as a 28% reduced risk.
    20. Low Vitamin D Levels Not Restricted To High-risk Groups - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/02 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is far more common than is generally assumed and is not necessarily restricted to high-risk groups such as the elderly"
    21. People Living In Higher Latitudes Require Fall, Winter Vitamin D Supplements - Doctor's Guide, 6/10/02 - "Given that almost every person in our sample had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 80 nmol/L at one point in the year, and that more than one-third of subjects had levels below the most conservative definition of vitamin D insufficiency, our findings support a recommendation for more aggressive vitamin D supplementation, particularly for elderly people and especially during the fall and winter months"
    22. Too Many Elderly Lacking in Vitamin D, Study: Deficiency All Too Common, Could Be Cause of Muscle Weakness - WebMD, 5/16/01 - "many elderly patients who are bedridden or in wheelchairs may actually be suffering from muscle weakness caused by severe, but easily treatable, vitamin D deficiencies ... The researcher suggests that even twice that amount may not be enough in chronically ill and even healthy older patients, because absorption of the vitamin tends to be impaired with age"
    23. Vitamin D and prostate cancer prevention and treatment - Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;14(9):423-30 - "The association between either decreased sun exposure or vitamin D deficiency and the increased risk of prostate cancer at an earlier age, and with a more aggressive progression, indicates that adequate vitamin D nutrition should be a priority for men of all ages"
    24. Getting Some Sun May Fight Blood Cancer - WebMD, 3/31/04 - "There is increasing evidence that vitamin D has protective effects against many cancers. The evidence for colorectal cancer protection is pretty solid"
    25. What Causes, Prevents Colon Polyps - WebMD, 12/9/03 - "In this new report, vitamin D shines -- it's associated with a one-third reduced risk of serious colon polyps that often lead to cancer in men getting at least 645 IUs of this nutrient each day"
    26. Could Too Little Sun Cause Cancer? - WebMD, 11/20/03 - "there's growing concern that this advice is contributing to another health problem -- a vitamin D deficiency ... This important nutrient is best known for building strong bones and teeth -- key to preventing osteoporosis -- but low levels have also been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes, muscle and bone pain, and perhaps more frightening, a greater chance of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, ovaries, esophagus, and lymphatic system"
    27. Shining a Light on the Health Benefits of Vitamin D - New York Times, 1/28/03 - "activated vitamin D can be used to treat osteoporosis, kidney failure and psoriasis ... The vitamin plays a crucial role in most metabolic functions and also, muscle, cardiac and neurological functions ... Adequate vitamin D equals less risk for diabetes ... up to 50, 60 percent of free-living adults over the age of 65 were severely vitamin D deficient"
    28. Vitamin D Often Overlooked When Treating Osteoporosis - Medscape, 10/5/04 - "vitamin D deficiency is associated with diabetes; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis; colon, prostate, and breast cancer; and high blood pressure ... I would recommend that both children and adults get about 1,000 IU a day"
    29. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):108-13 - "Low serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations may be associated with PD independently of BMD. Given the high prevalence of PD and vitamin D deficiency, these findings may have important public health implications"
    30. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91 - "Vitamin D(2) potency is less than one third that of vitamin D(3). Physicians resorting to use of vitamin D(2) should be aware of its markedly lower potency and shorter duration of action relative to vitamin D(3)" - Note: Ergocalciferol is D2, Cholecalciferol is D3.  I noticed that several such as GNCicon are still selling the D2.
    31. Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1706S-9S - "For typical older individuals, supplemental oral intakes of approximately 1300 IU/d are required to reach the lower end of the optimal range"
    32. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1678S-88S - "Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic among both children and adults in the United States"
    33. The High Prevalence of Inadequate Serum Vitamin D Levels and Implications for Bone Health - Curr Med Res Opin. 2005; 21 (4): 579-585 - "Vitamin D toxicity has not been reported from excessive sunlight exposure, and has only been associated with dietary intake when daily doses exceed 10 000 IU (250 µg) ... Vitamin D is of paramount importance for mineral homeostasis and skeletal health, and maintaining adequate vitamin D nutrition is an essential component of management strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Nevertheless, inadequate serum vitamin D is currently a highly prevalent, global health issue, especially among elderly adults and osteoporosis patients"
    34. Taking A Break From Fractures: A Closer Look At Vitamin D - Science Daily, 8/11/05 - "The researchers concluded, though, that higher daily doses, in the range of 700 to 800 IU, may reduce the risk of fracture by approximately 25 percent ... only subjects receiving higher doses of vitamin D supplementation had significantly fewer fractures than did subjects in the comparison groups"
    35. Leading Osteoporosis Experts Reach Consensus on Role of Vitamin D in Bone Health in Americans Over 50 - Doctor's Guide, 11/22/05 - "over 70% of women ages 51-70 and nearly 90% of women over 70 are not getting the recommended adequate intake of vitamin D ... The roundtable panelists expressed concern that current recommendations do not provide for optimal bone health and recommended that intake levels be increased to 800-1,000 IU per day for patients over age 50"
    36. Revealed: the pill that prevents cancer - The Independent, 12/28/05 - "Vitamin D works by lowering insulin resistance, which is one of the major factors leading to heart disease"
    37. Vitamin D: Important for Prevention of Osteoporosis, Cardiovascular Heart Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Autoimmune Diseases, and Some Cancers - Medscape, 11/11/05 - "A multivitamin Containing 400 IU of vitamin D is inadequate to satisfy the body's requirement.[32] It is estimated that at least 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day is needed to satisfy the body's requirement"
  8. A good multi/antioxidant formula - see the Antioxidants and Aging and Science takes cellular approach to explore aging process, CNN, 1/4/00.
    1. Do Antioxidants Lengthen Life? - WebMD, 5/5/05 - "mice that made more of an antioxidant called catalase lived longer than normal ... How much extra time did the mice get? About five months, on average -- an 18.5% increase in life span for a mouse ... Heart disease, cataract development, and other signs of age-related damage were delayed or reduced"
    2. Anti-aging nutrition secrets - CNN, 8/4/99 - "Fruits and vegetables also are gold mines of longevity-enhancing compounds called antioxidants; these include vitamins C and E and beta carotene. Antioxidants combat free radicals, oxygen fragments that attack and damage cell membranes, life-sustaining proteins and even our cells' genetic code, and in so doing bring about aging and disease"
  9. Niacin.  That plus a statin are the only thing I know of shown to reverse atherosclerosis.  Some argue that the no-flush niacin doesn't give you the HDL rise that regular immediate release niacin does.  I take niacin at Amazon.com after each meal and haven't had a problem with the flush.  If you do a Medline search of  hexanicotinate HDL or hexaniacinate HDL, there are no studies on it as of 5/17/07.  Someone asked me the difference between hexanicotinate and hexaniacinate.  One site implies they are different.  Another site claims they are the same.  The sustained release niacin is much more likely to cause liver toxicity.  See niacin at Amazon.com or niacin at Amazon.com.
    1. Combination Treatment Shown for First Time to Cause Regression of Atherosclerosis - Doctor's Guide, 11/16/05 - "reversal of atherosclerosis - a primary cause of stroke and heart attacks - can be achieved with a combination of Niaspan (prolonged-release nicotinic acid) and a statin ... ARBITER 2 clearly showed that statins alone are not enough to halt the progression of atherosclerosis even when the LDL-C target is met. However, the addition of Niaspan 1000 mg stopped the progression of atherosclerosis in 12 months ... a further 12 months of treatment with Niaspan and a statin actually achieves regression of atherosclerosis"
    2. Gene Tied To Longevity Also Preserves Ability To Think Clearly - Science Daily, 12/26/06 - "Centenarians were three times likelier to possess CETP VV compared with a control group representative of the general population and also had significantly larger HDL and LDL lipoproteins than people in the control group ... Researchers believe that larger cholesterol particles are less likely to lodge themselves in blood vessels" - Could niacin do the same thing?  See:
      1. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein particle size, distribution, and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease - Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 15;98(6):743-5 - "Addition of niacin resulted in a 32% increase in large-particle HDL (p <0.001), an 8% decrease in small-particle HDL (p = 0.0032), an 82% increase in large-particle LDL (p = 0.09), and a 12% decrease in small-particle LDL (p = 0.008)"
    3. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients - JAMA. 1994 Mar 2;271(9):672-7 - "None of the patients taking IR niacin developed hepatotoxic effects, while 12 (52%) of the 23 patients taking SR niacin did. CONCLUSION--The SR form of niacin is hepatotoxic and should be restricted from use. The IR niacin is preferred for the management of hypercholesterolemia but can also cause significant adverse effects and should be given only to patients who can be carefully monitored by experienced health professionals."
    4. HDL Cholesterol Level Linked To Longevity, Cognitive Function - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/03 - "A group of centenarians maintained significantly higher than normal HDL cholesterol levels, and within the group the parameter was strongly correlated with cognitive function ... The centenarians' offspring were also significantly healthier than their spouses: They were half as likely to have diabetes or heart attacks and had significantly lower blood pressure. No strokes occurred among the offspring ... The presence of HDL might explain the health and longevity in these families. The serum concentration of HDL typically declines with age by a mean of 5 mg/dL every 8 years ... Had the decline followed the normal pattern, the centenarians' HDL would have been about 20 mg/dL. But the actual mean value in the group was 55 mg/dL" - Note:  Niacin raises HDL.
  10. Some of the advantages of statins such as Zocor (simvastatin) or Lipitor (atorvastatin). - See Zocor at International Anti-aging Systems, International Anti-aging Systems (best price) or OffshoreRx1.com:
    1. Cholesterol-lowering Medicines May Be Effective Against Cancer - Science Daily, 11/2/09 - "Our results support the idea that statins can be used in more ways than just to lower cholesterol," says Pilon. "Not least that they can prevent the growth of cancer cells caused by lipid-modified proteins, but also that they can be effective in the treatment of diabetes and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's."
    2. Statin Drugs May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD, 7/14/09 - "people who took statin drugs were 58% less likely to develop dementia than those who did not ... So what is going on? A risk factor for dementia is high insulin; one theory is that statins may lower the high insulin levels in the brain. Statins have also been shown to reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation that has been linked to the pathology that can lead to dementia"
    3. Statins Can Protect Against Alzheimer’s Disease, According To New Study - Science Daily, 6/22/09 - "They clearly demonstrated that treatment with a statin called Lovastatin could prevent the death of nerve cells under these conditions. The statins not only prevented cells from dying but also prevented the loss of memory capacity that normally occurs after such cell death. In a previous study Dolga had showed that these statins stimulate the protective capacity of tumor necrosis factor, which is a key player in the brain’s immune response" - [Abstract] - Note:  Lovastatin is in red yeast rice.  See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
    4. Statins May Prevent Dementia in Older Adults - Doctor's Guide, 7/29/08 - "People at high risk for dementia who took statins were half as likely to develop dementia as those who do not take statins"
    5. Zocor vs. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's - WebMD, 7/18/07 - "In patients over age 64, those who took Zocor were 54% less likely to get Alzheimer's disease and 49% less likely to get Parkinson's disease than were matched patients not taking statin drugs ... Those who took Lipitor were 9% less likely to get Alzheimer's disease" - See simvastatin at OffshoreRx1.com.
    6. How to Age Well - WebMD, 10/27/03 - "What made them different than the other half? One thing stands out. Those who stayed healthy had perfectly healthy hearts. They didn't even have "subclinical" heart problems, the ones so minor they can only be detected by testing ... For men, having subclinical heart disease was like being 6.5 years older. For women, it was like being 5.5 years older ... refrain from smoking, lower their blood lipids, watch blood pressure, and avoid obesity through diet and exercise"
    7. Statins for All Adults with Diabetes? - WebMD, 1/10/08 - "One-third fewer people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes would suffer heart attacks or strokes if they took cholesterol-lowering statin drugs"
    8. Statin Drugs May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/8/08 - "The veterans were followed for five years, on average. During that time, 9% of those taking statins were diagnosed with cancer, compared with 13% of those not taking statins, VA records show"
    9. Statins Reduce Dementia & Cognitive Impairment Risk - Physician's Weekly Article, 10/13/08 - "Patients who had used statins were about half as likely as those who did not use the drugs to develop dementia or CIND"
    10. Study: Statins help people with normal cholesterol, too - USATODAY.com, 11/9/08 - "A study involving nearly 18,000 patients has shown for the first time that giving a cholesterol-lowering statin drug to seemingly healthy people with normal cholesterol can cut their risk of heart attacks, stroke and death by nearly half"
    11. Statins Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 4/11/08 - "We found that statins lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and that the effect extends to patients with pre-hypertension, with normal blood pressure, and persons not on blood-pressure lowering medications"
    12. Reduction in Blood Pressure With Statins: Results From the UCSD Statin Study, a Randomized Trial - Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 14;168(7):721-7 - "Statins modestly but significantly reduced BP relative to placebo,by 2.2 mm Hg for SBP (P = .02) and 2.4mm Hg for DBP"
    13. Simvastatin May Cut Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 12/06 - "Simvastatin use for at least 7 months reduced the incidence of Alzheimer's disease by 30% and Parkinson's disease by 24% in older people ... Neither lovastatin nor atorvastatin provided similar benefits"
    14. Statin Treatment Improves Spatial Memory In Mouse Models Of Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 4/30/07 - "Treatment with Simvastatin, one of the statin drugs widely used for lowering cholesterol in humans, significantly improved spatial memory - how to navigate a water maze - in mice genetically bred to have an Alzheimer's like disease"
    15. Statin Drugs Linked to Reduced Cancer Risk - WebMD, 5/16/05 - "During a six-year period, women who used statins reduced their risk of breast cancer by more than half (51%) compared with nonusers ... Statin users were 48% less likely to develop lung cancer than nonusers ... statin use reduces the rate of prostate cancer by 54%"
    16. Cholesterol Drugs May Prevent Colon Cancer - WebMD, 5/25/05 - "people who took cholesterol-lowering statin drugs for five years cut their colon cancer risk in half"
    17. Statins Protect Against Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 3/27/07 - "Overall, prostate cancer incidence was significantly lower for statin users than non-users (4.0% vs 8.0%, respectively). A significant dose-response relationship was seen for the total cumulative quantity of statin users and incidence of prostate cancer"
    18. Statin Use Associated with Lower Risk of Pancreatic and Esophageal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/05 - "The odds ratio was 0.44 (95% confidence interval 0.36 – 0.53) for esophageal cancer and 0.41 (95% confidence interval 0.31 – 0.51) for pancreatic cancer. This translates into a reduction in cancer risk of 56% and 59%, respectively"
    19. New Study Links Common Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs To Reduced Prostate Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 6/8/04 - "men who have taken any amount of these drugs, known as statins, have a 58 percent lower risk of prostate cancer than men who have taken none at all"
    20. Statin Drugs May Cut Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 6/7/04 - "When they added in those factors, "use of statins was still associated with a 46% reduction in risk.""
    21. Bedtime Dosing of Atorvastatin and Valsartan Together Improves Overall Anti-Hypertensive Effects - Doctor's Guide, 5/17/05 - "When valsartan was dosed by itself during the day, patients averaged a 9 mmHg fall in systolic blood pressure; daytime dosing of both valsartan and atorvastatin resulted in a 17 mmHg reduction in the 24-hour mean of systolic and diastolic BP"
    22. Statins May Be Effective For Controlling Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 6/21/01 - "statin treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) lowering of ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the 24-hour (-4 mm Hg), daytime (-5 mm Hg), and nighttime (-3 mm Hg) measurements compared to baseline"
    23. Cholesterol Drugs May Avert Cataracts - WebMD, 6/20/06 - "Those who took Zocor had a 72% lower risk of nuclear cataracts. Those who took Lipitor had a 27% lower risk. Those who took Pravachol, Lescol, and Mevacor had a combined 33% lower risk"
    24. Statins May Cut Colon Cancer Recurrence - Medscape, 7/26/07 - "Just 6 of 89 patients (6.7%) treated with any statin relapsed, as opposed to 43 of 269 (16%) patients with no statin use"
    25. Cholesterol Drugs Help Those with Normal Cholesterol - HealthDay, 4/2/03 - "even if your cholesterol is normal or near normal, reducing it further may be an added benefit ... Those in the atorvastatin group were 36 percent less likely to suffer heart attacks and 27 percent less likely to have a stroke than people in the placebo group. As a result, the trial, initially scheduled to last five years, was halted at 3.3 years"
    26. Intravascular Ultrasound Depicts Coronary Artery Plaque Regression With Simvastatin - Doctor's Guide, 11/12/03 - "Lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin for 12 months is associated with a significant plaque regression ... the plaque regression -- about 6.3% from baseline" - I emailed the doctor and the dosage was 40 mg (sold 5mg to 80 mg) except for two patients on 80 mg.  However, see Rxlist.com.  There isn't much difference between HDL rise between the 10 mg and 40 mg doses.  As opposed to a 0.4 regression with 80 mg (sold 10 mg to 80 mg) of Lipitor in 18 months:
      1. Doctors Divided Over Cholesterol Drugs Study - HealthDay, 11/13/03 - "Over the course of the study, 18 months, the Lipitor patients saw their plaque volume decrease by 0.4 percent, while the Pravachol patients had an average 2.7 increase"
    27. Simvastatin Increases HDL-C And Apo A-I More Than Atorvastatin in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia - Doctor's Guide, 11/10/03 - "Simvastatin appears to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I significantly more than does atorvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolaemia ... Liver toxicity occurred in significantly fewer patients treated with simvastatin compared to atorvastatin"
    28. Statins Used to Treat High Cholesterol and Osteoporosis - Doctor's Guide, 9/30/03 - "simvastatin acts as a double therapeutic weapon by blocking the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Not only does this action increase new bone formation via the stimulation of osteoblasts, but it also prevents the production of cholesterol"
    29. Statins Decrease Aortic Stiffness in Hypertensives With High Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/30/03 - "Most significantly, while the PWV remained unchanged in the pravastatin and non-statin group, it was moderately decreased in the simvastatin group and remarkably reduced in the fluvastatin group ... Dr. Ichihara theorized that lipophilic statins, such as fluvastatin, reduce aortic stiffness via three mechanisms -- decreasing serum total cholesterol levels without reducing serum high-density lipoprotein levels, providing powerful scavenging reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing serum levels of low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein"
    30. Simvastatin May Retard Progression of Severe White Matter Changes - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/03 - "Simvastatin may slow down the progression of severe white matter changes in the brain, and may therefore retard cognitive decline ... The most common type of vascular dementia is due to the hardening of the arteries deep inside the brain which causes white matter changes... and its been shown that this can lead to executive dysfunction"
    31. Simvastatin Therapy Slows Coronary Disease Progression in Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Doctor's Guide, 5/22/03 - "simvastatin/enalapril therapy versus placebo resulted in decreases in mean coronary artery diameters ... and minimum diameters ... study results support the contention that the therapeutic effect of statin lipid lowering drugs on angiographically seen coronary atherosclerosis is linked to the reduction of coronary events without regard to the presence of known cardiovascular risk factors"
    32. Statins May Cut Alzheimer's Risk - HealthDay, 4/21/03 - "taking statins lowered their brain cholesterol levels by 21.4 percent. Brain cholesterol contributes to the formation of waxy buildups called amyloid plaques -- a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease -- that damage brain cells ... the three statin drugs reduced brain cholesterol levels by at least 20 percent, while the extended-release niacin reduced brain cholesterol levels by 10 percent"
    33. Statins May Inhibit Calcium Growth on Aortic Valve in Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 3/29/02 - "People who take statins may have at least 60 percent less aortic valve calcium than people who do not take statins"
    34. Risk of Fracture Reduced in Women Using Statins - Doctor's Guide, 3/19/02 - "Fracture risk is reduced by 60 percent in women using 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) ... This substantial risk reduction is greater than might be anticipated from increases in bone mineral density (BMD) alone"
    35. Statins Appear To Have Favourable Impact On Psychological Conditions - Doctor's Guide, 4/2/03 - "the longer people are on the statins the more their symptoms of depression, anxiety and hostility decrease ... When people stop taking statins or can not tolerate the medicine, their depression, anxiety and hostility returns to pre-statin levels"
    36. Hearing Study Reveals Surprises - Intelihealth, 10/6/02 - "If preventing heart disease also saves hearing, it might offer another reason to take cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins"
    37. Cholesterol Drugs May Fight Glaucoma - WebMD, 6/14/04 - "men who had used statins for two or more years were 40% less likely to develop glaucoma than the others ... Use of other, non-statin cholesterol-lowering drugs was also associated with a 41% lower incidence of glaucoma ... use of statins can also lower the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness among people over 65"
    38. Statins and Aspirin May Protect Against Severe Vision Loss in Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 4/13/04 - "those patients already taking statins were half as likely as those without statins to develop the more severe wet AMD"
    39. Cholesterol Drug May Help Rheumatoid Arthritis - WebMD, 6/17/04 - "After six months, the patients who took Lipitor did a bit better than the others. They had lower scores on a medical index of rheumatoid arthritis activity ... In addition, the Lipitor group had lower levels of two markers of inflammation -- sed rate and C-reactive protein"
    40. Statin use in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a delay in starting insulin - Diabet Med. 2004 Sep;21(9):962-7 - "The use of statins is associated with a delay in starting insulin treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes initially treated with oral antidiabetic agents"
    41. Impotence: A Red Flag for Heart Disease - HealthDay, 9/27/04 - "Nitric oxide is very important for normal erectile function ... We do know that statins improve the function of the enzyme, nitric oxide synthase, that produces nitric oxide inside the blood vessels"
    42. High Cholesterol May Speed Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 3/17/05 - "Our data support the notion that cholesterol-lowering drugs -- which are widely used and fairly safe -- might be effective in prevention of prostate cancer, or as an adjunctive therapy"
    43. Statin Use Linked With Decreased Prostate Cancer Mortality Rates; Lower PSA Levels - Science Daily, 5/20/07 - "PSA levels declined by 1.1 percent for every 10 mg/dl decrease in LDL ... Reviewing PSA levels among statin users screened in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial, researchers from Helsinki found a decrease in prostate cancer incidence in this group ... A significant decrease was found in the incidence of T3 cancers ... Non-statin, lipid-lowering drugs were not associated with incidence, stage or grade"
    44. Statin Use, Bone Mineral Density, and Fracture Risk: Geelong Osteoporosis Study - Arch Intern Med. 2002 Mar 11;162(5):537-40 - "The substantial 60% reduction in fracture risk associated with statin use is greater than would be expected from increases in BMD alone"
    45. Study: Statins Increase Life Expectancy - Intelihealth, 10/10/06 - "We were surprised to find that statin users actually lived an average two years longer despite the patients having more health risk factors and being older than non-statin users"
    46. Note:  Red yeast rice is a none prescription statin.  Also, a new statin, Crestor (rosuvastatin), may be better than Zocor and other statins in raising HDL, reducing ApoB and raising ApoA-I.  I'm waiting for more data on its safety.
    47. An opposing view:
      1. Reason for concern? - Wellness Insider, 11/25/03 - "Dr. Golomb feels the potential side effects of statins, which include liver dysfunction, muscle pain (rhabdomyolysis), and potentially, muscle breakdown, have been significantly downplayed. She also feels that statins, especially at higher doses, contribute to memory loss and to the depletion of coenzyme Q10, a naturally occurring antioxidant-like nutrient vital to the production of energy"
      2. Simvastatin and impotence - BMJ 1997;315:31 (5 July) - "Simvastatin may affect the central nervous system directly by passing through the blood-brain barrier or it may interact with other agents that might cause impotence" - This might be a reason to go with Lipitor.  See:
        1. Erectile Dysfunction and Statin Treatment - Medscape, 3/21/06 - "Simvastatin was found to cause impotency in five men with coronary artery disease, and within 1 week of discontinuing simvastatin, sexual function was restored. The Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Committee reported 42 cases of ED associated with simvastatin.[13] In contrast, in one study in men aged 49.7 years and isolated hypercholesterolaemia [low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C 4.3 mmol/l] as a risk factor which used penile Doppler ultrasound in a per protocol analysis of 50% of the cohort of 18 patients (n = 9), atorvastatin therapy was associated with improvement in erectile function"
      3. Possible alternatives - Sytrinol, Policosanol, red yeast rice.
      4. Orange, Tangerine Peels Could Be Better Than Drugs For Lowering Cholesterol - Science Daily, 5/12/04 - "A compound found in the peels of citrus fruit has the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects ... Marketed as a cholesterol-lowering agent under the trade name SytrinolTM, the supplement recently became available in the U.S" - See Sytrinol at Amazon.com.
      5. Are Statins the New Wonder Drugs? - Dr. Weil, 6/21/04 - "For moderately elevated cholesterol, I recommend non-prescription red rice yeast, a natural source of statins with fewer side effects" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  11. Coenzyme Q10 - Statins such as Lipitor block the enzyme pathways involved in the production of cholesterol.  These same enzymes are required for the production of coenzyme Q10.  Dr. Whitaker of the Whitaker Wellness Institute, in his Feb. 2000 newsletter recommends supplementing with 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 is you are taking statins.  Also, see Dr. Julian M. Whitaker Petitions FDA to Include CoQ10 Use Recommendation in All Statin Drug Labeling - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02
    1. Coenzyme Q(10) in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Feb 8 - "We conclude that coenzyme Q(10) has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects"
    2. Report: Has Your Coq10 Become Obsolete? - Life Extension Magazine, 1/07 - "scientists have demonstrated that the ubiquinol form of CoQ10 provides anti-aging effects that are far superior to those associated with the conventional ubiquinone form used by millions of Americans each day" - See ubiquinol at Amazon.com.
    3. Coenzyme Q10 for Migraine Prophylaxis - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/06 - "150 mg of coenzyme Q10 each day ... The study's primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who achieved a greater than 50% reduction in the number of days with migraine. A total of 61.3% of patients met that outcome measure by 3 months, and 93.5% had at least a 25% reduction"
    4. Coenzyme Q10 Lessens Muscle-Related Side Effects in Patients on Statins - Doctor's Guide, 3/7/05 - "Patients with significant myopathy who are taking statin therapy have a significant decrease in myopathic pain after 30 days of supplementation with coenzyme Q10"
    5. Atorvastatin Reduces Blood CoQ10 Levels - Medscape, 6/22/04 - "Even brief exposure to atorvastatin causes a marked decrease in blood CoQ10 concentration ... Widespread inhibition of CoQ10 synthesis could explain the most commonly reported adverse effects of statins, especially exercise intolerance, myalgia, and myoglobinuria"
    6. Coenzyme Q10 May Play Positive Role in Treatment of Male Infertility - Medscape, 1/30/04 - "Patients underwent oral administration of CoQ10, 200 mg/day twice daily for six months ... After treatment, CoQ10 levels increased in seminal plasma; the mean value rising significantly from 42.0 +/- 5.1 ng/mL at baseline to 127.1 +/- 1.9 ng/mL after six months of CoQ10 administration"
    7. Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins - Am J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;99(10):1409-12 - "coenzyme Q10 supplementation may decrease muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Thus, coenzyme Q10 supplementation may offer an alternative to stopping treatment with these vital drugs"
    8. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Apr;21(4):297-306 - "coenzyme Q10 has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects"
    9. Coenzyme Q10 and exercise training in chronic heart failure - Eur Heart J. 2006 Aug 1 - "CoQ10 main effect was: peak VO2+9%, EDDBA +38%, systolic wall thickening score index (SWTI) - 12%"
    10. Myocardial dysfunction in mitochondrial diabetes treated with Coenzyme Q10 - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Apr;72(1):100-3 - "In our patient, after the introduction of Coenzyme Q10 150 mg/day, there was a gradual improvement on left ventricular function evaluated by echocardiography. The fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) increased from 26 to 34% and from 49 to 64%, respectively. No side effects were noted. Three months after CoQ10 discontinuation, the parameters of systolic function evaluated by echocardiography decreased, suggesting that CoQ10 had a beneficial effect"
    11. Clinical aspects of coenzyme Q10: an update - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Nov;8(6):641-6 - "A 4-year follow-up on 10 Friedreich's Ataxia patients treated with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E showed a substantial improvement in cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics and heart function"
    12. Wrinkle creams: Your guide to younger looking skin - CNN - "Coenzyme Q10 is a nutrient that helps regulate energy production in cells. Some studies have shown reduction in fine wrinkles around the eyes with no side effects"
    13. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 Jul 6;212(1):172-7 - "The numerous metastases in the liver of a 44-year-old patient "disappeared," and no signs of metastases were found elsewhere. A 49-year-old patient, on a dosage of 390 mg of vitamin Q10, revealed no signs of tumor in the pleural cavity after six months, and her condition was excellent. A 75-year-old patient with carcinoma in one breast, after lumpectomy and 390 mg of CoQ10, showed no cancer in the tumor bed or metastases"
    14. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10 -  Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994 Mar 30;199(3):1504-8 - "Six of the 32 patients showed partial tumor regression. In one of these 6 cases, the dosage of CoQ10 was increased to 390 mg. In one month, the tumor was no longer palpable and in another month, mammography confirmed the absence of tumor. Encouraged, another case having a verified breast tumor, after non-radical surgery and with verified residual tumor in the tumor bed was then treated with 300 mg. CoQ10. After 3 months, the patient was in excellent clinical condition and there was no residual tumor tissue"
    15. See coenzyme Q10 at Amazon.com or ubiquinol at Amazon.com.
  12. The correct balance of essential fatty acids. See my essential fatty acids page, which I put together to try to clear up the confusion.  I feel it's the simplest snapshot of essential fatty acids on the Internet.  There is evidence that low omega 3 status can contribute to or increased omega 3 may improve heart disease1,2, stroke16, breast cancer1, prostate cancer1,15, lung cancer1, colon cancer1, arthritis1, schizophrenia1,3,18, bipolar disorder2,18, depression1,9,14,18, anxiety1, attention deficit1,2,18, borderline personality disorder21, hair loss7, diabetes1, Raynaud's phenomenon2, asthma1, hypertriglyceridemia1,11, hyperlipidemia11, lupus2, IgA nephropathy1,2, kidney stones2,10, chronic fatigue syndrome2, cystic fibrosis1,2,17, dyslexia2,18, eye diseases1, hypertension1,8,12, Alzheimer's disease20, cognitive impairment,18 , dry eye syndrome22 and dementia3,18.  All refs at x. My favorite omega-3 is Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  See my table that shows actual omega-3 content of various supplements.
    1. Fish Oil Eases Depression - WebMD, 10/18/02 - "people who added a daily dose of omega-3 fatty acids to their regular antidepressant treatment had significant improvement in symptoms, including anxiety, sleeping problems, sadness, decreased sexual desire, and suicidal tendencies ... Previous studies have suggested that depressed people have lower-than-normal levels of a fatty acid known as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), which plays an important role in maintaining normal brain function" - See my essential fatty acids page, my omega-3 page or Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
    2. Fish Fights Aging in the Brain - WebMD, 10/10/05 - "eating fish at least once a week slowed the rate of mental or cognitive decline in elderly people by 10%-13% per year ... Researchers attribute the protective effects of fish on the brain to omega-3 fatty acids"
    3. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Slows Alzheimer’s - WebMD, 4/18/07 - "One received supplemental DHA only, and the other two groups received DHA plus additional omega-6 fatty acids ... After three months, all of the mice on the DHA diets had lower levels of beta-amyloid and tau proteins than those in the control group. But at nine months, only those on the DHA-only diet had lower levels of both proteins" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
    4. Role of prescription omega-3 Fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia - Pharmacotherapy. 2007 May;27(5):715-28 - "In patients with triglyceride levels above 500 mg/dl, approximately 4 g/day of EPA and DHA reduces triglyceride levels 45% and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by more than 50%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
    5. Preventing Breast Cancer? - Dr. Weil, 5/3/07 - "Take 2 grams of fish oil a day. High omega-3 fatty acid intake significantly reduces your risk of breast cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
    6. Can Blindness Be Prevented Through Diet? - Science Daily, 6/24/07 - "Increasing intake of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, found in popular fish-oil supplements, may protect against blindness resulting from abnormal blood vessel growth in the eye ... Mice on the omega-3 diet, rich in DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and its precursor EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), had less initial vessel loss in the retina than the omega-6-fed mice: the area with vessel loss was 40 to 50 percent smaller"
  13. Melatonin
    1. High Melatonin Content Can Help Delay Aging, Mouse Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/24/07 - "Therefore, the researcher asserts, daily melatonin intake in humans from the age of 30 or 40 could prevent – or, at least, delay – illnesses related to aging, free radicals and inflammatory processes, such as many neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease) and complications linked to other illnesses, like diabetes" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  14. St. John's wort and/or 5-HTP.  I read somewhere that the number on reason people take vitamins is the belief that they will increase energy.  The real problem might be depression.  See:
    1. Drowsy Days May Signal Depression - WebMD, 8/12/05 - "After crunching the numbers, depression was the No. 1 risk factor for excessive daytime sleepiness. BMI came second. Typical sleep duration was third, followed by diabetes, smoking, and, finally, sleep apnea" 
  15. Mixed carotenoids - There are over 600 carotenoids.  Some researchers believe that taking a large quantity of just one carotenoid, such as beta carotene, can cause a deficiency of the rest of the carotenoids which may be just as important if not more important.  I feel the best source is dunaliella salina algae.
  16. Hormone Replacement (DHEA, testosterone and T3, T4.)  See my T3 page.
  17. AndroGel (Testosterone) Shows Long-Term Benefits, Safety for Men With Hypogonadism - Doctor's Guide, 5/4/04 - "The study results showed significant improvements in mood and sexual performance, motivation and activity soon after initiating testosterone replacement. These improvements were maintained throughout treatment. Lean body mass increased (average of about 3 kg or 6.6 pounds) as early as three months after beginning treatment and was sustained with continuous treatment. Additionally, an increase in muscle strength associated with the increase in lean mass was reported"
  18. Hormone Linked to Low Sex Drive in Women - HealthDay, 6/16/04 - "this study has shown low testosterone bears no relationship to low libido in women under 45 years of age. We found a strong relationship between the low scores for desire, arousal and responsiveness and low DHEA levels in women under 45" - See .
  19. T3 augmentation of SSRI resistant depression - J Affect Disord. 2006 Apr;91(2-3):211-5 - "The women took a mean daily dose of 40.6 mug of T3 for a mean duration of 3.75 weeks, while the men were on a mean daily dose of 43.8 mug of T3 for 3.5 weeks. T3 augmentation was associated with a statistically significant drop (p<.003) in the mean HAMD at end of the three weeks compared to baseline scores"
  20. For men, an aromatase inhibitor such as Femara, Arimidex, chrysin or I3C.  Both testosterone and DHEA should be part of any anti-aging system but they both increase estrogen in both men and women.  See aromatization.
    1. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - anabolic-androgenic-steroids.com - "Anastrozole (Arimidex) is the aromatase inhibitor of choice ...With moderate doses of testosterone 0.5 mg/day is usually sufficient and in some cases may be too much" - Femara (letrozole) may not have been available at the time this article was written.
    2. Chrysin: Is It An Effective Aromatase Inhibitor? - vrp.com - "Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any effective natural inhibitor of aromatase"
    3. Male Hormone Modulation Therapy  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "One cause of hormone imbalance in men is that their testosterone is increasingly converted to estrogen. One report showed that estrogen levels of the average 54-year-old man are higher than those of the average 59-year-old woman . . . . High levels of estrogen have been implicated as a cause of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)"
    4. Long-term Consequences of the Aromatase Inhibitors - Medscape, 11/16/05 - "The "short-term toxicities," such as vasomotor symptoms, venothromboemboli, and gynecologic complications, favor the use of AIs. However, long-term bone loss, altered lipid profiles, and possible compromise in sexual functioning appear to be adversely affected by the AIs"
    5. Letrozole normalizes serum testosterone in severely obese men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):211-5 - "Six weeks of treatment decreased serum estradiol from 120 +/- 20 to 70 +/- 9 pmol/l (p = 0.006). None of the subjects developed an estradiol level of less than 40 pmol/l. LH increased from 4.5 +/- 0.8 to 14.8 +/- 2.3 U/l (p < 0.001). Total testosterone rose from 7.5 +/- 1.0 to 23.8 +/- 3.0 nmol/l (p < 0.001) without a concomitant change in sex hormone-binding globulin level. Those treated with Letrozole 17.5 mg per week had an excessive LH response" - Note:  A half tablet per day would be 8.75 mg/week.  I believe 40 pmol/l of estradiol is 11.54 pg/mL and the normal value for men is 10 to 52 pg/mL (Quest says 10 to 50).  The way I read that, testosterone tripled.  I take a quarter tablet a day of Femara (letrozole).  See Femara at International Anti-aging Systems or Letrozole at OffshoreRx1.com.
    6. Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Some men on testosterone drug replacement therapy develop dangerously high estrogen levels. Estrogen can be suppressed by taking an aromatase-inhibiting drug like Arimidex (0.5 mg twice a week) or using a supplement like Super Mira Forte (six capsules daily)" - See Arimidex at International Anti-aging Systems.
    7. Male Hormone Modulation Therapy - Life Extension Magazine - "If all of the above fail to increase free testosterone and lower excess estradiol, then ask your doctor to prescribe the potent aromatase inhibiting drug Arimidex (anastrozole) in the very low dose of one-half (0.5 mg) mg, twice a week"
    8. Can Broccoli Prevent Lupus? - WebMD, 11/6/03 - "I3C is believed to act as an anti-estrogen ... I3C-fed mice had far fewer kidney problems than the mice whose diets were not supplemented, and researchers say this is the reason that they lived much longer. Kidney disease is one of the main, life-threatening complications of lupus" - See indole-3-carbinol at Amazon.com.
    9. Why Testosterone Levels Decline  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "Clinical studies using testosterone injections, creams, or patches have often failed to provide a long-lasting, libido-enhancing effect in aging men (98). We now know why. The testosterone can be converted to estrogen. The estrogen is then taken up by testosterone receptor sites in cells throughout the body. When an estrogen molecule occupies a testosterone receptor site on a cell membrane, it blocks the ability of serum testosterone to induce a healthy hormonal signal. It does not matter how much serum free testosterone is available if excess estrogen is competing for the same cellular receptor sites"
    10. Correcting A Hormone Imbalance  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "If all of the above fail to increase free testosterone and lower excess estradiol, then ask your doctor to prescribe the potent aromatase inhibiting drug Arimidex (anastrozole) in the very low dose of one-half (0.5 mg) mg, twice a week"
    11. Androgel prescribing information - androgel.com - "Serum estradiol (E2) concentrations increased significantly within 30 days of starting treatment with AndroGel® 5 or 10 G/day and remained elevated throughout the treatment period but remained within the normal range for eugonadal men" - Yeah, but what if you are taking DHEA and what about testosterone/estrogen ratios.   See:
      1. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]"
    12. Estrogen: The Unrecognized Male Hormone - IAS
    13. Decline in breast cancer: Not just because of hormone therapy - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "the change in hormone therapy use only accounted for a decline of about 3 percent, so there's another 4 percent that is being caused by something we do not yet know"
    14. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]" - That's a 40% increase in the bad estrogen!  On top of that, if you are taking testosterone, that increases estrogen also.
    15. Aromatase Inhibition Corrects Endocrinopathy In Infertile Men - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/01 - "investigators found that men with severe infertility had significantly lower testosterone (328 versus 543 ng/dl) and significantly higher oestradiol (58.4 versus 43.5 ng/l) than the fertile controls. As a result, the infertile men had much lower testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios ... These abnormalities were corrected in the 45 men who received testolactone and their testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios rose into the normal range"
    16. Evidence of a Treatable Endocrinopathy in Infertile Men - J. of Urology, 3/01 - "We identified an endocrinopathy in men with severe male factor infertility that is characterized by a decreased serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio. This ratio can be corrected by aromatase inhibition, resulting in a significant improvement in semen parameters in oligospermic patients"
    17. Replenish Testosterone Naturally - Life Extension Magazine, 1/00 - "Through a variety of mechanisms, aging men suffer from the dual effects of having too little testosterone and excess estrogen. The result is a testosterone/ estrogen imbalance that can severely inhibit sexual desire and performance ... Too much estrogen plays havoc with a man's sex life by binding to testosterone receptor sites and may contribute to the over-production of SHBG. SHBG binds free testosterone in a way that makes it unavailable to receptor sites in the brain, nerves and genitals."
    18. Estrogen suppression in males: metabolic effects - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1836-8 - "First, a dose-response study of 12 males (mean age, 16.1 +/- 0.3 yr) was conducted, and blood withdrawn at baseline and after 10 days of oral Arimidex given as two different doses (either 0.5 or 1 mg) in random order with a 14-day washout in between. A sensitive estradiol (E2) assay showed an approximately 50% decrease in E2 concentrations with either of the two doses ... There was a 58% increase in serum T"
    19. Arimidex - Rxlist.com - "ARIMIDEX 1 mg, reduced estradiol by approximately 70% within 24 hours and by approximately 80% after 14 days of daily dosing"
    20. I take a quarter tablet of letrozole (generic Femara) to prevent aromatization/gynecomastia.  See letrozole at OffshoreRx1.com.
  21. A good mineral formula - osteoporosis affects about 50% of women and a large percentage of men.  Some researchers believe that taking calcium and/or zinc alone interferes with the absorption of magnesium and zinc interferes with the absorption of copper and that you need to take these minerals in the right ratio.  See:
    1. Vitamin Regimen Can Prevent Blindness - Intelihealth, 10/12/01 - "High doses of zinc can cause anemia, but participants also took 2 milligrams of copper daily to counter that effect"
    2. Zinc-Induced Copper Deficiency: A Report of Three Cases - Medscape, 2/2/05 - "Excess zinc ingestion is among the causes of copper deficiency"
    3. Magnesium--A Forgotten Mineral - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 9/97 - "Excess calcium and phosphate also interfere with magnesium absorption. (Thus, taking calcium supplements without adding magnesium could result in magnesium deficiency.)"
    4. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man - Medline, 10/94 - "the overall effect of the high Zn intake of the three groups combined, regardless of the Ca intake, was a highly significant decrease of Mg absorption and of the Mg balance"
    5. Zinc -- The Immune System's Missing Link? - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 12/97 - "Supplementing with zinc is quite safe--its only significant side effect is lowered copper levels in the body tissues, since the two minerals compete for absorption. Considering zinc's safety, people should consider taking zinc supplements, especially as they age--being sure to include copper in the proper balance. Most practitioners who supplement their patients' diets with zinc also recommend taking copper at a ratio of 10 mg to 15 mg zinc for each milligram of copper."
    6. Drugs That Deplete- Nutrients That Heal - Life Extension Magazine, 7/00 - "The irony here is that excess calcium supplementation may lead to magnesium deficiency (it also interferes with zinc and iron absorption)."
    7. Calcium, Keep What You Take - Life Extension Magazine, 3/99 - "The final study was a two-year, placebo controlled trial on 225 postmenopausal women. One group received calcium supplements only, the second group zinc, manganese and copper, the third group received calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper, while the fourth group received a placebo. After two years, the only group who experienced an improvement in bone mineral density was the group taking calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper" - [Abstract]
    8. Magnesium: The Multi-Purpose Mineral - Think Muscle Newsletter - "If you take high amounts of calcium daily, you may have a magnesium deficiency. Most experts suggest that your calcium: magnesium ration should be 2:1. In other words, if you take 1500 mg of calcium daily through diet and supplementation, you should try to consume at least 750 mg of magnesium daily as well"
    9. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements Offer Modest Bone Improvements, No Benefits for Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 2/16/06 - "women who consistently took the full supplement dose experienced a significant 29% decrease in hip fracture ... 1000 milligrams of calcium carbonate combined with 400 IUs of vitamin D3" - I'm not sure if they used enough vitamin D in this study plus why didn't they include magnesium and silicon plus why did the use the carbonate form of calcium when the citrate form is 2.5 times more bioavailable?  It's almost like they designed the study to fail.  See:
      1. Vitamin D Does Prevent Fractures in Elderly - HealthDay, 5/10/05 - "If someone did not have a fracture yet, I would recommend 700 to 800 International Units (IU) of vitamin D a day, with at least 700 milligrams of calcium ... If you have had a fracture, you should discuss with your physician whether you may need more. The National Science Foundation says the safe upper limit is 2,000 units a day, so you can go to 1,500 units or higher, especially if you live in a country like the United Kingdom, where you have little exposure to sunlight"
      2. Vitamin D: Important for Prevention of Osteoporosis, Cardiovascular Heart Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Autoimmune Diseases, and Some Cancers - Medscape, 11/11/05 - "A multivitamin Containing 400 IU of vitamin D is inadequate to satisfy the body's requirement.[32] It is estimated that at least 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day is needed to satisfy the body's requirement"
      3. Calcium Supplements: Benefits and Risks - Medscape, 1/26/05 - "Perhaps the most effective method of preventing osteoporosis is ingestion of adequate calcium. Experts suggest the daily requirement for calcium is 1,300 mg for people ages 9 to 18, 1,000 to 1,200 mg for adults 19 to 50, and 1,500 mg for people over 50 ... You should take only the amount of calcium recommended. Ingesting high doses of calcium each day can be harmful and can cause kidney stones"
      4. A Deficiency of D? -  WshingtonPost.com, 4/5/05 - "most adults, especially those over 50, fall short on recommended daily levels of vitamin D, an essential nutrient long known to preserve bones and now increasingly tied to protection against ailments from cancer to rheumatoid arthritis ... the most practical way to increase our vitamin D levels is from supplements ... a growing number of scientists believe that vitamin D intake should be at least 1,000 IU or higher"
      5. Dietary Magnesium Could Lead to Stronger Bones - Doctor's Guide, 12/21/05 - "For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density ... this link was only true for the older white men and women"
      6. Silicon May Play Important Role in Bone Health - Doctor's Guide, 9/27/05 - "Silicon, taken as choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) supplementation, might help improve bone health and type I collagen synthesis ... the benefits were especially apparent when evaluating changes in PINP, the most sensitive bone formation marker, and resulted in significant improvements after 12 months amongst the subjects in the six and 12 mg silicon groups" - See Jarrow BioSil at Amazon.com.
      7. Life Extension Foundation Newsletter - 2/18/06 - "The dosage of vitamin D in this study was 400 international units, an amount determined to be too low to maintain optimal serum levels of the vitamin in other research. Additionally, the form of calcium used was calcium carbonate, which is commonly sold as an antacid and is not known to be one of better absorbed forms of the mineral"
      8. Calcium Citrate Shown to Have Superior Bioavailability and Protects Against Bone Loss - Medscape, 11/21/00 - "the calcium supplement formulation calcium citrate was 2.5 times more bioavailable than calcium carbonate, even when given with a meal, the optimum method of ensuring calcium carbonate absorption"
  22. For women, estrogen, a tough call.  See:
    1. HRT Cuts CVD by 50%, Latest 'Unique' Data Show - Medscape, 10/15/12 - " In 2002, primary results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) showed no cardiovascular benefit from HRT--something that had been suggested by numerous observational trials--and even an indication there may be harm; this led to the widespread abandonment of this therapy. But subsequent analyses of WHI, and data from other studies, have suggested that the time at which HRT is first prescribed is key. The women in this Danish study were 13 years younger, on average, than the women in WHI (mean age 63 years) ... The women in the treated group with an intact uterus received 2-mg synthetic 17-{:beta:}-estradiol for 12 days, 2 mg 17-{:beta:}-estradiol plus 1 mg norethindrone acetate for 10 days, and 1 mg 17-{:beta:}-estradiol for six days (Trisekvens, Novo Nordisk, Denmark) ... After 10 years of intervention, there was a 52% reduction in the primary composite end point of death, MI, or heart failure, and this was not associated with an increase in any cancer ... Hodis says emotion has long overtaken reason in the HRT debate. "We have had observational studies for the past 50 years in this field, at least 40 of them, and they are all consistent--and you just don't see that in medicine--across two very important outcomes: they reduced cardiovascular disease and they reduced mortality" in women around the time of menopause, he asserts. "But when WHI was conducted, it was done in women who were 12 years or more past menopause. These are two completely different populations of women"
    2. Breast Cancer Rates Fall Sharply - WebMD, 12/14/06 - "7% Decline Attributed to Drop in Hormone Replacement Therapy"
    3. Timing Key in Hormone Heart Risk - WebMD, 4/3/07 - "The researchers found no increased risk of heart disease among women who begin hormone therapy within 10 years of the onset of menopause. Taking hormones 20 or more years after menopause or taking them after age 69 was associated with increased heart risk"
    4. A New Look at HRT Highlights the Value of Early Initiation Relative to Menopause Onset - Doctor's Guide, 1/31/06 - "Results of this study found a distinct advantage to treating women close to menopause with HRT when compared to women initiating HRT a decade or more following menopause"
    5. Study That Discredited Hormone Replacement Therapy Was Flawed, Experts Say - Intelihealth, 12/16/05 - "The Massachusetts expert says he's convinced that transdermal estrogen, given in patch form, is superior to oral estrogen. "Oral estrogen passes through the liver and stimulates the blood-clotting factors too much, leading to heart attacks,""
    6. Hormone Therapy May Prevent Heart Attacks for Women in Their 50s - Doctor's Guide, 4/20/06 - "HRT can reduce heart attacks by about one-third in women under age 60 but has mixed results for older women"
    7. Breast Cancer Risk With HRT Lower Than Believed - Physician's Weekly, 10/3/05 - "HRT increases a woman’s cumulative breast cancer risk, but only slightly"
    8. HRT Poses Yet Another Health Dilemma - HealthDay, 4/28/05 - "Women who took only estrogen had a higher risk of endometrial cancer than women who did not take replacement therapy ... There was no increase in endometrial cancer for women who took a combination of estrogen and progesterone. But a 2003 report on the Million Women Study said that that combination increased the risk of breast cancer"
    9. Younger Women May Benefit From HRT - WebMD, 7/15/04 - "The study, however, was limited to older women who were years past the menopause. Now a review of smaller studies concludes that the benefits of HRT probably outweigh the risks for many younger women"
    10. Estrogen Use Before 65 Linked To Reduced Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 5/2/07 - "women who used any form of estrogen hormone therapy before the age of 65 were nearly 50 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease or dementia"
    11. Estradiol Alone Does Not Increase Breast Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 12/16/02 - "Hormone replacement therapy containing progestins significantly elevates breast cancer risk, but preparations containing estradiol alone do not"
    12. Long-term estrogen use doubles cancer risk - USA Today, 3/20/01 - "Women who used estrogen replacement therapy for at least 10 years were twice as likely to die of ovarian cancer than women who never used it"
    13. Hormone In Contraceptive Fights Cancer - Intelihealth, 1/2/02 - "Progestin is the ingredient in oral contraceptive pills that provides the highest level of protection against ovarian cancer ... the cancer risk was cut by about 50 percent in all women taking pills containing the hormones estrogen and progestin ... However, women who took pills containing high levels of progestin reduced their risk of ovarian cancer by an additional 50 percent"
    14. Hormone Studies: What Went Wrong? - NY Times, 4/22/03 - "He said it was possible that estradiol, the estrogen women naturally produce and that goes directly to their bloodstream is protective. The estrogen in pills, metabolized by the liver before entering the blood, may be harmful. Neither the nurses' study nor the Women's Health Initiative addressed that question, Dr. Rossouw said"
    15. Research In Monkeys Suggests Estrogen Therapy May Lower Androgens In Postmenopausal Women - Science Daily, 5/17/04 - "Our findings suggest that it might be important for women taking estrogen after menopause to also take androgen supplements – which can include testosterone"
    16. Breast Cancer, Hormone Link Clarified - WebMD, 8/4/05 - "combination of estrogen and progestin ... the risk in a 50-year-old woman increased from 6.1% to 6.7% if she took combined hormones for five years. The risk for the same woman who took hormones for a decade was estimated to be 7.7"
    17. Hormone Replacement Therapy May Improve Visual Memory - Science Daily, 11/16/06 - "Those who were taking combined estrogen-progestin hormone therapy showed significantly increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain that is critical in memory tasks, compared with those on placebo"
    18. Strong Link Between Breast Cancer And Hormone Replacement Therapy Found - Science Daily, 4/18/07 - "At best, based on this analysis, an individual woman could reduce her individual risk of developing breast cancer by one in 60, or about 1.7 percent, if she stopped using hormones"
  23. Resveratrol
    1. Red Wine Protects The Prostate - Science Daily, 5/25/07 - "men who drink an average of four to seven glasses of red wine per week are only 52% as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as those who do not drink red wine ... when white wine was compared with red, red had the most benefit ... But much of the speculation focuses on chemicals—including various flavonoids and resveratrol—missing from other alcoholic beverages"
    2. Life-extending compound may be great news -- for mice - CNN, 12/21/06 - "In one study, scientists provided mice a high-calorie, high-fat diet and then gave half of the animals resveratrol. At 114 weeks -- old age for mice -- less than a third of the mice taking resveratrol died. More than half of the mice who did not take resveratrol died. In another study, mice who took resveratrol lost weight, increased metabolism and doubled their exercise endurance"
    3. Red Wine Ingredient Increases Endurance, Study Shows - New York Times, 11/16/06 - "Resveratrol makes you look like a trained athlete without the training"
    4. Healthy Life Prolonged in Mice - Medscape, 11/3/06 - "In addition to extending their lives, resveratrol also kept the mice fit and healthy in their old age"
    5. Wine Ingredient May Nix Fat's Effects - WebMD, 11/1/06 - "A new study shows obese, middle-aged mice fed a fatty diet supplemented with resveratrol, an antioxidant found in red wine, seemed to be spared most of the unhealthy effects of their extra weight and lived longer than those fed the same fat-laden diet without resveratrol"
    6. One for the Ages: A Prescription That May Extend Life - New York Times, 10/31/06 - "One leading candidate, a newly synthesized form of resveratrol — an antioxidant present in large amounts in red wine — is already being tested in patients. It may eventually be the first of a new class of anti-aging drugs. Extrapolating from recent animal findings, Dr. Richard A. Miller, a pathologist at the University of Michigan, estimated that a pill mimicking the effects of calorie restriction might increase human life span to about 112 healthy years"
    7. Red Wine vs. Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/24/06 - "3% of red wine drinkers had such abnormal growths, compared with nearly 9% of white wine drinkers and almost 10% of teetotalers ... they suggest that a compound found in grapes and red wine – the antioxidant resveratrol -- may cut the odds of getting abnormal colon growths that can become cancerous"
    8. Resveratrol in red wine could cut colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 10/23/06 - "Drinking more than three glasses of red wine a week could cut the risk of colorectal cancer by almost 70 per cent ... the active component in wine that may be behind the apparent benefits is most likely resveratrol"
    9. Longevity Genes and Caloric restriction - Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "Humans seeking to slow aging and reduce degenerative disease risk may consider reducing food intake and ingesting 20-40 mg of resveratrol and 250-850 mg of metformin each day"
    10. Red Wine Ingredient May Delay Aging - WebMD, 2/10/06 - "Researchers found adding resveratrol, an organic compound found in grapes and particularly in red wine, to the daily diet of short-lived fish prolonged their lifespan and delayed the onset of age-related memory and other problems"
    11. Natural Compound Prolongs Lifespan And Delays Onset Of Aging-related Traits In A Short-lived Vertebrate - Science Daily, 2/7/06 - "The researchers added resveratrol to daily fish food and found that this treatment increased longevity and also retarded the onset of aging-related decays in memory and muscular performance"
    12. Compound In Wine Reduces Levels Of Alzheimer's Disease-causing Peptides - Science Daily, 11/4/05 - "resveratrol, a compound found in grapes and red wine, lowers the levels of the amyloid-beta peptides which cause the telltale senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease ... Resveratrol in grapes may never reach the concentrations required to obtain the effect observed in our studies"
    13. Red Wine Lovers, Take Heart: More Evidence Points To The Drink's Cardiac Health Benefits - Science Daily, 12/10/04 - "a well-known antioxidant found in red wine, called resveratrol, may benefit heart tissue by limiting the effects of a condition called cardiac fibrosis"
    14. Daily Glass of Red Wine May Cut Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/04 - "men who consumed four or more glasses of red wine per week reduced their risk of prostate cancer by 50 percent ... That compound, Stanford and colleagues believe, may be an antioxidant called resveratrol, which is abundant in the skins of red grapes but much less so in the skins of white grapes"
    15. Does red wine hold the secret to long life? - MSNBC, 7/15/04 - "resveratrol acted on fruit flies and worms in the same way as a method known to extend the life of animals ... We found this chemical that can extend the life span of every organism we give it to"
    16. Study Identifies Genetics Of Fat Metabolism, Red Wine Link - Science Daily, 7/9/04 - "When cells were exposed to resveratrol, our studies showed a pretty dramatic reduction in the conversion to fat cells and a lesser but still significant increase in the mobilization of existing fat, or the rate at which the cells metabolized stored fat"
    17. Fruits Offer Powerful Protection From Skin Cancer - Intelihealth, 10/30/03 - "Resveratrol significantly inhibited UVB-mediated increases in skin thickness and edema; epidermal cyclooxygenase (COX-2); ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme and protein levels; and protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), all of which are established markers of tumor promotion. Resveratrol also further stimulated a UVB-mediated increase in p53 protein levels and was found to inhibit UVB exposure-mediated increases in cell cycle promoting signals including the activation of cell division"
    18. Red Wine Ingredient May Fight COPD - WebMD, 10/27/03 - "resveratrol, a compound found in the skins of red fruits such as grapes, may slow down the inflammatory process involved in the lung disease COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)"
    19. “Grape Expectations”: Lengthen Lifetime with Red Wine? - Physician's Weekly, 9/15/03 - "Resveratrol, a molecule that exists naturally in grapes and red wine, was shown to extend the life span of yeast cells (polyphenols) by up to 80%. The researchers plan to examine resveratrol's effect in multi-cellular organisms such as worms, fruit flies, and eventually humans"
    20. Drinking Red Wine May Slow Aging - WebMD, 8/25/03 - "resveratrol mimics calorie restriction in yeast -- activating enzymes that slow aging, increasing the stability of DNA, hence extending lifespan by as much as 70% ... Researchers now hope to eventually test how resveratrol works in other subjects, including humans"
    21. Resveratrol inhibits expression and binding activity of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor, CCR2, on THP-1 monocytes - Atherosclerosis. 2007 May 11 - "Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and its receptor, CCR2, play a key role in atherosclerosis ... These inhibitory effects of resveratrol on chemokine receptor binding and expression may contribute, in part, to its cardiovascular protective activity in vivo"
    22. The cancer preventative agent resveratrol is converted to the anticancer agent piceatannol by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1 - Br J Cancer 2002 Mar 4;86(5):774-8 - "This observation provides a novel explanation for the cancer preventative properties of resveratrol. It demonstrates that a natural dietary cancer preventative agent can be converted to a compound with known anticancer activity by an enzyme that is found in human tumours"
    23. See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  24. For hypertension - Anti-ace Peptides™, coenzyme Q10 and or telmisartanClick here for why I feel that Micardis® (telmisartan) (plus Altace (ramipril) if two medications are required) should be the first line treatment for hypertension.
    1. Lower Blood Pressure Naturally - Dr. Murray - "The degree of blood pressure reduction in these studies was quite significant, typically reducing the systolic by at least 10 mm Hg and the diastolic by 7 mm Hg in people with borderline and mild hypertension.  Greater reductions will be seen in people with higher initial blood pressure readings" - See PeptACE products at Amazon.com.
    2. Effect of combined treatment with alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine on vascular function and blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007 Apr;9(4):249-55 - "Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function ... Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3% (P=.008), consistent with reduced arterial tone. Active treatment tended to decrease systolic blood pressure for the whole group (P=.07) and had a significant effect in the subgroup with blood pressure above the median (151+/-20 to 142+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03) and in the subgroup with the metabolic syndrome (139+/-21 to 130+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03)" - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com and alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
    3. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Apr;21(4):297-306 - "coenzyme Q10 has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects" - See ubiquinol at Amazon.com.
    4. Coenzyme Q(10) in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Feb 8 - "We conclude that coenzyme Q(10) has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects" - See ubiquinol at Amazon.com.
    5. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan 31 - "Supplementation with ALA resulted in significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels compared with LA" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
    6. Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension - Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006 Jul;28(5):489-97 - "magnesium, 70.8 mg/d; potassium, 217.2 mg/d ... On K+ and Mg2+ supplementation, systolic and diastolic BP decreased 7.83 +/- 1.87 mm Hg and 3.67 +/- 1.03 mm Hg"
    7. Study Shows Grape Seed Extract May Be Effective In Reducing Blood Pressure - Science Daily, 3/27/06 - "The first group received a placebo, while the second and third groups received 150 milligrams and 300 milligrams, respectively, of a new grape seed extract ... Participants in the two groups receiving grape seed extract experienced an equal degree of reduced blood pressure. The average drop in systolic pressure was 12 millimeters. The average drop in diastolic pressure was 8 millimeters" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
    8. Salt Substitute Significantly Reduces Hypertension Amongst Rural Chinese - Science Daily, 3/14/06 - "Among the 600 individuals studied in rural Northern China, the low-sodium high-potassium salt substitute demonstrated that it could reduce blood pressure to about the same extent as single drug therapy"
    9. How Nice, Brown Rice: Study Shows Rice Bran Lowers Blood Pressure In Rats - Science Daily, 3/3/06 - "adding rice bran to the diets of hypertensive, stroke-prone rats lowered the animals’ systolic blood pressure by about 20 percent and, via the same mechanism, inhibited angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, or ACE"
    10. Melatonin may cut hypertension - Nutra USA, 2/2/06 - "A 10 per cent decline of BP over daytime values is considered appropriate to reduce the cardiovascular risk ... During placebo use only 39 per cent of the subjects reached this value, but this rate surged to 84 per cent during melatonin administration" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
    11. Tomato extract helps reduce blood pressure - Nutra USA, 1/12/06 - "a daily intake of the commercial encapsulated tomato extract Lyc-O-Mato, made by Israel-based LycoRed, was linked to a drop in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ten and four points after eight weeks of supplementation of a normal diet" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
    12. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Am Heart J. 2006 Jan;151(1):100 - "Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144 (SE +/- 1.1) to 134 mm Hg (SE +/- 2, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 87.4 (SE +/- 1.2) to 83.4 mm Hg" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
    13. High-Fiber Diet May Fight High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 3/4/05 - "the average reduction in blood pressure was 3.12 mmHg systolic and 2.57 mmHg diastolic"
    14. Folic Acid May Prevent Hypertension in Addition to Reducing the Risk of Birth Defects - Doctor's Guide, 2/24/05 - "younger women who consumed at least 1,000 micrograms per day of total folic acid (dietary plus supplemental) had a 46 percent decreased risk of hypertension, compared with those who consumed less than 200 micrograms a day of total folic acid. Older women with high total folic acid intake also had an 18 percent reduced risk of hypertension"
    15. The combination of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols increases blood pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - J Hypertens. 2005 Feb;23(2):427-434 - "Vitamin C alone reduced systolic BP versus placebo ... However, treatment with the combination of vitamin C and polyphenols increased systolic BP (4.8 +/- 0.9 mmHg versus placebo ... and diastolic BP (2.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.0001 versus placebo"
    16. High Folate Intake May Reduce Risk of Hypertension in Women - Medscape, 1/18/05 - [Abstract] "younger women consuming at least 1,000 µg per day of total folate (dietary plus supplemental) had a 46% reduction in the risk of incident hypertension ... compared with those ingesting less than 200 µg per day"
    17. Cardiovascular effects of oral Supplementation of vitamin C, E and folic acid in young healthy males - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Jul;74(4):285-93 - "The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a daily dosage of 1000 mg vitamin C, 800 mg vitamin E, and 10 mg folate on markers of vascular function in 31 young healthy male adults ... Our main finding was a significant decrease (p = 0.03) in systolic blood pressure in the experimental group"
    18. Impact of sesame oil on nifedipine in modulating oxidative stress and electrolytes in hypertensive patients - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S107 - "The consumption of sesame oil remarkably reduced the (systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 166 +/- 4.2 and 101 +/- 3.1 to 134.2 +/- 3.4 and 84.6 +/- 3.0 respectively) blood pressure"
    19. Tea Drinkers Reap Blood Pressure Benefits - WebMD, 7/26/04 - "Those who drank at least a half-cup of moderate strength green or oolong tea per day for a year had a 46% lower risk of developing hypertension than those who didn't drink tea" - See iHerb green tea products.  My favorite is Jarrow green tea at iHerb.
    20. The Impact of Vitamins and/or Mineral Supplementation on Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes - J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):272-9 - "group M: 200 mg Mg and 30 mg Zn (n = 16), group V: 200 mg vitamin C and 150 mg vitamin E (n = 18), group MV: minerals plus vitamins ... after three months of supplementation levels of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure decreased significantly in the MV group"
    21. Antioxidant May Help Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 2/20/04 - "people with high blood pressure who took the supplement, called Pycnogenol, were able to lower their daily dose of blood pressure-lowering medications by more than 30% ... researchers looked at the effects of daily supplementation with 100 milligrams of Pycnogenol" - Some claim that grape seed extract is identical to Pycnogenol without the patent mark-up.  - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
    22. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension - Hypertension. 2004 Feb;43(2):192-7 - "In patients with essential hypertension, repeated bedtime melatonin intake significantly reduced nocturnal blood pressure" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
    23. Nightime Melatonin Supplementation May Be Useful in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 2/4/04 - "2.5 mg/day ... mean sleep systolic blood pressure decreased by 6 mm Hg and mean sleep diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4 mm Hg ... Repeated melatonin significantly increased sleep efficiency from 80% to 85% and increased actual sleep time from 5.6 to 6.1 hours. Melatonin therapy also reduced sleep latency from 33 to 22 minutes" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
    24. Potassium Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/30/03 - "59 healthy adults between the ages of 25 and 65 years were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg of potassium chloride three times per day or a placebo for six weeks ... Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MAP all decreased significantly in those taking potassium (by 7.6 mmHg, 6.5 mmHg, and 7.0 mmHg, respectively), compared with initial measurements. A significant increase in blood pressure was observed in those taking placebo" - See potassium supplements at Amazon.com.
    25. Vitamin E Supplements Effective Treatment for Mild Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/03 - "Vitamin E supplements of 200 IU/day improved the blood pressure status of 70 mild hypertensive ... Subjects who received vitamin E supplements had a 24% decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to a 1.6% decrease among placebo controls" - the systolic is the high number and is usually the problem.  See vitamin E at Amazon.com.
    26. Tea Intake Is Inversely Related to Blood Pressure in Older Women - J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2883-2886 - "Tea is rich in polyphenols, which have activities consistent with blood pressure-lowering potential ... Higher tea intake and higher 4-O-methylgallic acid excretion were associated with significantly lower systolic (P = 0.002 and P = 0.040, respectively) and diastolic (P = 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively) blood pressures. A 250 mL/d (1 cup) increase in tea intake was associated with a 2.2 (0.8, 3.6) mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure and a 0.9 (0.1, 1.7) mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    27. Addition of Low-Dose Potassium to Diet Lowers Blood Pressure - Medscape, 8/19/03 - "KCl was administered as 1 slow-release tablet containing 8 mmol KCL taken 3 times daily with meals. This daily dose of potassium is equivalent to the content of 5 portions of fresh fruits and vegetables. At the end of the 6-week intervention, the 30 subjects who took potassium showed significant decreases in SBP and DBP (7.60 and 6.46 mm Hg, respectively)" - See potassium supplements at Amazon.com.
    28. The effect of low-dose potassium supplementation on blood pressure in apparently healthy volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2003 Jul;90(1):53-60 - "After 6 weeks of supplementation MAP [mean arterial pressure] was reduced by 7.01 ... mmHg, SBP was reduced by 7.60 ... mmHg and DBP was reduced by 6.46 ... mmHg ... A low daily dietary supplement of K, equivalent to the content of five portions of fresh fruits and vegetables, induced a substantial reduction in MAP, similar in effect to single-drug therapy for hypertension" - See potassium supplements at Amazon.com.
    29. Night Time Aspirin Regimen Found to Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 6/4/03 - "Researchers randomly assigned participants to 3 subgroups, which received a regimen of no aspirin, 100 mg aspirin after waking, or 100 mg aspirin before sleeping ... The subgroup following a regimen of evening aspirin administration showed a reduction in the 24 hour mean of 6.2 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 4.1 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure ... the effect was not evident for the subgroups receiving no aspirin or morning administration" - See aspirin at Amazon.com.
    30. DASH Diet Works Like Hypertension Drug - WebMD, 5/19/03 - "the DASH diet -- created to fight high blood pressure -- works just like water pills ... If people eat the DASH diet with low salt intake -- especially older people -- their blood pressure goes down 15 points"
    31. Sesame Oil Benefits Blood Pressure - WebMD, 4/28/03 - "studied 195 men and 133 women with high blood pressure. All were taking nifedipine (brand names include Adalta, Nifedical, and Procardia), a common blood pressure-lowering drug. Despite this treatment, all patients still had moderate high blood pressure. Sankar's team asked the patients to switch to sesame oil as the only cooking oil they used ... Sixty days later, the patients' average blood pressure dropped into the normal range ... he doesn't think that the PUFAs are involved in the blood-pressure-lowering effect of sesame oil. But he speculates that lower blood pressure may be an indirect effect of sesamin, sesamol, or both"
    32. Grape Seed Extract May Be A Useful Supplement To Blunt Hypertension In Postmenopausal Women - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "a diet moderately high in grape seed extract can blunt salt (sodium chloride)-sensitive hypertension to about the same extent as treatment with either plant estrogens or 17ß-estradiol. This suggests that mechanisms other than the estrogen receptor activation actually provides the beneficial effects of estrogen therapy and that grape seed extract may be a useful supplement to blunt hypertension and other cardiovascular symptoms in postmenopausal women" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
    33. Vitamin C May Aid People with Diabetes - New Hope Natural Media, 2/13/03 - "randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of vitamin C per day or a placebo. After four weeks of treatment, the average blood pressure decreased significantly in the group taking vitamin C, whereas no change was seen in the placebo group. The systolic blood pressure (the higher number) decreased by an average of 9.8 mm Hg, while the diastolic blood pressure (the lower number) decreased by 4.4 mm Hg. These changes in blood pressure are nearly as great as one might expect from taking a prescription blood pressure-lowering medication. In addition, the stiffness of the arteries decreased significantly in the vitamin C group" - [J. Hypertension/Medline]- See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
    34. Evidence-based Products - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 12/02 - "3g EPA/d and 3g DHA/d (ROPUFA) increased systemic arterial compliance in 38 dyslipidemic men and women, resulting in reduced pulse pressure and total vascular resistance ... Results showed that ROPUFA increased SAC—36 per cent with EPA and 27 per cent with DHA—compared with placebo" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
    35. Folic Acid Improves Endothelial Function And Blood Pressure In Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 12/18/02 - "Smokers were randomly assigned to receive either 5 milligrams of folic acid or placebo every day ... Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 1 mmHg in those patients who received supplementation" - Seems like they could have tested non-smokers for the same effect while they were at it.  5 points is probably half of what you'd get from the standard dose of most anti-hypertensive medications. - Ben
    36. Take Aspirin at Night for Heart Benefits - WebMD, 5/15/02 - "Aspirin didn't affect blood pressure if given in the morning. But when given at night, it had a significant effect: a 7.0 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood-pressure reading) and a 4.8 mmHg decrease in diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number)."
    37. Antioxidants, At Certain Levels, May Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "increasing levels of serum beta- carotene were associated with significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, while increasing levels of serum vitamin C were associated with significant reductions in diastolic pressure ... In contrast, serum levels of vitamin E were associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure"
    38. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension - South Med J 2001 Nov;94(11):1112-7 - "conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with twice daily administration of 60 mg of oral CoQ ... The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure of the CoQ-treated group was 17.8"
    39. Tomatoes May Help Fight High Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/01 - "patients were treated with a placebo for four weeks and then tomato extract (Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Products Industries, Ltd.), for eight weeks ... Results showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, from 144 mm Hg to 135 mm Hg, representing a mean 9 mm Hg reduction. Additionally, some favorable effects on diastolic blood pressure, blood lipids, lipoproteins, and oxidative stress markers were noted" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
    40. HMB Pumps You Up While Lowering Cholesterol and Blood Pressure - WebMD, 8/18/00 - "These figures (for HMB) are just about what you would see by taking medications for hypertension or lowering cholesterol."
    41. Vitamin C: A possible treatment for high blood pressure - CNN, 12/20/99 - "After one month, the average blood pressure of patients who took vitamin C [500 mg/day] dropped significantly more than that of patients in the placebo group, or 9.1 percent compared to 2.7 percent"
  25. Getting cortisol under control:
    1. High stress hormone levels linked to increased cardiovascular mortality - Science Daily, 9/9/10 - "urinary cortisol did not increase the risk of non-cardiovascular mortality but did increase cardiovascular mortality risk. The third of the subjects with the highest urinary cortisol had a five-fold increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease"
    2. High blood cortisol levels significantly increases death rate in patients with acute coronary syndrome - Science Daily, 5/27/10 - "1036 patients with acute coronary syndrome were studied for an average period of 7.7 years. There were no significant differences in the serum cortisol levels between patients with and without acute coronary syndrome. However, the patients with ACS and high cortisol levels had a significantly elevated number of deaths when compared to the patients with ACS and the lowest cortisol levels. 758 total deaths were reported during the follow-up period. The ACS patients with the highest cortisol levels (i.e. the highest 25% serum cortisol) were significantly more likely to die from fatal cardiovascular events than those with the lowest cortisol levels (the lowest 25% serum cortisol). (The hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quartile of SCC was 1.89"
    3. Leci-PS for Mental Health - cargillbioactives.com - "The first evidence of this was shown in a double-blind trial of young, healthy men who were given 800mg of phosphatidylserine before cycling to the state of exhaustion. Phosphatidylserinewas found to lower cortisol levels by 30% among these patients."
    4. New Clue on Brain Problems and Diabetes - WebMD, 2/18/08 - "Too much of a stress-related hormone may be at the root of memory and other common brain-related diabetes complications ... increases in the stress hormone caused a drop in brain cell regeneration and a decline in memory formation in the rats. But normalizing the levels of the stress hormone reversed many of these negative effects and restored relatively normal brain function, regardless of changes in insulin production"
    5. Chronic Exposure To Stress Hormone Causes Anxious Behavior In Mice - Science Daily, 4/17/06 - "Scientists already knew that many people with depression have high levels of cortisol, a human stress hormone, but it wasn't clear whether that was a cause or effect. Now it appears likely that long-term exposure to cortisol actually contributes to the symptoms of depression"
    6. Pharmacologic management of Cushing syndrome : new targets for therapy - Treat Endocrinol. 2005;4(2):87-94 - "Compounds with neuromodulatory properties have been effective in only a limited number of cases of hypothalamic-pituitary-dependent Cushing disease, the most common form of Cushing syndrome. These agents include serotonin antagonists (cyproheptadine, ketanserin, ritanserin), dopamine agonists (bromocriptine, cabergoline), GABA agonists (valproic acid [sodium valproate]), and somatostatin analogs (octreotide). Interesting new avenues at the pituitary level involve the potential use of thiazolidinedione compounds, such as rosiglitazone, and of retinoic acid, which are ligands of different nuclear hormone receptors involved in hypothalamic-pituitary regulation"
    7. Diabetes Drugs May Help Cushing's Syndrome - Reuters Wire, 11/07/2002 - "Cushing's syndrome results from high levels of the hormone cortisol, and can cause fat accumulation in the upper body and face, and thinning of the arms and legs. Patients can experience high blood pressure and high blood sugar, along with depression, fatigue, irritability and weakened bones ... a protein called PPAR-gamma, which is found on pituitary gland tumor cells, appears to be linked to overproduction of ACTH ... researchers injected mice with ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor cells and then treated them with commonly used diabetes drugs, rosiglitazone (Avandia) and troglitazone, or an inactive placebo ... There was an 85% reduction in ACTH and a corresponding 96% reduction in their cortisol-like hormone"
    8. Mirtazapine Regulates Stress Hormones, Improves Sleep In Depressed Patients - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/01 - "Mirtazipine might be the best option for depressed patients with sleep disturbance and irregularities in stress hormone function ... Depression is often accompanied by sleep disturbance -- subjective and objective -- as well as [hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal] HPA-axis dysregulation ... Mirtazapine is a treatment that [profoundly affects] the HPA-axis within hours and promotes sleep within days ... They tested the 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels of 16 healthy men and 20 men and women with major depression ... mirtazipne significantly reduced UFC concentrations, which is often elevated in depressed patients"
    9. Cortisol - Keeping a Dangerous Hormone in Check - Life Extension Magazine, 7/04 - "daily cortisol production increased by 54% from a group of 21- to 30-year-old men to a group of men over 70 ... Phosphatidylserine, DHEA, and ginkgo biloba all have been shown to reduce the amount of cortisol produced during stressful events, and these stress fighters can help retard the negative consequences of this hormone" - See iHerb phosphatidylserine products.
    10. Relationship between cortisol and physical performance in older persons - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Jun 7 - "Physical performance is negatively associated with high cortisol levels in older persons"
    11. The Role of Cortisol and Depression: Exploring New Opportunities for Treatments - Psychiatric Times, 5/04 - "Although glucocorticoid production is essential for survival, overproduction is associated with a significant disruption of cellular functioning, which, in turn, leads to widespread physiological dysfunction ... Cortisol, a glucocorticoid released from the adrenal cortex, is the end product of the HPA axis ... The physiological function of DHEA and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) is unclear, but these circulating corticosteroids have been shown to possess antiglucocorticoid properties, and high cortisol/DHEA ratios are reported to be associated with persistent depression"
    12. Why Are So Many Women Depressed? - Scientific America Women's Health: A Life Long Guide, Summer 1998 (see the subtopic "Stress and Cortisol") - "It is unclear whether depression is a cause or a consequence of elevated cortisol levels, but the two are undoubtedly related."
    13. Wilson's Reverse T3 Dominance Syndrome - knoxintegrativemed.com - "However, when a person experiences prolonged stress, the adrenal glands respond by manufacturing a large amount of cortisol. Cortisol inhibits the conversion of T4 to T3 and favors the conversion of T4 to RT3. If stress is prolonged, a condition called Reverse T3 Dominance occurs and persists even after the stress passes and cortisol levels fall. Apparently, RT3 itself acts like cortisol and blocks the conversion of T4 to T3"
    14. Wilson's Syndrome - providentmedical.com - "We know that elevated amounts of cortisol, the major stress hormone, can block 5 prime deiodinase, keeping T4 from being converted to T3.  This results in most of the T4 being converted into reverse T3, which then needs the available 5 prime deiodinase to be converted into T2."
    15. Low-Dose DHEA Increases Androgen, Estrogen Levels in Menopause - Medscape, 12/12/03 - "Cortisol F plasma levels progressively decreased throughout the study." - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
    16. Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Jun;29(3):289-295 - "In control conditions, mental stress significantly increased heart rate, mean blood pressure, and energy expenditure. It increased plasma epinephrine from 60.9 +/- 6.2 to 89.3 +/- 16.1 pg/ml (p<0.05), plasma cortisol from 291 +/- 32 to 372 +/- 37 micromol/l ... After 3 weeks of a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids, the stimulation by mental stress of plasma epinephrine, cortisol, energy expenditure, and plasma non esterified fatty acids concentrations, were all significantly blunted ... Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids inhibits the adrenal activation elicited by a mental stress" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
    17. Disappointing Data Confound Claims For DHEA Effectiveness [against Alzheimer's] - Psychiatric News, 6/6/03 - "DHEA has been reported to reduce cortisol, the so-called "stress hormone," which in response to stress is released in large quantities that have been linked to neuronal stress and damage" -  Does anyone detect bias in that title?  I don't know if DHEA helps Alzheimer's or not but I feel the title should have been something like "Alzheimer's Shows Trend Toward Improvement with DHEA at 3 Months".  Their attitude seems to be that nothing works except what we write prescriptions for.  The way I understand it, Alzheimer's usually gets worse, not better and cholinesterase inhibitors slow the disease, they don't reverse it and three months is a short time to determine if it is working.  For example, see the following  in the same issue of Clinical Psychiatry News.  See DHEA at Amazon.com. - Ben
    18. Light Sleeper, Heavy Gainer - HealthDay, 2/14/03 - "Sleep deprivation can increase production of cortisol, a stress hormone that stimulates the appetite"
    19. Phosphatidylserine (PS) The Essential Brain Nutrient - Life Extension Magazine, 9/02 - "Among its list of functions, phosphatidylserine stimulates the release of dopamine (a mood regulator that also control physical sensations, and movement), increases the production of acetylcholine (necessary for learning and memory), enhances brain glucose metabolism (the fuel used for brain activity), reduces cortisol levels (a stress hormone), and boosts the activity of nerve growth factor (NGF), which oversees the health of cholinergic neurons"
    20. A Supplement to Prevent Alzheimer’s - Dr. Weil, 8/20/02 - "In theory, PS works by strengthening cell membranes thus protecting them and their contents from damage, particularly from the stress hormone cortisol"
    21. Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "We know that as cortisol rises, testosterone levels tend to drop"
    22. Hypercortisolemia Cited in Link Between Depression and Cardiovascular Disorders - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/02 - "Depressed patients who are also hypercortisolemic appear to have resistance to insulin and increased visceral fat, possibly accounting for a link between major depression and cardiovascular disorders"
    23. Errant Enzyme Causes Big Bellies - WebMD, 12/11/01 - "They looked at an enzyme called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. This enzyme is able to increase the level of cortisol in fat cells without raising the level of cortisol in the blood"
    24. Single enzyme to blame for potbellies: study - MSNBC, 12/6/01 - "What they found was that a single enzyme in fat cells that raises levels of cortisol — the “fight or flight” stress hormone — triggers fat accumulation around the belly and its associated ill effects ... The researchers were drawn to the role of cortisol because patients with a rare illness known as Cushing syndrome — who have too much of the steroid hormone in their blood — develop severe obesity concentrated around their middles and become diabetic ... Since overweight people without Cushing syndrome typically don’t have too much cortisol in their bloodstreams, Flier hypothesized that they may be producing high cortisol levels solely in their fat cells — possibly because the enzyme HSD-1, which makes cortisol from an inactive molecule, is overactive ... The level of cortisol in their stomach fat tissue was 15 percent to 30 percent higher than in their non-engineered counterparts" - Note: The way I read this article, the final culprit is still the cortisol and there are ways to reduce cortisol now.
    25. Retinoic acid prevents experimental Cushing syndrome - J Clin Invest, October 2001, Volume 108, Number 8, 1123-1131 - "This glucocorticoid excess produces abnormal fat deposition, adrenal hyperplasia, thinning of the skin, hypertension, and psychological disturbances"
    26. Sleep Deprivation May Trigger Insulin Resistance - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/01 - "sleep deprivation leads to the release of tumor necrosis factor-, which triggers cortisol release, and that, in turn, causes insulin resistance"
    27. Researchers Hopeful Antidepressant Augmentation Will Improve Remission - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/01 - "In psychotic depression, a corticosteroid antagonist looks most promising. Mifepristone, which is used to induce abortions but was originally designed as treatment for Cushing's disease, has achieved rapid reversal of symptoms in some 30 psychotically depressed patients, ostensibly by blocking cortisol receptors. The drug is now being investigated in a large double-blind trial, he said"
    28. Two studies implying that cortisol is the cause, not the result of depression:
    29. AACE Clinical Practice Guidelines For The Evaluation and Treatment of Male Sexual Dysfunction - American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists - "Other endocrine disorders that may cause libido or erectile difficulties include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, or excessive levels of adrenal corticosteroids [cortisol]"
    30. How You React to Stress May Affect How Your Clothes Fit - WebMD, 1/16/01 - "fat created by cortisol is the "deep-belly" kind, which, one expert says, is known to increase health risks"
    31. Neuroscience finds foggy link between depression and memory loss - CNN, 4/18/00 - "Studies show that prolonged depression or stress leads to elevated levels of cortisol, a "stress" hormone produced by the adrenal glands. This in turn appears to shrink or atrophy the hippocampus, the sea-horse shaped part of the brain associated with many kinds of memory and learning."
    32. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Triggers Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 6/00 - "The fact that depressed patients hypersecrete cortisol is "the most common finding in biological psychiatry," and CRF, which is secreted by the hypothalamus, appears to be "the culprit." It stimulates pituitary release of corticotropin, or ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol."
    33. Testosterone Levels Low In Depressed Men - Intelihealth, 5/25/99 - "The lower the testosterone levels, the higher the levels of cortisol ... Cortisol levels were also 68% higher in depressed subjects compared with normal controls."
    34. Endocrinology of Aging - Medscape, 3/00 - "Excessive lifelong adrenal cortisol feedback on the brain may exacerbate the aging-associated loss in neuronal synapses and plasticity"
    35. The Neurobiology of Depression - Scientific America, 6/98 - "When a threat to physical or psychological well-being is detected, the hypothalamus amplifies production of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which induces the pituitary to secrete ACTH. ACTH then instructs the adrenal gland atop each kidney to release cortisol"
    36. Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study on CSF neurotransmitters and neuropeptides - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995 Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly decreased after treatment; plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction. Since both CSF beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible explanation is that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity"
    37. Psychotic Depression - healthyplace.com - "Researchers aren't exactly sure what causes major depressive disorder with psychotic features (psychotic depression), but it's frequently associated with high levels in the blood of a hormone called cortisol"
    38. central hypothyroidism---fibromyalgia, hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone resistance - drlowe.com - "During stress (such as surgery or an auto accident), the adrenal glands increase their secretion of cortisol. The increase in cortisol inhibits the thyroid system in two ways: (1) it decreases TSH secretion by the pituitary gland, and (2) it decreases conversion of T4 to T3"
    39. Wilson's Reverse T3 Dominance Syndrome - knoxintegrativemed.com - "However, when a person experiences prolonged stress, the adrenal glands respond by manufacturing a large amount of cortisol. Cortisol inhibits the conversion of T4 to T3 and favors the conversion of T4 to RT3. If stress is prolonged, a condition called Reverse T3 Dominance occurs and persists even after the stress passes and cortisol levels fall. Apparently, RT3 itself acts like cortisol and blocks the conversion of T4 to T3"
    40. Wilson's Syndrome - providentmedical.com - "We know that elevated amounts of cortisol, the major stress hormone, can block 5 prime deiodinase, keeping T4 from being converted to T3.  This results in most of the T4 being converted into reverse T3, which then needs the available 5 prime deiodinase to be converted into T2."
    41. Wilson's Thyroid Syndrome - "Conversion of T4 to T3 can also be impaired by glucocorticoids" - Maybe that is the mechanism by which cortisol causes depression, and if so, could T3 then cure the depression? - Ben, Related article:
    42. Use OF T3 Thyroid Hormone to Treat Depression - DrMirkin.com, 5/11/01 - "some people become depressed when they take just T4 and their depression can be cured when they take both thyroid hormones, T3 and T4"
    43. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans - Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):85-90 - "the treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine decreased the basal levels of salivary cortisol and chromogranin-A (a salivary marker of the sympatho-adrenal system) in male subjects"
    44. Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
    45. New Ingredient For Sleep Targets Primary Cause of Sleeplessness - NPI Center, 9/21/04 - "the leading cause of sleeplessness in otherwise healthy adults is an overactive central nervous system with associated elevation of stress hormones such as cortisol"
    46. A botanical to beat 'stress-eaters' - Nutra USA, 4/15/04 - "Relora appears to promote weight maintenance and decrease stress arousal as demonstrated by decreased evening cortisol and decreased systolic blood pressure" - See iHerb Relora products.
    47. Low-Dose DHEA Increases Androgen, Estrogen Levels in Menopause - Medscape, 12/12/03 - "Cortisol F plasma levels progressively decreased throughout the study. Both groups also experienced significantly reduced LH and FSH plasma levels"
    48. It is Never Too Late to Regenerate Your Brain - Life Extension Magazine, 6/01 - "Lower your stress, lower your cortisol levels and it is likely that your brain can regenerate its powers to learn and remember"
    49. Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
    50. Findings Show Cortisol's Major Role in AIDS and Other Diseases - Doctor's Guide, 6/21/96 - "Anticort, (to lower cortisol) a high dose form of stabilized procaine HCL, is being successfully tested in pilot clinical studies in Brazil and the U.S., in HIV+ and AIDS populations ... Researchers have already started to explore the therapeutic benefits of such an approach through the use of anti-cortisol drugs, such as RU-486, DHEA, Ketaconazole, Anticort and Tianeptine"
    51. Effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan on serum cortisol levels in major affective disorders. II. Relation to suicide, psychosis, and depressive symptoms - Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984 Apr;41(4):379-87 - "Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher after administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 200 mg orally"
    52. Study 20 - The Hypericum Homepage - "Both serum-cortisol and serum-prolactin were lowered significantly after three weeks of treatment with hypericum extract in male rats."
  26. Carnosine:
    1. How Carnosine Protects Against Age-Related Disease - Life Extension Magazine, 1/06 - "By preventing the formation of dangerous AGEs, carnosine may help the body’s proteins retain their youthful vigor and function. Moreover, studies demonstrate that carnosine is also a powerful antioxidant. Carnosine’s age-defying effects make this critical nutrient an essential cornerstone of every anti-aging program" - See carnosine products at Amazon.com.
  27. Metformin:
    1. Metformin: The Most Effective Life Extension Drug is Also a Safe, Effective Weight Loss Drug - IAS Bulletin - "Metformin is also one of the most promising anti-aging, life extending drugs available"
    2. Cross-link Breakers and Inhibitors - International Anti-Aging Systems - "metformin has a dual effect. It lowers blood glucose, (a well-known and established activity) plus, as new research is revealing, it is an effective inhibitor of cross-linking"
    3. Drug 'Avandia' May Prevent Diabetes - WebMD, 9/15/06 - "People at high risk for diabetes who took the drug Avandia reduced their risk of developing the disease by 60% in the three-year trial ... taking the drug metformin (Glucophage), which is already widely used for diabetes prevention, was associated with a 31% reduction in disease risk -- about half that seen in the Avandia study"
    4. New EASD/ADA Consensus Recommends Metformin at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/06 - "metformin significantly reduced the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes(3). The study showed a 36% reduction in all-cause mortality, a 42% reduction in diabetes-related mortality and a 32% reduction in diabetes-related endpoints"
    5. Depression Drugs May Up Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 6/12/06 - "taking antidepressants was associated with a two- to threefold increase in risk ... The increase was not seen, however, in people at high risk for diabetes who were taking both antidepressants and the blood-sugar-regulating drug glucophage (metformin)"
    6. Metformin and Lifestyle Intervention May Help Prevent Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 4/18/06 - "Participants were randomly assigned to standard treatment with placebo pill; metformin, 850 mg, twice daily; or intensive lifestyle management with placebo pill and followed up for a mean of 3.2 years ... Intensive lifestyle consisted of reduction of at least 7% of body weight, low-calorie and low-fat diet, and moderate physical activity at least 150 minutes weekly ... In those with prevalent MS at baseline ... At 3 years 18% of the placebo, 23% of the metformin, and 38% of the lifestyle intervention group no longer had the MS, with lifestyle intervention only showing a significant effect vs placebo"
    7. The Multiple Benefits of Metformin - Life Extension Magazine, 9/01 - "An ideal anti-diabetic drug would enhance cellular insulin sensitivity, inhibit excess intestinal absorption of sugar, reduce excess liver production of glucose, promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Metformin (Glucophage) is the one drug that does all of this and more"
    8. Metformin improves endothelial vascular reactivity in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glucose tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2006 May;29(5):1083-9 - "The metformin group had decreased weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and FPG and improved lipid profile. Endothelium-dependent FBF responses were also improved, without any effect on endothelium-independent responses"
    9. Metformin decelerates aging and development of mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice - Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005 Jun;139(6):721-3 - "Mean life span of mice increased by 8% (p<0.05), in 10% long-living mice it was prolonged by 13.1%, and the maximum life span was prolonged by 1 month under the effect of metformin in comparison with the control. The rate of populational aging decreased by 2.26 times ... Hence, we first demonstrated a geroprotective effect of metformin and its suppressive effect towards the development of mammary tumors"
    10. The impact of antidiabetic therapies on cardiovascular disease - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Feb;7(1):50-7 - "Metformin is the only oral antidiabetic medication shown to decrease cardiovascular events independent of glycemic control."
    11. Effects of metformin on the body composition in subjects with risk factors for type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Mar;7(2):189-92 - "In the metformin group, there was a decrease in fat weight from 25.9 +/- 9.4 to 20.8 +/- 9.2 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in lean weight from 57.05 +/- 13.6 to 61.9 +/- 16.5 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in basal metabolism from 1735 +/- 413 to 1878 +/- 505 calories/day, p < 0.05 and an increase in body water" - Note:  That's a 19.7% decrease in fat (25.9-20.8)/25.9 = 19.7%, a 8.5% increase in lean weight (61.9-57.05)/57.05 = 8.5% and a 8.2% increase in basal metabolism (1878-1735)/1735 = 8.2%. - Ben
    12. See metformin at OffshoreRx1.com but check with a doctor first.
  28. Deprenyl:
    1. Deprenyl - extending lifespan - article by James South - "At normally used clinical dosages (10-15 mg/day), deprenyl is a selective MAO-B inhibitor, so it doesn’t prevent intestinal MAO-A from digesting dietary tyramine. (1) In addition, deprenyl has the unique ability to prevent tyramine from getting into noradrenalin-using nerve calls, and it’s only when tyramine enters noradrenalin nerve cells that control arterial blood pressure that it triggers the “cheese effect.”"
    2. Deprenyl- A multi-functional anti-aging drug - Ward Dean MD - "In addition to its potential as a life-extending drug, Deprenyl also appears to have a number of other beneficial effects. One of the most significant is its libido promoting/aphrodisiac effects, in both men and women. . . . Deprenyl has also been found to protect neurons from toxic substances, act as an anti-oxidant, and as an inducer of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)"

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