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sHome > Health Conditions > Prostate Concerns

Prostate Concerns

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  • Night-time urination reduced by cutting salt in diet - Science Daily, 3/27/17 - "223 members of the group were able to reduce their salt intake from 10.7 gm per day to 8.0 gm/day. In this group, the average night-time frequency of urination dropped from 2.3 times/night to 1.4 times. In contrast, 98 subjects increased their average salt intake from 9.6 gm/night to 11.0 gm/night, and they found that the need to urinate increased from 2.3 times/night to 2.7 times/night"
  • The Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression: A Systematic Review - Nutr Cancer. 2017 Apr;69(3):353-364 - "Findings demonstrate that green tea appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent, particularly in those with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary anti-cancer compound may work by influence on cellular genetics - Science Daily, 3/16/17 - "They found that sulforaphane, a dietary compound from broccoli that's known to help prevent prostate cancer, may work through its influence on long, non-coding RNAs ... Scientists now believe that when these lncRNAs are dysregulated they can contribute to multiple disease processes, including cancer ... Unlike many chemotherapeutic drugs that affect healthy cells as well as malignant ones and can cause undesired side effects, the control of lncRNAs may offer a new way to specifically prevent or slow the progression of malignant cells ... In particular, this research showed that one lncRNA, called LINC01116, is upregulated in a human cell line of prostate cancer, but can be decreased by treatment with sulforaphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Increased Inflammatory Potential of Diet is Associated with Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Iranian Men - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Jan 27:1-8 - "dietary inflammatory index (DII) ... Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed that men with higher DII score (>0.23) to be at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.96; 95% CI =1.29-12.16, p-value = 0.02)] compared to men with lower DII scores"
  • Protective Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) against Prostate Cancer: From In Vitro Data to Algerian Patients - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:1691568 - "Green tea (GT) ... prostate cancer (PC) ... oxidative stress (OS) ... glutathione (GSH) ... The consumption of 2-3 cups per day of GT during 6 months significantly increased GSH concentration and catalase activity and decreased MDA concentration. In conclusion, GT significantly decreased OS in Algerian PC patients. Regular consumption of GT for a long period may prevent men from developing PC or at least delay its progression" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin inhibits castration-induced EMT in prostate cancer by repressing COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis - Cancer Lett. 2016 Dec 30;389:23-32 - "We propose that metformin represses prostate cancer EMT and metastasis through targeting the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. These findings suggest that metformin by itself or in combination with other anticancer drugs could be used as an anti-metastasis therapy" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA - Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 30 - "79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks ... Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009)" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Phytother Res. 2016 May 18 - "Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin Has a Positive Therapeutic Effect on Prostate Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Am J Med Sci. 2016 Apr;351(4):416-9 - "Patients with prostate cancer along with DM2 who remained on metformin were compared with controls who were not on metformin matched by age, weight, race and Gleason score cancer staging ... There were significantly fewer deaths (23% versus 10%), fewer recurrences (15% versus 8%), fewer metastases (5% versus 0%) and fewer secondary cancers (17% versus 6%) in the metformin group (P < 0.004). The final PSA value was lower in the metformin-treated group with a result approaching significance" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Selenium status and risk of prostate cancer in a Danish population - Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 14:1-9 - "levels of plasma Se and selenoprotein P were not associated with the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer, but higher levels of these two biomarkers were associated with a lower risk of high-grade disease" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D, PTH, and calcium in relation to survival following prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Mar 29 - "This study shows that levels of pre-diagnostic vitamin D above 85 nmol/L may improve survival in men with prostate cancer" - Note:  85 nmol/L = 34 ng/ml.  I'd still consider that way too low (see bullet below).  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D predicts aggressive prostate cancer - Science Daily, 3/1/16 - "Men with dark skin, low vitamin D intake or low sun exposure should be tested for vitamin D deficiency when they are diagnosed with an elevated PSA or prostate cancer. Then a deficiency should be corrected with supplements ... Of that group, 87 men had aggressive prostate cancer. Those with aggressive cancer had a median level of 22.7 nanograms per milliliter of vitamin D, significantly below the normal level of more than 30 nanograms/milliliter. The average D level in Chicago during the winter is about 25 nanograms/milliliter ... Most people in Chicago should be on D supplements, particularly during winter months" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness in a population-based study - Nutr Cancer. 2016 Feb 4:1-11 - "total antioxidant capacity (TAC) ... African Americans (AA) ... European Americans (EA) ... In both minimally and fully adjusted logistic regression models, TAC from diet and supplements combined was associated with a reduced odds of high aggressive prostate cancer in all men, AA and EA: odds ratios for highest vs. lowest level (>1500 vs. <500 mg vitamin C equivalent/day): 0.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.67; P-trend < 0.01], 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.96; P-trend < 0.001), and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.86; P-trend = 0.58), respectively. These associations did not appear to differ between AA and EA. These data suggest that greater intake of antioxidants is associated with less aggressive prostate cancer"
  • More Side Effects in First Year With BPH Drugs - Medscape, 12/31/15 - "At year 1, the incidence of impotence was significantly higher with finasteride (1.9-fold higher; p=0.006) and combination therapy (2.4-fold higher; p <0.001). Beyond year 1, the rates between the drug treatment groups and placebo were similar ... Incidence rates for decreased libido were also significantly higher at year 1 with finasteride (1.7-fold higher; p=0.021) and combination therapy (2-fold higher; p=0.001). After year 1, the rates between the treatment groups and placebo were similar ... at year 1, the incidence of abnormal ejaculation was significantly higher with finasteride (2.5-fold higher; p=0.002) and combination therapy (5.5-fold higher; p<0.001). And after year 1, only the combination therapy group had a significantly higher incidence rate compared with placebo"
  • Low serum dehydroepiandrosterone examined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry correlates with poor prognosis in hormone-naïve prostate cancer - Prostate. 2015 Nov 30 - "We confirmed that low serum DHEA levels in prostate cancer patients were related to high Gleason score and advanced clinical stage. These results suggest that serum DHEA level may be a useful prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients" - See Pure Encapulations 7-Keto DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Working up a sweat may protect men from lethal prostate cancer - Science Daily, 11/18/15 - "It's interesting that vigorous activity had the highest potential impact on prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We calculated the population-attributable risk for American men over 60 and estimated that 34 percent of lethal prostate cancer would be reduced if all men exercised to the point of sweating for at least three hours a week ... lethal prostate cancer among American men over 60 would be cut by 15 percent if they consumed at least seven servings of tomatoes per week and that 17 percent would be spared this diagnosis if they consumed at least one serving of fatty fish per week. Reducing intake of processed meats would cut the risk by 12 percent"
  • A prospective study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk - Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 16 - "Higher 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer (ORQ4 v. Q1 0.30" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds to β-tubulin and disrupts microtubule dynamics in prostate cancer cells - Cancer Lett. 2015 Jul 30 - "Fisetin significantly inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Nudc, a protein associated with microtubule motor dynein/dynactin complex that regulates microtubule dynamics was inhibited with fisetin treatment. Further, fisetin treatment of a P-glycoprotein overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES, inhibited the viability and colony formation. Our results offer in vitro proof-of-concept for fisetin as a microtubule targeting agent. We suggest fisetin could be developed as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) Is Associated With Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Jamaican Men - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Jul 30 - "We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in a case-control study of 40-80 yr old Jamaican males ... Men in the highest quartile of the DII were at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-5.04; Ptrend = 0.08] compared to men in the lowest DII quartile"
  • Impact of Metformin on Clinical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/9/15 - "Metformin may reduce the risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Average U.S. Diet May Kill Prostate Cancer Survivors - NBC News, 6/2/15 - "men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer whose diet was more 'Westernized,' i.e., contained processed meats, refined grains, potatoes, and high-fat dairy, were more likely to die of prostate cancer ... They were more than 2.5 times as likely to die of their prostate cancer than patients eating the healthiest diet and they were more than one and a half times as likely to have died of anything over the 10 years"
  • Effect of Sulforaphane in Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 May 12 - "Since the phytochemical sulforaphane (SF) has been studied extensively as an anticancer agent, we performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with SF in 78 patients (mean age 69±6 years) with rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Treatment comprised daily oral administration of 60 mg of a stabilized free SF for 6 months (M0 to M6) followed by 2 months without treatment (M6 to M8) ... Mean changes in PSA levels between M6 and M0 were significantly lower in the SF group (+0.099 ± 0.341 ng/ml) compared with placebo (+0.620 ± 1.417 ng/ml; p = 0.0433). PSA doubling time was 86% longer in the SF than in the placebo group (28.9 and 15.5 months, respectively). PSA increases >20% at M6 were significantly greater in the placebo group (71.8%) than in the SF group (44.4%); p=0.0163. Compliance and tolerance were very good. SF effects were prominent within 3 months of intervention (M3 to M6)" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Treating gum disease reduces prostate symptoms, researchers find - Science Daily, 5/5/15 - "gum disease not only affects the mouth, but is a system-wide condition that can cause inflammation in various parts of the body ... During the periodontal care, the men received no treatment for their prostate conditions. But even without prostate treatment, 21 of the 27 men showed decreased levels of PSA. Those with the highest levels of inflammation benefited the most from the periodontal treatment. Six participants showed no changes ... Bissada is now conducting follow-up research to support the first study's findings. He hopes to make periodontal treatment a standard part of treating prostate disease"
  • Metformin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Apr 7 - "Recent studies have shown that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo ... Our results suggest that metformin is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Vitamin D may keep low-grade prostate cancer from becoming aggressive - Science Daily, 3/22/15 - "His previous research had shown that when men with low-grade prostate cancer took vitamin D supplements for a year, 55 percent of them showed decreased Gleason scores or even complete disappearance of their tumors compared to their biopsies a year before ... assigned 37 men undergoing elective prostatectomies either to a group that received 4,000 U of vitamin D per day, or to a placebo group that didn't receive vitamin D. The men's prostate glands were removed and examined 60 days later ... many of the men who received vitamin D showed improvements in their prostate tumors, whereas the tumors in the placebo group either stayed the same or got worse. Also, vitamin D caused dramatic changes in the expression levels of many cell lipids and proteins, particularly those involved in inflammation" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • How fatty acids can fight prostate cancer - Science Daily, 3/18/15 - "the fatty acids bind to a receptor called FFA4, for "free fatty acid receptor 4." Rather than stimulating cancer cells, the receptor acts as a signal to inhibit growth factors, suppressing proliferation of the cancer cells" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb-761) on Recovery of Erectile Dysfunction in Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Injury Rat Model - Urology. 2015 Mar 12 - "Forty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cavernous nerve crush injury and were randomized into 4 groups, including: vehicle only, high-dose GBE, medium-dose GBE, and low-dose GBE ... Administration of GBE increases neuron survival and preserves the neural nitric oxide synthase nerve fiber and contents of the corpus cavernosum after bilateral cavernous nerve injury. These implications indicate the beneficial effects of GBE use in the repair of the cavernous nerve and recovery of erectile function after radical prostatectomy" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Beyond prevention: Sulforaphane may find possible use for cancer therapy - Science Daily, 1/12/14 - "The new study identified a particular enzyme in prostate cancer cells, SUV39H1, that is affected by exposure to sulforaphane ... sulforaphane has shown toxicity to a number of human cancer cell lines, including prostate, breast, ovarian, colon and pancreatic cancer, and in animal studies it decreased metastases of prostate cancer" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Fiber intake and risk of subsequent prostate cancer in Japanese men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):118-25 - "Dietary fiber is inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms even among populations with relatively low intake, such as Japanese. These results suggest that a very low intake of dietary fiber is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer"
  • Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer? - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Oct 23 - "This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced PCa, while aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced PCa" - See se-methyl l-selenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Potent inhibitory effect of δ-tocopherol on prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Oct 16 - "the effects of δ-tocopherol (δ-T) on growth and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells were determined and compared with that of α-tocopherol (α-T), a commonly used form of vitamin E. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with δ-T resulted in strong growth inhibition and apoptosis stimulation while the effects of α-T were modest ... In the in vivo study, we found that δ-T had a more potent inhibitory effect on the formation and growth of prostate xenograft tumors than α-T. Moreover, δ-T inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors" - Note: α = alpha, δ = delta.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Pumpkin Seed in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the One-Year, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled GRANU Study - Urol Int. 2014 Sep 5 - "A total of 1,431 men (50-80 years) with BPH/LUTS were randomly assigned to either pumpkin seed (5 g b.i.d.), capsules with pumpkin seed extract (500 mg b.i.d.) or matching placebo ... International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ... In the case of pumpkin seed (responders: 58.5%), the difference compared with placebo (responders: 47.3%) was descriptively significant. The study products were well tolerated. Overall, in men with BPH, 12 months of treatment with pumpkin seed led to a clinically relevant reduction in IPSS compared with placebo"
  • Tolerance of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract (Nexrutine®) in Patients with Human Prostate Cancer - Phytother Res. 2014 Sep 9 - "All the toxicities were transient. By the end of the neoadjuvant treatment, 81% of the patients had a decline in prostate-specific antigen" - See Nexrutine® products at Amazon.com.
  • SMILE upregulated by metformin inhibits the function of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells - Cancer Lett. 2014 Sep 5 - "Metformin, a diabetes drug, has been reported to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells ... metformin upregulated the protein level of small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper (SMILE), a coregulator of nuclear receptors, and knockdown of SMILE expression with shRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of metformin on AR function ... these results suggest that SMILE, which is induced by metformin, functions as a novel AR corepressor and may mediate the inhibitory effect of metformin on androgen-dependent growth of prostate cancer cells" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Metformin Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer Cells: Involvement of the Tumor Suppressor miR30a and its Target Gene SOX4 - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Sep 5 - "Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic patients treated with metformin have lower PCa risk and better prognosis ... metformin significantly inhibits proliferation of Vcap and PC-3 cells, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits invasiveness and motility capacity of Vcap cells" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Men who exercise less more likely to wake up to urinate - Science Daily, 8/28/14 - "Among men in the incident group, those who were physically active one or more hours per week were 13 percent less likely to report nocturia and 34 percent less likely to report severe nocturia then men who reported no physical activity. (Nocturia was defined as waking two or more times during the night to urinate; severe nocturia was defined as waking three or more times to urinate.)"
  • Fighting prostate cancer with tomato-rich diet - Science Daily, 8/27/14 - "the first study of its kind to develop a prostate cancer 'dietary index' which consists of dietary components -- selenium, calcium and foods rich in lycopene -- that have been linked to prostate cancer ... Men who had optimal intake of these three dietary components had a lower risk of prostate cancer ... Tomatoes and its products -- such as tomato juice and baked beans -- were shown to be most beneficial, with an 18 per cent reduction in risk found in men eating over 10 portions a week ... This is thought to be due to lycopene, an antioxidant which fights off toxins that can cause DNA and cell damage" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol: Inhibitory Effects on Metastatic Cell Behaviors and Voltage-Gated Na+ Channel Activity in Rat Prostate Cancer In Vitro - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Aug 7:1-12 - "These results suggest 1) that a significant mode of action of resveratrol is VGSC blockage and 2) that resveratrol has promise as a natural antimetastatic agent" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin d in blood and risk of prostate cancer: lessons from the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial and the prostate cancer prevention trial - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Aug;23(8):1447-9 - "The "U-shaped" curve may reflect detection bias. In the PCPT study, in which detection bias was minimized, serum 25-OHD levels were associated with a linear decrease in the risk of high-grade prostate cancers. The results from these large prevention trials support the hypothesis that circulating levels of 25-OHD decrease the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancers" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein inhibits human prostate cancer cell detachment, invasion, and metastasis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 28 - "genistein inhibits cell detachment, protease production, cell invasion, and human PCa metastasis at concentrations achieved in humans with dietary intake. Finally, phase I and phase II clinical trials conducted by us and others showed that concentrations of genistein associated with antimetastatic efficacy in preclinical models are achievable in humans, and treatment with genistein inhibits pathways that regulate metastatic transformation in human prostate tissue" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 May 13 - "We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of PCa progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against PCa progression in men with low-risk PCa" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Aggressive, Advanced Prostate Cancers: Study - WebMD, 5/1/14 - "Tresearchers checked vitamin D levels in 667 Chicago men between the ages of 40 and 79 who were having prostate biopsies because they'd recently had an abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) test or because a doctor felt changes to the prostate during a physical exam ... Normal vitamin D levels are in the range of 30 to 80 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) ... About 44 percent of the men with positive biopsies and 38 percent of those who tested negative for cancer had low vitamin D levels ... Among men who tested positive for cancer after their biopsies, those who also had very low levels of vitamin D -- under 12 ng/ml -- had greater odds of more advanced and aggressive cancers than those with normal levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Genetic Variants Reflecting Higher Vitamin E Status in Men Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer - J Nutr. 2014 Mar 12 - "Findings suggest lower prostate cancer risk for men whose genotypes reflect higher vitamin E (i.e., α-tocopherol) status. An SNP (rs964184) near budding-site selection protein 13 [BUD13 (yeast)], zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259), and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) on 11q23.3 was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (per-allele OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.03). The association between rs964184 and prostate cancer risk was stronger among homozygous carriers of the minor allele (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.83). Another variant, rs11057830 in scavenger receptor class-B member 1 (SCARB1) on 12p24.31, approached statistical significance (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.01, P = 0.05; 2 minor allele copies)" - Note:  Some studies show that taking only the alpha form of vitamin E can cause a deficiency of the other forms.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Total and Insoluble Fiber Intakes Are Inversely Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk - J Nutr. 2014 Feb 1 - "included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records ... Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient-based dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Feb 11 - "Animal Unsaturated Fatty Acids (AUFA) ... We found positive associations between prostate cancer and "Animal Products" (OR for the highest vs. the lowest score quintile: 1.51, 95 % CI 1.16-1.96), "Starch-rich" (OR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.16 1.93), and "AUFA" (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.02-1.70) patterns"
  • Safety and chemopreventive effect of Polyphenon E in preventing early and metastatic progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Feb 5 - "We investigated the safety and efficacy of Polyphenon E, a green tea extract, in reducing the progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice ... The number and size of tumors in treated TRAMP mice were significantly decreased compared to untreated animals. In untreated 32 weeks old TRAMP mice, prostate carcinoma metastasis to distant sites was observed in 100% of mice (8/8), compared to 13% of mice (2/16) treated with high dose Polyphenon E during the same period. Further, Polyphenon E treatment significantly inhibited metastasis in TRAMP mice in a dose-dependent manner (P=0.0003). Long-term (32 weeks) treatment with Polyphenon E was safe and well tolerated with no evidence of toxicity in C57BL/6J mice" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    • Polyphenon - Wikipedia - "Polyphenon E is the trademarked designation for the most purified form of green tea extract manufactured by Mitsui Norin"
  • Melatonin may lower prostate cancer risk - Science Daily, 1/20/14 - "conducted a case-cohort study of 928 Icelandic men from the AGES-Reykjavik cohort between 2002 and 2009. They collected first morning void urine samples at recruitment, and asked the participants to answer a questionnaire about sleep patterns ... men whose 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were higher than the median value had a 75 percent decreased risk for advanced prostate cancer. A 31 percent decreased risk for prostate cancer overall was observed as well, but this finding was not statistically significant" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 10 - "Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively ... Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participant"
  • Chemopreventive Effect of Quercetin in MNU and Testosterone Induced Prostate Cancer of Sprague-Dawley Rats - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 9 - "male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced prostate cancer by hormone (testosterone) and carcinogen (MNU) and simultaneously supplemented with quercetin (200 mg/Kg body weight) thrice a week ... The study concluded that dietary quercetin prevented MNU + T-induced prostate carcinogenesis on both ventral and dorsolateral lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Low-fat fish oil changes cancer tissue in prostate cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 11/18/13 - "Men with prostate cancer who ate a low-fat diet and took fish oil supplements had lower levels of pro-inflammatory substances in their blood and a lower cell cycle progression score, a measure used to predict cancer recurrence ... lowering the cell cycle progression (CCP) score may help prevent prostate cancers from becoming more aggressive ... The Western diet consisted of 40 percent of calories from fat, generally equivalent to what many Americans consume today .... The low-fat diet consisted of 15 percent of calories from fat. Additionally, the men on this diet took five grams of fish oil per day in five capsules, three with breakfast and two with dinner, to provide omega-3 fatty acids" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements - Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3617-3633 - "The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements ... Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols" - Note:  See the table.  It was a no contest.  According to Nutra USA, Doctor's Best had the highest fatty acid content of the products tested.  See Doctor's Best Saw Palmetto at Amazon.com.
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators for BPH - Medscape, 10/17/13 - "Many epidemiological and experimental researches have shown that dietary estrogens are beneficial to men's health.[29,31,32] This may be evident from the fact that men living in Western nations have higher incidence of prostate cancer and BPH, plausibly because of their lower dietary phytoestrogen intake, as compared with their counterparts in Asian countries.[33–35] Many of these phytoestrogens are found to display ERβ receptor selectivity, especially compounds whose core structures have isoflavone or flavones group. Genistein, a naturally occurring SERM which shows 22-fold selectivity for ERβ, is an isoflavone usually found in soy ... Our in vivo studies in rat[3] indicated that irrespective of the molecular structure and mechanism of action, the SERMs universally and significantly reduce prostate weight. This response was better in combination with a 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. We found that the ventral prostate of adult mature rats receiving tamoxifen, BP and ormeloxifene each at 1.0 mg kg−1 dose for 21 days regressed significantly by 37%, 32%, 36% respectively" - Note:  It's a nine page article.  I was disappointed that it didn't get in to aromatase inhibitors such as Femara (letrozole).  See genistein at Amazon.com.
    • Letrozole - Steroidal.com - "Letrozole (Femara) belongs to a category and class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Aromatase inhibitors belong to an even broader class of drugs known as anti-estrogens. The other subcategory of drug under the anti-estrogens category is known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as Nolvadex and Clomid. AIs and SERMs make up anti-estrogens. Aromatase inhibitors differ greatly from SERMs in their action and how they deal with the issues of estrogen control"
  • Chemopreventive effect of quercetin, a natural dietary flavonoid on prostate cancer in in vivo model - Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 3 - "the rats were divided into four groups; Group I: control (propylene glycol-vehicle), Group II: cancer-induced (MNU and Testosterone treated) rats, Group III: cancer-induced + Quercetin (200 mg/kg body wt/orally) and Group IV: Quercetin (200 mg/kg body wt) thrice a week ... Quercetin down regulates the cell survival, proliferative and anti-apoptotic proteins thereby prevents prostate cancer, by acting as a chemopreventive agent in preclinical model" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Serum Calcium Concentration and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Multicenter Study - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Sep 20 - "This study sought to further evaluate the possible effects of serum calcium level on prostate cancer (PC) risk, with considering the age, body mass index (BMI), and sex steroid hormones. Using data from a prospective multicenter study, serum calcium concentration, as well as thorough demographic and medical characteristics, were determined in 194 cases with newly diagnosed, clinicopathologically confirmed PC and 317 controls, without any malignant disease, admitted to the same network of hospitals ... An increase of 1 mg/dl in serum calcium level was associated with a significant decrease in PC risk (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34-0.76). Our findings reveal the inverse association between serum total and ionized concentrations and PC risk, which supports the hypothesis that calcium may protect against PC" - Note:  Conflicts with some previous studies.
    • Calcium consumption may cause prostate cancer in Chinese, research suggests - Science Daily, 6/1/10 - "Results showed a 25 percent increased risk of prostate cancer when comparing those who consumed, on average, 659 mg vs. 211 mg of total calcium a day ... Major food sources of calcium in this population consisted of: vegetables (19.3 percent), dairy (17.3 percent), grain products (14.7 percent), soyfoods (11.8 percent), fruit (7.3 percent) and fish (6.2 percent). However, the researchers stress that there was no positive association with prostate cancer risk and any one particular food source ... Among men with less than average BMI (median BMI was 22.9 kg/m2), the researchers found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer"
    • Too Much Calcium In Blood May Increase Risk Of Fatal Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 9/3/08 - "Comparing men in the top third with men in the bottom third, we found a significantly increased hazard for fatal prostate cancer"
    • The Effect of High Calcium Levels on Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 8/13/07 - "the relative risk of prostate cancer for 2,000 mg/day or more of calcium intake was 1.63. Conversely, a 1.26 relative risk calculation was observed for ingestion of less than 1,000 mg/day of calcium"
    • Too much calcium may raise prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 11/15/05 - "men who consumed more than 2000mg of calcium per day nearly doubled their risk of developing prostate cancer"

  • Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 9/17/13 - "increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to aging processes and to the etiopathogenesis of aging-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and degenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Excess ROS are deleterious to normal cells, while in cancer cells, they can lead to accelerated tumorigenesis ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS), also termed oxidants, are common by-products of the standard aerobic cellular metabolism, continuously formed in the cell and synchronously scavenged by an array of antioxidant mechanisms ... At the molecular level, ROS production takes place continuously at redox-active centers within enzymes or when ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10 (CoQ)), the essential electron carrier, accepts or donates electrons ... At the molecular level, ROS production takes place continuously at redox-active centers within enzymes or when ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10 (CoQ)), the essential electron carrier, accepts or donates electrons. Unique bioenergetic conditions are required to occur, such as high NADH-H+/NAD ratio or a high proton-motive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane (Δp) and concomitantly reduced CoQ pool (CoQH2), to accelerate ROS formation in the mitochondria ... Adiponectin, a hormone inversely associated with obesity, inhibits oxidative stress in human PC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lower levels of adiponectin in obese individuals may result in higher levels of prostatic oxidative stress, which may explain the clinical association between obesity, hypoadiponectinemia and PC ... Several foods containing natural antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids, and other phytonutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, are proposed to facilitate ROS detoxification ... Several potential suggestions have been put forth to explain the results of the study, which were contrary to the original prevention hypothesis. (i) The high dose of vitamin E (400 IU), which was eight times higher than the 50 IU used in the ABTC study, may abolish the preventive effect or even contribute to the increased risk of PC demonstrated in the study.[82] (ii) Animal studies demonstrate cancer preventive activity of γ- and δ-tocopherols, as well as for the naturally occurring mixture of tocopherols, but not by α-tocopherol,[83] the source of vitamin E used in the SELECT trail. (iii) Different individuals may respond inconsistently to antioxidant treatment depending on specific, intrinsic genetic risk factors"
  • Four or more cups of coffee a day may keep prostate cancer recurrence and progression away - Science Daily, 8/26/13 - "men who drank four or more cups of coffee per day experienced a 59 percent reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence and/or progression as compared to those who drank only one or fewer cups per week ... the researchers did not find an associated reduction of prostate cancer recurrence and/or progression. The study also did not draw any conclusions regarding the impact of tea drinking on prostate-specific death ... The population-based study involved 1,001 prostate cancer survivors, aged 35-74 years old at the time of diagnosis between 2002-2005, who were residents of King County, Wash ... biological activities associated with consumption of phytochemical compounds found in coffee include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and modulation of glucose metabolism"
  • Metformin May Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Death, Researchers Say - WebMD, 8/5/13 - "metformin is associated with improved survival among diabetic patients with prostate cancer ... whether metformin can prevent prostate cancer progression in people without diabetes remains to be seen ... those who took metformin had a 24 percent reduction in risk from prostate cancer death for every additional six months of use after their cancer diagnosis. The risk reduction of death from other causes was initially the same but declined over time ... No reduction in death risk was seen for patients taking any other diabetes drug ... other diabetes drugs work by increasing the body's insulin production, metformin is an "insulin sensitizer" that works by making the body more sensitive to the insulin already produced ... Some research suggests that high insulin levels can influence cancer growth. Metformin, by not increasing the body's insulin production, may decrease cancer cells' growth, some experts say" - Note:  Metformin is another one that I take in low dose for anti-aging. - See metformin at IAS.
  • Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Aug 2 - "Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer ... participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002-2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date ... median follow-up of 6.4 years ... Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95 % CI: 0.20, 0.81; p for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14 % of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression"
  • Fish Oil's Link to Prostate Cancer Unproven - Medscape, 7/26/13 - "The bottom line is that we cannot determine from this study design whether the intake of omega-3 fatty acids will cause prostate cancer and raise a man's risk for high-grade disease. The media has taken this and sensationalized the risk associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake"
  • Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk in Relation to Toenail Selenium Levels - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jul 22 - "Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from the Netherlands where low selenium status is widespread ... All cohort members completed a baseline questionnaire, and approximately 79% of participants provided toenail clippings, which were used for toenail selenium measurements using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Incident advanced PCa case subjects from the entire cohort were identified during 17.3 years of follow-up ... Toenail selenium was associated with a reduced risk of advanced PCa; adjusted hazard ratio for the highest vs lowest quintile was 0.37 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.51; P trend < .001). For stage IV PCa, men in the highest vs lowest quintile of toenail selenium had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.21 to 0.45; P trend < .001)" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Not just industry slamming omega-3-prostate cancer links - Nutra USA, 7/15/13 - "So what you’re left with at the end of the day is an association that at best is very weak and further weakened by the fact that they didn’t account for the known predictors of prostate cancer, when they were making this calculation"
  • Omega-3 Prostate Cancer Study Flawed - Don't Believe All You Read - prostate.net, 7/12/13 - "This is a common phenomenon when a contradictory study hits the media. It happened in 2012 with saw palmetto ... The same thing happened with SELECT trial regarding vitamin E in 2011 ... When faced with opposing evidence, readers must use common sense and read between the lines. Don’t let one study form your opinion. Look for other sources to support a study before forming an opinion and find out specifically what form of a treatment was studied and other factor that could affect outcome. There are flaws in many studies"
  • How a SELECTed Bad Study Became Big News - Dr. Michael Murray, 7/12/13 - "This study is not consistent with other studies (discussed below) ... There is no evidence that anybody in this study took fish oil supplements or even ate fish ... In usual circumstances, plasma levels of EPA and DHA reflect very recent intake and are considered a poor biomarker of long-term omega-3 intake ... Patients with prostate cancer may have only recently increased their fish and/or fish oil consumption ... Fish and fish oil ingestion produces a big rise in plasma omega-3 levels in about 4.5 hours and washes out around 48 hours ... The data may reflect cancer activity rather than a causative association. Without dietary history or documentation of fish oil use there is no way of knowing"
  • Experts slam omega-3 link to prostate cancer as 'scaremongering' - Nutra USA, 7/12/13 - "if the findings of the new study were true, "then prostate cancer would be rampant in any country with high seafood consumption (Scandinavia, Japan etc) and conversely, low level consumption should be protective"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - "Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid"
  • Food Supplement Linked to Lower PSA in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "A commercially available food supplement that contains pomegranate, broccoli, green tea, and turmeric significantly lowers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ... made headlines around the world and caused the polyphenol-rich supplement, known as Pomi-T (nature Medical Products), to sell out within hours ... to receive the supplement 3 times a day for 6 months or placebo ... At 6-month follow-up, the median increase in PSA was 63.8% lower in the supplement groups than in the placebo group (14.7% vs 78.5; P =.0008). In addition, PSA levels were stable or lower than baseline more often in the supplement group (46% vs 14%" - Note:  I've already been taking most of the ingredients separately plus it probably avoids some of the mark-up.
  • Coffee and risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 May 24 - "Mean coffee intake was 3.1 cups per day among both cases and controls. Coffee intake was not associated with overall prostate cancer risk. Risk of fatal prostate cancer was inversely, but not statistically significantly, associated with coffee intake, with an odds ratio of 0.64 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.34-1.19, p value for linear trend = 0.81] for men consuming greater than 5 cups per day compared to men drinking less than 1 cup per day. The highest intake of coffee was associated non-significantly with lower risk of advanced disease (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.41-1.30, p trend = 0.98) and associated significantly with lower risk of high-grade cancer (Gleason 8-10; OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26-0.98, p trend = 0.13). Risk of localized, grade 7, and low-grade cancers was not associated with coffee intake"
  • Serum folate and prostate-specific antigen in the United States - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 May 24 - "Using data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 3,293 men aged 40 years and older with serum PSA and folate measures were studied ... OR associated with fifth to first quintile of folate level = 0.42 ... Results of this study suggest that higher folate status may be protective against elevated PSA levels among men without diagnosed prostate cancer" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • A low dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 Fatty acids may delay progression of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):556-62 - "High amounts of omega-6 fatty acids have been linked with increased prostate cancer risk, whereas omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit PCa growth. However, because omega-3 and omega-6 are both essential fatty acids and part of a complete diet, it is more relevant to determine the ideal ratio of the two that would allow patients to benefit from the therapeutic properties of omega-3 fatty acids. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with dietary-based ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids under hormone-deprivation conditions, and effects on various cellular processes were determined. A low omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio can delay the progression of cells toward castration-resistance by suppressing pathways involved in prostate cancer progression, such as the Akt/mTOR/NFκB axis. It also suppresses the expression of cyclin D1, and activation of caspase-3 and annexin V staining shows induction of proapoptotic events. Taken together, our data demonstrates that maintaining a low omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio can enhance efficacy of hormone ablation therapy" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Soy and tomato may be effective in preventing prostate cancer - Science Daily, 5/8/13 - "From the time they were 4 to 18 weeks old, the animals were fed one of four diets: (1) 10 percent whole tomato powder; (2) 2 percent soy germ; (3) tomato powder plus soy germ; and (4) a control group that ate neither tomato nor soy ... Eating tomato, soy, and the combination all significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence. But the combination gave us the best results. Only 45 percent of mice fed both foods developed the disease compared to 61 percent in the tomato group, and 66 percent in the soy group ... The results of the mouse study suggest that three to four servings of tomato products per week and one to two servings of soy foods daily could protect against prostate cancer" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Can Selenium Lower Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer? - WebMD, 4/9/13 - "But that study looked at men with normal selenium levels when they entered the trial, and it did not focus on a specific type of prostate cancer. This latest study looked only at men who were deficient in selenium and tracked only cases of advanced prostate cancer, which is linked with a poor prognosis ... Among a group of almost 60,000 men aged 55 to 69 at the beginning of the study, the researchers found that men with the highest selenium levels, as measured in toenail clippings, had more than a 60 percent reduced risk for advanced prostate cancer" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com which seems to be the recommended form from what I've read over the years.
  • Dietary Fat, Fatty Acids, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr;22(4):697-707 - "NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline with self-administered food-frequency questionnaires ... Total fat and mono- and polyunsaturated fat intakes were not associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Saturated fat intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQuintile 5 vs. Qunitile 1 (Q1 vs. Q5), 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.46; Ptrend = 0.03) and fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.15; Ptrend = 0.04). α-Linolenic acid (ALA) intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31; Ptrend = 0.01). Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) intake was related to decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.04; Ptrend = 0.02)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary patterns as predictors of prostate cancer in Jamaican men - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Apr;65(3):367-74 - "Four food patterns were identified: a "vegetable and legume" pattern, a "fast food" pattern, a "meat" pattern, and a "refined carbohydrate" pattern. Men in the highest tertile for the refined carbohydrate pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice, pasta, sugar sweetened beverages, and sweet baked foods were at increased risk of total prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.87 (Ptrend = 0.029)] and low-grade disease [OR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.18-7.13 (Ptrend = 0.019)] compared with men in the lowest tertile. The vegetable and legumes pattern (healthy), meat pattern, or fast food pattern were not associated with prostate cancer risk"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of localized, advanced and fatal prostate cancer: a population-based prospective study - Ann Oncol. 2013 Mar 18 - "A population-based cohort of 44,613 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed up from January 1998 through December 2010 ... For localized PCa, each one cup increase in daily coffee consumption was associated with a 3% reduced risk [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.95-0.99]. For advanced and fatal PCa, we found a non-significant inverse association; each one cup increase was associated with a 2% reduced risk of advanced [SHR (95% CI) = 0.98 (0.95-1.02)] and fatal PCa [SHR (95% CI) = 0.98 (0.93-1.03)]"
  • Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar 22 - "This study evaluates associations between intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk ... Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years ... Supplemental folic acid was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, notably on a continuous scale [HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.98) per 100 μg increase/day]. The risk reduction was largely confined to non-aggressive tumors [HR 0.71 (0.55-0.93) per 100 μg increase/day]. No influence on prostate cancer risk was observed for dietary folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • How vitamin E can help prevent cancer - Science Daily, 3/16/13 - "In this new work, researchers showed in prostate cancer cells that one form of vitamin E inhibits the activation of an enzyme that is essential for cancer cell survival. The loss of the enzyme, called Akt, led to tumor cell death. The vitamin had no negative effect on normal cells ... Vitamin E occurs in numerous forms based on their chemical structure, and the most commonly known form belongs to a variety called tocopherols. In this study, researchers showed that, of the tocopherols tested, the gamma form of tocopherol was the most potent anti-cancer form of the vitamin ... The researchers began the work with both alpha and gamma forms of the vitamin E molecule. Both inhibited the enzyme called Akt in very targeted ways, but the gamma structure emerged as the more powerful form of the vitamin" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Using genetic proxies for lifecourse sun exposure to assess the causal relationship of sun exposure with circulating vitamin D and prostate cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb 25 - "Individuals who tend to burn are more likely to spend less time in the sun and consequently have lower plasma vitamin D levels and higher susceptibility to prostate cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 15 - "We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, USA. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by 5-year age groups ... The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls, and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95 % CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise linked with reduced prostate cancer risk in Caucasians but not African-Americans - Science Daily, 2/11/13 - "Lionel L. Bañez, MD, of the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and his colleagues asked 307 men (164 white; 143 black) undergoing a prostate biopsy to complete a survey that assessed their exercise amounts per week ... Among Caucasians, men who were moderately or highly active were 53% less likely to have biopsy results indicating that they had prostate cancer compared with men who were sedentary or mildly active ... Among men with cancer, those who exercised had a 13% reduced risk of having high grade disease"
  • Eating deep-fried food linked to increased risk of prostate cancer - Science Daily, 1/28/13 - "men who reported eating French fries, fried chicken, fried fish and/or doughnuts at least once a week were at an increased risk of prostate cancer as compared to men who said they ate such foods less than once a month ... In particular, men who ate one or more of these foods at least weekly had an increased risk of prostate cancer that ranged from 30 to 37 percent. Weekly consumption of these foods was associated also with a slightly greater risk of more aggressive prostate cancer ... Deep frying may trigger formation of carcinogens in food ... Foods cooked with high heat also contain high levels of advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs, which have been associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Deep-fried foods are among the highest in AGE content. A chicken breast deep fried for 20 minutes contains more than nine times the amount of AGEs as a chicken breast boiled for an hour, for example"
  • Follow-Up to REDUCE Study Shows Low Rate of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis - Science Daily, 1/22/13 - "The four-year REDUCE (REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events) clinical study evaluated prostate cancer risk reduction in men taking dutasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) typically used to treat enlarged prostate ... dutasteride decreased the risk of biopsy detectable prostate cancer by 22.8 percent compared to a placebo group ... few new prostate cancers were detected during the two-year follow-up in either treatment group and no deaths were reported. However, the former dutasteride group produced double the number of cancers than the former placebo group (14 vs. 7). Investigators hypothesize that any prostate cancer that may have been suppressed by dutasteride during REDUCE was no longer being suppressed for those subjects who did not continue on 5ARI therapy ... Overall, men in either group who took a 5ARI during the follow-up study tended to have fewer cancers" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Metformin and Prostate Cancer: Reduced Development of Castration-resistant Disease and Prostate Cancer Mortality - Eur Urol. 2012 Dec 14 - "castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ... prostate-specific antigen-recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), overall survival (OS) ... With a median follow-up of 8.7 yr, the 10-yr actuarial rates for metformin, diabetic non-metformin, and nondiabetic patients for PCSM were 2.7%, 21.9%, and 8.2% (log-rank p ≤ 0.001), respectively. Metformin use independently predicted (correcting for PSA, T stage, Gleason score, age, diabetic status, and androgen-deprivation therapy use) improvement in all outcomes compared with the diabetic non-metformin group; PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.99 [1.24-3.18]; p=0.004), DMFS (adjusted HR: 3.68 [1.78-7.62]; p<0.001), and PCSM (HR: 5.15 [1.53-17.35]; p=0.008). Metformin use was also independently associated with a decrease in the development of CRPC in patients experiencing biochemical failure compared with diabetic non-metformin patients (odds ratio: 14.81 [1.83-119.89]; p=0.01)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • High Fiber Diet Prevents Prostate Cancer Progression, Study Shows - Science Daily, 1/9/13 - "The rate of prostate cancer occurrence in Asian cultures is similar to the rate in Western cultures, but in the West, prostate cancer tends to progress, whereas in Asian cultures it does not. Why? .... the answer may be a high-fiber diet ... The study compared mice fed with of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a major component of high-fiber diets, to control mice that were not. Then the study used MRI to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in these models ... The study's results were really rather profound. We saw dramatically reduced tumor volumes, primarily due to the anti-angiogenic effects of IP6 ... Basically, feeding with the active ingredient of a high-fiber diet kept prostate tumors from making the new blood vessels they needed to supply themselves with energy" - See IP-6 products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Concentrations: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 - Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jan;88(1):11-21 - "Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations"
  • Whole Milk Intake Is Associated with Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality among U.S. Male Physicians - J Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "28-y follow-up ... Physicians' Health Study ... The intake of total dairy products was associated with increased PCa incidence [HR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.35); >2.5 servings/d vs. ≤0.5 servings/d]. Skim/low-fat milk intake was positively associated with risk of low-grade, early stage, and screen-detected cancers, whereas whole milk intake was associated only with fatal PCa [HR = 1.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.28); ≥237 mL/d (1 serving/d) vs. rarely consumed]. In the survival analysis, whole milk intake remained associated with risk of progression to fatal disease after diagnosis [HR = 2.17 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.51)]"
  • Effects of EPA, γ-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 30:1-8 - "A total of 504 healthy men with serum PSA level ≤ 2.5 ng/ml were recruited into the study ... Participants were randomly assigned to a daily dietary supplement containing n-3 fatty acids (1.12 g of EPA and 0.72 g of DHA per capsule) (group 1, n 126), n-6 fatty acid (600 mg γ-linolenic acid (GLA) each capsule) (group 2, n 126), CoQ10 (100 mg per capsule) (group 3, n 126) or a similar regimen of placebo (group 4, n 126) for 12 weeks ... EPA treatment significantly reduced serum PSA level by 30.0 (95 % CI 25, 36) % (P = 0.004) from baseline. In contrast, GLA therapy significantly increased serum PSA concentration by 15.0 (95 % CI 11, 20) % (P = 0.02). CoQ10 therapy also significantly reduced serum PSA level by 33.0 (95 % CI 27, 40) % (P = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, serum values of PSA were strongly correlated with duration of EPA (r - 0.62; 95 % CI - 0.42, - 0.77; P = 0.003), n-6 (r 0.42; 95 % CI 0.31, 0.58; P = 0.02) and CoQ10 use (r - 0.77; 95 % CI - 0.56, - 0.87; P = 0.001). There were also significant correlations between serum values of DHA, EPA, GLA and CoQ10 and serum PSA levels. The present study demonstrates that dietary supplements containing EPA, GLA or CoQ10 may significantly affect serum PSA levels" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Nov 5 - "High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies ... Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/day) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply ... Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk and may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates"
  • Green tea reduced inflammation, may inhibit prostate cancer tumor growth, research finds - Science Daily, 10/18/12 - "researchers randomly assigned the men to either six cups of brewed green tea or water daily for three to eight weeks, depending on the timing of their surgery ... The data showed that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations were significantly lower at the end of the study compared with baseline levels in men consuming green tea. In addition, prostate tissue PSA protein expression was lower in men assigned to green tea consumption compared with the control group at the end of the study ... Further, immunostaining analysis revealed that nuclear factor kappa B, a marker of inflammation, was significantly reduced in those men assigned to green tea compared with those in the control group" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Increased flavonoid intake reduced risk for aggressive prostate cancer - Science Daily, 10/17/12 - "Men with the highest total intake of flavonoids had a 25 percent lower risk for aggressive prostate cancer compared with those men with the lowest flavonoid intake ... higher total flavonoid intake was associated with reduced odds for aggressive prostate cancer in both African-American and European-American men, but no individual subclass of flavonoids appeared to be protective independently, suggesting that it is important to consume a variety of plant-based foods in the diet, rather than to focus on one specific type of flavonoid or flavonoid-rich food" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Prostate cancer: Curcumin curbs metastases, study shows - Science Daily, 10/12/12 - "The new study was designed to investigate the efficacy of curcumin in the prevention of prostate cancer metastases, and to determine the agent's mechanism of action ... curcumin may be useful in the prevention of breast and prostate cancers -- which are both linked to inflammation -- and in reducing their metastatic potential ... This does not mean that the compound should be seen as a replacement for conventional therapies. However, it could play a positive role in primary prevention -- before a full-blown tumor arises -- or help to avert formation of metastases. In this context the fact that the substance is well tolerated is very important, because one can safely recommend it to individuals who have an increased tumor risk" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Tadalafil : In the Treatment of Signs and Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with or without Erectile Dysfunction - Drugs Aging. 2012 Sep;29(9):771-81 - "Once-daily tadalafil 5 mg was effective in treating the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In phase III trials in men with BPH, the mean change from baseline to week 12 in the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; primary endpoint) was significantly greater in those treated with once-daily tadalafil 5 mg than with placebo. Improvements in total IPSS that occurred over the initial 12 weeks of tadalafil treatment were maintained with continued treatment over a 1-year period in an open-label extension study. Moreover, tadalafil was effective in treating both erectile dysfunction (ED) and the signs and symptoms of BPH in a phase III trial that specifically enrolled men with both indications. Both the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score and the total IPSS (co-primary endpoints) were significantly improved from baseline to week 12 after treatment with once-daily tadalafil 5 mg compared with placebo" - See tadalafil at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Aspirin May Help Men With Prostate Cancer Live Longer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 8/28/12 - "The study looked at almost 6,000 men in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) database who had prostate cancer treated with surgery or radiotherapy ... The findings demonstrated that 10-year mortality from prostate cancer was significantly lower in the group taking anticoagulants, compared to the non-anticoagulant group -- 3 percent versus 8 percent, respectively. The risks of cancer recurrence and bone metastasis also were significantly lower. Further analysis suggested that this benefit was primarily derived from taking aspirin, as opposed to other types of anticoagulants"
  • Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship - Nutr J. 2012 Jun 13;11(1):42 - "We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007 ... Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in aanalyses adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01). This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption"
  • Zyflamend, a Combination of Herbal Extracts, Attenuates Tumor Growth in Murine Xenograft Models of Prostate Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jun 4 - "Prostate cancer (PrC) is the second deadliest cancer of males in the United States Hormone deprivation therapy (HDT), a common therapy for advanced forms of the disease, results in tumor regression; unfortunately, tumors inevitably become castrate-resistant ... Zyflamend® is a combination of extracts from multiple herbs, each with reported anticancer properties. Zyflamend can inhibit growth of various PrC cell lines, but no studies have investigated its potential use in vivo using a model of castrate-resistant PrC. In this study, oral doses of Zyflamend at human equivalent doses inhibited androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant tumor growth in a mouse model that mimics advanced stages of the disease, and reduced the expression of a number of biomarkers linked to PrC progression including pAKT, prostate specific antigen, histone deacetylases, and androgen receptor. In summary, this is the first article to report that Zyflamend, when provided at human equivalent doses, can potentiate the effects of hormone deprivation on tumor regression and growth inhibition of androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant PrC tumors in vivo" - See Zyflamend at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E in diet protects against many cancers, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/23/12 - "Our message is that the vitamin E form of gamma-tocopherols, the most abundant form of vitamin E in the American diet, and delta-tocopherols, also found in vegetable oils, are beneficial in preventing cancers while the form of vitamin E, alpha- tocopherol, the most commonly used in vitamin E supplements, has no such benefit ... the most commonly used form of vitamin E supplements, alpha-tocopherol, not only did not prevent prostate cancer, but its use significantly increased the risk of this disease among healthy men" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D-Related Genetic Variation, Plasma Vitamin D, and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Nested Case-Control Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Apr 12 - "The association of vitamin D status with prostate cancer is controversial; no association has been observed for overall incidence, but there is a potential link with lethal disease ... Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of lethal prostate cancer (highest vs lowest quartile: odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.24 to 0.76)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Oral vitamin D supplements reduced levels of Ki67 in prostate cancer cells - Science Daily, 3/31/12 - "The results not only point to the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects the rate of prostate cancer growth, but also indicate that vitamin D may slow the growth of prostate cancer cells" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • 22 : 6n-3 DHA inhibits differentiation of prostate fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and tumorigenesis - Br J Nutr. 2012 Mar 6:1-9 - "DHA represents a suitable agent to inhibit prostate myofibroblast differentiation, invasiveness and EMT, two most important tumour-promoting activities involved in the progression of prostate cancer cells" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Curry spice component may help slow prostate tumor growth - Science Daily, 2/10/12 - "androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) ... curcumin suppresses two known nuclear receptor activators, p300 and CPB (or CREB1-binding protein), which have been shown to work against ADT ... These data demonstrate for the first time that curcumin not only hampers the transition of ADT-sensitive disease to castration-resistance, but is also effective in blocking the growth of established castrate-resistant prostate tumors" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case-control study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Dec 30 - "We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (p (trend) = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done"
  • B-DIM Impairs Radiation-Induced Survival Pathways Independently of Androgen Receptor Expression and Augments Radiation Efficacy in Prostate Cancer - Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 9 - "Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with decreased risk in prostate cancer (PCa). The active compound in cruciferous vegetables appears to be the self dimerized product [3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM)] of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Nutritional grade B-DIM (absorption-enhanced) has proven safe in a Phase I trial in PCa ... B-DIM inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in both PC-3 (AR-) and C4-2B (AR+) cell lines. B-DIM was effective at increasing radiation-induced cell killing in both cell lines, independently of AR expression. B-DIM inhibited NF-κB and HIF-1α DNA activities and blocked radiation-induced activation of these transcription factors in both PC-3 and C4-2B cells. In C4-2B (AR+) cells, AR expression and nuclear localization were significantly increased by radiation. However, B-DIM abrogated the radiation-induced AR increased expression and trafficking to the nucleus, which was consistent with decreased PSA secretion. In vivo, treatment of PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice with B-DIM and radiation resulted in significant primary tumor growth inhibition and control of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. These studies demonstrate that B-DIM augments radiation-induced cell killing and tumor growth inhibition. B-DIM impairs critical survival signaling pathways activated by radiation, leading to enhanced cell killing. These novel observations suggest that B-DIM could be used as a safe compound to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for castrate-resistant PCa" - See diindolylmethane at Amazon.com.
  • You are what you eat: Low fat diet with fish oil slows growth of human prostate cancer cells, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - "Men who ate a low-fat diet with fish oil supplements for four to six weeks before having their prostate removed had slower cancer-cell growth in their prostate tissue than men who ate a traditional, high-fat Western diet ... The short-term study also found that blood obtained from patients after the low-fat, fish oil diet slowed the growth of prostate cancer cells in a test tube, while blood from men on the Western diet did not slow cancer growth ... Preclinical studies suggest that lowering dietary omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and increasing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression," the study states. "We found this diet intervention resulted in a decrease in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acid ratios in benign and malignant prostate tissue and a decrease in malignant cell proliferation" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) - JAMA. 2011 Oct 12;306(14):1549-56 - "Oral selenium (200 μg/d from L-selenomethionine) with matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) with matched selenium placebo, both agents, or both matched placebos for a planned follow-up of a minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years ... This report includes 54,464 additional person-years of follow-up and 521 additional cases of prostate cancer since the primary report. Compared with the placebo (referent group) in which 529 men developed prostate cancer, 620 men in the vitamin E group developed prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 99% CI, 1.004-1.36, P = .008); as did 575 in the selenium group (HR, 1.09; 99% CI, 0.93-1.27; P = .18), and 555 in the selenium plus vitamin E group (HR, 1.05; 99% CI, 0.89-1.22, P = .46). Compared with placebo, the absolute increase in risk of prostate cancer per 1000 person-years was 1.6 for vitamin E, 0.8 for selenium, and 0.4 for the combination" - Note:  The study used rac-α-tocopheryl acetate.  See my vitamin E page for several articles regarding taking only one of the  eight forms of vitamin E.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Zyflamend Reduces the Expression of Androgen Receptor in a Model of Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "These results demonstrated that Zyflamend inhibited IGF-1-stimulated cell growth, IGF-1R expression, and androgen receptor expression and its nuclear localization, but these effects were not dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/pAKT signaling. In conclusion, Zyflamend decreased cell proliferation and inhibited IGF-1R and androgen receptor expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/pAKT independent manner" - See Zyflamend at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: Effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Sep 1 - "Compared to men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately two-fold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR]= 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR= 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared to men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium"
  • Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - "Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA > 10 ng/ml, tPSA > 4 ng/ml, tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA < 25%, and %fPSA < 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using binary logistic models. After adjustment for known demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle confounders, high serum levels of retinyl esters (tPSA > 10 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.00) and α-carotene (%fPSA < 15%: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.76) were associated with a lower odds, whereas high serum level of lycopene (tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.14) was associated with a greater odds of prostate cancer detection. Apart from the three significant associations observed, no other exposure-outcome association was significant. Monitoring specific antioxidant levels may be helpful in the early detection of prostate cancer"
  • Impact of Consumption of Vegetable, Fruit, Grain, and High Glycemic Index Foods on Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 - "Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96; P trend = 0.02], as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P trend = 0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P trend = 0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer"
  • Green Tea Extract (Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate) Reduces Efficacy of Radiotherapy on Prostate Cancer Cells - Urology. 2011 Jun 13 - "Radiotherapy is effective in inducing apoptosis in DU145 cells, but its effect was significantly reduced in the presence of EGCG, and this was associated with an increase in the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase"
  • Androgen-independent Effects of Serenoa repens Extract (Prostasan®) on Prostatic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Inflammation - Phytother Res. 2011 Jun 8 - "Prostasan® inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proliferation of the prostatic epithelial, androgen independent cell line PC-3. At effective concentrations of 50 µg/mL, Prostasan® partly displaced EGF from EGF receptor (EGFR) but fully blocked EGF-induced cell proliferation of PC-3 cells. Similarly, Prostasan® inhibited LPS-induced proliferation of PC-3 cells without affecting LPS activation of the NFĸB pathway via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4). Additionally, Prostasan® reduced the constitutive secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), the LPS-induced secretion of IL-12 and inhibited MCP-1 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in the presence of LPS on PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that S. repens extracts, in addition to other reported effects on BPH development and prostatitis, inhibits EGF-dependent growth and proinflammatory responses of the prostate epithelial cells" - See Prostasan at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Progression to Hormone Independence Is Associated With Suppression of mTOR Signaling and Androgen Receptor Expression - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jun 10:1-7 - "We used an in vitro model of androgen ablation to determine the effect of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids on the progression to an androgen-independent state. The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were able to prevent progression of LNCaP cells while the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) actually promoted cell growth under conditions of hormone depletion. These results correlated with a decrease in the expression of the androgen receptor as well as suppression of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Connecting the mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids affect phenotypic outcome is important for effective exploitation of these nutrient agents as a therapeutic approach" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli extract can ‘target’ cancer cells: Study - Nutra USA, 6/15/11 - "The research, published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, reports for the first time that sulforaphane – one of the primary phytochemicals in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables – is able to selectively target and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells healthy and unaffected ... Here we show for the first time that sulforaphane selectively targets benign hyperplasia cells and cancerous prostate cells while leaving the normal prostate cells unaffected" - [Abstract] - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Study confirms safety, cancer-targeting ability of nutrient in broccoli, other vegetables, researchers say - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Sulforaphane, one of the primary phytochemicals in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that helps them prevent cancer, has been shown for the first time to selectively target and kill cancer cells while leaving normal prostate cells healthy and unaffected ... Here we show for the first time that sulforaphane selectively targets benign hyperplasia cells and cancerous prostate cells while leaving the normal prostate cells unaffected" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Mushroom compound suppresses prostate tumors - Science Daily, 5/22/11 - "A mushroom used in Asia for its medicinal benefits has been found to be 100 per cent effective in suppressing prostate tumour development in mice during early trials ... The compound, polysaccharopeptide (PSP), which is extracted from the 'turkey tail' mushroom, was found to target prostate cancer stem cells and suppress tumour formation in mice ... The findings are quite significant ... Importantly, we did not see any side effects from the treatment ... He said PSP had been previously shown to possess anti-cancer properties, and 'turkey tail' mushrooms (known as Coriolus versicolor or Yun-zhi) had been widely used in Asia for medicinal benefits" - See PSP supplement at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 May 17 - "Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and phenolic acids, that have potent antioxidant activity and can affect glucose metabolism and sex hormone levels ... The average intake of coffee in 1986 was 1.9 cups per day. Men who consumed six or more cups per day had a lower adjusted relative risk for overall prostate cancer compared with nondrinkers (RR = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 0.98, P(trend) = .10). The association was stronger for lethal prostate cancer (consumers of more than six cups of coffee per day: RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.75, P(trend) = .03). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade cancer. The inverse association with lethal cancer was similar for regular and decaffeinated coffee (each one cup per day increment: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.01, P = .08 for regular coffee and RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00, P = .05 for decaffeinated coffee). The age-adjusted incidence rates for men who had the highest (≥6 cups per day) and lowest (no coffee) coffee consumption were 425 and 519 total prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years and 34 and 79 lethal prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years"
  • Coffee may reduce risk of lethal prostate cancer in men - Science Daily, 5/17/11 - "The researchers chose to study coffee because it contains many beneficial compounds that act as antioxidants, reduce inflammation, and regulate insulin, all of which may influence prostate cancer. Coffee has been associated in prior studies with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes, gallstone disease, and liver cancer or cirrhosis ... Men who consumed the most coffee (six or more cups daily) had nearly a 20% lower risk of developing any form of prostate cancer ... Men who drank the most coffee had a 60% lower risk of developing lethal prostate cancer ... Even drinking one to three cups of coffee per day was associated with a 30% lower risk of lethal prostate cancer"
  • Aspirin reduces the risk of cancer recurrence in prostate cancer patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "After 10-years from completion of treatment, 31% of the men who took aspirin developed recurrence compared with 39% of non-aspirin users (p=0.0005). There was also a 2% improvement in 10-year prostate cancer related survival associated with aspirin use with a trend toward statistical significance"
  • Thiazolidenediones induce tumour-cell apoptosis through the Akt-GSK3β pathway - J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Mar 16 - "Prostate cancer is a major health threat for men. Thiazolidenediones (TZDs) are synthetic ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and previous studies have shown that TZDs induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells independently of PPARγ activation. However, the exact mechanism of these effects remains unknown ... The apoptosis-inducing effect of TZDs on prostate cancer cells involves the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, TZDs induce inactivation of GSK3β, a multifunctional kinase that mediates essential events promoting prostate cancer development and acquisition of androgen independence. In addition, the GSK3β inhibitor lithium chloride sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TZDs cytotoxicity. What is new and Conclusion:  Our data suggest that modulation of Akt-GSK3β pathway is involved in the cell death pathway engaged by TZDs in prostate cancer cells. This reveals another possible mechanism of TZDs on apoptosis in prostate cancer. Inhibition of the Akt-GSK3β cascade may be a useful approach in prostate cancer" - Got that because I'm going to give a test on it in next weeks newsletter.  The point is that TZDs such as pioglitazone may help prevent or slow prostate cancer.  See Pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Gamma-tocotrienol induces apoptosis and autophagy in prostate cancer cells by increasing intracellular dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 11 - "Although cell-based studies have shown that γ-tocotrienol (γTE) exhibits stronger anticancer activities than other forms of vitamin E including γ-tocopherol (γT), the molecular bases underlying γTE-exerted effects remains to be elucidated ... In agreement with these cell-based studies, γTE inhibited LNCaP xenograft growth by 53% (P<0.05), compared with 33% (P = 0.07) by γT, in nude mice. These findings provide a molecular basis of γTE-stimulated cancer-cell death and support the notion that elevation of intracellular dihydroceramide and dihydrosphingosine is likely a novel anticancer mechanism" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Selenium may reduce prostate cancer markers: Study - Nutra USA, 2/23/11 - "The new study tested whether a 6-week supplementation of 200 micrograms of selenium (in the form of glycinate) affected the activities of 2 blood selenium enzymes (erythrocyte and plasma GPx) and a marker of prostate cancer risk (plasma PSA) ... selenium supplementation, but not placebo, raised both plasma and erythrocyte GPx activities ... selenium glycinate, but again not placebo, lowered the cancer risk marker of serum PSA" - See selenium at Amazon.com.
  • Chemopreventative Potential of the Cruciferous Vegetable Constituent Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in a Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Feb 17 - "This study was undertaken to determine the chemopreventative efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a bioactive constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and to identify potential biomarker(s) associated with PEITC response ... Administration of PEITC (3 μmol/g diet) decreased incidence (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 21.65 vs 57.58%, difference = -35.93%, 95% confidence interval = -45.48% to -13.10%, P = .04) as well as burden (affected area) (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 18.53% vs 45.01%, difference = -26.48%, 95% confidence interval = -49.78% to -3.19%, P = .02) of poorly differentiated tumors in the dorsolateral prostate of transgenic mice compared with control mice, with no toxic effects. PEITC-mediated inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis was associated with induction of autophagy and overexpression of E-cadherin in the dorsolateral prostate. However, PEITC treatment was not associated with a decrease in cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, or inhibition of neoangiogenesis. Plasma proteomics revealed distinct changes in the expression of several proteins (eg, suppression of clusterin protein) in the PEITC-treated mice compared with control mice. Conclusions In this transgenic model, dietary PEITC suppressed prostate cancer progression by induction of autophagic cell death. Potential biomarkers to assess the response to PEITC treatment in plasma were identified" - See cruciferous supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR(Q4 vs Q1): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (some studies show that taking zinc can cause a difficiency of copper).
  • 'Longevity' protein SIRT1 may ward off precursor to prostate cancer - Science Daily, 1/13/11 - "prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) ... deletion of the Sirt1 gene in mice resulted in PIN lesion formation associated with reduced autophagy, which is the necessary degradation of a cell's own components and most likely essential for tumor suppression ... it tells you that this 'longevity' gene is normally blocking prostate cancer" - Note: Resveratrol increases Sirt1.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com:
    • Sirtuin1 may boost memory and learning ability; Discovery could lead to new drugs to fight Alzheimer's, other neurological diseases - Science Daily, 7/11/10 - "Resveratrol, found in wine, has been touted as a life-span enhancer because it activates a group of enzymes known as sirtuins, which have gained fame in recent years for their ability to slow the aging process. Now MIT researchers report that Sirtuin1 -- a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene -- also promotes memory and brain flexibility ... We have now found that SIRT1 activity also promotes plasticity and memory"
    • Slowing Aging: Anti-aging Pathway Enhances Cell Stress Response - Science Daily, 2/19/09 - "The researchers discovered a new molecular relationship critical to keeping cells healthy across a long span of time: a protein called SIRT1, important for caloric restriction and lifespan and activated by resveratrol, regulates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), keeping it active. HSF1 in turn senses the presence of damaged proteins in the cell and elevates the expression of molecular chaperones to keep a cell's proteins in a folded, functional state. Regulation of this pathway has a direct beneficial effect to cells ... decrease in SIRT1 may help explain why protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and adult-onset diabetes, are diseases of aging"
    • Wine Compound Spurs Diabetes Research - WebMD, 11/29/07 - "In October, Chinese researchers reported that resveratrol curbs insulin resistance in mice. Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar. Insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes ... Like resveratrol, the lab-made chemicals activate a gene called SIRT1, making the diabetic mice more sensitive to insulin ... the newly developed chemicals are 1,000 times more potent than resveratrol"
  • Lycopene and Apo-12'-Lycopenal Reduce Cell Proliferation and Alter Cell Cycle Progression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan 3:1 - "Apo-lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, whether produced by cleavage enzymes within the body or consumed with tomato products, can be found in tissues at concentrations equivalent to physiological retinoid concentrations ... The present data indicate that lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, in part, by inhibiting normal cell cycle progression" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise may lower risk of death for men with prostate cancer - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "Compared with men who walked less than 90 minutes per week at an easy pace, those who walked 90 or more minutes per week at a normal to very brisk pace had a 46% lower risk of dying from any cause ... Only vigorous activity -- defined as more than three hours per week -- was associated with reduced prostate cancer mortality. Men who did vigorous activity had a 61% lower risk of prostate cancer-specific death compared with men who did less than one hour per week of vigorous activity"
  • Pomegranate juice components could stop cancer from spreading - Science Daily, 12/12/10 - "Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have identified components in pomegranate juice that both inhibit the movement of cancer cells and weaken their attraction to a chemical signal that promotes the metastasis of prostate cancer to the bone ... the researchers identified the following active groups of ingredients in pomegranate juice that had a molecular impact on cell adhesion and migration in metastatic prostate cancer cells: phenylpropanoids, hydrobenzoic acids, flavones and conjugated fatty acids" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Soy may stop prostate cancer spread: Experimental soy-based drug shows benefits in men with localized prostate cancer - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "A recent phase II randomized study of 38 men with localized prostate cancer found that genistein, when given once a day as a pill, one month prior to surgery, had beneficial effects on prostate cancer cells ... genistein increased the expression of genes that suppress the invasion of cancer cells and decreased the expression of genes that enhance invasion" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Rye Whole Grain and Bran Intake Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases Urinary C-Peptide, Plasma Insulin, and Prostate Specific Antigen in Men with Prostate Cancer - J Nutr. 2010 Oct 27 - "Seventeen participants were provided with 485 g rye whole grain and bran products (RP) or refined wheat products with added cellulose (WP), corresponding to ~50% of daily energy intake, in a randomized controlled, crossover design ... We conclude that whole grain and bran from rye resulted in significantly lower plasma PSA compared with a cellulose-supplemented refined wheat diet in patients with prostate cancer. The effect may be related to inhibition of prostate cancer progression caused by decreased exposure to insulin, as indicated by plasma insulin and urinary C-peptide excretion"
  • Vitamin E in front line of prostate cancer fight - Science Daily, 10/23/10 - "the research team have discovered a particular form of T3, called gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), can successfully kill off the prostate cancer CSCs ... Other research has found γ-T3 is also effective in suppressing other types of cancer, including breast, colon, liver and gastric ... not all vitamin E preparations had the active constituent" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Soy isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):996-1000 - "Soy isoflavones sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting cell survival pathways activated by radiation. At the same time, soy isoflavones have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which may help prevent the side effects of radiation ... Adverse effects of radiation therapy on bladder, bowel, and sexual function were assessed by a self-administered quality of life questionnaire at 3 and 6 mo. Only 26 and 27 patients returned completed questionnaires at 3 and 6 mo, respectively. At each time point, urinary, bowel, and sexual adverse symptoms induced by radiation therapy were decreased in the soy isoflavone group compared to placebo group. At 3 mo, soy-treated patients had less urinary incontinence, less urgency, and better erectile function as compared to the placebo group. At 6 mo, the symptoms in soy-treated patients were further improved as compared to the placebo group. These patients had less dripping/leakage of urine (7.7% in Group 1 vs. 28.4% in Group 2), less rectal cramping/diarrhea (7.7% vs. 21.4%), and less pain with bowel movements (0% vs. 14.8%) than placebo-treated patients. There was also a higher overall ability to have erections (77% vs. 57.1%). The results suggest that soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate cancer" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • The effectiveness of dried cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug 31:1-9 - "In contrast to the control group, patients in the cranberry group had statistically significant improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score, QoL, urination parameters including voiding parameters (rate of urine flow, average flow, total volume and post-void residual urine volume), and lower total PSA level on day 180 of the study" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Formulas, Cran Clearance at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrients and risk of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):710-8 - "Intake of trans fat was associated with the risk of PCa; the OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.45 (95% CI = 1.16-1.81); the association was apparently stronger in subjects aged less than 65, normal weight men, and ever smokers. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose and disaccharides. In contrast, men in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake were at lower risk of PCa. No association was found with intake of total proteins, total fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monosaccharides, and total carbohydrates. The findings provide evidence that a diet low in trans fat could reduce PCa risk"
  • Mixed Tocotrienols Inhibit Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAMP Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):789-94 - "mixed-tocotrienol-fed groups had a lower incidence of tumor formation along with a significant reduction in the average wet weight of genitourinary apparatus. Furthermore, mixed tocotrienols significantly reduced the levels of high-grade neoplastic lesions as compared to the positive controls. This decrease in levels of high-grade neoplastic lesions was found to be associated with increased expression of proapoptotic proteins BAD (Bcl(2) antagonist of cell death) and cleaved caspase-3 and cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. In contrast, the expression of cyclins A and E were found to be decreased in mixed-tocotrienol groups. Taken together, our results show that by modulating cell cycle regulatory proteins and increasing expression of proapoptotic proteins, mixed tocotrienols suppress prostate tumorigenesis in the TRAMP mice" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-cancer effects of broccoli ingredient explained - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "sulforaphane, a chemical found in broccoli, interacts with cells lacking a gene called PTEN to reduce the chances of prostate cancer developing" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Gamma-tocotrienol as an effective agent in targeting prostate cancer stem cell-like population - Int J Cancer. 2010 Jul 8 - "Emerging evidence supports that prostate cancer originates from a rare sub-population of cells, namely prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Conventional therapies for prostate cancer are believed to mainly target the majority of differentiated tumor cells but spare CSCs, which may account for the subsequent disease relapse after treatment. Therefore, successful elimination of CSCs may be an effective strategy to achieve complete remission from this disease. Gamma-tocotrienols (gamma-T3) is one of the vitamin-E constituents which have been shown to have anticancer effects against a wide-range of human cancers. Recently, we have reported that gamma-T3 treatment not only inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion but also sensitizes the cells to docetaxel-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gamma-T3 may be an effective therapeutic agent against advanced stage prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that gamma-T3 can down-regulate the expression of prostate CSC markers (CD133/CD44) in androgen independent (AI) prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 & DU145), as evident from western blotting analysis. Meanwhile, the spheroid formation ability of the prostate cancer cells was significantly hampered by gamma-T3 treatment. In addition, pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with gamma-T3 was found to suppress tumor initiation ability of the cells. More importantly, while CD133-enriched PC-3 cells were highly resistant to docetaxel treatment, these cells were as sensitive to gamma-T3 treatment as the CD133-depleted population. Our data suggest that gamma-T3 may be an effective agent in targeting prostate CSCs, which may account for its anticancer and chemosensitizing effects reported in previous studies" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Polyphenols in red wine and green tea halt prostate cancer growth, study suggests - Science Daily, 6/9/10 - "The profound impact that the antioxidants in red wine and green tea have on our bodies is more than anyone would have dreamt just 25 years ago," Weissmann added. "As long as they are taken in moderation, all signs show that red wine and green tea may be ranked among the most potent 'health foods' we know." - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium consumption may cause prostate cancer in Chinese, research suggests - Science Daily, 6/1/10 - "Results showed a 25 percent increased risk of prostate cancer when comparing those who consumed, on average, 659 mg vs. 211 mg of total calcium a day ... Major food sources of calcium in this population consisted of: vegetables (19.3 percent), dairy (17.3 percent), grain products (14.7 percent), soyfoods (11.8 percent), fruit (7.3 percent) and fish (6.2 percent). However, the researchers stress that there was no positive association with prostate cancer risk and any one particular food source ... Among men with less than average BMI (median BMI was 22.9 kg/m2), the researchers found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer"
  • Effects of phenylethyl isothiocyanate and its metabolite on cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May;11(7):324-36 - "Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of several cancers, including prostate cancer. Gluconasturtiin, one of the predominant glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, is hydrolyzed to yield phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC absorption and metabolism in humans involves glutathione conjugation followed by conversion via the mercapturic acid pathway to an N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate that is excreted in the urine. We observed an inhibitory effect of PEITC and its metabolite, NAC-PEITC, on cancer cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. PEITC and NAC-PEITC suppressed LNCaP cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and exposure to 5 microM PEITC or NAC-PEITC reduced cell proliferation by 25% and 30%, respectively. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that cells treated with 5 microM PEITC or NAC-PEITC arrested at the G(2)/M phase. In addition, the percentage of cells in the S phase decreased from 46% to 25% following 48 h of incubation with PEITC or NAC-PEITC. The G(2)/M-phase cell-cycle arrest of LNCaP cells grown in the presence of PEITC or NAC-PEITC is correlated with the downregulation of Cdk1 and cyclin B(1) protein expression. Apoptosis was observed at the later stages of 24-h and 48-h treatments with 5 microM PEITC and NAC-PEITC. In conclusion, PEITC and NAC-PEITC are potential chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents against LNCaP human prostate cancer cells"
  • Lycopene effects contributing to prostate health - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):775-83 - "Epidemiological evidence links lycopene consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk ... Lycopene modulates several of the aforementioned pathways, providing a promising rationale for prostate cancer risk reduction by lycopene: In many experimental setups, lycopene reduced inflammatory signals, prevented oxidative DNA damage, modulated the expression or activity of IGF axis members, of Wnt/beta-catenin and androgen signalling, and enhanced gap junctional communication. Lycopene's influence on these pathways likely contributes to the observed cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by lycopene. A substantial part of the lycopene effects can be explained by its antioxidant action, but other mechanisms might also be involved" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Fats of any kind may boost prostate cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 1/29/10 - "Last year, a study from Harvard reported that increased intakes of trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of non-aggressive prostate tumors by about 100 per cent ... the highest blood levels of trans oleic acid and linoleic acids (18:1n-9t and 18:2t) were associated with a 116 and 97 per cent increase in the risk of non-aggressive prostate tumors, respectively, compared to the lowest levels. The study followed almost 15,000 men over 13 years"
  • Dietary fat and early-onset prostate cancer risk - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jan 19:1-6 - "A nutritional database was used to calculate daily fat intake. A positive, statistically significant risk estimate for the highest v. lowest quintile of intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA was observed when adjusted for confounding variables: OR 2.53 (95 % CI 1.72, 3.74), OR 2.49 (95 % CI 1.69, 3.66), OR 2.69 (95 % CI 1.82, 3.96) and OR 2.34 (95 % CI 1.59, 3.46), respectively, with all P for trend < 0.001. In conclusion, there was a positive statistically significant association between prostate cancer risk and energy-adjusted intake of total fat and fat subtypes. These results potentially identify a modifiable risk factor for early-onset prostate cancer"
  • Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec 30 - "Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk"
  • Hops compound may prevent prostate cancer - Science Daily, 12/9/09 - "xanthohumol blocks the action of estrogen by binding to its receptor, which may lead to prevention of breast cancer ... Since testosterone receptors act similarly to that of estrogen -- by binding, then stimulating hormone-dependent effects, such as gene expression and cell growth ... Xanthohumol prevented the receptor from translocating to the cell nucleus, thus inhibiting its potential to stimulate the secretion of PSA and other hormone-dependent effects" - See hops supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise reduces death rate in prostate cancer patients - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "men who walked four or more hours a week had a 23 percent lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to men who walked less than 20 minutes per week. Men who walked 90 or more minutes at a normal to brisk pace had a 51 percent lower risk of death from any cause than men who walked less than 90 minutes at an easy walking pace"
  • Coffee May Cut Risk of Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 12/7/09 - "men who drank the most coffee were nearly 60% less likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than non-coffee drinkers ... men who drank decaffeinated coffee also had a similar reduction in aggressive prostate cancer risk ... coffee also contains many other potentially beneficial compounds such as antioxidants and minerals that may play a role in preventing prostate cancer ... Coffee has effects on insulin and glucose metabolism as well as sex hormone levels, all of which play a role in prostate cancer"
  • Aspirin May Prevent Prostate Cancer Recurrence - WebMD, 11/6/09 - "use of anti-clotting drugs, including aspirin, appears to lower the odds that cancer will recur in men undergoing radiation treatment for prostate cancer ... taking an anticoagulant lowers the risk [of recurrence] by almost half"
  • Pomegranate’s prostate protection potential grows - Nutra USA, 10/27/09 - "Pomegranate juice consumption, thus, may be of considerable advantage in prostate cancer chemoprevention, not only in patients with a genetic predisposition toward prostate cancer but also in patients undergoing cancer therapy" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Folate intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):617-28 - "Folate deficiency has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of several tumor types ... Dietary folate intake was inversely associated with overall risk of prostate cancer as compared to clinic controls (P for a linear trend = 0.003). When stratified by disease severity, dietary folate and folate from natural sources were associated with reduced risk of high-grade cancer as compared to both clinic controls (P for a linear trend = 0.0009 and 0.02, respectively) and biopsy negative controls (P for a linear trend = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) ... These analyses support an inverse association between dietary folate intake and prostate cancer risk and primarily risk of high-grade prostate cancer"
  • Gamma Tocopherol Upregulates the Expression of 15-S-HETE and Induces Growth Arrest Through a PPAR Gamma-Dependent Mechanism in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):649-62 - "These data demonstrate that the growth arrest mediated by gamma-tocopherol follows a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol enhances p53 acetylation and apoptosis in prostate cancer by inhibiting MTA1/NuRD complex - Int J Cancer. 2009 Oct 6 - "Our study identifies MTA1 as a new molecular target of Res that may have important clinical applications for PCa chemoprevention and therapy, and points to the combination of Res with HDAC inhibitors as an innovative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Deficiencies A Global Concern - Science Daily, 9/17/09 - "One new study has found DNA damage in humans caused by only minor zinc deficiency ... Zinc deficiency is quite common in the developing world ... studies have shown that zinc is essential to protecting against oxidative stress and helping DNA repair – meaning that in the face of zinc deficiency, the body's ability to repair genetic damage may be decreasing even as the amount of damage is going up ... When prostate glands become cancerous, their level of zinc drops precipitously, and some studies have suggested that increasing zinc in the prostate may at least help prevent prostate cancer and could potentially be a therapeutic strategy. There are concerns about the relationship of zinc intake to esophageal, breast, and head and neck cancers. And the reduced zinc status that occurs with aging may also contribute to a higher incidence of infection and autoimmune diseases" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin use and prostate cancer in Caucasian men: results from a population-based case-control study - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug 4 - "In Caucasian men, metformin use was more common in controls than in cases (4.7 vs. 2.8%, p = 0.04), resulting in a 44% risk reduction for PCa (adjusted OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.32-1.00). No association was seen in African-American men" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Green Tea May Slow Prostate Cancer Progression - Science Daily, 6/19/09 - "According to results of a study published in Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, men with prostate cancer who consumed the active compounds in green tea demonstrated a significant reduction in serum markers predictive of prostate cancer progression ... Findings showed a significant reduction in serum levels of HGF, VEGF and PSA after treatment, with some patients demonstrating reductions in levels of greater than 30 percent" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Diet May Reduce Risk Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 6/3/09 - "a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruit, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, and excessive dairy products and calcium intake may be helpful in preventing prostate cancer, and for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer ... Specifically, consumption of tomatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, green tea, and vitamins including Vitamin E and selenium seemed to propose a decreased risk of prostate cancer. Consumption of highly processed or charcoaled meats, dairy products, and fats seemed to be correlated with prostate cancer"
  • Carbohydrate Restriction May Slow Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 5/26/09 - "The researchers believe that insulin and insulin-like growth factor contribute to the growth and proliferation of prostate cancer, and that a diet devoid of carbohydrates lowers serum insulin levels in the bodies of the mice, thereby slowing tumor growth"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer - BJU Int. 2009 Apr 4 - "The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32-100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Juice May Slow Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 4/26/09 - "All of the men drank 8 ounces of pomegranate juice daily, and that slowed down the time it took for their PSA levels to double ... Fifteen of the patients stayed with the study for up to 64 months (a little more than five years), and it typically took four times longer for their PSA levels to double when they were drinking pomegranate juice, compared to their PSA doubling time at the study's start" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Serum calcium and the risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Apr 18 - "These data do not support the hypothesis that high serum calcium levels is a risk factor for prostate cancer. On the contrary, the data suggest that high serum levels of calcium in young overweight men may be a marker for a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer"
  • Serum Retinol and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Nested Case-Control Study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 31 - "Vitamin A (retinol) plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and has been studied as a potential chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer ... the highest versus lowest concentrations of serum retinol were associated with a 42% reduction in aggressive prostate cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.02), with the strongest inverse association for high-grade disease (Gleason sum >7; odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.84; Ptrend = 0.01)"
  • Vitamin K and prostate cancer – study supports benefits - Nutra USA, 3/31/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin K2, but not K1, were associated with a 35 per cent reduction in prostate cancer risk. The potential benefits of K2 were more pronounced for advanced prostate cancer ... A higher ratio of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) to intact total osteocalcin (iOC) is indicative of poorer vitamin K status ... of ucOC and iOC were analysed from serum samples, and every 0.1 increment in the ratio was associated with a 38 per cent increase in advanced-stage prostate cancer, and a 21 per cent increase in high-grade prostate cancer" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Fish May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/24/09 - "Men in the study who ate one or more servings of fatty fish a week were found to have a 63% lower risk for developing aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported never eating fish" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/10/09 - "Men in the study who took high doses of the vitamin had a more than twofold increase in prostate cancer risk, compared to men who did not take folic acid supplements"
  • Differential Effects of Selenium on Benign and Malignant Prostate Epithelial Cells: Stimulation of LNCaP Cell Growth by Noncytotoxic, Low Selenite Concentrations - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):251-64 - "Thus, noncytotoxic selenite concentrations did not induce growth inhibition or apoptosis selectively in prostate cancer cells. Growth stimulation of LNCaP cells by low concentrations suggests the possibility of adverse effects of selenium supplementation on hormone sensitive prostate cancer, whereas inhibition of PC-3 cell proliferation at noncytotoxic concentrations suggests potential benefit of selenium in advanced prostate cancer"
  • Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24 - "Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival ... Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends"
  • Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):206-15 - "Ten-year average intake of supplemental zinc was not associated with a reduced prostate cancer risk overall (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.14) for >15mg/day vs. nonuse, P for trend = 0.44); however, risk of advanced prostate cancer (regionally invasive or distant metastatic, n = 123) decreased with greater intake of supplemental zinc (adjusted HR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13-1.09 for 10-yr average intake > 15 mg/day vs. nonuse, P for trend = 0.04). Dietary zinc was not associated with prostate cancer. In this prospective cohort, long-term supplemental zinc intake was associated with reduced risk of clinically relevant advanced disease"
  • New Lab Evidence Suggests Preventive Effect Of Herbal Supplement In Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 2/23/09 - "Combining DHEA with transforming growth factor beta-1 increased testosterone production in the stromal cells and prostate specific antigen protein secretion two to four-fold and gene expression up to 50-fold in the cancer cells. When these cell cultures were treated with red clover isoflavones, the androgenic effects of DHEA were reversed" - See Trinovin at Amazon.com.
  • Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb 11 - "Our analysis of studies on soy intake yielded a combined RR/OR of 0.74"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels and invasiveness in prostate cancer cells - Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jan 16 - "Treatment with EPA inhibited I(Na) directly and also indirectly, by down-regulation of Na(v) mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells, thus inhibiting their metastatic potential" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin as biomarker of vitamin k intake and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study in the heidelberg cohort of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jan;18(1):49-56 - "From cell studies, Vitamin K is known to exert anticancer effects on a variety of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells. Recently, we reported an inverse association between dietary intake of menaquinones (vitamin K(2)), but not phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)), and risk of prostate cancer ... There was indication of a lower prostate cancer risk in carriers of the A allele (compared with GG carriers) of the +2255 VKORC1 polymorphism with increasing menaquinone intake (P(interaction) = 0.14) whereas no distinct effect modification was observed for the ucOC/iOC ratio (P(interaction) = 0.37). The increased risks of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer with higher serum ucOC/iOC ratio strengthen the findings for dietary menaquinone intake" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Study supports pomegranate’s anti-prostate cancer potential - Nutra USA, 1/6/09 - "the average doubling time increased from an average of 15 months to 54 months for the men drinking the pomegranate juice" - [Abstract] - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate polyphenols down-regulate expression of androgen-synthesizing genes in human prostate cancer cells overexpressing the androgen receptor - J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Dec;19(12):848-55 - "A twofold suppression of gene expression was considered statistically significant. Pomegranate polyphenols inhibited gene expression and AR most consistently in the LNCaP-AR cell line (P=.05). Therefore, inhibition by pomegranate polyphenols of gene expression involved in androgen-synthesizing enzymes and the AR may be of particular importance in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and the subset of human prostate cancers where AR is up-regulated" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • gamma-Tocopherol-enriched mixed tocopherol diet inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 27 - "8 week old TRAMP males were fed 0.1% gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherol diet that contained 20-fold higher levels of gamma-tocopherol, and roughly 3-fold higher levels of alpha-tocopherol ... Treatment with gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly suppressed the incidence of palpable tumor and Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) development without affecting the expression of the transgene (SV-40) ... gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and its related detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes thereby suppressing PIN and tumor development" - Note:  One previous study was done with alpha-tocopherol.  I cannot understand why they did that when the previous research also supported the gamma unless they didn't do any homework at all before planning the study.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the case-control surveillance study - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Dec 18 - "For use of multivitamins that did not contain zinc, the multivariable odds ratios of prostate cancer were 0.6 for 1-4 years, 0.8 for 5-9 years, and 1.2 for 10 years or more, respectively (p for trend = 0.70). Men who used zinc for ten years or more, either in a multivitamin or as a supplement, had an approximately two-fold (OR = 1.9"
  • Flaxseed Supplementation (Not Dietary Fat Restrict...[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008] - PubMed Result - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Dec;17(12):3577-3587 - "Men were on protocol an average of 30 days. Proliferation rates were significantly lower (P < 0.002) among men assigned to the flaxseed arms. Median Ki-67-positive cells/total nuclei ratios (x100) were 1.66 (flaxseed-supplemented diet) and 1.50 (flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet) versus 3.23 (control) and 2.56 (low-fat diet) ... Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer"
  • Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 4 - "Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) ... The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents" - See beta sitosterol at Amazon.com and saw palmetto at Amazon.com.
  • Oily fish may boost prostate cancer survival rate: Study - Nutra USA, 11/24/08 - "The prospective cohort study with 20,167 men also found that men who ate five portions of fish per week had a 48 per cent improved survival rate from the disease than men who consumed only one portion per week" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A 22-y prospective study of fish intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1297-303 - "Survival analysis among the men diagnosed with prostate cancer revealed that those consuming fish >or=5 times/wk had a 48% lower risk of prostate cancer death than did men consuming fish less than once weekly [relative risk (RR) = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.91; P for trend = 0.05]. A similar association was found between seafood n-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer mortality (RR(Q5 versus Q1) = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99; P for trend = 0.02). These associations became stronger when the analyses were restricted to clinically detected cases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Men Who Take Aspirin Have Significantly Lower PSA Levels - Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "PSA levels were 9 percent lower in men taking aspirin (the NSAID most commonly used) compared with men who did not use aspirin"
  • Suppression of androgen receptor signaling and prostate specific antigen expression by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in different progression stages of LNCaP prostate cancer cells - Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 31 - "EGCG suppressed cell proliferation, prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression, and AR transcriptional activity in the different LNCaP sublines. Intraperitoneal administration of EGCG also suppressed the growth of relapsing R1Ad tumors and decreased tumor-derived serum PSA. Effects of EGCG on tumor PSA expression have the potential to affect accurate monitoring of patient tumor burden by serum PSA measurement" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Prostate Cancer: Vitamin E, Selenium No Help - WebMD, 10/28/08 - "That evidence included a 1998 Finnish study of whether vitamin E could prevent lung cancer in some 30,000 smokers. It didn't, but men taking vitamin E had 32% fewer prostate cancers ... I am afraid it will be the end of the story for large trials of vitamin E and selenium to prevent prostate cancer" - Note:  Most of the vitamin E studies I've read on prostate cancer indicated that only the gamma-tocopherol worked yet they spent $114 million on this study and used the cheapest synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate form.  How dumb was that?  I don't know what the story on the selenium was.  Some say it's because people in the U.S. aren't deficient in selenium.  See my comments in my 10/29/08 newsletter.
  • Too Much Calcium In Blood May Increase Risk Of Fatal Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 9/3/08 - "Comparing men in the top third with men in the bottom third, we found a significantly increased hazard for fatal prostate cancer"
  • Broccoli May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 7/1/08 - [Science Daily] - "men who regularly ate broccoli showed more changes in gene expression suggestive of a reduced risk of cancer"
  • New Treatment for Prostate Cancer? - Dr. Weil, 7/1/08
  • Dietary Agents for Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer - oncologystat.com, 6/16/08 - "In this review, we have summarized the findings from clinical and preclinical studies on dietary agents including green tea, pomegranate, lupeol, fisetin, and delphinidin that are currently being investigated in our laboratory for their chemopreventive potential against CaP" - Click here for the review but it is 172 pages in the .pdf format.
  • Legume and isoflavone intake and prostate cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 2 - "legume intake is associated with a moderate reduction in prostate cancer risk and that the isoflavones in soy products are probably not responsible for this effect"
  • Protective role of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against oxidative stress in nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2699-706 - "1,25-VD can protect nonmalignant prostate cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death by elimination of ROS-induced cellular injuries through transcriptional activation of G6PD activity. The antioxidative effect of vitamin D strengthens its roles in cancer chemoprevention and adds to a growing list of beneficial effects of vitamin D against cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.  I'd go with the vitamin D 2000 IU at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing Intake Of Dietary Fat Prevents Prostate Cancer In Mice - Science Daily, 5/15/08 - "focused on fat from corn oil, which is made up primarily of omega-6 fatty acids, or the polyunsaturated fat commonly found in the Western diet ... Researchers fed one group of mice a diet with about 40 percent of calories coming from fat, a percentage typical in men eating a Western diet. The other group received 12 percent of their calories from fat, a figure considered to be a very low fat diet. Researchers found there was a 27 percent reduced incidence of prostate cancer in the low-fat diet group. Aronson also studied cells in the prostate that were precancerous, or would soon become cancer, and found that the cells in the mice eating the low-fat diet were growing much more slowly than those in the high-fat group"
  • Prostates protected by vitamin D: study - Nutra USA, 5/14/08 - "In this study, we have demonstrated that 1,25-(OH)2D can protect nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells against H2O2-induced cell death through modulating the ROS defense systems, suggesting a possible role of 1,25-(OH)2D in prostate cancer prevention" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Enterolactone restricts the proliferation of the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line in vitro - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Apr 8;52(5):567-580 - "The capacity of a pure mammalian lignan, enterolactone (ENL) ... the antiproliferative activity of ENL is a consequence of altered expression of cell cycle associated genes and provides novel molecular evidence for the antiproliferative properties of a pure lignan in prostate cancer"
  • Vitamin D Protects Cells From Stress That Can Lead To Cancer - Science Daily, 5/13/08 - "By inducing a specific gene to increase expression of a key enzyme, vitamin D protects healthy prostate cells from the damage and injuries that can lead to cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • In vivo and in vitro regulation of syndecan 1 in prostate cells by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 30 - "These findings indicate that syndecan 1 is upregulated by n-3 fatty acids by a transcriptional pathway involving PPARgamma. This mechanism may contribute to the chemopreventive properties of n-3 fatty acids in prostate cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • A 12 week, open label, phase I/IIa study using apatone for the treatment of prostate cancer patients who have failed standard therapy - Int J Med Sci. 2008 Mar 24;5(2):62-7 - "oral Apatone (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer ... 5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day ... At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p < or = 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment"
  • Exercise May Lead To Faster Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 4/13/08
  • Vitamin K2 linked to lower prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 4/9/08 - "While no reduction in the risk of prostate cancer was observed for vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), an increased intake of all menaquinones (vitamin K2) was associated with a 35 per cent reduction in risk" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Calcitriol as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer: role of anti-inflammatory activity - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V74-80 - "Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, inhibits the growth and development of several cancers ... We conclude that calcitriol exerts several anti-inflammatory actions in prostate cells, which contribute to its potential as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in PCa" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Soy Compound May Halt Spread Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/14/08 - "the amount of the chemical, an antioxidant known as genistein, used in the experiments was no higher than what a human would eat in a soybean-rich diet ... genistein decreased metastasis of prostate cancer to the lungs by 96 percent compared with mice that did not eat the compound in their chow" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of One-Year Treatment with Isoflavone Extract from Red Clover on Prostate, Liver Function, Sexual Function, and Quality of Life in Men with Elevated PSA Levels and Negative Prostate Biopsy Findings - Urology. 2008 Feb;71(2):185-90 - "isoflavonoid extract from red clover ... daily 60-mg dose of an isoflavone extract for 1 year ... The average PSA level was 10.16 ng/mL at baseline versus 7.15 ng/mL after 12 months, for a statistically significant reduction of 33% ... The sexual hormone levels did not change throughout the study. We registered a significant increase in all three liver transaminases after 3 months"
  • Finding the Right Prostate Cancer Diet - WebMD, 2/15/08 - "poultry and eggs double the risk of prostate cancer progression ... orange and yellow vegetables, such as squash, yams, and carrots, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cut the risk of recurrence by about half ... If you eat chicken or poultry, eat it without the skin ... the men's overall PSA doubling time was nearly four times slower after they began drinking pomegranate juice"
  • Men Who Are Continually Active At Work May Have Decreased Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/13/08 - "The message from this study for today is that if you’re more active, you may be able to prevent this cancer from happening"
  • Ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract inhibits angiogenesis in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo - Int J Oncol. 2008 Feb;32(2):475-80 - "pomegranate extract standardized to ellagitannin content (POMx) ... POMx decreased prostate cancer xenograft size, tumor vessel density, VEGF peptide levels and HIF-1alpha expression after 4 weeks of treatment in SCID mice. These results demonstrate that an ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract can inhibit tumor-associated angiogenesis as one of several potential mechanisms for slowing the growth of prostate cancer in chemopreventive applications" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • More support for lycopene's prostate benefits - Nutra USA, 1/9/08 - "At the end of the six month intervention period ... levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a marker of prostate health, were reduced in the lycopene group showing improvements in health of the tissue. However, no changes were recorded in the placebo group ... Moreover, no enlargement of the prostate occurred in the lycopene group, whereas growth was observed in the placebo group" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Whereas progression of prostate enlargement occurred in the placebo group as assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography (P < 0.05) and digital rectal examination (P < 0.01), the prostate did not enlarge in the lycopene group. Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb at Amazon.com.
  • Nonfat Milk Linked to Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 1/2/08 - "Intake of calcium and vitamin D has little or no impact on the risk of prostate cancer, but consumption of low fat or nonfat milk may increase the risk of the malignancy ... low fat or nonfat milk increased the risk of localized or low-grade tumors, while whole milk decreased this risk"
  • J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea may cut prostate cancer risk - USATODAY.com, 12/20/07 - "those who drank five or more cups of green tea a day reduced their risk of having progressive prostate cancer by half, compared with those who drank a cup or less" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary patterns and surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case control study in Western Australia - BJU Int. 2007 Dec 5 - "BPH risk was not associated with the 'Health Conscious' or 'Western' patterns, but there was a lower risk with an increasing score for the 'Vegetable' pattern (odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.98). BPH risk was significantly and inversely related to the intake of total vegetables, dark yellow vegetables, other vegetables, tofu and red meat. There was a higher risk of BPH with increasing intake of high-fat dairy products"
  • High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/27/07 - "A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in mice ... Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with prostate cancer"
  • Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):1-7 - "The data suggest that lycopene and soy isoflavones have activity in prostate cancer patients with PSA relapse disease and may delay progression of both hormone-refractory and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer"
  • Plasma carotenoids and prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in Arkansas - Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):46-53 - "This study added to the emerging evidence that high circulating levels of lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a low risk of prostate cancer" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a primary tumor suppressive omega-3 fatty acid, inhibits growth of colorectal cancer independent of p53 mutational status - Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):178-87 - "Taken together, these findings suggest DHA is the primary tumor suppressive omega-3 fatty acid in vivo and in vitro and inhibits cancer growth by p53 dependent and independent pathways, while the marginal inhibition by EPA is p53 independent" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene and lutein inhibit proliferation in rat prostate carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):171-7 - "These studies are consistent with epidemiological studies that show inverse relationships of these carotenoids with prostate cancer" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • A Low-carb Diet May Stunt Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/13/07
  • Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia - Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):672-6 - "Compared with nonusers, the multivariate ORs for the highest category of onion and garlic intake were 0.41 ... This uniquely large data set from European populations showed an inverse association between allium vegetable consumption and BPH"
  • Green tea may halve prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 10/12/07 - "Drinking five or more cups a day was associated with a 48 per cent reduction in advanced prostate cancer risk, compared to drinking less than one cup per day" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk in Japanese Men: A Prospective Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Sep 29 - "The multivariate relative risk was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.96) for men drinking 5 or more cups/day compared with less than 1 cup/day (p(trend) = 0.01). Green tea may be associated with a decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Full-fat dairy may protect prostates from cancer - Nutra USA, 10/10/07 - "when the researchers considered intakes of specific dairy products they noted a significant 12 per cent reduction in total prostate cancer risk by increased whole milk consumption. On the other hand, low-/nonfat milk was related to 16 per cent increased risk"
  • Prostate Cancer Survival Varies by Season - washingtonpost.com, 10/7/07 - "Summer and autumn months correspond to times when vitamin D is highest (in Norway). Although the study does not prove vitamin D is the determining factor, it does suggest that this possibility should be studied further ... Compared with men diagnosed in the summer and fall, those diagnosed in the winter and spring were 20 percent more likely to die within three years after diagnosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Diet And Medications May Assist Prevention Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 9/24/07 - "dutasteride, has reduced by 50 percent the number of cancerous biopsies among men with benign prostatic hypertrophy ... In one study of selenium, the incidence of prostate cancer was reduced by 49 percent over ten years ... Data already suggests novel uses of statins, commonly prescribed cholesterol-lowering agents, and insulin modulating drugs, such as metformin or the glitazones" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Pomegranate Juice vs. Prostate Cancer? - WebMD, 9/20/07 - "The prostate tumors grew more slowly in the mice that got the pomegranate juice orally or by injection, compared with mice that got the placebo"
  • Pomegranate extracts may inhibit prostate cancer growth - Nutra USA, 9/3/07
  • Red Wine Compound Shown To Prevent Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 8/31/07 - "n the study resveratrol-fed mice showed an 87 percent reduction in their risk of developing prostate tumors that contained the worst kind of cancer-staging diagnosis ... Other mice in the study, those fed resveratrol but still developed a less-serious form of prostate cancer, were 48 percent more likely to have their tumor growth halted or slowed when compared to mice who did not consume the compound ... A cancer prevention researcher lives for these days when they can make that kind of finding" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Pectin shows potential against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 8/22/07 - "The new study looked at the effect of different forms of pectin - commercially available fractionated pectin powder (FPP), citrus pectin (CP), and pH-modified CP (PectaSol) - on hormone- (androgen) responsive and androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells ... the FPP induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) by about 40 fold, compared to non-treated cells, for both types of cancer cell"  - [Abstract] - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The Effect of High Calcium Levels on Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 8/13/07 - "the relative risk of prostate cancer for 2,000 mg/day or more of calcium intake was 1.63. Conversely, a 1.26 relative risk calculation was observed for ingestion of less than 1,000 mg/day of calcium"
  • Broccoli May Help Cut Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/24/07 - "Men who reported eating cauliflower more than once per week were 52% less likely to be diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported eating cauliflower less than once a month ... Men who reported eating broccoli more than once per week were 45% less likely to be diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported eating broccoli less than once a month" - See indole-3-carbinol at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Isoflavones May Protect against Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2007 Aug;137(8):1974-1979 - "Isoflavones and their aglycones (genistein and daidzein) were significantly associated with decreased risk. The odds ratio for the highest category (>/=89.9 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<30.5 mg/d) of isoflavone intake was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.24-0.72) and the linear trend was significant"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Help Slow Prostate Cancer Growth - Science Daily, 6/21/07
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Lower Genetic Risk for Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/21/07 - "Overall, diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids reduced prostate tumor growth, slowed histopathological progression, and increased survival, the researchers write. The 12-month survival rate was 60% for mice fed a diet high in omega-3, 10% on the low–omega-3 diet, and 0% on the high–omega-6 diet. The ideal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is 1:1, and mice fed diets with this ratio of fatty acids were able to delay both the formation and progression of prostate tumors and prolong their survival" - See Twinlab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prostate Cancer Confusion? - Dr. Weil, 6/18/07 - "while these investigators concluded that on the basis of their retrospective analytical methods lycopene and other carotenoids had no effect on prostate cancer, we have very good evidence from other studies that lycopene does in fact lower the risk"
  • Supplemental and dietary vitamin e intakes and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun;16(6):1128-35 - "dietary gamma-tocopherol, the most commonly consumed form of vitamin E in the United States, was significantly inversely related to the risk of advanced prostate cancer (for highest versus lowest quintile: RR, 0.68" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Flaxseed May Curb Prostate Tumor Growth - WebMD, 6/4/07 - "As measured by how fast their cancer cells were dividing, tumors grew about 30% to 40% slower in the men taking flaxseed"
  • Red Wine Protects The Prostate - Science Daily, 5/25/07 - "men who drink an average of four to seven glasses of red wine per week are only 52% as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as those who do not drink red wine ... when white wine was compared with red, red had the most benefit ... But much of the speculation focuses on chemicals—including various flavonoids and resveratrol—missing from other alcoholic beverages"
  • Study: Vitamins tied to prostate cancer - USA Today, 5/15/07 - "Overall, the researchers found no link between multivitamin use and early-stage prostate cancer ... perhaps high-dose vitamins had little effect until a tumor appeared, and then could spur its growth"
  • Nutrients In Certain Vegetables May Provide Cancer-fighting Benefit - Science Daily, 4/17/07 - "Dr. Singh's study is based on phytochemicals, called isothiocyanates (ITCs), found in several cruciferous vegetables and generated when vegetables are either cut or chewed. His laboratory has found that phenethyl-ITC, or PEITC, is highly effective in suppressing the growth of human prostate cancer cells at concentrations achievable through dietary intake"
  • Tea and lycopene protect against prostate cancer - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:453-7 - "The protective effect of green tea was significant (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.35) for the highest quartile relative to the lowest after adjusting for total vegetables and fruits intakes and other potential confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables and fruits rich in lycopene were also inversely associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio 0.18 ... habitual drinking tea and intakes of vegetables and fruits rich in lycopene could lead to a reduced risk of prostate cancer in Chinese men. Together they have a stronger preventive effect than either component taken separately"
  • Report: Advances In Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention And Treatment - Life Extension Magazine, 4/07
  • The relationship between daily calcium intake and bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer - BJU Int. 2007 Apr;99(4):812-816 - "To analyse the relationship between daily calcium intake (DCI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with prostate cancer ... androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) ... a low DCI was an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer ... Urologists should recommend a DCI of >1000 mg in patients with prostate cancer, especially in those under ADT"
  • Soy Found Protective Against Localized Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/15/07 - "intake of genistein, daidzein, miso soup and soy food had no overall link to diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, they calculated that the risk of developing localized prostate cancer was 50 percent lower in men who ate the most isoflavones compared to men who ate the least meaning that men in the top category ate between two and three times as much isoflavone-rich food"
  • Soy isoflavones linked to lower prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 3/8/07 - "The highest intake of soy isoflavones (at least 32.8 milligrams of genistein per day) had a 40 per cent reduced risk compared to those with the lowest intake (less than 13.2 mg/d)"
  • Green Tea And COX-2 Inhibitors Combine To Slow Growth Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/1/07 - "In mice that were not treated with either substance, the tumor volume averaged 1,300 cubic millimeters, whereas mice given either the tea or celecoxib had tumors averaging 835 cubic millimeters and 650 cubic millimeters, respectively. Tumors taken from mice given both agents, however, measured on average a volume of 350 cubic millimeters" - See Jarrow Green Tea at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Zinc and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study from Italy - Eur Urol. 2007 Feb 5 - "In this large study we found a direct association between high zinc intake and prostate cancer risk, particularly for advanced cancers"
  • Veggies for Enlarged Prostate Risk - WebMD, 2/14/07 - "Data came from more than 32,000 male health care workers enrolled in a long-term health study that began in 1986 ... The men who consumed the most vegetables were 11% less likely to have BPH surgery or moderate to high BPH symptoms by 2000"
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):523-9 - "Vegetable consumption was inversely associated with BPH (fifth compared with first quintile-OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99; P for trend = 0.03), whereas fruit intake was not. Consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in beta-carotene (P for trend = 0.004), lutein (P for trend = 0.0004), or vitamin C (P for trend = 0.05) was inversely related to BPH. With increasing vitamin C intake from foods, men were less likely to have BPH (P for trend = 0.0009). Neither alpha- nor gamma-tocopherol intake from foods was associated with BPH"
  • On The Cover: Eating Your Way To Prostate Cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 2/07 - "Boswellia extracts have been thoroughly studied as natural remedies for inflammatory disorders. A patented extract from boswellia called 5-LOXIN® has potent ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-LOX, preventing the formation of protein-degrading enzymes, and protecting against inflammation-induced events that can promote tumor angiogenesis" - See 5-LOXIN at Amazon.com.
  • Worried About Prostate Cancer? Tomato-broccoli Combo Shown To Be Effective - Science Daily, 1/16/07 - "fed a diet containing 10 percent tomato powder and 10 percent broccoli powder to laboratory rats that had been implanted with prostate cancer cells ... The tomato/broccoli combo outperformed all other diets in shrinking prostate tumors ... The only treatment that approached the tomato/broccoli diet's level of effectiveness was castration ... To get these effects, men should consume daily 1.4 cups of raw broccoli and 2.5 cups of fresh tomato, or 1 cup of tomato sauce, or ½ cup of tomato paste"
  • Calcitriol and genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway: potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer - J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):205S-10S - "the combination of calcitriol and genistein is an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of PCa"
  • Dietary Fatty acids correlate with prostate cancer biopsy grade and volume in jamaican men - J Urol. 2007 Jan;177(1):97-101 - "Omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate and Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit prostate cancer growth"
  • Aspirin 'blocks prostate problem' - BBC News, 12/9/06 - "taking NSAIDs was found to prevent or delay enlargement of the prostate"
  • Tomatoes, tomato products and lycopene in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer: do we have the evidence from intervention studies? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Nov;9(6):722-7 - "Increasing evidence suggests that a single serving of tomatoes or tomato products ingested daily may contribute to protect from DNA damage. As DNA damage seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, the regular ingestion of tomatoes or tomato products might prevent the disease"
  • NSAID Use May Prevent or Delay Development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia - Medscape, 9/6/06 - "NSAIDs reduced the incidence rates of moderate-severe urinary symptoms (HR, 0.73), low maximum urinary flow rate (HR, 0 .51), increased prostate volume (HR, 0.53), elevated serum PSA level (HR, 0.52), and treatment of BPH (HR, 0.79)"
  • Aspirin May Cut Enlarged Prostate Risk - WebMD, 8/30/06 - "Men who reported daily use of aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, were 25% less likely to develop moderate to severe enlarged prostate symptoms"
  • Decrease In Progression Of Prostate Cancer With Plant-based Diet And Stress Reduction - Science Daily, 8/29/06 - "The plant-based diet and stress reduction intervention was effective in significantly reducing the PSA rate, indicating a reduction in the rate of progression of the prostate cancer"
  • Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer - Prostate. 2006 Aug 18 - "Our study provides strong evidence that high intake of phytoestrogens substantially reduce prostate cancer risk among men with specific polymorphic variation in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor-beta gene"
  • Altering Fatty Acid Levels In Diet May Reduce Prostate Cancer Growth Rate - Science Daily, 8/1/06 - "tumor cell growth rates decreased by 22 percent and PSA levels were 77 percent lower in the group receiving a healthier balance of fatty acids compared with the group that received predominantly omega-6 fatty acids"
  • Phase II Study of Pomegranate Juice for Men with Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen following Surgery or Radiation for Prostate Cancer - Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):4018-4026 - "Mean PSA doubling time significantly increased with treatment from a mean of 15 months at baseline to 54 months posttreatment ... In vitro assays comparing pretreatment and posttreatment patient serum on the growth of LNCaP showed a 12% decrease in cell proliferation and a 17% increase in apoptosis (P = 0.0048 and 0.0004, respectively), a 23% increase in serum nitric oxide (P = 0.0085), and significant (P < 0.02) reductions in oxidative state and sensitivity to oxidation of serum lipids after versus before pomegranate juice consumption"
  • Pomegranate Slows Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/5/06
  • Pomegranate Juice Helps Keep PSA Levels Stable In Men With Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 7/2/06 - "Drinking an eight ounce glass of pomegranate juice daily increased by nearly four times the period during which PSA levels in men treated for prostate cancer remained stable"
  • Juice 'can slow prostate cancer' - BBC News, 7/1/06 - "measured how long it took for PSA levels to double in individual patients ... The average doubling time is about 15 months, but in patients who drank pomegranate juice this increased to an average of 54 months"
  • Starch Intake May Increase Risk for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape, 6/27/06 - "Starch intake was directly associated with increased risk for BPH with an OR of 1.51 ... The main sources of starch in the subjects were white bread, pasta, and rice ... An inverse relationship was observed for polyunsaturated fats (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 - 0.93), linoleic acid (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56 - 0.94), and linolenic acid (OR, 0.71"
  • Soy-rich diet cuts prostate cancer marker - Nutra USA, 6/22/06 - "Two servings of soy a day reduced levels of the prostate cancer marker PSA in free-living men by 14 percent, but didn’t affect testosterone levels"
  • Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice - J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1287-93 - "lycopene combined with vitamin E may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer"
  • More support for lycopene protection against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 5/3/06 - "half of these men to receive a daily supplement of eight milligrams of lycopene (LycoRed's Lyc-O-Mato) for one year and followed for a futher year ... blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein that is used as a marker for the disease, decreased by 42 per cent after supplementation" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Pondering Prostate Problems? - Dr. Weil, 4/28/06 - "All told, this study shouldn't discourage men with mild-to-moderate BPH from using saw palmetto. I still recommend taking 160 mg of a standardized extract twice a day; this should help reduce the size of the gland in about four to six weeks"
  • Prostate tumours shrunk by lycopene, vitamin E combo - Nutra USA, 4/14/06 - "Compared with the control, the combined mixture of lycopene and vitamin E, at five mg/kg BW each, suppressed the growth of the prostate xenograft by 73 per cent at day 42 ... the mice receiving the combined supplement also lived 40 per cent longer" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Crunchy Veggies Fight Cancer - WebMD, 4/5/06 - "focused on a substance found in cruciferous vegetables called phenethyl-ITC, or PEITC ... After 31 days of treatment, the size of the tumors in the treated animals was about half that of the untreated animals"
  • Pygeum - An Extract from This Native African Tree Reduces Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Life Extension Magazine, 4/06
  • Oily fish may fight prostate cancer spread - MSNBC, 3/21/06 - "Omega-6 fats, found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, increased the spread of tumor cells into bone marrow. This invasion was blocked by omega 3 fats -- the ones found in oily fish" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Pepper Component Hot Enough To Trigger Suicide In Prostate Cancer Cells - Science Daily, 3/19/06 - "Capsaicin induced approximately 80 percent of prostate cancer cells growing in mice to follow the molecular pathways leading to apoptosis. Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice"
  • Pepper extract could stop prostate cancer growth - Nutra USA, 3/15/06 - "capsaicin has a profound inhibiting effect on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo , inducing apoptosis [programmed cell death] of prostate cancer cell lines"
  • Prostate Cancer: No Antioxidant Help? - WebMD, 2/14/06 - "Vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene consumption didn't appear to affect prostate cancer risk, the study shows"
  • More support for soy's protection against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 2/13/06 - "High intake of food items rich in phytoestrogens was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The odds ratio (OR) [the risk compared to a standard of 1.00] comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake was 0.74"
  • Vitamin D Inhibits Progression Of Some Prostate Cancers - Science Daily, 2/8/06 - "vitamin D significantly limits the ability of prostate cancer cells to invade healthy cells by reducing the activity of two enzymes -- proteases called matrix metalloproteinase and cathepsin" [WebMD] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Factors May Affect Risk for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape, 2/7/06 - "Citrus fruit, but not total fruit, consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk for BPH"
  • Corn oil, omega-6 could speed up prostate cancer, study - Nutra USA, 2/1/06 - "After we added omega-6 fatty acids to the growth medium in the dish, and only omega-6, we observed that tumors grew twice as fast as those without omega-6" - [HealthDay] [WebMD]
  • Herbal extract may treat prostate cancer - MSNBC, 11/27/05 - "Zyflamend has the ability, in culture at least, to reduce prostate cancer cell growth by as much as 78 percent and induce cancer cell death or “apoptosis,”" - See Zyflamend at Amazon.com.
  • Too much calcium may raise prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 11/15/05 - "men who consumed more than 2000mg of calcium per day nearly doubled their risk of developing prostate cancer"
  • Columbia Study Suggests Benefits Of Herbal Extract In Early Treatment Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 11/13/05 - "Zyflamend®, a unique herbal extract preparation, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells and induces prostate cancer cells to self-destruct via a process called “apoptosis" - See Zyflamend at Amazon.com.
  • Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study in Men with Prostate Cancer and Rising PSA: Effectiveness of a Dietary Supplement - Eur Urol. 2005 Oct 17 - "The supplement consisted of soy, isoflavones, lycopene, silymarin and antioxidants as main ingredients ... The soy-based dietary supplement utilised in this study was shown to delay PSA progression after potentially curative treatment in a significant fashion"
  • A New Weapon to Fight Prostate Cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 11/05 - "Scientists have shown that milk thistle extracts possess anti-cancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Many of the mechanisms by which silymarin compounds interfere with prostate cancer progression have been identified. The scientists who conducted the most recent study stated that, in addition to isosilybin B, there might be other silymarin compounds that are effective as well"
  • Can Green Tea Protect Against Prostate Cancer? - Life Extension Magazine, 11/05 - "Thirty-two subjects received 200 mg of green tea catechins (50% EGCG) three times daily, while the other 30 men received a placebo. Biopsies were conducted at six months and one year later. Remarkably, only one man in the treatment group was diagnosed with prostate cancer, compared to nine men in the control group who developed the disease"
  • Vitamin D Compounds May Fight Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/1/05 - "Vitamin D compounds may help slow or prevent prostate cancer ... Calcitriol "markedly reduced tumor burden over time,""
  • Flavonoids May Inhibit Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 10/21/05 - "Our findings suggest that apigenin could be developed as a promising agent against prostate cancer"
  • Pomegranates May Prevent Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 9/28/05 - "the dose of pomegranate juice given to the mice equates to about one or two pomegranates -- or 8 to 16 ounces of pomegranate juice ... mice who drank the higher concentration of pomegranate extract experienced a significant slowing in their cancer progression and a decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels"
  • Impact of diet on prostate cancer: a review - Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005 Aug 30 - "Much interest currently lies in the potential of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) to play a chemopreventative role in prostate cancer. Lycopene, a potent antioxidant found in tomatoes, may exert a protective effect in the prostate. Selenium and vitamin E have also been shown to decrease the risk of prostate cancer in some men. Calcium may support vitamin D-related antiproliferative effects in prostate cancer. Certain soy proteins, common in the Asian diet, have been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Finally, green tea may also have a chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis"
  • Vitamin D, NSAIDS Provide Double Whammy Against Prostate Cancer, Stanford Study Finds - Science Daily, 9/1/05 - "The growth of prostate cancer cells can be halted by combining a form of vitamin D, available only by prescription, with low doses of an over-the-counter painkiller ... The combination reduced prostate cancer cell growth in a laboratory dish by up to 70 percent, according to the findings"
  • Lifestyle And Diet May Stop Or Reverse Prostate Cancer Progression - Science Daily, 8/11/05 - "Participants in the lifestyle-change group were placed on a vegan diet consisting primarily of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes supplemented with soy, vitamins and minerals. They participated in moderate aerobic exercise, yoga/meditation, and a weekly support group session" - [Doctor's Guide]
  • Aspirin May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 7/5/05 - "Those who had taken aspirin regularly for a long time were 15% less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Other anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with an 18% lower risk of prostate cancer"
  • Beta-Sitosterol and the Aging Prostate Gland - Life Extension Magazine, 6/05 - "A study using the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (an androgen-dependent tumor) showed that beta-sitosterol decreased cancer cell growth by 24% and induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) fourfold ..." - See beta sitosterol at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Juice May Curb Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 5/23/05 - "Drinking pomegranate juice significantly lengthened the amount of time it took for the men's average PSA levels to double (from 14 to 26 months, on average) ... Pomegranate juice contains antioxidant chemicals that may have cancer-preventing benefits"
  • Statin Drugs Linked to Reduced Cancer Risk - WebMD, 5/16/05 - "statin use reduces the rate of prostate cancer by 54%" - See Zocor at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Exercise May Fight Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 5/9/05 - "men over age 65 who engaged in at least three hours of vigorous physical activity, such as running, biking, or swimming, per week had a nearly 70% lower risk of being diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer or dying from the disease"
  • Is There a Link Between Macronutrient Intake and Prostate - Medscape, 5/5/05 - "In this sample of Italian men, intake of monounsaturated fatty acids and starch was directly related to an increased risk of prostate cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of the disease"
  • Purified Green Tea Polyphenol Capsules Taken Daily Appear to Substantially Reduce Prostate Cancer in High Risk Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/22/05 - "researchers reported a 90% decrease in the rate of prostate cancer in men who received 200 mg doses of the polyphenol capsules three times a day for 1 year" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Green Tea at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant levels key to prostate cancer risk in some men - Nutra USA, 3/15/05 - "Greater levels of selenium, vitamin E and the tomato carotenoid lycopene have been shown to reduce prostate cancer in one out of every four Caucasian males, or those who inherit a specific genetic variation that is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress"
  • Pilot Study: Potential Role of Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) in Patients With PSA Relapse After Definitive Therapy - Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(1):32-6 - "Fifteen patients were given 2,000 IU (50 mug) of cholecalciferol daily and monitored prospectively every 2-3 mo. In 9 patients, PSA levels decreased or remained unchanged after the commencement of cholecalciferol. This was sustained for as long as 21 mo. Also, there was a statistically significant decrease in the rate of PSA rise after administration of cholecalciferol (P = 0.005) compared with that before cholecalciferol. The median PSA doubling time increased from 14.3 mo prior to commencing cholecalciferol to 25 mo after commencing cholecalciferol. Fourteen of 15 patients had a prolongation of PSA doubling time after commencing cholecalciferol. There were no side effects reported by any patient"
  • Vitamin E: Which Type Best for Prostate Cancer? - WebMD, 3/1/05 - "the men with the highest blood levels of alpha and gamma tocopherol had lower prostate cancer risk. Men with the highest levels of both forms of the vitamin were 30%-40% less likely to develop prostate cancer as those with the lowest levels"
  • Vitamin D May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - CBS 2 Chicago, 2/17/05 - "men with higher levels vitamin D in their blood were half as likely to develop aggressive forms of the disease than those with lower amounts"
  • Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented? - Medscape, 2/8/05 - "The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) demonstrated that finasteride can prevent prostate cancer, albeit with an apparently increased risk of high-grade disease. A substantial amount of epidemiologic, molecular, and clinical evidence suggests that both selenium and vitamin E might also prevent prostate cancer ... vitamin D exerts an antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cells"
  • Green tea for a healthy prostate? - MSNBC, 1/21/05 - "phytochemicals called polyphenols attack growth factors and proteins, interrupting processes that increase the size of tumors, thus preventing them from spreading to other parts of the body ... green tea in mice with an aggressive form of cancer can decrease the spread or metastasis of prostate cancer to liver, bone and other sites ... the phytochemicals in green tea could inhibit the early stages of prostate cancer development" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Green Tea at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D may slow prostate tumour growth - CTV.ca, 1/16/05 - "the vitamin D seemed to cut the rise in PSA rates by more than half. Without vitamin D, PSA rates rose by about five per cent. With vitamin D, PSA rates only rose by two per cent"
  • Vitamin E In Plant Seeds Could Halt Prostate, Lung Cancer, Says Purdue Scientist - Science Daily, 12/30/04 - "gamma-tocopherol, which occurs naturally in walnuts, pecans, sesame seeds, and in corn and sesame oils, inhibits the proliferation of lab-cultured human prostate and lung cancer cells"  - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E in Food May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 12/15/04 - "Most supplements provide a different form of the vitamin, alpha-tocopherol ... Gamma-tocopherol aced its lab tests. It inhibited the spread of prostate and lung cancer cells without hurting the healthy cells ... Mixing several forms of vitamin E -- including gamma-tocopherol -- was even better at blocking cancer's spread"  - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Gamma-tocopherol halts cancer cells in lab study - Nutra USA, 12/15/04 - "Gamma-tocopherol, found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds and corn, was found to hold back the proliferation of lab-cultured human prostate and lung cancer cells, reports the team from Purdue University in the 13 December online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... This could indicate that the vitamin Could be used to target lung and prostate cancer cells without the damaging side effects of chemotherapy" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Polyphenols Thwart Prostate Cancer Development At Multiple Levels - Science Daily, 12/15/04 - "The polyphenols present in green tea help prevent the spread of prostate cancer by targeting molecular pathways that shut down the proliferation and spread of tumor cells, as well as inhibiting the growth of tumor nurturing blood vessels" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Green Tea at Amazon.com.
  • Flower Pollen, Powerful Protection for Prostate Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/04
  • Green Tea May Stall Prostate Cancer Growth - WebMD, 12/1/04 - "the green tea antioxidant appeared to stall cell growth by decreasing production of several proteins that promote cell survival. In addition, it reduced the production of proteins that are known to be associated with the spread of cancer cells ... the study also suggests that the antioxidant in green tea appeared to starve prostate cancer tumor cells by inhibiting the formation of blood vessels, thereby suppressing the flow of nutrients to the cancerous cells" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Green Tea at Amazon.com.
  • Soy: Good for Men’s Health, Too - Healthwell, 11/11/04 - "There was a significant PSA-level drop in the men eating the soy bread compared with the control group"
  • Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 - "a genistein-rich extract as the sole treatment for prostate cancer does not appear to be an effective treatment for prostate cancer when given alone. However, eight of 13 evaluated patients in the active surveillance group had either no rise or a decline in PSA levels of less than 50 per cent"
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs May Improve Survival among Prostate Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/4/04
  • Aspirin May Delay Prostate Cancer, Extend Life - WebMD, 10/4/04 - "more than nine in 10 men who took aspirin or another NSAID were alive 10 years later compared with fewer than seven in 10 men who didn't take the painkillers ... evidence is mounting that prostate cancer may develop in areas with chronic inflammation"
  • Vitamin E + Lycopene Fights Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 9/30/04 - "a combination treatment with low-dose lycopene and vitamin E had the strongest effect at slowing tumor growth -- a 73% slowing of growth on the 42nd day of the test ... The next best results came from the low dose of lycopene alone, which slowed tumor growth by 53% in the same time frame"
  • Soy Improves Prostate Cancer Outlook - WebMD, 9/24/04 - "adding about 2 ounces of soy each day for one month results in a 13% drop in total PSA and a 27% increase in the free-to-total PSA ratio in men with prostate cancer"
  • Daily Glass of Red Wine May Cut Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/04 - "men who consumed four or more glasses of red wine per week reduced their risk of prostate cancer by 50 percent ... That compound, Stanford and colleagues believe, may be an antioxidant called resveratrol, which is abundant in the skins of red grapes but much less so in the skins of white grapes"
  • Relieve Common Men’s Condition with Saw Palmetto Extract - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 9/16/04 - "Comparison trials found its effects to be similar to those of finasteride and tamsulosin ... however, while some men using the standard medications experienced sexual dysfunction as a side effect, men using the herbal extract did not" - See saw palmetto at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of a diet rich in phytoestrogens on prostate-specific antigen and sex hormones in men diagnosed with prostate cancer - Urology. 2004 Sep;64(3):510-5 - "Statistically significant differences were detected between the HT [heat-treated] soy grits group and the control wheat group for the percentage of change in total PSA (-12.7% versus 40% ... The data from this study indicate that a daily diet containing four slices of a bread rich in HT soy grits favorably influences the PSA level and the free/total PSA ratio in patients with prostate cancer"
  • Update on Lycopene - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 8/25/04 - "men who consumed the highest levels of lycopene (6.5 mg per day) in their diet showed a 21 percent decreased risk of prostate cancer compared with those eating the lowest levels. When the researchers looked at only advanced prostate cancer, the high lycopene eaters had an 86% decreased risk" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3s appear to protect against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 6/23/04 - "alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-6 fat, may raise the risk of advanced prostate cancer ... Men with the highest quintiles of EPA and DHA combined had an 11 per cent lower total prostate cancer risk and advanced prostate cancer risk was 26 per cent lower" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Selenium and Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 6/14/04 - "higher levels of selenium may slow prostate cancer tumor progression"
  • Breakthrough research on lycopene - Nutra USA, 4/15/04 - "Men eating four to five tomato based-dishes per week were found to be protected by 25 per cent compared to men eating tomatoes only rarely" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Fibre for prostate protection - Nutra USA, 4/15/04 - "total fibre intake only slightly reduced prostate cancer risk. However when the study examined soluble fibre only, the reduced risk was greater at 11 per cent, while vegetable fibre cut risk by 18 per cent"
  • Resveratrol, Powerful Protection Against Prostate Cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 4/04 - "Resveratrol works through more than a dozen different anticancer mechanisms and selectively targets cancer cells. This single supplement modulates hormones, has several mechanisms that stop cancer cells from multiplying, and even has the ability to destroy cancer cells" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Soy: Prevent Prostate Cancer, Male Baldness? - WebMD, 3/30/04 - "A little-known molecule called equol ... is showing promise as a powerful blocker of a potent male hormone involved in prostate cancer, male baldness, even acne ... Actually, the protective effects occur when two chemicals in soy protein -- genistin and daidzin -- reach the digestive system, Setchell explains. There, they are metabolized to form genistein and daidzein. Daidzein is metabolized once again, to form equol" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Soy blocks prostate cancer? - Nutra USA, 3/30/04 - "Equol, the major metabolite of the phytoestrogen daidzein - one of the main isoflavones found abundantly in soybeans - completely stops in its tracks the male hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which normally stimulates prostate growth and causes male pattern baldness"
  • Higher Serum Vitamin E Levels Linked to Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 3/30/04 - "Compared with men in the lowest tertile of alpha-tocopherol levels, men in the highest tertile were 53% less likely to develop prostate cancer (P = .05). Men in the highest tertile of gamma-tocopherol were 39% less likely to develop the cancer than those in the lowest tertile" - See vitamin E at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus Nutrient Helps Slow Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 12/16/03 - "Every day, patients took 18 capsules of pectin: Each contained 14 grams of pectin, equaling 800 mg a day ... Fourteen months later, 70% of the men had significant increases in the time it took to produce PSA -- it took longer for prostate cells to produce a doubling of blood PSA levels" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and prostate cancer prevention and treatment - Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;14(9):423-30 - "The association between either decreased sun exposure or vitamin D deficiency and the increased risk of prostate cancer at an earlier age, and with a more aggressive progression, indicates that adequate vitamin D nutrition should be a priority for men of all ages"
  • The Prostate Cancer-Fighter - WebMD, 11/4/03 - "in rats made to develop prostate cancer in the laboratory, those who were fed a diet containing tomato powder experienced a longer survival prior to developing cancer and were 26% less likely to die from prostate cancer compared with those on a "control" diet containing no tomato or lycopene foods ... In rats fed a diet of lycopene alone, the death rates from prostate cancer were similar to those rats fed a control diet"
  • Randomised controlled short-term intervention pilot study on rye bran bread in prostate cancer - Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Oct;12(5):407-15 - "In the rye group, there was a significant increase in plasma enterolactone, and the apoptotic index increased significantly from 2.1% (SD 1.3) to 5.9% ... High intake of rye bran bread is suggested to increase apoptosis in prostate tumours"
  • Does Masturbation Protect Men’s Health? - Dr. Weil, 9/18/03 - "A team of scientists in Australia found that men who ejaculate more frequently between the ages of 20 and 50 are less likely to develop prostate cancer. The protective effect seems greatest for those in their 20s"
  • Too Much Zinc Linked to Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/1/03 - "although taking zinc supplements of up to 100 mg per day did not increase men's overall risk of prostate cancer, men who took more than 100 mg of supplemental zinc per day were more than twice as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than nonusers ... they can't rule out the fact that some other factor may account for the increase in advanced prostate cancer risk associated with excessive zinc supplementation found by the study" - See my zinc page.  Zinc interferes with copper absorption so maybe the cause is low copper.
  • Sunny Carotenoids for Better Health - Health Supplement Retailer 06/03 - "Comparing 65 patients with prostate cancer to 132 cancer-free controls, they found an inverse association between lycopene, zeaxanthin, lutein and cryptoxanthin levels and prostate cancer incidence ... "In vitro studies have shown that sometimes isolated, synthetic lycopene does not work as well as tomatoes or natural tomato extract," said Diane Fremont, sales director for Lycored, the Beer-Sheva, Israel-based supplier of Lyc-O-Mato® natural lycopene complex. "There is a synergistic effect with a combination of phytonutrients."" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Saw Palmetto Extract Effective in Treating Chronic Prostatitis - Medscape, 4/28/03 - "Permixon, a compound extracted from the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree Serona repens, also known as saw palmetto, appears to improve symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome ... Seventy-five percent of the patients who received Permixon had at least mild improvement in symptoms compared with 20% of the control group. Similarly, 55% of patients who received Permixon reported moderate or marked improvement compared with 16% of the control group ... In the control group, PSA did not differ from baseline. However, the group taking Permixon experienced median decreases from baseline PSA of 22% after 6 weeks" - See saw palmetto at Amazon.com.
  • Selenium Reduces Risk of Some Cancers: FDA Approves Claim - New Hope Natural Media, 4/17/03 - "Companies that manufacture selenium supplements will now be permitted by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to claim that selenium supplements may reduce the risk of some cancers, according to a statement by the FDA. Although the FDA does not permit manufacturers to list specific types of cancer in the health claim, studies suggest selenium supplementation may reduce the risk of colon, prostate, lung, liver and esophageal cancers" - See selenium at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic may reduce risk of prostate cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03 - "The study indicated that eating just a tenth of an ounce of scallions daily lowers prostate cancer risk by about 70%; that same amount of garlic reduces the risk by about 53%. The study authors suggest that one clove of garlic daily can achieve desired preventive effects"
  • Herbal Remedies Can Aid Prostate Health - WebMD, 2/4/03 - "One in three men are treated for BPH with surgery or, more commonly, prescription drugs such as Flomax or Proscar. But growing research suggests that some symptoms may be treated as effectively with over-the-counter herbal remedies -- sometimes less expensively and thus far, with no reported side effects. What's more, some of these treatments claim they may help prevent prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in men"
  • Selenium May Fight Prostate Damage - WebMD, 2/4/03 - "About 80% of the prostate cells in dogs fed a normal diet had extensive DNA damage compared with only about 57% in the selenium-treated dogs ... dogs fed the enriched diet also had a twofold increase in the number of prostate cells that had undergone a process that removes damaged cells, called apoptosis, which is associated with a lower risk of cancer" - See selenium at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D for Advanced Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 1/27/03 - "Calcitriol is an active form of vitamin D. Results from a phase II clinical trial suggest that the combination of calcitriol and the chemotherapy agent docetaxel may be twice as effective as the use of docetaxel alone in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer"
  • Wow, You Coulda Had Some Lycopene! - Cancer Decisions Newsletter , 1/7/03 - "Men who received the lycopene supplement had lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and less aggressive tumors than the non-supplemented control group. Their tumors were smaller (80 percent of the tumors were under 4 milliliters (ml) in volume, compared to 45 percent in the control group). Their cancer was much more likely to be within the surgical margins and/or confined to the prostate gland (73 percent, compared to 18 percent of the control group). And the invasion of the prostate gland by cancer-like "PIN" cells was completely prevented in this group, compared to a 33 percent incidence of "PIN" cells in the control group" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Bad Breath, Healthy Prostate - New Hope Natural Media, 12/20/02 - "Men who consumed more than 10 grams per day of Allium vegetables had almost a 50% reduction in risk of developing prostate cancer, compared with those who consumed less than 2.2 grams per day. Garlic was the most commonly consumed Allium vegetable, followed by scallions and chives"
  • Herbal Treatment Shows Promise Against Prostate Cancer - USA Today, 12/20/02
  • Herb Mix Nixes Prostate Cancer in Lab - WebMD, 12/13/02 - "A number of recent studies point to COX-2 as an important factor in cancer-cell growth. In the Columbia studies, Zyflamend decreased COX-2 activity about as well as a potent COX-2-inhibiting drug ... The herbal mix is called Zyflamend, from New Chapter Inc., and has 10 herbs: holy basil, turmeric, ginger, green tea, rosemary, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Scutellaria biacalensis" - See Zyflamend at Amazon.com.
  • Watermelon for Prostate Cancer? - Dr. Weil, 12/10/02 - "Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that a number of large studies have shown is particularly good at protecting against prostate, colon and rectal cancer, as well as heart disease ... contains 40 percent more lycopene than an equivalent weight of tomatoes ... The body converts about 500 different carotenoids into vitamin A ... If you don’t get enough of these foods in your diet, you may want to use an antioxidant supplement. I recommend a mixed carotenoid supplement containing lycopene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin, as well as beta-carotene"
  • Flaxseed Might Block Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/11/02 - "A study of mice shows that flaxseed in the diet helped improve prostate tumors (reducing their size and severity), and even prevented some of the mice from developing the disease ... men who ate ground flaxseed for 34 days had a drop in levels of testosterone, which helps prostate cancers grow, and in prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, a marker for prostate cancer"
  • Garlic May Prevent Cancer - Intelihealth, 11/6/02
  • Garlic, Chives Reduce Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/5/02 - "filling your diet with garlic and scallions can help reduce the chance of this potentially deadly cancer ... Garlic and scallions, along with onions, leeks, chives, and shallots, are rich in flavonols, substances in plants that have been shown to have antitumor effects. All of these vegetables have previously been linked to lower risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, esophagus, and perhaps breast ... although fruits and vegetables slightly reduced prostate cancer, the lower risk associated with allium vegetables was much more pronounced"
  • Study Of Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet Finds No Effect On PSA Levels In Men Over A Four-Year Period - Doctor's Guide, 8/30/02
  • Novel Method of Enhancing Anti-Fat Effects of CLA - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "CLA is not just for fat-loss. Studies show it may help protect against many diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer ... CLA is also able to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer. CLA, as the article went on to say, can be considered a powerful prostate cancer preventative, as well as a partial treatment " - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Diet and Lifestyle Changes Slow Progression of Prostate Cancer - New Hope Natural Media Online, 6/13/02 - "The recommendations included a low-fat vegetarian diet, smoking cessation, stress management training and moderate exercise ... The men who received no treatment showed no change in their PSA levels. In contrast, men who followed the Ornish protocol had an average PSA decrease of 6.5%, a finding suggestive of disease regression"
  • Omega 3: Implications in human health and disease - PowerPak (39 page CME course for Registered Dietitians), exp. 8/1/03 - "The results of this study support the association of a reduced risk of prostate cancer with higher levels of long-chain omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells and the hypothesis that eicosanoid processes are involved in the progression or initiation of prostate cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Prostate Cancer and I3C - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "Studies show that I3C changes not only estrogen metabolism, but testosterone and androsterone as well. Its hormone-altering action may help protect against hormone mimickers such as the drugs implanted in food animals. It has been confirmed that whether a hormone is the real thing, a drug facsimilie or a chemical, I3C will neutralize it"
  • What's Wrong With Vitamin E? - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "Gamma tocopherol and prostate cancer ... " - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Exposure To Sunlight Lowers Risks Of Four Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/02 - "exposure to sunlight contributes to non-melanoma skin cancer. "By contrast, several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against female breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world." ... Some studies have suggested an association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D and colorectal, prostate and female breast cancers"
  • Diet Linked to Prostate Enlargement - WebMD, 3/25/02 - "diet had the strongest link with prostate problems ... The men who had prostate disease ate more meat and more fats, specifically polyunsaturated vegetable fats and fish oils ... This is a perplexing association, but Suzuki suggests it may be due to these fatty acids igniting a process called oxidation in the body. Oxidation damages DNA, cells, and tissues, eventually contributing to heart disease, cancer, and other illnesses ... Fruit, vegetables, and whole grains are known to counter oxidation"
  • Tomatoes Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/4/02 - "This newest investigation "confirmed our previous findings," ... "Frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of [ready available] lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk." ... Although all evidence points to lycopene as the beneficial ingredient, that remains to be proved" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene lowers PSA - Life Extension Magazine, 1/02 - "32 mostly African American patients who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and were awaiting radical prostatectomy were put on diets that included enough tomato sauce to provide 30 mg/day of lycopene for three weeks. Prostate cancer is more frequent and serious among African Americans than among Caucasians ... Mean serum PSA concentrations fell by 17.5%, while a measure of oxidative status fell by 21.3%. DNA damage in the cancer cells fell by 40% after three weeks, of which author Phyllis E. Bowen says, “We don’t know whether that’s good or bad.” Most important, high concentration of lycopene in prostate tissues resulted in a nearly three-fold increase in programmed cell damage among cancer cells, which is a good thing"
  • Green tea polyphenols inhibit prostate cancer in mouse model - Life Extension Magazine, 12/01 - "According to study findings published in the August 28, 2001 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [PNAS 2001 Aug;98(18):10350-10355], green tea polyphenols—the equivalent found in about six cups of green tea per day in humans—helped to significantly reduce the risk of prostate cancer in a mouse model"
  • Low Selenium Levels Linked With Increased Prostate Cancer Risk - Intelihealth, 12/6/01
  • Selenium May Help Prevent Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 11/30/01 - "Men with low blood levels of selenium -- a trace element supplied in certain foods and supplements -- are four to five times more likely to contract prostate cancer ... the researchers concluded that the results support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Because selenium in blood decreases with patient age, supplementation may be beneficial to older men"
  • Green Tea, Glycine May Slow Tumor Growth - WebMD, 11/2/01 - "polyphenols reduced the level of Bcl-XL protein in prostate cancer cell lines. Bcl-XL has been shown to protect cancer cells from death -- known scientifically as apoptosis ... The higher the concentration [of polyphenols] the more apoptosis"
  • Study Provides New Evidence That Chemical In Tomato Sauce May Help Fight Prostate Cancer, Particularly In Black Men - Intelihealth, 8/30/01 - "Researchers at the University of Illinois in Chicago fed 32 volunteers with newly diagnosed prostate cancer three-fourths cup of tomato sauce daily for three weeks ... the treatment resulted in reduced blood levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein whose increased levels are strongly linked to a higher prostate cancer risk ...Researchers believe that lycopene, a red pigment with high antioxidant potential, is the most likely agent involved in this effect"
  • Tomato Extract May Have Role in Slowing Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 8/10/01 - "So when the results came in, Kucuk and colleagues were startled: the men who used the lycopene supplement actually had smaller tumors than the men who did not. Even more intriguing, the tumors taken from the men who used lycopene supplement were more likely to be confined to the prostate, and less likely to have advanced beyond it."
  • A Grain of Hope for Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/11/01 - "Ground flaxseed -- a grain that was a dietary staple in the 19th century -- may prevent the growth of prostate cancer and speed the death of tumor cells when combined with a low-fat diet"
  • Quercetin Relieves Prostate Pain - Nutrition Science News, 7/01
  • An Aspirin a Day to Keep Prostate Cancer Away? - WebMD, 6/7/01 - "A growing body of research has suggested that people who regularly take aspirin and other NSAIDs have a lower risk for cancers, including breast cancer and colon cancer. And though the definitive word is not in, new research presented at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association suggests that regular NSAID use can reduce the risk of prostate cancer too"
  • Go Fish! Types High in Fatty Acids May Prevent Prostate Cancer, Herring, Mackerel, and Salmon Recommended - WebMD, 6/1/01 - "Eating fatty fish reduces risk of prostate cancer by about 70%, compared to not eating it, and reduces the risk for death from the disease by about 50%."
  • Red Wine, Coffee, and Almonds May Lower Prostate Cancer Risk, Protective Effect Linked to Dietary Boron - WebMD, 4/5/01 - "men who consumed the greatest amount of boron were 64% less likely to develop prostate cancer, when compared with men who consumed the least amount of boron"
  • Canceling Cancer: New Cancer Prevention Strategies on the Horizon - WebMD, 3/26/01 - "Xing has shown that quercetin blocks androgen receptors when applied to cancer cells in the laboratory ... We are very excited by our finding that the new approach quercetin [can be used] in the fight against prostate cancer"
  • Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23 - "For gamma-tocopherol, men in the highest fifth of the distribution had a fivefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer than men in the lowest fifth" - [Full Article]
  • Induction of apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cells with beta-glucan - Mol Urol 2000;4(1):7-13 - "this unique mushroom polysaccharide may have great a potential as an alternative therapeutic modality for prostate cancer"
  • Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in SCID mice - Anticancer Res 1998 May;18(3A):1429-1434, 6/99
  • Vitamin E May Prevent Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 3/18/98 - "long-term use of a moderate-dose vitamin E supplement substantially reduced prostate cancer incidence and deaths in male smokers"
  • Evidence for a local action of melatonin on the rat prostate - J Urol 1998 Mar;159(3):1069-1073 - "The results demonstrate putative melatonin receptors in the rat prostate and suggest a direct suppression by melatonin of testosterone-dependent prostate growth" - See my melatonin page

Other News:

  • Statin Use, Serum Lipids, and Prostate Inflammation in Men with a Negative Prostate Biopsy: Results from the REDUCE Trial - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 May 9 - "Given the possible role for inflammation in prostate cancer, the inverse association between statins and prostate inflammation suggests a mechanism linking statins with lower advanced prostate cancer risk"
  • Erections Restored With Fat Cells After Prostatectomy - Medscape, 3/27/17 - "The men, all of whom experienced erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy, reported intercourse when assessed 6 and 12 months after the injection"
  • Persistent Sexual Dysfunction with Finasteride 1 mg Taken for Hair Loss - Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Sep 19 - "persistent sexual dysfunction (PSD) ... The rate of PSD for finasteride 1 mg users and omeprazole users was 37.9 and 15.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively ... The risk of PSD in men who stopped finasteride 1 mg therapy was higher than that for omeprazole users. Patients who stopped finasteride therapy sought physician visits for sexual dysfunction up to 1 year after stopping finasteride" - Both are good to know but I don't get why they're comparing a proton pump inhibitor to a 5α-reductase inhibitor.
  • Risk of Erectile Dysfunction Associated With Use of 5-α Reductase Inhibitors for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or Alopecia - Medscape, 10/20/16 - "5-α reductase inhibitor (finasteride or dutasteride) ... 5-α reductase inhibitors do not seem to significantly increase the risk of incident erectile dysfunction, regardless of indication for use. Risk of erectile dysfunction increased with longer duration of benign prostatic hyperplasia"
  • Does ADT for Prostate Cancer Increase Risk for Dementia? - Medscape, 10/13/16 - "The observational study found more than twice the incidence of dementia among ADT users compared to nonusers. The absolute increased risk of developing dementia was 4.4% at 5 years, with a rate of 7.9% among ADT users vs 3.5% among nonusers"
  • Dietary Saturated Fats Tied to Aggressive Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 10/13/16 - "There was also a suggestion of a stronger association among men who did not take statins, which mitigate the effect of fat-related cholesterol ... saturated fat intake affects cholesterol levels, which, in turn, have been tied to prostate cancer development in epidemiological and laboratory ... a high total fat-adjusted saturated fat intake was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR) for aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 - 2.06; P trend = .009). However, a high total fat-adjusted saturated fat intake had only an attenuated, nonsignificant association in statin users (OR, 1.16; ... There were no statistically significant associations between aggressive prostate cancer and PUFA and MUFA intake, or trans fats intake ... a high level of total cholesterol intake was associated with aggressive prostate cancer in white Americans (OR, 1.62 ... Men who consumed 10% fewer calories from animal fat and 10% more calories from vegetable fat after diagnosis had a 44% lower risk of mortality"
  • Common Prostate Cancer Treatment May Double Risk for Alzheimer's -NBC News, 12/7/15 - "The study of more than 16,000 men being treated for prostate cancer showed that those who got any kind of androgen deprivation therapy had nearly twice the risk of developing Alzheimer's over the next 2 ½ years as men getting other treatments"
  • Long-term 'T' Does Not Up Risk for High-grade Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 11/25/15 - "In the study cohort, 574 men had used testosterone in the 5 years before diagnosis and 51,945 has not. The incidence of high-grade prostate cancer was 20.1% in the testosterone users and 27.0% in the nonusers"
  • Dr. Samadi: New Study on 'Silent Killer' Prostate Cancer Is Alarming for Men - Fox News, 6/20/15 - "Dr. Samadi explained that in 2011, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began discouraging the use of prostate-specific antigen-based screenings for prostate cancer ... that resulted in less testing, which resulted in a reduction in detections of intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer"
  • Best Evidence Yet!: Ejaculation Reduces Prostate Cancer Risk - Medscape, 5/17/15 - "After potential confounders were controlled for, the risk for prostate cancer was 20% lower in men who ejaculated at least 21 times a month than in men who ejaculated 4 to 7 times a month. The 20% risk reduction was seen at ages 20 to 29 and 40 to 49, and for the lifetime average"
  • Course and Predictors of Cognitive Function in Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Controlled Comparison - J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 11 - "Men treated with ADT were more likely to demonstrate impaired cognitive performance within 6 months after starting ADT relative to matched controls and to continue to do so within 12 months after starting ADT"
  • Statins May Slow Prostate Cancer Progression: Study - WebMD, 5/7/15 - "Among 926 men undergoing hormone therapy for advanced prostate therapy, those taking statins saw significant benefits, researchers said. Their cancer remained stable for an average of 27.5 months before worsening, compared with an average of 17.4 months among men not taking statins ... statins keep testosterone from entering cancer cells"
  • Can Statins Help Improve Prostate Cancer Survival? - WebMD, 3/10/15 - "Taking a statin alongside androgen deprivation therapy slowed the progress of prostate cancer by about 10 months ... Patients on a statin have a significantly longer time to progression"
  • Long-term testosterone therapy does not increase risk of prostate cancer - Science Daily, 11/25/14 -"Although considerable evidence exists indicating no relationship between testosterone and increased risk of developing PCa, decades of physician training with the notion that testosterone is fuel for PCa made it difficult to dispel such fallacy and the myth continued to persist ... PCa incidence per 10,000 patient-years in cohorts 1 and 2 was 54.4 and 30.7, respectively, which is lower than 116 reported by the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial) and 96.6 reported by the ERSPC ( European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer)"
  • Prostate Cancer Recurrence Risk Tied to Lipid Levels - NYTimes.com, 10/13/14 - "followed the men for an average of about five years after surgery ... for each 10 milligrams per deciliter increase in total cholesterol above 200 milligrams per deciliter, there was a 9 percent increased risk of recurrence. Compared with people with normal triglycerides, those with levels above 150 milligrams per deciliter had a 35 percent increased risk of recurrence"
  • The Effect of Testosterone Replacement on Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 8/14/14 - "This meta-analysis shows that regardless of the administration method, TRT is the short-term safety and does not promote prostate cancer development or progression but long-term data are warranted with justifiable end points"
  • Vasectomy may increase risk of aggressive prostate cancer - Science Daily, 7/11/14 - "The results showed a 10% increased risk of prostate cancer overall in men who had a vasectomy. Vasectomy was not significantly associated with risk of low-grade cancer. However, vasectomy was associated with a stronger risk of advanced and lethal prostate cancer, with an increased risk of 20% and 19% respectively. Among men who received regular PSA screening, the relative increase in risk of lethal prostate cancer was 56%. The effect appeared to be stronger among men who had a vasectomy at a younger age"
  • Patient-reported Sexual Outcomes After Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: A 3-year Follow-up Study - Urology. 2014 Jun 20 - "These data confirm HoLEP has a significant impact on IPSS and no adverse impact on long-term patient reported sexual function"
  • Statins and Prostate Cancer: Novel, Encouraging Study - Medscape, 5/13/14 -"radical prostatectomy (RP) ... not all statins are equal; the protective effect was limited to the lipophilic statins (e.g., atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin) ... researchers retrospectively compared biochemical recurrence in men who started statins after surgery with recurrence in men who were never users ... In all, only 16% post-RP statin users (65/400) had biochemical recurrence, compared with 45% of nonusers (337/746)"
  • Largest Prostate Screening Trial Still Shows it Saves Lives - Medscape, 4/23/14 - "we found a prostate cancer mortality reduction of 20% in men who started PSA screening after age 60, while men who started to screen before age 60 had a reduction of 50%"
  • In Prostate Hyperplasia, Combo Pill Slows Progress - Medscape, 4/18/14 - "All men received lifestyle advice about caffeine and alcohol avoidance, fluid management, and bladder retraining. They were then randomized to watchful waiting (n = 373) or to daily treatment for 2 years with a single capsule containing the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor dutasteride 0.5 mg plus the alpha blocker tamsulosin 0.4 mg (n = 369) ... At the end of the study, the rate of clinical progression of benign prostate hyperplasia was 43.1% lower in the treatment group than in the watchful waiting group (18% vs 29%; P < .001) ... Similarly, improvements in hyperplasia symptoms and related quality of life were significantly greater the treatment group"
  • Prostate treatment lasts, preserves fertility - Science Daily, 3/24/14 - "Patients are discharged three to six hours after the treatment with most of the individuals we've treated noting almost immediate symptom relief ... PAE does not cause sexual dysfunction and preserves fertility ... Success rates in 469 patients (ages 45−89) treated with PAE were as follows: 87.2 percent at three months, 80.2 percent at 18 months and 72.3 percent at three years"
  • Comparison of alfuzosin 10 mg with or without propiverine 10 mg, 20 mg in men with lower urinary tract symptom and an overactive bladder: randomised, single-blind, prospective study - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Jan 29 - "postvoid residual volume (PVR) ... In patients with LUTS and overactive bladder, combined therapy with alfuzosin 10 mg plus propiverine 20 mg was significantly more effective than alfuzosin monotherapy and propiverine 10 mg combined therapy in terms of improving OABSS while not significantly affecting Qmax or PVR"
  • Tadalafil - a therapeutic option in the management of BPH-LUTS - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Jan;68(1):94-103 - "While tadalafil is most frequently recognised as a standard treatment option for men with ED, it also represents a well-tolerated and effective treatment option in men with moderate to severe BPH-LUTS"
  • Penile Length After Prostatectomy - Medscape, 12/17/13 - "the average penile length at 6 months was not significantly different compared with the length before surgery. However, whereas those men who were taking a daily phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor had no significant loss of length at 6 months, those not taking a daily PDE5 inhibitor had an average loss of 4.4 mm" - Note: 4.4 mm = 0.17 inches.
  • Efficacy of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate in Patients With Non-neurogenic Impaired Bladder Contractility: Results of a Prospective Trial - Urology. 2013 Nov 12 - "Fourteen patients with detrusor hypocontractility and 19 patients with acontractility and evidence of BPO underwent HoLEP during the study period. Median age was 71.5 and 75 years, respectively ... Individuals with hypocontratile bladders had statistically significant improvements in American Urological Association Symptom Index (21.5 vs 3; P = .014), maximum urine flow (Qmax, 10 vs 21 mL/s; P = .001), and postvoid residual (250 vs 53 mL; P = .007) from baseline to postoperative assessments"
  • Use of Statins and the Risk of Death in Patients With Prostate Cancer - J Clin Oncol. 2013 Nov 4 - "Postdiagnostic use of statins was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.88) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95). These decreased risks of prostate cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were more pronounced in patients who also used statins before diagnosis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.74; and HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81, respectively), with weaker effects in patients who initiated the treatment only after diagnosis (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; and HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.01, respectively)"
  • Men (Aged 40-49 Years) With a Single Baseline Prostate-specific Antigen Below 1.0 ng/mL Have a Very Low Long-term Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results From a Prospectively Screened Population Cohort - Urology. 2013 Oct 19 - "Men (aged 40-49 years) can be stratified with a baseline PSA. If it is below 1.0 ng/mL, there is very little risk for developing a lethal CaP, and as many as 75% of men might be able to avoid additional PSA screening until 55 years. Conversely, men aged 40-49 years with a baseline PSA level >1.0 ng/mL had a significant risk of CaP diagnosis and should be monitored more closely"
  • FDA OKs New Device to Treat BPH - Medscape, 9/13/13 - "The UroLift system relieves the urine flow by pulling back the prostate tissue that is pressing on the urethra ... found a 30% increase in urine flow and a steady amount of residual urine in the bladder"
  • Night Work May Shift PSA Level Higher - Medscape, 8/22/13 - "Much of the previous work on the link between cancer and nightshifts has focused on breast cancer ... Recently, a study demonstrated a possible link between nightshift work and ovarian cancer ... The study authors accessed 3 years of data (ranging from 2005 - 2010 surveys) and found a total of 2017 men (aged 40 - 65 years) having a current PSA test result and no history of cancer ... The age-adjusted odds ratio for having a total PSA result of 4.0 ng/mL or greater among shift workers compared with non–shift workers was 2.48 ... When they analyzed the data in a multivariable model (adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, health insurance, average hours of sleep per night, and months on the current job), the odds ratio increased slightly to 2.62"
  • Shiftwork and Prostate-Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Aug 13 - "Shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Results from prior studies have been mixed but generally support an association between circadian disruption and prostate cancer ... We combined three NHANES surveys (2005-2010) to obtain current work schedule among employed men aged 40 to 65 years with no prior history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) ... We found a statistically significant, age-adjusted association between current shiftwork and elevated PSA at the 4.0ng/mL or greater level (odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 5.70; P = .03)" - Note:  Many believe that the increased risk of breast cancer in shift workers is attributed to melatonin.  Maybe it's the same for prostate cancer.
  • 18-Year Study Finds Drug Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 8/14/13 - "an 18-year follow-up on the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, which took place in the late 1990s. Back then, the trial found that finasteride could reduce overall risk of prostate cancer by 25 percent -- but that it increased by 27 percent the risk of high-grade prostate cancer in those men who did wind up with the disease ... the drug actually worked better than earlier reported in reducing prostate cancer risk ... You take Proscar for six months to a year and it halves the size of your prostate, but the cancer inside your prostate does not shrink .... If I'm performing a biopsy on a smaller prostate, I'm more likely to hit that cancer than if I am sticking into a larger prostate. This drug wasn't causing more prostate cancer. It's causing more prostate cancer to be diagnosed" - [Abstract]
  • Ramelteon With an alpha 1-Blocker Decreases Nocturia in BPH - Medscape, 7/31/13 - "Ramelteon at 8 mg once daily for one month was added to the α1-blocker. A self-administered questionnaire including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and Nocturia Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (N-QOL) were assessed before and one month after starting ramelteon ... The mean score on IPSS question 7 (nocturia) decreased significantly from 2.88 before starting ramelteon to 2.41 one month after starting the medication (P = 0.03). The mean total OABSS decreased significantly from 6.31 to 5.38 (P = 0.03), and the mean for OABSS question 2 (nighttime frequency of nocturia) also significantly decreased from 2.63 to 2.13 (P = 0.01). The mean total N-QOL score did not change significantly" - Yeah but maybe it was just the deeper sleep that was responsible for less trips to the bathroom.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Tadalafil 5 mg Once Daily for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Subgroup Analyses of Pooled Data From 4 Multinational, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Studies - Urology. 2013 Jul 19 - "The safety database included 1500 men randomized to tadalafil 5 mg once daily or placebo for 12 weeks ... In these pooled data analyses, tadalafil 5 mg improved LUTS/BPH across subgroups of age, LUTS severity, testosterone levels, and prostate volume"
  • Diabetes and prostate cancer screening in black and white men - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jul 17 - "Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 ... 18,809 black and 6,404 white men aged 40-79 years ... After adjustment for confounding, diabetic black [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.25] and white (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.03-1.51) men were more likely to undergo recent prostate cancer screening compared to non-diabetic men of the same race"
  • Testosterone Produces Mixed Results in Prostate Cancer Study - Medscape, 7/18/13 - "In men with prostate cancer, the use of transdermal testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) after radical prostatectomy produced an increase in testosterone levels, but also had the undesirable effect of increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ... However, the use of TRT did not appear to increase biochemical recurrence rates during follow-up, which was a median of 27.5 months for treated men"
  • New Risk With ADT in Prostate Cancer: Kidney Injury - Medscape, 7/16/13 - "In the study of more than 10,000 men with prostate cancer, the therapy, which has been tied to diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other conditions, was significantly associated with an increased risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). This serious adverse event has a mortality rate of 50% ... ADT reduces testosterone levels, which leads to a hypogonadal condition marked by metabolic changes such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and an increase in fat mass"
  • The Relationship Between Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the Number of Components of Metabolic Syndrome - Urology. 2013 Jul 10 - "A total of 1224 male police officers aged 50-59 years who had participated in a health examination were included ... the cases of LUTS/BPH were positively associated with the number of MetS components"
  • Male breast cancer and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride - J Urol. 2013 May 9 - "No statistically significant associations were observed between 5ARIs and breast cancer, regardless of exposure assessment prior to index date"
  • Taking cholesterol-lowering drugs may also reduce the risk of dying from prostate cancer - Science Daily, 5/2/13 - "After a mean follow-up of almost eight years, the researchers found that the risk of death from prostate cancer among statin users was 1 percent as compared to 5 percent for nonusers"
  • Relationship Between Predictors of the Risk of Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Metabolic Syndrome in Men With Moderate to Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms - Urology. 2013 Apr 18 - "The percentage of participants with ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH, the percentage of participants with a total prostate volume of ≥31 cm3, and the percentage of participants with a postvoid residual urine volume of ≥39 mL increased significantly with the increase in the number of components of the MetS (P = .003, P = .001, and P = .007, respectively). After adjusting for age and serum testosterone levels, the MetS was shown to be significantly associated with the presence ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH"
  • Three PSA Tests Over Lifetime Sufficient for Many Men - Medscape, 4/18/13 - "just 3 PSA tests over the course of a lifetime is sufficient for many men ... This premise comes from a team led by Andrew Vickers, PhD, from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City ... The best age for this initial PSA test is around 45 years, unless there is a strong family history of prostate cancer. Age 40 might be too early, and age 50 might be too late to identify a man's risk of developing an aggressive cancer ... Men who were found to have a PSA level below 1 ug/L on the initial test would be advised to return for screening in their early 50s and again at age 60. At the age of 60, men who still had a PSA level below 1 ug/L would be exempt from further screening"
  • Nearly half of all deaths from prostate cancer can be predicted before age 50 - Science Daily, 4/16/13 - "Within 25 to 30 years, 44% of deaths from prostate cancer occurred in those with the top 10% of PSA levels at age 45-49, a PSA of about 1.5 ng / ml or more. The risk of prostate cancer death was more than 10 times greater in this group compared to men with the lowest 25% of PSA levels"
  • Nonsurgical Treatment Turns Back the Clock, Shrinks Enlarged Prostate - Science Daily, 4/15/13 - "The early findings hail from the first prospective U.S. trial of prostatic artery embolization (PAE), which reduces blood flow to the prostate, thus shrinking it ... 13 of 14 men (92 percent) who had PAE noticed a significant decrease in symptoms after one month"
  • Surgery is superior to radiotherapy in men with localized PCa - Science Daily, 3/17/13
  • GreenLight XPS 180W vs HPS 120W Laser Therapy for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: A Prospective Comparative Analysis After 200 Cases in a Single-center Study - Urology. 2013 Feb 12 - "Mean operating room time (43 vs 79 minutes) and mean laser time (22 vs 37 minutes) were significantly shorter for the GL-XPS group (both P <.01) and mean energy delivery was comparable (226 vs 268 kJ, P = .21), GL-XPS vs GL-HPS. Mean fiber use (1.0 vs 1.5) and 3L saline bags (4.1 vs 7) were significantly lower with GL-XPS, all P <.01. There were no significant differences in the 30-day complication rate. To date, no urethral strictures and 1 GL-HPS retreatment were observed. PSA reduction at 6 months was significantly greater with GL-XPS (54% vs 79%, P <.01)"
  • The efficacy and safety of alpha-1 blockers for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an overview of 15 systematic reviews - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Jan 16 - "Doxazosin could significantly reduce urinary symptom scores compared with tamsulosin (MD -1.60, 95%CI -1.80--1.40) and alfuzosin (MD1.7, 95%CI 0.76-1.64). Indirect evidence suggested that the urinary symptom score and PUF at end point in men treated with naftopidil were similar to those treated with other α1-blockers. α1-blockers generally lead to more adverse effects compared with placebo, and those caused by terazosin were more frequent than others. Conclusions: α1-blockers are more effective than placebo for BPH, doxazosin and tamsulosin seem to be more effective than other α1-blockers. The adverse effects caused by α1-blockers are generally mild and well tolerated"
  • Pricey prostate treatment no safer than radiation - NBC News, 12/28/12 - "After a year, however, the study found the same number of side effects among men who'd had both treatments"
  • Experience with more than 1,000 holmium laser prostate enucleations for benign prostatic hyperplasia - J Urol. 2013 Jan;189 - "Holmium laser prostate enucleation is safe and effective for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The complication rate is low, and incontinence and the need for ancillary procedures are rare for holmium laser prostate enucleation with durable long-term results"
  • Proton therapy treatment preserves quality of life for men with prostate cancer, studies suggest - Science Daily, 10/28/12
  • Reducing the side effects of treatment for prostate cancer - Science Daily, 8/24/12 - "tamoxifen reduced the risk of both gynecomastia and breast pain at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment compared to men who received no treatment. Overall, treatment with tamoxifen was more successful in reducing breast symptoms than treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (anastrazole) or radiotherapy" - Note:  They left out Femara (letrozole).
  • Prostate cancer survival rates improved since introduction of PSA testing - Science Daily, 8/23/12 - "Median survival in trial S8494, which enrolled patients from 1985 to 1986, was 30 months, and median survival in trial S8894, which enrolled patients from 1989 to 1994, was 33 months. In contrast, median survival in trial S9346, which enrolled patients from 1995 to 2009, was 49 months. A 30% decreased risk of death was found in the most recent trial (S9346) from the previous trial (S8894)"
  • Pan-fried meat increases risk of prostate cancer, new study finds - Science Daily, 8/16/12 - "the risk of prostate cancer may be a result of potent chemical carcinogens formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures ... Researchers examined pooled data from nearly 2,000 men who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study ... men who ate more than 1.5 servings of pan-fried red meat per week increased their risk of advanced prostate cancer by 30 percent ... men who ate more than 2.5 servings of red meat cooked at high temperatures were 40 percent more likely to have advanced prostate cancer ... When considering specific types of red meats, hamburgers -- but not steak -- were linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially among Hispanic men. "We speculate that these findings are a result of different levels of carcinogen accumulation found in hamburgers, given that they can attain higher internal and external temperatures faster than steak," ... pan-frying, regardless of meat type, consistently led to an increased risk of prostate cancer"
  • Study: PSA Testing Cuts Worst Metastatic Prostate Cancers - WebMD, 7/30/12 - "So should men get regular PSA tests? ... Many urologists, who often treat men suffering terribly from late-stage prostate cancer, agree with Messing that they should. But many experts on screening tests, who often see doctors fail to accept medical evidence that conflicts with their experience, agree with LeFevre that they should not ... The American Cancer Society has this advice: Men should only get the PSA test after having a detailed talk with a doctor about the benefits and risks of PSA screening" - Clears as mud now!!
  • Men with prostate cancer more likely to die from other causes - Science Daily, 7/26/12 - "Men diagnosed with prostate cancer are less likely to die from the disease than from largely preventable conditions such as heart disease ... The researchers examined causes of death among prostate cancer cases recorded in the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (over 490,000 men from 1973 to 2008) and the nationwide Swedish Cancer and Cause of Death registries (over 210,000 men from 1961 to 2008) ... during the study period, prostate cancer accounted for 52% of all reported deaths in Sweden and 30% of reported deaths in the United States among men with prostate cancer; however, only 35% of Swedish men and 16% of U.S. men diagnosed with prostate cancer died from this disease. In both populations, the risk of prostate cancer-specific death declined, while the risk of death from heart disease and non-prostate cancer remained constant. The five-year cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer was 29% in Sweden and 11% in the United States ... lifestyle changes such as losing weight, increasing physical activity, and quitting smoking, may indeed have a greater impact on patients' survival than the treatment they receive for their prostate cancer"
  • Greater Percent-free Testosterone Is Associated With High-grade Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Prostate Biopsy - Urology. 2012 May 18 - "On multivariate analysis, testosterone (P ≥ .11) and free testosterone (P ≥ .45) were not significantly associated with low- or high-grade PCa. A greater %FT level significantly predicted high-grade PCa on both crude (P = .01) and multivariate (P = .02) analysis but not low-grade PCa (P ≥ .38). When examined in tertiles, men in the greatest %FT tertile had a significant twofold increased risk of high-grade PCa (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.37, P = .005)"
  • Want to avoid erectile dysfunction following prostate cancer surgery? Find an experienced, gentle surgeon - Science Daily, 5/16/12 - "a good nerve-sparing surgical technique can lessen the likelihood of these undesirable outcomes, as can the skill and experience of the surgeon ... the study authors recommend that men undergoing robotic-assisted surgery for prostate cancer should look for a doctor who has performed at least 1,000 surgeries and who actively seeks to improve and enhance his/her surgical skills ... greater surgeon experience and more delicate handling of the nerves to minimize stretch injury helped improve erectile function significantly ... surgeon improvement hit a plateau after 950 cases"
  • Erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: the impact of nerve-sparing status and surgical approach - Int J Impot Res. 2012 May 3 - "Before surgery, 39% of patients had a severe ED (complete impotence). At 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, it was 80, 79 and 71%, respectively. Although the surgical approach had no significant effect on EF, patients who had undergone nerve-sparing surgery had significantly lower ED rates. Nevertheless, 1 year after RP, 66% of these patients had severe ED"
  • Dutasteride/Tamsulosin: in benign prostatic hyperplasia - Drugs Aging. 2012 May 1;29(5):405-19 - "Dutasteride 0.5 mg/day plus tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to a significantly greater extent than dutasteride or tamsulosin alone in men with BPH, moderate to severe LUTS and an increased risk of disease progression, according to the results of the randomized, double-blind, multinational CombAT trial. The mean change from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score was significantly greater with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone after 2 years (primary endpoint) and 4 years of therapy. After 4 years' therapy in the CombAT trial, the time to first acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery (primary endpoint) significantly favoured men with symptomatic BPH who were receiving dutasteride plus tamsulosin versus those receiving tamsulosin alone, with no significant difference between recipients of dutasteride plus tamsulosin and recipients of dutasteride alone. In the CombAT trial, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were improved to a significantly greater extent with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone. Combination therapy with oral dutasteride plus tamsulosin was generally well tolerated in patients with symptomatic BPH in the CombAT trial" - See dutasteride (Avodart) 30 x 0.5mg capsules at International Antiaging Systems.
  • Statin Use As a Moderator of Metformin Effect on Risk for Prostate Cancer Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients - Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar 28 - "Mean follow-up was ~5 years, and 7.5% had a PCa diagnosis. Statin use modified the effect of metformin on PCa incidence (P < 0.0001). Metformin was associated with a significantly reduced PCa incidence among patients on statins (HR 0.69 [95% CI 0.50-0.92]; 17 cases/533 metformin users vs. 135 cases/2,404 sulfonylureas users) and an increased PCa incidence among patients not on statins (HR 2.15 [1.83-2.52]; 22 cases/175 metformin users vs. 186 cases/1,930 sulfonylureas users). The HR of PCa incidence for those taking metformin and statins versus those taking neither medication was 0.32"
  • PSA Test Cuts Prostate-Cancer Deaths -- At a Cost - WebMD, 3/14/12 - "The odds of dying from prostate cancer are 21% lower 11 years after men are offered routine screening with the controversial PSA blood test ... We more definitively show there is an advantage in screening for prostate cancer, and that the reduction in prostate cancer mortality for those men who are screened amounts to 29%"
  • Heart disease may be a risk factor for prostate cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/12 - "What's good for the heart may be good for the prostate ... Having coronary artery disease increased the men's risk of prostate cancer by 35 percent, with the risk rising over time. The group was 24 percent more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer within the first two years of the study than men who reported no heart disease, and by four years into the study, this group's prostate cancer risk was 74 percent higher"
  • Dutasteride Is Seen to Curtail Cancer Left in Prostate - NYTimes.com, 1/23/12 - "Two previous studies suggested that dutasteride and a similar drug, finasteride, could actually protect men from prostate cancer ... Three years later, the cancer had progressed in 54 men in the dutasteride group, or 38 percent, and in 70 men in the placebo group, or 48 percent"
  • Study: PSA test doesn't save lives - USATODAY.com, 1/6/12 - "men randomly assigned to get PSA tests were 12% more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but no more likely to die. That suggests that 12% of men screened with the PSA were "overdiagnosed," or diagnosed with cancer that didn't need to be found, leading to unnecessary treatment ... the National Cancer Institute, which funded the $250 million trial ... it's possible that their study could have underestimated the benefits of screening. That's because only 85% of the men randomly assigned to get routine PSA screening actually did so. In the comparison arm of the trial, however, about half of the men not assigned to get a PSA decided to get one on their own" - Note:  So let's see, a quarter billion for the study and the answer is "we're not sure because many in the placebo group got the test anyway".
  • MRI Highly Accurate in Guiding Prostate Biopsy - Medscape, 12/5/11 - "In the post-prostate-specific antigen era, the diagnosis of prostate cancer is made using the 10-12 core transrectal US-guided biopsy procedure. However, this initial biopsy procedure can have a miss rate of 71% ... This study evaluated whether multiparametric MRI provides a diagnostic advantage over the standard T2W MRI in this challenging clinical situation. Although combination of all 4 MRI techniques provided a perfect detection rate in this group of patients, excluding 1H-MRS from the combination was associated with a miss rate of only 6%"
  • Prostate cancer may be tied to the Pill in water supply - MSNBC, 11/14/11 - "Several studies now have found an association between estrogen exposure and prostate cancer ... Birth control pills often contain a type of estrogen called ethinyloestradiol, which women taking the pills excrete in their urine. The hormone ends up in the water supply, or is taken up by plants or animals that use the water, and then passed up the food chain ... looked at prostate cancer mortality and contraceptive use in 88 countries for their analysis ... results of 'ecological' analyses like this one ... must be interpreted cautiously" - Note:  I mentioned several times about taking a quarter tablet of letrozole every third day.  It would seem like the amount of estrogen from drinking water would be minute compared to the amount of estrogen that is reduced by taking a small amount of letrozole. - See letrozole at OffshoreRX.
  • Task Force to Men: Don't Get PSA Test - WebMD, 10/7/11 - "Rising PSA levels are an early sign of prostate cancer, but the test gives a false cancer signal up to 80% of the time. Moreover, not all PSA-detected prostate cancers are dangerous ... The common perception that PSA-based early detection of prostate cancer saves lives is simply not supported by the scientific evidence ... The statement already is drawing harsh criticism, particularly from the American Urological Association ... It is our feeling that, when interpreted appropriately, the PSA test provides important information ... The task force is oversimplifying a complex series of [clinical trial] results ... I think there is real evidence of benefit for PSA screening. Death rates from prostate cancer have gone down … It is hard for me to believe all that is due to better treatment"
  • Tadalafil Approved for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape, 10/6/11 - "The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved tadalafil (Cialis, Eli Lilly), a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, to also treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) when the conditions coincide ... Tadalafil joins a long list of other FDA-approved drugs for BPH symptoms: finasteride (Proscar), dutasteride (Avodart), dusasteride plus tamsulosin (Jalyn), and alpha-blockers terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo)"
  • Genetics may explain why calcium increases risk for prostate cancer - Science Daily, 9/16/11 - "The team targeted a genetic allele that is more common in populations of African origin than in other populations and which is associated with regulating the absorption of calcium ... men who reported the highest intake of calcium were two times more likely to have localized and advanced prostate cancer than those who reported the lowest. Men with a genotype associated with poor calcium absorption were 59 percent less likely to have been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer than men who genetically were the best absorbers of calcium. And, among men with calcium intake below the median, genetically poor absorbers had a 50 percent decreased risk of having advanced prostate cancer than the best absorbers"
  • Serum total and HDL cholesterol and risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep 14 - "After excluding the first 10 years of follow-up, men with higher serum total cholesterol were at increased risk of overall (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44, p-trend = 0.01) and advanced (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.03, p-trend = 0.05) prostate cancer. Higher HDL cholesterol was suggestively associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade ... In this population of smokers, high serum total cholesterol was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and high HDL cholesterol suggestively reduced the risk of prostate cancer overall. These results support previous studies and, indirectly, support the hypothesis that statins may reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer by lowering cholesterol"
  • Hormone therapy may be hazardous for men with heart conditions, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/26/11
  • Dutasteride Improves Outcomes of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia When Evaluated for Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction: Secondary Analysis of the REduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) Trial - Urology. 2011 Jul 14 - "During the 4-year study, the International Prostate Symptom Score increased in placebo-treated patients, while dutasteride-treated patients had a stabilized or decreased International Prostate Symptom Score and improved BPH Impact Index and quality of life due to urinary symptom scores across all prostate volume quintiles (including prostate glands smaller than those studied in previous dutasteride trials). 48 months, the incidence of acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery was significantly less in the dutasteride group (2.5%) than in the placebo group (9%) overall (P < .001) and in each baseline prostate volume quintile (P < .01)"
  • The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study - Causes Control. 2011 Jul 20 - "Overall, participants in the highest quartile of height were more than twice as likely to have a Gleason score ≥ 7 (4 + 3) than participants in the lowest quartile of height, OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.11, 4.14), after multivariate adjustment. Participants in the highest quartile of height were more likely to be diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer than participants in the lowest quartile of height among participants who were black, OR 8.00 (95% CI 1.99, 32.18), and participants who had diabetes mellitus, OR 5.09 (95% CI 1.30, 19.98)"
  • Male circumcision and penile cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jun 22 - "Men circumcised in childhood/adolescence are at substantially reduced risk of invasive penile cancer"
  • A randomized crossover study comparing patient preference for tamsulosin and silodosin in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia - J Int Med Res. 2011;39(1):129-42 - "A significant difference was observed between the proportion of patients who preferred tamsulosin (59/84 patients; 70.2%) and those who preferred silodosin (18/84 patients; 21.4%). A major reason for preference of either drug was 'good efficacy'. Incidence of adverse effects was significantly lower with tamsulosin (3/91 patients; 3.3%) than with silodosin (25/88 patients; 28.4%). These findings indicate that tamsulosin is very effective for BPH, has few adverse effects and that patients want to continue to use it"
  • Prostate cancer gets around hormone therapy by activating a survival cell signaling pathway - Science Daily, 6/14/11
  • Hormone deprivation therapy for prostate cancer may raise diabetes risk - Science Daily, 6/4/11 - "androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) ... Men in the ADT group had a twofold increased probability of having diabetes after ADT, compared with the non-ADT group, Rivera-Arkoncel reported. According to the data, the prevalence of diabetes was 42 percent in the ADT group and 19 percent in the other group. In addition, the group receiving ADT had a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome than the non-ADT group did: 37 percent versus 28 percent, respectively"
  • When rising PSA means prostate cancer is in patient's future - Science Daily, 5/18/11 - "A new study, however, shows nearly 70 percent of men who had rising PSA levels and subsequent normal biopsies were eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer"
  • Low levels of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL are associated with risk of prostate cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 May 12 - "ApoA-I and HDL were inversely associated with PCa risk (e.g., HR for HDL: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81-1.07), 0.88 (0.76-1.01), 0.81 (0.70-0.94), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile; with p for trend: 0.004; HR for apoA-I: 1.00 (0.88-1.13), 0.93 (0.82-1.05), 0.88 (0.77-0.99),), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile; with p for trend: 0.022). ApoB, LDL, and non-HDL were not associated with PCa risk"
  • MRI locates prostate cancer recurrence at extremely low PSA levels - Science Daily, 4/29/11
  • The effects of combination therapy with dutasteride plus tamsulosin on clinical outcomes in men with symptomatic BPH: 4-year post hoc analysis of European men in the CombAT study - Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011 Apr 19 - "Patients were randomised to daily tamsulosin 0.4 mg, dutasteride 0.5 mg or both for 4 years ... Combination therapy significantly reduced the relative risk of AUR or BPH-related surgery compared with either monotherapy at 4 years, and also significantly reduced the risk of BPH clinical progression. Combination therapy also provided significantly greater symptom improvement than either monotherapy at 4 years. Safety and tolerability of dutasteride plus tamsulosin was consistent with previous experience of this combination and with the monotherapies. These data provide further evidence to support the use of long-term combination therapy (dutasteride plus tamsulosin) in men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms because of BPH and prostatic enlargement"
  • Statins and Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Grade in a Veterans Population - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Apr 15 - "Compared with men taking an antihypertensive medication, statin users were 31% less likely (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.90) to be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Furthermore, statin users were 14% less likely (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.20) to be diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer and 60% less likely (HR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.65) to be diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer compared with antihypertensive medication users. Increased levels of total cholesterol were also associated with both total (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.05) and high-grade (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.10) prostate cancer incidence but not with low-grade prostate cancer incidence (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.04)"
  • Study suggests another look at testosterone-prostate cancer link - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "This study, involving 13 symptomatic testosterone deficient men who also had untreated prostate cancer, suggests this traditional view is incorrect, and that testosterone treatment in men does not cause rapid growth of prostate cancer. It is the first to directly and rigorously assess changes in the prostate among men with prostate cancer who received testosterone therapy"
  • Biophysicist targeting IL-6 to halt breast, prostate cancer - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "There is an inherent connection between inflammation and cancer ... In the case of breast cancers, a medical review systematically tabulated IL-6 levels in various categories of cancer patients, all showing that IL-6 levels elevated up to 40-fold, especially in later stages, metastatic cases and recurrent cases ... The current research offers us an exciting new therapeutic paradigm: targeting tumor microenvironment and inhibiting tumor stem cell renewal, leading to a really effective way to overcome breast tumor drug resistance, inhibiting tumor metastasis and stopping tumor recurrence" - Note:  See the "Alternative News" section of my IL-6 page and my inflammation page for ways to reduce IL-6.
  • Statins make radiation more effective at curing prostate cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "the men taking statins were less like to relapse than other patients. At five years, 11 percent of men taking statins saw their cancer return compared to 17 percent of patients not taking the medication. At eight years, 17 percent of men on statins had a relapse compared to 26 percent not taking the drug"
  • Apnea may be cause for awakening and voiding for those with enlarged prostates - Science Daily, 3/15/11 - "more than half (57.8 percent) of patients with enlarged prostates may in fact have the sleep disorder, and that the awakenings that patients ascribed to their need to urinate at night may be actually caused by their sleep disorders"
  • Change in PSA level does not predict prostate cancer - Science Daily, 2/24/11 - "Dr. Vickers and colleagues found no important association between PSA velocity and biopsy outcome after adjusting for risk factors such as age, race, and PSA levels. PSA alone was a much better predictor of biopsy outcome than PSA velocity ... We have previously published papers determining that PSA naturally varies from month to month and have urged men whose PSA suddenly rises to wait six weeks and repeat the test before agreeing to a needle biopsy. This new study in a large population of men provides even stronger evidence that using changes in PSA as a basis for recommendation for biopsy leads to many more unnecessary biopsies and does not help to find the more aggressive cancers that we want to find and treat"
  • Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduce prostate size in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 14 - "Reduction of prostate weights was observed after 6 wk of treatment with GHRH antagonists: a 17.8% decrease with JMR-132 treatment; a 17.0% decline with MIA-313 treatment; and a 21.4% reduction with MIA-459 treatment (P < 0.05 for all). We quantified transcript levels of genes related to growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and signal transduction and identified significant changes in the expression of more than 80 genes (P < 0.05). Significant reductions in protein levels of IL-1β, NF-κβ/p65, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) also were observed after treatment with a GHRH antagonist. We conclude that GHRH antagonists can lower prostate weight in experimental BPH. This reduction is caused by the direct inhibitory effects of GHRH antagonists exerted through prostatic GHRH receptors. This study sheds light on the mechanism of action of GHRH antagonists in BPH and suggests that GHRH antagonists should be considered for further development as therapy for BPH"
  • Comparison of Effects of Alpha Receptor Blockers on Endothelial Functions and Coagulation Parameters in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Urology. 2011 Jan 20 - "When coagulation tests were evaluated, there were significant increases in bleeding and coagulation times in the groups using doxazosin and terazosin. Doxazosin and terazosin lowered arterial blood pressure significantly compared with other treatments. With regard to effects on endothelial function, there were significant differences in flow-mediated dilation rates of the brachial artery at 60 and 90 seconds before and during treatment in the alfuzosin and terazosin groups ... Alpha receptor blockers can decrease the risk of cardiovascular complications by both reducing platelet aggregation and protecting endothelial functions in patients with prostatic hyperplasia. The only drug with a favorable effect in all 4 areas of interest, including BPH symptoms, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and endothelial functions, was terazosin"
  • Double Espresso vs Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 12/17/10 - "This wasn't a randomized trial. It was epidemiologic observational research. What they did was they gave people a questionnaire about their coffee drinking habits, and then they correlated that with hospital records on who got advanced prostate cancer and who didn't. Of course, there's a big problem with doing that type of research, which is that people who drink coffee may be different from people who don't drink coffee in all sorts of ways other than their caffeine consumption. Here's the number-one reason I don't actually believe the study. What the investigators reported was a 60% decrease in your risk for advanced prostate cancer if you drank coffee. Finasteride and dutasteride, these are drugs that we know in randomized trials are effective for prostate cancer, and we know that they have a mechanism of action that is pertinent to the prostate. Those 2 drugs reduce the risk for cancer by about 25%. Nothing is going to reduce the risk for advanced prostate cancer by 60%. I doubt if chemotherapy would. This is just a guess, little indication that the results of the study are due to bias ... There's another problem with these sorts of studies. Cancer takes a long time to develop. In fact, in the case of prostate cancer, we know that it takes 30 or more years between initiation of cancer and a clinical diagnosis"
  • PSA test better predicts cancer in men taking prostate-shrinking drug - Science Daily, 12/16/10 - "Dutasteride lowers PSA levels by about half within six months. But the researchers found that even a slight rise in PSA levels among men taking the drug was a stronger indicator of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive tumors that require early diagnosis and treatment, than rising PSA levels in men who took a placebo ... dutasteride reduced the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis by 23 percent. Dutasteride appears to keep tumors small or shrink them to the point that they are less likely to be detected by a biopsy ... Over four years, PSA levels increased in 72 percent of men taking a placebo and only 29 percent of men taking dutasteride, the data show" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Finger length points to prostate cancer risk - Science Daily, 12/1/10 - "men whose index finger is longer than their ring finger were one third less likely to develop the disease than men with the opposite finger length pattern"
  • Early PSA Predicts Prostate Cancer Risk -- But Then What? - Medscape, 12/1/10 - "The investigators went back and tested the blood samples of these men to see what their PSA [prostate-specific antigen] levels were up to 30 years before the diagnosis of prostate cancer was made. They found that if the PSA was > 0.63 ng/mL, they had a significant chance of developing cancer or advanced cancer many years in the future"
  • Ketoconazole May Help in Resistant Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 11/30/10 - "Based on prostate-specific antigen levels, two patients (5%) had a complete response, six (16%) had partial responses and 13 (35%) had stable disease" - Note: Ketoconazole is used off-label to reduce cortisol.  I don't know if there is a connection.
  • Cholesterol-lowering drug shrinks enlarged prostates in hamster model - Science Daily, 10/21/10 - "Ezetimibe reduced prostatic enlargement in aged hamsters as effectively as finasteride and combining the two drugs worked better than either one alone ... finasteride caused atrophy of the hamster prostate while ezetimibe did not"
  • AMACR polymorphisms, dietary intake of red meat and dairy and prostate cancer risk - Prostate. 2010 Oct 13 - "Red meat consumption was positively associated with PCa risk, and the association was stronger for more aggressive disease (lowest vs. highest tertile OR = 1.55"
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostate Cancer Risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct 8 - "NSAID use was not associated with prostate cancer risk in the VITAL cohort.Impact: Our findings do not support the use of NSAIDs for chemoprevention of prostate cancer"
  • Finasteride May Be Helpful for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy - Medscape, 10/8/10 - "Finasteride improves long-term urinary symptoms versus placebo, but is less effective than doxazosin," the study authors write. "Long-term combination therapy with alpha blockers (doxazosin, terazosin) improves symptoms significantly better than finasteride monotherapy. Finasteride + doxazosin improves symptoms equally — and clinically — to doxazosin alone. In comparison to doxazosin, finasteride + doxazosin appears to improve urinary symptoms only in men with medium (25 to < 40 mL) or large prostates (≥ 40 mL), but not in men with small prostates (25 mL)."
  • Common prostate cancer treatment associated with bone decay - Science Daily, 10/8/10
  • Blood test accurately predicts death from prostate cancer up to 25 years in advance - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "90 percent of deaths occurred in men in the top 25 percent of PSA levels at age 60. The researchers concluded that men with a PSA level above 2 ng/ml at age 60 should be considered at increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and should continue to be screened regularly ... Men with a PSA level below 1 ng / ml had a 0.2 percent chance of death from prostate cancer. The researchers concluded that men with PSA levels in this range, which is about half of all men, should be considered at low risk of prostate cancer death and may not need to be screened in the future. The study also indicated that some men found to be at low risk may actually have prostate cancer; however it is not likely to cause symptoms or shorten their life by the age of 85"
  • Early prostate cancer detection, screening: No benefit for men with low baseline PSA value, study finds - Science Daily, 9/13/10 - "The greatest benefits of early detection programs may be when men, aged 55-74 years, are diagnosed and treated when their serum PSA is in the range 4.0-9.9 ng/ml or 10.0-19.9 ng/ml. Furthermore, following research efforts that recommend more intensive PSA based screening by lowering the PSA cut-off may greatly increase the number of men that need additional investigations and treatment, whilst having little effect on the reduction of prostate cancer mortality"
  • Pioglitazone attenuates prostatic enlargement in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats by altering lipid distribution and hyperinsulinemia - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug 19 - "Increased incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia among insulin-resistant individuals suggest a role for hyperinsulinemia in prostatic enlargement ... High fat diet led to the accumulation of fat in non-adipose tissues, insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia and prostatic enlargement in rats. Pioglitazone treatment altered fat distribution, improved insulin-sensitivity and normalized lipid and insulin level in rats on the high-fat diet. The improved metabolic parameters led to decreased cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis in the prostate gland. High-fat diet feeding and pioglitazone treatment did not change plasma testosterone levels. However, significant prostatic atrophy was observed in castrated, rats irrespective of dietary intervention" - Some doctors think I'm crazy but pioglitazone is one of the drugs I take for anti-aging.  See my Insulin and Aging page.
  • Laser may reduce prostate surgery's sexual side effects - Science Daily, 8/5/10 - "The precision of movement available through robotic surgery is already helping reduce the risk of sexual side effects, and the early evidence is that CO2 lasers will help us be even more accurate -- especially when preserving the sensitive nerve areas necessary for sexual function and urinary continence"
  • Statins associated with lower cancer recurrence following prostatectomy - Science Daily, 6/28/10 - "the data showed that overall, statin use reduced the risk of biochemical recurrence by 30 percent ... Among men taking statins equivalent to 20 mg of simvastatin a day, the risk of recurrence was reduced 43 percent and among the men taking the equivalent of more than 20 mg of simvastatin a day, the risk of recurrence was reduced 50 percent. Men who took a statin dose the equivalent of less than 20 mg of simvastatin daily saw no benefit"
  • FDA Approves Dutasteride/Tamsulosin Combo Pill for BPH - Medscape, 6/18/10 - "daily use of the drug combination yielded significantly greater relief of BPH symptoms compared with either 0.5 mg dutasteride or 0.4 mg tamsulosin alone, as measured by point changes on the International Prostate Symptom scale from baseline (mean Δ, −6.2 vs −4.9 and −4.3; P < .001 for both). The difference was observed by month 9 and continued through month 24" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Reduction of Prostate-specific Antigen After Tamsulosin Treatment in Patients With Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Low Incidence of Prostate Cancer at Biopsy - Urology. 2010 Jun 8 - "A total of 80 patients completed the present study. The mean patient age was 66.3 years, and the mean PSA level was 7.8 +/- 8.4 ng/mL at baseline and 7.1 +/- 9.1 ng/mL after treatment (P < .001). A total of 29 patients (36.25%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer from the biopsy findings. A significant increment in the PSA level was observed in patients with prostate cancer (6.7 versus 7.9 ng/mL; P = .002). A significant decrease in the PSA level was observed in patients with negative biopsy findings (6.9 versus 5.1 ng/mL, P = .000). Of the 38 patients with a decrease in the PSA level, 1 (2.6%) was diagnosed with prostate cancer and 37 (97.4%) with an benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis. Of the 42 patients with no change in the PSA level, 28 (66.7%) had prostate cancer and 14 (33.3%) had negative findings. A change in PSA level after treatment gave a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 72.5%, and diagnostic accuracy of 81% for prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with tamsulosin seemed to reduce the PSA levels and identified patients at high risk of prostate cancer"
  • Surgery outperforms drug therapy in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, research finds - Science Daily, 5/29/10 - "Patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) had the greatest decrease in both symptoms and incontinence compared to other treatment groups. Pre-TURP the incontinence rate was 64.5 percent and post-TURP it was 41.9 percent"
  • Effect of dutasteride, tamsulosin and the combination on patient-reported quality of life and treatment satisfaction in men with moderate-to-severe benign prostatic hyperplasia: 4-year data from the CombAT study - Int J Clin Pract. 2010 May 7 - "Subjects were randomised to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride, 0.4 mg tamsulosin or the combination once daily for 4 years ... At 4 years, combination therapy resulted in significantly superior improvements from baseline in BII and IPSS Q8 than either monotherapy; these benefits were observed from 3 months onwards compared with dutasteride and from 9 months (BII) or 12 months (IPSS Q8) onwards compared with tamsulosin. Also at 4 years, the PPSM questionnaire showed that a significantly higher proportion of patients was satisfied with, and would request treatment with, combination therapy compared with either monotherapy. Conclusions: Combination therapy (dutasteride plus tamsulosin) provides significantly superior improvements in patient-reported quality of life and treatment satisfaction than either monotherapy at 4 years in men with moderate-to-severe BPH symptoms" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • The Effect of Short-term Dutasteride Intake in Early-stage Prostate Cancer: Analysis of 148 Patients Who Underwent Three-dimensional Prostate Mapping Biopsy - Urology. 2010 May 14 - "transperineal three-dimensional mapping (TP-3DM) biopsy ... We observed a 24.3% decrease in the proportion of upstaging and/or upgrading of prostate cancer in men who received dutasteride at least 3 months before 3D prostate TP-3DM biopsy. Thus, the effect of dutasteride on prostate cancer may have implications for its potential use as a secondary chemoprevention agent" - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Sex Hormones and the Risk of Incident Prostate Cancer - Urology. 2010 May 6 - "Serum testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were assayed at baseline ... the mean age was 73 years. Higher serum estrone was strongly related to an increased risk of prostate cancer: compared with men in the lower quartile, the risk of prostate cancer among those in the highest 3 quartiles (>24.9 pg/dL) was nearly 4-fold higher (adjusted heart rate = 3.93, CI: 1.61-9.57). Other sex hormones were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer" - The following results for estrone are for women.   I didn't find any results for men but see the "For Aromatization (in males):" section on my letrozole page.
  • FDA approves $93K prostate cancer vaccine - USAToday, 4/29/10 - "The new vaccine, Provenge doesn't prevent cancer, unlike the polio shot or recently approved vaccines that block infection with viruses that cause most cervical tumors. Provenge, which will cost $93,000, also doesn't cure cancer ... But studies show that the vaccine does help men with advanced prostate cancer live four months longer than men given placebo shots"
  • Does a man's estrogen level impact his risk of prostate cancer? - Science Daily, 4/19/10 - "The relative amounts of the 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites in the urine of prostate cancer cases were similar to that of non-cancer patients with the exception of the estrogen metabolite 4-OHE1 ... This particular estrogen metabolite appeared to be more abundant among men diagnosed with prostate cancer"
  • Alfuzosin Improves Ejaculatory Dysfunction in Men With Probable BPH - Medscape, 4/20/10 - "Alfuzosin (Uroxatral, Sanofi Aventis), a uroselective alpha-1-adrenergic receptor blocker, ameliorates ejaculatory dysfunction in sexually active men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) ... Alfuzosin significantly improved IPSS score (7.9 [–41%]; P < .0001) and nocturia (–0.9 [–18%]; P < .001) from baseline. Bother due to LUTS also significantly improved (–1.5 [–28%]; P < .0001)"
  • Avodart May Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/31/10 - "those who took the drug Avodart had a 23% lower risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer over four years of treatment, compared to men who did not take the drug" - See Avodart (dutasteride) at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Combination therapy more effective for enlarged prostate - Science Daily, 3/2/10 - "On the strengths of both dutasteride and tamsulosin, participants reported fewer symptoms, and we observed a 25 percent reduction in prostate volume ... subjects who received the combination therapy also showed a 50 percent reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous prostate tissue ... Compared with tamsulosin alone, the combination of drugs reduced the incidence of acute urinary retention by 67 percent and reduced the need for BPH-related surgery by 70 percent" - See - See dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Dutasteride Reduces Risk for Biopsy-Detectable Prostate Cancer in Men at Increased Risk - Doctor's Guide, 12/1/09 - "Compared with placebo, active treatment also showed significantly lower risks for (respectively) HG-PIN (5.4% vs 3.5%; RRR, 34%; P = .0053), ASAP (5.1% vs 3.6%; RRR, 28%; P = .0274), AUR (7.1% vs 1.4%; RRR, 80.4%; P < .0001), BPH-related surgery (5.7% vs 1.4%; RRR 75.6%; P < .0001), and UTI (9.6% vs 5.8%; RRR, 40.8%; P < .0001) ... Similarly, there were significant reductions for mean prostate volume (18.7% increase vs 16.9% decrease; P < .0001) and IPSS (+1.14 vs -0.6; P < .0001), and slightly fewer high-grade tumours (Gleason score, 7-10) in the dutasteride group (7.5% vs 7.0%) ... These benefits were accompanied by significantly more frequent dutasteride-related adverse events (12% vs 19%; P < .0001), with dutasteride treatment showing increased frequencies of decreased libido (2.8% vs 5.5%), impotence (7.7% vs 10.9%), ejaculation disorders (0.5% vs 2.4%), and breast disorders (1.9% vs 3.5%)" - See Dutasteride (Avodart) 30 x 0.5mg capsules at International Antiaging Systems or .
  • Serum Creatinine and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Sep 15 - "Cases had significantly higher prediagnostic serum creatinine concentrations compared with controls (medians of 1.13 versus 1.10 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.004). Serum creatinine was associated with a significantly greater risk of prostate cancer (multivariate odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.75 for highest versus lowest quartile), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.0008)"
  • Outcomes Appear To Be Improving For Conservative Management Of Localized Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 9/15/09
  • Survival Improves for Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 9/15/09 - "The death rate from prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis among men who did not have surgery or radiation was 2% to 6% in the 1990s ... This compares to disease-specific death rates of 15% to 23% in similarly aged men with similar disease characteristics who chose not have these treatments in the pre-PSA era ... PSA screening saves few lives and has led to unnecessary treatment for millions of men. Findings from several recent studies appear to have bolstered the claim"
  • PSA Test: More Harm Than Good? - WebMD, 8/31/09 - "For every man who avoids a prostate cancer death due to PSA screening, about 50 men have to be treated unnecessarily -- and a third of these men will have serious problems with treatment"
  • Obesity Increases Risk Of Prostate Cancer Recurrence For Both Blacks And Whites - Science Daily, 8/17/09 - "We found that higher BMI was associated with significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence for both blacks and whites ... Obesity is associated with more estrogen and less testosterone, and it may be that lower testosterone promotes more aggressive tumors as recent studies have suggested ... In addition, Jayachandran says alteration in the production of other hormones, like insulin, insulin-like growth factor or leptin, which occur in obese men, may also be involved in the development of more aggressive tumors"
  • Case For Preventive Prostate Cancer Treatment Bolstered - Science Daily, 7/19/09 - "finasteride ... Now new research from Stanford University School of Medicine appears to show that the drug did not cause those more aggressive forms of prostate cancer but simply made them easier to diagnose"
  • Dramatic Outcomes In Prostate Cancer Study - Science Daily, 6/19/09 - "The patients first received a type of hormone therapy called androgen ablation, which removes testosterone and usually causes some initial reduction in tumor size. Researchers then introduced a single dose of ipilimumab, an antibody, which builds on the anti-tumor action of the hormone and causes a much larger immune response, resulting in massive death of the tumor cells. Both men experienced consistent drops in their prostate specific antigen (PSA) counts over the following weeks until both were deemed eligible for surgery. Then, during surgery, came a greater surprise ... The tumors had shrunk dramatically"
  • Statins Alter Prostate Cancer Patients' PSA Levels - Science Daily, 4/28/09 - "We found that PSA levels are actually significantly lower in prostate cancer patients on statins versus prostate cancer patients not on statins"
  • Major Statin Study Reveals Several Important Findings For Reducing Prostate Cancer And Disease - Science Daily, 4/26/09 - "non-statin users were three times more likely to develop prostate cancer, suggesting statin use may prevent development of prostate cancer ... Overall, statin use was not significantly associated with a decreased risk of developing ED. However, statins were associated with a decreased risk of ED among older men (>60 years). Men in this age category who used statins were less likely to develop ED, compared to older men who did not use statins. Additionally, men who took statins for a longer time were more protected against developing ED. For example, men who took statins for nearly nine years or more were 64 percent less likely to develop ED, while men who took statins for less than three years had about the same risk of developing ED. compared to men who did not take statins" - See atorvastatin at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Statins May Exert Influence On Prostate Cancer Growth By Reducing Inflammation - Science Daily, 4/26/09 - "men who were on statins had a 72 percent reduction in risk for tumor inflammation, and we believe this might play a role in the connection between prostate cancer and statin use"
  • Tadalafil May Effectively Treat Symptoms Of BPH-LUTS In Addition To Erectile Dysfunction - Science Daily, 4/26/09 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, the men taking tadalafil experienced improved detrusor pressure at urinary flow rate, peak flow rate (Qmax), bladder capacity, post-void residual volume and bladder voiding efficiency. Relative symptom improvement in the IPSS also was significantly better in the tadalafil group"
  • The utility of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors in the prevention and diagnosis of prostate cancer - Curr Opin Urol. 2009 Mar 21 - "finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by approximately 25% in comparison with placebo"
  • Statins Cut Deaths From Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 2/26/09 - "men taking statins were 63% less likely to die from the disease than men not taking statins ... The high-potency statins were about 2.5 times more effective at preventing prostate cancer death than the weak statins"
  • Calculator for Future Risk for Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 2/26/09 - "The risk over 4 years was 5.1% at an average PSA of 1.5 ng/mL. Men with a PSA of that amount or more were at an above-average risk of developing prostate cancer in the next 4 years ... those men were 7 times more likely to develop the cancer during that period"
  • Drug Reduces Risk of Prostate Cancer in Middle-Aged Men, Medical Groups Say - washingtonpost.com, 2/24/09 - "taking finasteride, a drug that is already widely used to treat male pattern baldness and urological problems, can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer by as much as 25 percent"
  • Lowering Your Cholesterol May Decrease Your Risk Of Cancer - Science Daily, 2/23/09 - "High cholesterol not only leads to atherosclerosis and heart disease, but may also contribute to cancer growth and progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in the United States, affecting approximately 1 in 6 men. Prostate tumors accumulate high levels of cholesterol, and tumor incidence correlates with eating a high fat/high cholesterol diet "Western" diet. In addition, prostate tumor progression has been linked to serum cholesterol levels"
  • Frequent Sex And Masturbation In 20s And 30s Linked To Higher Prostate Cancer, But Risks Diminish With Age - Science Daily, 1/26/09 - "Men who are very sexually active in their twenties and thirties are more likely to develop prostate cancer, especially if they masturbate frequently ... frequent sexual activity in a man’s forties appears to have little effect and even small levels of activity in a man’s fifties could offer protection from the disease"
  • Treatments After Prostate Surgery - Science Daily, 1/22/09
  • Why Prostate Cancer Patients Fail Hormone Deprivation Therapy - Science Daily, 12/31/08 - "For most patients, this hormone deprivation therapy causes tumors to shrink, sometimes dramatically. However, it's never a cure—tumors eventually regrow into a stronger ... The results suggest that hormone therapy might encourage prostate cancer cells to overproduce the AR-V7 receptors over time, leading them to survive and grow aggressively even without androgens"
  • Sexuality and the management of BPH with alfuzosin (SAMBA) trial - Int J Impot Res. 2008 Dec 11 - "Alfuzosin for the treatment of patients with BPH is effective in improving sexual function, as well as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and quality of life, and is well tolerated"
  • Statins Lower Prostate Cancer Marker - WebMD, 10/28/08 - "On average, PSA declined by 4.1% after starting a statin ... a bigger decrease was seen in men who started out with the highest PSA levels (2.5 ng/mL or more) -- but only among those who had the greatest decrease in cholesterol. These men had a 17.4% drop in PSA"
  • Correlation between simultaneous PSA and serum testosterone concentrations among eugonadal, untreated hypogonadal and hypogonadal men receiving testosterone replacement therapy - Int J Impot Res. 2008 Oct 9 - "testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) ... does not appear to significantly influence serum PSA expression and no significant correlation was identified between PSA and serum testosterone among eugonadal, untreated hypogonadal and hypogonadal men receiving TRT"
  • FDA Approves Silodosin for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Doctor's Guide, 10/9/08 - "Results from both trials showed that silodosin 8 mg QD for 12 weeks resulted in significant and rapid relief of BPH symptoms, compared with placebo, as measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). IPSS includes irritative and obstructive symptoms"
  • Meat 'ups prostate cancer risk' - BBC News, 10/7/08 - "Such a diet raises levels of a hormone called Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) which promotes cell growth ... men with high blood levels of IGF-1 were up to 40% more likely to develop prostate cancer than those with low levels ... levels could be up to 15% higher in people who ate a lot of meat and dairy products"
  • NSAIDs May Cut Prostate Cancer Markers - WebMD, 9/8/08 - "Men who reported using NSAIDs nearly every day had PSA levels that were about 10% lower than men who reported no current NSAID use"
  • Hormone Therapy May Speed Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 8/28/08 - "in different types of prostate cancer cells, androgens actually inhibit prostate cancer. When these tumor cells don't get androgens, they become more aggressive and more invasive"
  • Prostate Cancer Therapy: Mental Impact? - WebMD, 7/29/08 - "ADT stands for "androgen-deprivation therapy" and is the standard type of treatment for prostate cancer that has spread to the bones or other organs ... there is a "strong argument" to be made that the hormone therapy is linked to "subtle but significant" cognitive declines in men with advanced prostate cancer"
  • Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men and potential prostate cancer risk: a systematic review - Int J Impot Res. 2008 Jul 17 - "Of studies that met inclusion criteria, none demonstrated that testosterone therapy for hypogonadism increased prostate cancer risk or increased Gleason grade of cancer detected in treated vs untreated men"
  • Prostate Cancer Vaccines More Effective With Hormone Therapy - Science Daily, 7/10/08
  • Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy: No Survival Benefit in Older Men - WebMD, 7/8/08 - "In the U.S., older men often opt for stand-alone hormone therapy, even though there's no proof that it really helps. Hormone therapy's most obvious side effect is sexual dysfunction. Of greater concern are several recent studies linking androgen deprivation therapies to diabetes, heart disease, bone fractures, and reduced muscle mass ... Now a new study strongly suggests that hormone therapy offers older men no benefit to justify these serious risks" - [Science Daily]
  • Finasteride and High-Grade Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/19/08 - "A new analysis from the national Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) shows that finasteride does not increase the risk for high-grade prostate cancer, as earlier findings appeared to indicate"
  • Proscar Lowers Prostate Cancer Risk in All Men - Medscape, 6/13/08 - "Finasteride (Proscar) reduces the risk of prostate cancer regardless of a patient's risk level for the malignancy ... In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, finasteride treatment was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer"
  • Estrogen Helps Drive Distinct, Aggressive Form Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "Now, we show for the first time that this natural estrogen can stimulate the production of the cancer-linked TMPRSS2-ERG transcript, via the estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta ... We now believe that agents that dampen estrogen activity (ER-beta antagonists) could inhibit fusion-positive prostate cancers" - That raises the question whether aromatase inhibitors might help prevent prostate cancer.  I've always felt they do and have been taking a quarter tablet of letrozole every other day.
  • Finasteride May Help Preventing Prostate Cancer, Study Shows - Science Daily, 5/18/08 - "in addition to a 25 to 30 percent reduction in prostate cancer development overall in men taking finasteride, there was no evidence that the drug increased the rate of aggressive tumors and likey decreased their rate by 27 percent" - See finasteride or dutasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.  I feel that dutasteride is better and have been taking that for prostate cancer prevention and hair loss.  See:
  • Low Cholesterol Leads To Lower PSA, Lower Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/15/08 - "PSA levels were reduced after starting statin medications and that this decline was proportional to the decline in LDL cholesterol"
  • Prostate Cancer Increases The Risk Of Bone Fracture, Study Shows -- Science Daily, 5/14/08
  • Diet High In Saturated Fat Contributes To Prostate Cancer Treatment Failure, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/8/08 - "Patients on a HSF diets were significantly more likely to have a PSA failure and had significantly shorter PSA-failure free survival than men on a LSF diet (26.6 vs. 44.7 months, respectively). At 5 years post radical prostatectomy, 65% of patients who consumed HSF diets had no evidence of prostate cancer compared to 80% of men who ate a LSF diet"
  • Does the level of prostate cancer risk affect cancer prevention with finasteride? - Urology. 2008 May;71(5):854-7 - "Finasteride significantly reduced prostate cancer risk for all risk quintiles. For quintiles 1 through 5, odds ratios were 0.72, 0.52, 0.64, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively" - See finasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Prostate Cancer Can Be Halted With Anti-inflammatory And Statin Used In Tandem, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/14/08 - "A combination of low doses of Lipitor and Celebrex had a more potent inhibiting effect on the formation of later stage tumors than a higher dose of either agent alone ... The results from our study indicate that a combination of Lipitor and Celebrex may be an effective strategy for the prevention of prostate cancer progression from the first to the second stage"
  • Overweight And Obese Men Have Lower PSA Values, Even Before They Get Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 2/19/08 - "mildly obese men's PSA scores were fourteen percent lower than normal-weight men, and moderately and severely obese men had 29 percent lower PSA values ... Doctors have proposed that overweight and obese men have lower PSA scores because their bodies have a greater volume of blood"
  • Prostate Cancer Treatment Can Be Risky - WebMD, 2/18/08 - "men who got ADT were 17% more likely to die than those who opted for close observation ... It's possible that the men who received ADT got the treatment because of rising PSA levels, indicating worse disease ... But it's also possible that hormone therapy, which has been associated with heart disease, osteoporosis, and other health problems, could have compromised survival"
  • Drug Combo May Fight Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 2/18/08 - "A combination of Avastin and thalidomide -- both of which cut off the growth of new blood vessels that feed tumors, but in different ways -- appears to pack a more potent punch than Avastin alone"
  • Statins, NSAIDs vs. Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 2/18/08 - "Men with prostate cancer who take cholesterol-lowering statin drugs or anti-inflammatory drugs live longer than those who don't take the drugs ... men who reported ever taking statins were 41% to 65% less likely to die during the course of the study than men who didn't. Men who took NSAIDs were 53% to 61% less likely to die than those who didn't"
  • A prospective study of trans-Fatty Acid levels in blood and risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):95-101 - "The relative risks (95% confidence intervals; P trend) comparing top with bottom quintile trans-fatty acid levels were 2.16 (1.12-4.17; 0.11) for 18:1n-9t, 1.97 (1.03-3.75; 0.01) for total 18:2t, and 2.21 (1.14-4.29; 0.06) for total trans-fatty acids"
  • Screening for Prostate Cancer in U.S. Men ACPM Position Statement on Preventive Practice - Am J Prev Med. 2008 Feb;34(2):164-70 - "digital rectal examination (DRE) ... prostate-specific antigen ... rials. There is currently no convincing evidence that early screening, detection, and treatment improves mortal ... The American College of Preventive Medicine concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine population screening with DRE or PSA"
  • Sex Hormones Unrelated To Prostate Cancer Risk, Report Shows - Science Daily, 1/30/08 - "collected the original data from 18 studies and analyzed it to determine the relationship between blood levels of sex hormones and prostate cancer. The pooled data included 3,886 men with prostate cancer and 6,438 controls ... The researchers found no association between prostate cancer risk and blood levels of different forms of testosterone or estrogen"
  • Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Linked to Diabetes - Medscape, 1/22/08 - "After controlling for other factors, the estimated relative risk of incident diabetes associated with ADT was a significant 1.36"
  • Pros, Cons Of Drug Proven To Prevent Prostate Cancer Should Be Considered, Researchers Recommend - Science Daily, 1/21/08 - "Finasteride is currently the only drug that has been shown to prevent prostate cancer in a large in addition to preventing prostate cancer, finasteride also reduces urinary-tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. It also decreased sexual desire and caused impotence in 5 percent of the trial participants ... randomized trial but is used for this purpose in very few men" - See finasteride at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Fathers Get 16% More Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 1/7/08 - "When a man fathers his first child, his lifetime risk of prostate cancer goes up 16% ... Nobody has any idea why this might be so, but the finding, based on 51.6 million man-years of data, is as certain as any statistical fact can be" - Maybe it is stress.  Stress increases cortisol which increases blood sugar and insulin.  That's my best guess. - Ben
  • Aspirin Limits Prostate Cancer Therapy - WebMD, 12/26/07 - "Abnormal liver-function tests forced some of the men to quit Eulexin treatment before they could finish the six-month study. This happened to 37% of men taking aspirin, but only to 16% of the men not taking aspirin"
  • Statin Use Tied to Fewer Relapses in Prostate Cancer - oncologystat.com, 11/26/07 - "Men who happened to be on statins when given radiotherapy for prostate cancer were significantly more likely to be disease free 10 years later"
  • Obesity Affects Prostate Cancer Test - WebMD, 11/20/07 - "Being a big guy, you have enormous blood volume, so PSA is diluted ... For example, a PSA score of 4.1 in an obese man would be diluted down to a 3.3"
  • Obesity And Overweight Linked To Higher Prostate Cancer Mortality - Science Daily, 11/12/07 - "Compared to men with normal BMI (BMI<25), men with BMI between 25 and 30 were more than 1.5 times more likely to die from their cancer"
  • Prostate Cancer Risk with Positive Family History, Normal Prostate Examination Findings, and PSA Less Than 4.0 ng/mL - Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):748-52 - "The PSA values were significantly greater statistically in the men with prostate cancer (median 2.1 ng/mL) than in the men without prostate cancer (median 1.2 ng/mL"
  • Relationship between serum testosterone and measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men - Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):677-80 - "the serum testosterone levels in aging men did not correlate with the measures of BPH, including prostate volume and IPSS, regardless of whether total, free, or bioavailable testosterone was used. Age correlated with the measures of BPH, especially prostate volume"
  • Drug Slows Prostate Tumor Growth By Keeping Vitamin A Active - Science Daily, 11/7/07 - "A novel compound that blocks the breakdown of retinoic acid, derived from vitamin A, is a surprisingly effective and "promiscuous" agent in treating animal models of human prostate cancer ... Daily injections of the agent VN/14-1 resulted in up to a 50 percent decrease in tumor volume in mice implanted with human prostate cancer cells ... Vitamin A, when converted by the body into retinoic acid, is known to be involved in maintaining the normal growth of cells, and other research has shown that prostate cancer cells contain five to eight times less retinoic acid than normal prostate cells"
  • Statins May Fight Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 10/29/07 - "Overall, 76% of men who took statins were alive and without cancer 10 years after treatment vs. 66% of those who didn’t"
  • Can Cholesterol-lowering Medicine Make Radiation More Effective At Curing Prostate Cancer? - Science Daily, 10/29/07 - "Patients with prostate cancer who receive high-dose radiation treatment and also take statin drugs commonly used to lower cholesterol have a 10 percent higher chance of being cured of their cancer at 10 years after diagnosis (76 percent), compared to those who don't take these medications (66 percent)"
  • Prostate Cancer Therapy Linked To Increased Risk Of Heart Disease Death - Science Daily, 10/9/07 - "Among men 65 years and older who had their prostates removed, the 5-year incidence of heart disease-related death was 5.5 percent for those receiving androgen deprivation, and 2 percent among those who did not. For men younger than 65 years, the rates were also increased, 3.6 percent and 1.2 percent respectively"
  • Popular Prostate Cancer Treatment May Encourage Spread Of Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/1/07 - "A popular prostate cancer treatment called androgen deprivation therapy may encourage prostate cancer cells to produce a protein that makes them more likely to spread throughout the body"
  • Risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus and worsening glycaemic variables for established diabetes in men undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer - BJU Int. 2007 Sep 14 - "new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) ... Receipt of vitamin D had a protective effect (odds ratio 5.75 ... Patients receiving ADT for prostate cancer with or with no history of DM should have routine surveillance of glycaemic control, particularly when their BMI is >/= 30 kg/m(2), with appropriate preventive and treatment measures"
  • Drug That Reduces Prostate Size And Cancer Risk Also Improves Early Detection - Science Daily, 9/11/07 - "Men now have another good reason to consider taking finasteride, a well-known generic drug that shrinks an enlarged prostate and reduces the risk of getting prostate cancer by 25 percent ... finasteride also raises the odds that physicians will find fast-growing prostate cancers early, when they are most easily treatable"
  • Effects of alfuzosin 10 mg once daily on sexual function in men treated for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia - Int J Impot Res. 2007 Aug 23 - "After 1 month of treatment, alfuzosin 10 mg q.d. significantly improved erectile function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/ benign prostatic hypertrophy and had no adverse effect on ejaculatory function"
  • Prostate Cancer Prediction Not Skewed by Finasteride - Medscape, 7/30/07 - "with the exception of the approximate reduction of PSA by half with finasteride, the impact of these risk factors is similar to men who do not receive finasteride"
  • Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Int J Cancer. 2007 May 18 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no significant association with overall risk for prostate cancer for serum total or free testosterone concentrations (highest versus the lowest thirds: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.41 and OR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.74-1.55, respectively) or for other androgens or SHBG"
  • ED Drugs May Treat Urinary Problems - WebMD, 5/23/07 - "Sexual performance in men seems to decline as their prostate enlargement becomes more severe, experts have begun to notice ... A once-a-day dose of Cialis helped men with erectile dysfunction and moderate to severe urinary tract symptoms due to an enlarged prostate improve sexual functioning"
  • Statins May Cut Prostate Cancer Deaths - WebMD, 5/21/07 - "the greater the men's cholesterol decrease, the more their PSA levels dropped"
  • Statin Use Linked With Decreased Prostate Cancer Mortality Rates; Lower PSA Levels - Science Daily, 5/20/07 - "PSA levels declined by 1.1 percent for every 10 mg/dl decrease in LDL ... Reviewing PSA levels among statin users screened in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial, researchers from Helsinki found a decrease in prostate cancer incidence in this group ... A significant decrease was found in the incidence of T3 cancers ... Non-statin, lipid-lowering drugs were not associated with incidence, stage or grade"
  • Obesity and benign prostatic enlargement: a large observational study in China - Urology. 2007 Apr;69(4):680-4 - "Obese Chinese men are at increased risk of an enlarged prostate compared with nonobese Chinese men"
  • Statins Take on Advanced Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 4/2/07 - "The use of statin drugs “was not associated with risk of prostate cancer overall but was associated with a reduced risk of advanced (especially metastatic or fatal) prostate cancer.” ... The relative risk was 0.60 for less than five years of statin use and for 0.26 for five or more years of use"
  • Statins Protect Against Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 3/27/07 - "Overall, prostate cancer incidence was significantly lower for statin users than non-users (4.0% vs 8.0%, respectively). A significant dose-response relationship was seen for the total cumulative quantity of statin users and incidence of prostate cancer"
  • Age-Specific PSA Cut-Offs Avoid Unnecessary Prostate Biopsies in Older Men - Medscape, 3/27/07 - "When the data was grouped according to 4 specific age categories, mean PSA levels for the control men increased significantly with increased age category: for men younger than 50 years, it was 1.2 ng/mL; 50 to 59 years, 1.8 ng/mL; 60 to 69 years, 3.1 ng/mL; and 70 years or older, 8.9 ng/mL"
  • Inflammation May Play Role In Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/18/07 - "inflammation associated with the progression of tumors actually plays a key role in the metastasis of prostate cancer"
  • Heart Disease Deaths Increased in the Presence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 2/27/07 - "risk was 3% over 5 years compared with 0.9% for men not taking androgen deprivation therapy"
  • Statins vs. Advanced Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 12/19/06 - "Overall, statin use didn't appear to sway the men's chances of being diagnosed with prostate cancer ... Men taking statin drugs were about half as likely to have advanced prostate cancer as those not taking statins"
  • Two Markers Strongly Linked To Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality Almost A Decade Prior To Diagnosis - Science Daily, 11/14/06 - "Increased levels of two markers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), are significantly associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality almost a decade prior to diagnosis"
  • Excess Mortality Seen Among Prostate Cancer Patients on Long Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 11/9/06 - "More than 6 months' treatment with these androgen deprivation drugs appears to double the risk of mortality in these patients"
  • Newer Prostate Treatment Has Advantage - WebMD, 11/7/06 - "A computerized program allows doctors to adjust both the strength and the intensity of the beams, so that more radiation is blasted at the tumor and less at critical surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum"
  • Testosterone therapy for men at risk for or with history of prostate cancer - Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2006 Sep;7(5):363-9 - "Although still controversial, there appears to be little reason to withhold TRT from men with favorable outcomes after definitive treatment for PCa"
  • A New Way to Prevent BPH? - Physician's Weekly, 10/16/06 - "NSAID use was inversely associated with the onset of moderate-to-severe urinary symptoms, low maximum flow rate, and elevated prostate-specific antigen levels"
  • Focal Cryoablation Effective in Destroying Prostate Cancer, Preserving Potency, Continence - Doctor's Guide, 9/28/06 - "At a mean follow-up of 70 months, 92.8% (26 of 28) remained biochemically disease-free and 96% (24 of 25) had no evidence of cancer on post-treatment biopsy ... Potency was completely maintained in 41.8% (13 of 27) of the patients and 40.7% of the others (11 of 27) were potent with erectile dysfunction drugs, for a total potency preservation rate of 88.9%. The patients experienced no other complications, such as incontinence"
  • Finasteride as a Chemopreventive Agent in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 9/15/06 - "Prostate cancer was detected in 803 of 4,368 men (18.4%) taking finasteride as opposed to 1,147 of the 4,692 men (24.4%) in the placebo group (P <0.001). This was a 24.8% relative risk reduction in prevalence of prostate cancer during the trial ,,, The PCPT has shown finasteride to be an effective chemopreventive agent in low-grade prostate cancer"
  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 7/19/06 - "there is currently no evidence that testosterone administration can initiate or promote a de novo or pre-existing prostatic malignancy in hypogonadal men.[40] In fact, there are strong indications that normal testosterone levels play a protective role in the natural history of prostate cancer"
  • Identifying Risk Factors for BPH - Physician's Weekly, 6/12/06 - "Obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose concentration, and diabetes appear to be risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)"
  • Early Estrogen Exposure Leads To Later Prostate Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 6/1/06 - "exposure to low doses of environmental estrogens during development of the prostate gland in the male fetus may result in a predisposition to prostate cancer later in life"
  • Obesity and Diabetes Increase Risk for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/06 - "The age-adjusted odds ratio for prostate enlargement in overweight men was 1.41, in obese men, it was 1.27, and in severely obese men, it was 3.52 ... men with elevated fasting plasma glucose levels (>110 mg/dL) were 3 times more likely to have prostate enlargement"
  • Should Older Men Be Screened For Prostate Cancer? - Science Daily, 5/4/06 - "While this form of cancer can be fatal, it often progresses so slowly that men are more likely to die from some other disease"
  • Hypogonadism May Result After Prostatic Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/1/06 - "men with prostatic diseases should be evaluated for hypogonadism"
  • Elevated Plasma Glucose, Diabetes, Obesity May Increase Risk for BPH - Medscape, 4/20/06 - "Men with elevated fasting glucose (> 110 mg/dL) were more likely to have an enlarged prostate than men with normal fasting glucose (</= 110 mg/dL ... Both elevated fasting glucose and diabetes were associated with high-moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms"
  • New Research Finds Direct Link Between High Cholesterol And Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 4/12/06 - "men with prostate cancer were around 50% more likely to have had high cholesterol levels[2] than our non-prostate cancer controls. The association was somewhat stronger for men whose high cholesterol levels had been diagnosed before they were 50 and for men over 65, where there was an 80% greater likelihood of high cholesterol levels"
  • Insulin Sensitivity During Combined Androgen Blockade for Prostate Cancer - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jan 24 - "Short-term treatment with leuprolide and bicalutamide significantly increased fat mass and decreased insulin sensitivity in men with prostate cancer. These observations suggest that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists may increase the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in older men"
  • Study questions prostate cancer screening - MSNBC, 1/9/06 - "for some men, detecting prostate cancer early through screening can do more harm than good ... In addition, the PSA tests can yield ambiguous results. Most men who undergo a biopsy because they have elevated PSA levels do not have prostate cancer. And some men with low PSA levels do have cancer"
  • Yearly Prostate Cancer Tests May Save Lives - WebMD, 10/19/05 - "men who have yearly screening are three times less likely to die from prostate cancer than men who don't have the annual tests"
  • Obesity Is Risk Factor For Aggressive Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 5/23/05 - "Obesity appears to increase the risk of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive disease, and may make it harder to find ... fat makes estrogen-like compounds, which lowers circulating levels of prostate specific antigen ... Hormone changes observed with obesity also cause decreased levels of the male hormone testosterone"
  • Presence Of High-risk Prostate Cancer Can Be Predicted Without A Biopsy, New Study Says - Science Daily, 5/22/05
  • Statin Use Linked to 51% Reduction in Breast Cancer - Medscape, 5/20/05 - "The beneficial effect is seen in more than four years of statin use ... In both the prostate and lung cancer studies, there was a 48% to 54% risk reduction in cancer associated with statin use" - See Zocor at SuperSaverMeds.com.
  • Drug Combos Show Success For Treating Prostate Cancer - CBS 2 Chicago, 5/19/05 - "Robert's study coupled a low dose of the drug taxotere with a low dose helper drug called dexamethasone"
  • Dutasteride Allows for Less Invasive Prostate Biopsies - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/05
  • Study Finds Prostate Cancer In 25% Of High-risk Men With 'Normal' PSA Levels - Science Daily, 5/19/05 - "Men at high risk of developing prostate cancer should undergo aggressive screening for the disease ... 25 percent were diagnosed with the disease despite having a low PSA"
  • cholesterol-lowering drugs, those who did take them had nearly one-half the risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. Risk decreased with increasing duration of use ... looked at 450 men and women with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer"
  • High Cholesterol Levels Accelerate Growth Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/27/05 - "The researchers also present evidence that cholesterol-lowering ''statin'' drugs, now widely used in cardiovascular disease, may inhibit cancer growth ... Increased cholesterol levels didn't trigger new cancers in the mice, but six weeks after tumor cells were injected, the incidence of tumors was more than doubled in the mice on high-cholesterol diets, and the tumors were markedly larger in size"
  • Three Promising And Innovative Prostate Cancer Therapies In Clinical Trials At New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell - Science Daily, 3/26/05
  • Celebrex Provides A Two Pronged Attack Against Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/18/05 - "Celebrex, not only targets COX-2, but also reduces levels of a key protein, cyclin D1, that's critical for cell replication"
  • High Cholesterol May Speed Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 3/17/05 - "Our data support the notion that cholesterol-lowering drugs -- which are widely used and fairly safe -- might be effective in prevention of prostate cancer, or as an adjunctive therapy ... elevated cholesterol levels did not stimulate new prostate cancers but promoted tumor growth"
  • ars Safe, Effective Treatment for Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 2/7/05
  • Obesity May Mask Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 1/24/05
  • Obesity May Affect Accuracy Of Prostate Screening - Doctor's Guide, 1/24/05 - "as BMI increased, PSA linearly decreased ... These findings, the authors conclude, may explain "the recent reports of inferior outcomes of prostate cancer treatment in obese men" in that they "may be caused by delayed detection" rather than biological differences in the tumor"
  • Celecoxib (Bextra) May Foil Recurrent Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 10/12/04 - "the rate of increase of prostate specific antigen (PSA), stabilized, slowed, or declined in 92% of 24 men who took celecoxib twice a day for a year"
  • End of an Era for PSA: A Newsmaker Interview With Thomas Stamey, MD - Medscape, 9/17/04 - "Over time, the correlation between PSA levels and the amount of prostate cancer weakened dramatically, from 43% predictive ability in the first five-year group to 2% in the past five years. However, PSA levels continued to be accurate as a direct measure of benign prostatic hyperplasia"
  • Enlarged Prostate Tied to Sexual Dysfunction - WebMD, 6/11/04 - "urinary tract problems caused by an enlarged prostate, such as getting up many times during the night to urinate, may be associated with erectile dysfunction and other problems relating to sex in older men ... because both of these conditions are common in aging man, it may be very difficult to see if a true association exists outside of an age-related one"
  • New Study Links Common Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs To Reduced Prostate Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 6/8/04 - "men who have taken any amount of these drugs, known as statins, have a 58 percent lower risk of prostate cancer than men who have taken none at all"
  • Updated Prostate Cancer Guidelines Recommend Lowering the PSA Threshold, Use of CPSA Test - Doctor's Guide, 4/1/04 - "studies of the incidence of cancer in men whose PSA is in the range of 2.5 to 4.0 ng/mL have shown that a substantial number of men in this group will have cancer"
  • Screening Recommended for Some Men at Age 40 for Prostate Disease - Doctor's Guide, 3/15/04 - "men as young as 40 years of age should be screened for prostate cancer if they have a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 0.6 ng/mL"
  • Change in Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Over Time Not Useful for Prostate Cancer Screening in Men With Low Levels - Doctor's Guide, 3/1/04 - "Although the increase in risk of prostate cancer is highest among men with PSA levels greater than 4 ng/mL, about 40% of detectable cancers occur in men with levels below this cut-off"
  • Combining High Dose Brachytherapy and External Beam Irradiation is Effective Therapy for Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 7/9/03
  • Proscar for Prostate Cancer Prevention: Q&A - WebMD, 6/24/03 - "a drug called Proscar can also prevent or delay prostate cancer. It also shows that the drug may increase the risk of aggressive, high-grade prostate tumors. And while men taking Proscar have fewer urinary problems, they also have more sexual problems"
  • Cholesterol Drugs May Prevent Cancer - WebMD, 6/2/03 - "Overall, taking statins reduces risk of developing cancer by 20%, but that protection increases to 36% for people who take statins for four years or more ... But the benefit stops about six months after the patient stops taking the drug ... Statins offer the most protection against prostate and kidney cancer"
  • Investigational Drug, Abarelix, Reduces Risk Of Castration In Prostate Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/3/03
  • Vardenafil Effectively Improves Erectile Dysfunction and Depression Following Radical Nerve Sparing Prostatectomy - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/03 - "Whenever you improve erectile dysfunction, you also see an improvement in depression. You just can't tell which is the cause and which is the effect" - See vardenafil.
  • PSA Values Fluctuate Over Time - Medscape, 5/28/03 - "At one or more follow-up visits, these abnormal PSA values normalized in 68 (44%) of 154 subjects with PSA level higher than 4 ng/mL, in 116 (40%) of 291 with level higher than 2.5 ng/mL, in 64 (55%) of 117 with an elevation above the age-specific cutoff, and in 76 (53%) of 143 with a level between 4 and 10 ng/mL and a free-to-total ratio of less than 0.25 ng/mL"
  • Study Shows Lower Prostate Specific Antigen Cut-Point for Proceeding to Biopsy - Doctor's Guide, 4/30/03 - "For younger people, less than 70 years old, especially if they have certain risk factors, I would obtain a biopsy if they have a PSA over 2.5"
  • High Dose Ketoconazole Shows Promise in Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 2/2/03 - "Ketoconazole causes complete androgenic deprivation, blocking the production of both testosterone and suprarenal androgens"
  • Dietary Change May Prevent the Most Serious Form of Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/02 - "While high intake of dietary fat and calcium is associated with an increased risk of clinically significant, advanced prostate cancer, it has no apparent impact on risk of early-stage disease"
  • New Leukemia Drug May Fight Prostate Cancer, Too - Intelihealth, 6/12/01 - "Studies have found that Gleevec, also known as STI571, inhibits tumor growth and preserves bone structure in the tibia of mice implanted with human prostate cancer cells"
  • New Treatments May Slow Spread of Prostate Cancer, Drugs Give Patients More Pain-Free Time - WebMD, 5/16/01 - "On average, the men given the atrasentan had a delay in progression of their disease, meaning that they experienced a longer interval without any indicators, such as pain, that the cancer had spread further into the bone. The drug also slowed by half the rise in prostate specific antigen (PSA), a blood marker of the amount of prostate cancer present"
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