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Home > Anti-aging Research > Ginseng

Ginseng

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Is Ginseng Effective for Cancer-Related Fatigue? - Medscape, 8/1/14 - "Barton and colleagues[1] performed a phase 3, multisite, double-blind, randomized trial evaluating the use of Wisconsin ginseng (P quinquefolius) (3% ginsenosides) 2000 mg daily vs placebo for 8 weeks in 364 patients with CRF. Fatigue was evaluated using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... At 4 weeks, change from baseline MFSI-SF score in the ginseng group (n = 147) was 14.4 vs 8.2 in the placebo group (n = 153) (P = .07). At 8 weeks, the ginseng group (n = 138) had a change in score of 20 vs 10.3 in the placebo group (n = 133) (P = .003). Patients receiving active cancer therapy reported greater benefit than those who had completed treatment. Self-reported toxicities were similar between groups" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng can treat, prevent influenza, RSV, researcher finds - Science Daily, 4/21/14 - "respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... After infection with influenza A virus, mice that were orally administered ginseng over a long time showed multiple immune modifying effects, such as stimulated antiviral production of proteins important in immune response and fewer inflammatory cells in their bronchial walls ... Korean red ginseng extract improved the survival of human lung epithelial cells against RSV infection and inhibited the virus from replicating, or multiplying, in the body. In addition, treatment with Korean red ginseng extract suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory genes and the formation of chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, which play a role in virus-induced epithelial damage in RSV ... Also, mice that were orally administered Korean red ginseng extract had lower viral levels after infection with RSV"
  • Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue - Medscape, 9/27/13 - "cancer-related fatigue (CRF) ... A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ... Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... A statistically significant difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P = .003). Greater benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading did not differ statistically significantly between arms" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Ginseng Berry Extract Effect on Sexual Function in ED - Medscape, 5/6/13 - "were administered 4 tablets of either standardized Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng berry extract per tablet), or placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We observed that the total and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15 increased from 40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the 8th week (P<0.05). The erectile function domain of IIEF changed slightly from 17.17+/-2.57 to 18.59+/-5.99 in the SKGB group by the 8th week (P<0.05). In addition, PEDT scores significantly improved from 9.14+/-4.57 to 7.97+/-4.4 and 7.53+/-4.26 in the SKGB group after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P<0.05). Safety markers including hormone and lipid in the blood were assessed at the end of the 4th and 8th week and they remained unchanged. Oral administration of the SKGB extract improved all domains of sexual function"
  • Ginseng May Banish Cancer Fatigue, New Study Finds - ABC News, 6/4/12 - "Researchers gave 2,000 milligrams of pure ground American ginseng or a placebo pill to 340 patients being treated for cancer and cancer survivors who had finished their treatment. After four weeks, patients reported little change in their cancer-related fatigue. But after eight weeks, the patients taking ginseng reported feeling generally more energized than their sugar pill-popping peers. The response was particularly strong among patients who were currently undergoing cancer treatment ... Some studies have shown that ginseng decreases inflammation and the stress hormone cortisol, both of which may be contributing factors to cancer-related fatigue ... Extracts of ginseng that are alcohol based change a characteristic of the ginseng to be somewhat estrogenic ... Stay with very reputable companies"
  • Natural aphrodisiacs: 'Spicing' up your love life possible, finds study of ginseng and saffron - Science Daily, 3/28/11 - "Ours is the most thorough scientific review to date. Nothing has been done on this level of detail before now ... They found that panax ginseng, saffron and yohimbine, a natural chemical from yohimbe trees in West Africa, improved human sexual function ... People report increased sexual desire after eating muira puama"
  • Best Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction? - Dr. Weil, 11/30/09 - "Ginkgo ... Ashwaganda ... Asian ginseng
  • Ginseng: Nature's Anti-inflammatory? - Science Daily, 5/13/09 - "The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to the combined effects of these ginsenosides, targeting different levels of immunological activity, and so contributing to the diverse actions of ginseng in humans"
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Schizophrenia - WebMD, 5/8/08 - "In a small study, patients had fewer negative symptoms -- such as lack of motivation and a severe reduction in emotional expression known as "flat affect" -- when they took Panax ginseng than when they took a placebo ... patients were 50% less likely to have flat affect when taking the higher, 200-milligram dose of ginseng than when taking placebo"
  • Ginseng May Relieve Cancer Fatigue - WebMD, 6/4/07
  • Herb Shows Potential To Reduce Cancer-related Fatigue - Science Daily, 6/3/07 - "Of the four treatment arms, patients receiving the placebo and the lowest dose of ginseng reported very little improvement in fatigue or other areas of physical or psychological well-being. The patients receiving the larger doses showed improvements in overall energy levels, reporting higher vitality levels and less interference with activity from fatigue. They also reported an improvement in overall mental, physical, spiritual and emotional well-being"
  • Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At Recommended Doses - Science Daily, 5/1/07 - "found daily use of ginseng or ginkgo biloba supplements at the recommended doses, or the combination of both supplements, are unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics - by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body - of the majority of prescription or over-the counter drugs"
  • Researchers Find Ginseng May Improve Breast Cancer Outcomes - Science Daily, 3/16/06 - "They also found significant improvements in both survival and quality of life measures in patients who used ginseng"
  • Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
  • Ginseng for Gesundheit? Latest Study on Colds - WebMD, 10/24/05 - "one in 10 people in the ginseng group reported having two or more colds that winter, compared with about 23% of those taking the placebo ... Colds lasted about 11 days for the ginseng group and 16.5 days for the placebo group"
  • Ginseng review - ConsumerLab.com, 8/29/03 - "A high amount of the pesticide hexachlorobenzene — a potential human carcinogen — was found in one of five products labeled as containing "Korean Ginseng." Levels of two other pesticides, quintozene and lindane — were also above acceptable levels. Another product that failed the new testing was a liquid "Chinese Ginseng" sold in single-dose bottles. Despite being labeled "EXTRA STRENGTH" this product contained less than 10% of the expected ginsenosides"
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Diabetes - WebMD, 6/16/03 - "There are two reasons blood sugar can be out of control in [people with diabetes] ... Your body's tissues are not responsive enough to insulin so they don't process it properly and/or you don't make enough insulin to begin with ... Ginseng, he said, appears to help the patients both to secrete more insulin and to process better the insulin they have" - See ginseng at Amazon.com or Vitacosticon American ginseng products.
  • Korean Red Ginseng Benefits Men with Impotence - New Hope Natural Media, 1/2/03 - "Men experiencing sexual difficulties due to inability to achieve erection may be helped by Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng), according to a study published in the Journal of Urology ... It is a problem that affects nearly half of men over age forty worldwide ... Some 60% of participants reported improved erections while receiving ginseng. Improved sexual desire was also reported during ginseng treatment. Testosterone levels did not change with treatment, leading the researchers to conclude that improvements observed with ginseng are not due to hormonal effects" - See ginseng at Amazon.com or Vitacosticon Korean (Panax) ginseng.
  • Ginseng May Help Regulate Blood Glucose - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower blood-sugar levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng Helps Regulate Blood Glucose - Nutrition Science News, Spring '02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower blood-sugar levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients ... They found no significant differences between the three doses—each lowered postprandial glucose levels an average of 11.4 percent"
  • Some Herbs Boost Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/26/02 - "Our studies show that dong quai and ginseng stimulate the growth of [breast cancer] cells"
  • Not All Ginseng Supplements Are Alike - WebMD, 6/26/01 - "a new analysis of 25 commercial ginseng products suggests that the actual concentration of ginseng is lower than the label says about half the time and in six products the concentration was only 1%"
  • Study: Supplement Can Help Take the 'Dys' Out of Female Sexual Dysfunction, Researchers Promote Idea of 'Sexual Wellness' - WebMD, 6/5/01 - "ArginMax -- a dietary cocktail consisting of ginseng, ginkgo, B vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals -- is being heralded as one component of a lifestyle that improves sexual performance and helps prevent problems associated with intimacy"
  • Beyond the Label: American Ginseng Protects - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "American ginseng has been shown to display synergistic effects against breast cancer cell growth when combined with chemotherapy. From the protective perspective, American ginseng displays potent antioxidant defenses against free radical damage to human LDL cholesterol, which is reinforced by the vitamin C that inhabits LDL. The most striking results attributable to this American root are found in its ability to smooth out post-meal blood-sugar surges and carbohydrate metabolism in both nondiabetics and type II diabetics."
  • Saving Yourself from AGE - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/00 - with American Ginseng, "The researchers found a reduction in plasma prolactin, a hormone connected with passive "nesting" behavior, suggesting that this may play a role in the ability of American ginseng to stimulate sexual activity in the male rat." (see prolactin)
  • Want a love potion? What to know before you try - CNN, 6/15/00 - "Tissue and animal studies of one form of ginseng, called panax, give some credence to the root's sexy reputation. A study published in the May 1995 issue of the journal British Pharmacology, for instance, concluded that substances in ginseng extract known as ginsenosides may work in a similar way to Viagra. Viagra enhances the effects of nitric oxide, which helps relax artery walls, allowing more blood flow into the penis. Ginsenosides may encourage the release of more nitric oxide."

Abstracts:

  • Modulation of Radiation-Induced Alterations in Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Expression in Lung Tissue by Panax Ginseng Extract - Phytother Res. 2014 Sep 15 - "We investigated the modulating effect of Panax ginseng extract (PGE) on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) ... A high pretreatment dose of PGE may be a useful pharmacological approach for protection against RILI" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Red Ginseng Extract Exhibits Neuroprotective Effects through Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(6):938-46 - "Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease"
  • Panax notoginseng saponins promotes stroke recovery by influencing expression of Nogo-A, NgR and p75NGF, in vitro and in vivo - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):560-8 - "This may be the mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins that contributes to the recovery of nerve function, which plays an important role in brain protection after cerebral infarction"
  • Red Ginseng Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice - Nutrients. 2014 May 5;6(5):1874-85 - "These results suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance"
  • Ginseng Treatment Attenuates Autophagic Cell Death in Chronic Cyclosporine Nephropathy - Nephrology (Carlton). 2014 May 5 - "These findings suggest that ginseng has a renoprotective effect against CsA-induced autophagic cell death"
  • Ginsenoside F2 Reduces Hair Loss by Controlling Apoptosis through the Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein Cleavage Activating Protein and Transforming Growth Factor-β Pathways in a Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Mouse Model - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(5):755-763 - "the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group"
  • Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 20 - "Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts prevent HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells against G-CSF-Induced DNA Damage - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Mar 10 - "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been utilized to treat neutropenia in various clinical settings. Although clearly beneficial, there are concerns that the chronic use of G-CSF in certain conditions increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most striking example is in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). SCN patients develop MDS/AML at a high rate that is directly correlated to the cumulative lifetime dosage of G-CSF. MDS and AML that arise in these settings are commonly associated with chromosomal deletions. We have demonstrated in this study that chronic G-CSF treatment in mice results in expansion of the hematopoietic stem cell population. In addition, primitive hematopoietic progenitors from G-CSF-treated mice show evidence of DNA damage as demonstrated by an increase in double strand breaks and recurrent chromosomal deletions. Concurrent treatment with genistein, a natural soy isoflavone, limits DNA damage in this population ... The protective effect of genistein was accomplished with plasma levels that are attainable through dietary supplementation" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rb3 attenuates oxidative stress and preserves endothelial function in hypertension - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 26 - "Panax ginseng is commonly used to treat cardiovascular complications in oriental countries. This study investigated mechanisms underlying vascular benefits of ginsenoside Rb3 (Rb3) in hypertension ... Ex vivo Rb3 treatment restores the impaired endothelial function in hypertension through reversing the over-expression of NADPH oxidases and subsequent ROS overproduction, leading to improved NO bioavailability. The present novel findings suggest that Rb3-containing medicinal plants might be effective in curtailing oxidative stress and protecting endothelial function in hypertension"
  • Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3 β -CREB Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:506735 - "This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS) in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1), intragastrically) were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1), subcutaneously) injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L). Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism"
  • Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):517-29 - "We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 Up-regulates the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Mouse Hair Follicles - Phytother Res. 2013 Dec 26 - "Crude Panax ginseng has been documented to possess hair growth activity and is widely used to treat alopecia, but the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on hair growth have not to our knowledge been determined ... Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was significantly up-regulated by Rg3 in a dose-dependent manner in human DP cells and in mouse hair follicles. In addition, the CD8 and CD34 were also up-regulated by Rg3 in the mouse hair follicles. It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells and it has the potential to be used in hair growth products" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Ginsenoside Rg3 ≥98% (HPLC) - Sigma-Aldrich - "Ginsenoside Rg3 is a natural product isolated from Panax ginseng. Similar to other ginsenosides it exhibits cardio protective effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances cardiac, hERG (IKr) and KCNQ (Iks), channel currents by interaction with the channel pore entryway. It also inhibits the palmitate-induced apoptosis of MIN6N8 mouse insulinoma beta-cells through modulating p44/42 MAPK activation. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases the level of the transcription factor Nrf2 and induces the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 1 and Mrp3.1 Rg3 modulate neuroinflammation by attenuating the activation of microglia in response to systemic LPS treatment.2 It activates AMPK in HepG2 cells and reduces the lipid accumulation thereby decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease due to dyslipidemia"
  • Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model - Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 21 - "Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Panax pseudoginseng - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality:mimetic exercise training - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 15 - "Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent ... In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied 1) sedentary control, 2) Rg3-treated and 3) aerobic exercise trained ... Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria"
  • The effect of fermented red ginseng on depression is mediated by lipids - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Oct 1 - "The cortico-limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has emerged as an important area for the cause and treatment of depression. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hormones, energy sources, and minerals have a causal relationship with depression. The secondary aim was to test whether consumption of fermented red ginseng (FRG) would influence that causal relationship ... One group (49 women) was supplied with FRG capsules, and the other group (44 women) with placebo capsules, for 2 weeks. Both before and after the study, the participants filled out the Beck depression inventory questionnaire, and then blood samples were collected ... cognitive depression (CD) and somatic depression ... the effect of FRG consumption on CD occurred via the energy factor, which is mainly attributable to cholesterol"
  • Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial, N07C2 - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jul 13 - "A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ... Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions ... Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an 8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the treatment"
  • Long-term Ginsenoside Rg1 Supplementation Improves Age-Related Cognitive Decline by Promoting Synaptic Plasticity Associated Protein Expression in C57BL/6J Mice - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul 5 - "In aging individuals, age-related cognitive decline is the most common cause of memory impairment. Among the remedies, ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects ... This study employed a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the cognitive performance. We found that Rg1 supplementation improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in hippocampus, including synaptophysin, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, postsynaptic density-95, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha, via promoting mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation. These data provide further support for Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during aging"
  • Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract on sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study - Int J Impot Res. 2012 Dec 20 - "Ginseng is beneficial for many aspects of human physiology, including sexual function ... administered 4 tablets of either standardized Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng berry extract per tablet), or placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We observed that the total and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15 increased from 40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the 8th week (P<0.05)"
  • Neoplasm Prevention and Immuno-Enhancement Mediated by Daily Consumption of a Proprietary Extract from North American Ginseng by Elderly Mice of a Cancer-Prone Strain - Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 7 - "We have previously shown in a leukemia-induced tumor model (mouse) that a proprietary extract (CVT-E002), of North American ginseng, administered in the diet, significantly increased the absolute numbers of NK cells, significantly decreased leukemia cells and significantly increased the life span of CVT-E002-fed leukemic mice. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the spontaneous development of tumors in elderly mice of the cancer-prone C3H strain. Dietary CVT-E002 was fed for approximately a year beginning when mice were almost 2 years of age. Control mice, consuming the same chow without CVT-E002, all developed assorted, palpable tumors between 22 and 33 months, while all mice consuming CVT-E002 remained alive and tumor-free until they were purposely euthanized as healthy animals. The absolute numbers of NK cells at euthanasia, in CVT-E002-consuming mice, were significantly elevated in both the spleen and bone marrow. Given these profoundly positive results and the fact that CVT-E002 already exists in the marketplace under the label Cold-fX®, the potential for cancer prevention in humans becomes apparent" - See Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules.
  • Effects of Sun Ginseng on Memory Enhancement and Hippocampal Neurogenesis - Phytother Res. 2012 Oct 29 - "Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG) ... These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival"
  • Beneficial effects of Korean red ginseng on lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and LDL oxidation in healthy participants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Nutr J. 2012 Jul 17;11(1):47 - "KRG supplementation may attenuate lymphocyte DNA damage and LDL oxidation by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity"
  • Ginsenoside Re rapidly reverses insulin resistance in muscles of high-fat diet fed rats - Metabolism. 2012 May 7 - "Our results show that the ginsenoside Re induces a remarkably rapid reversal of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance of muscle glucose transport by reversing the impairment of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface"
  • The Synergistic Apoptotic Interaction of Panaxadiol and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2012 May 8 - "Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant ... Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20 µm) for 48 h. When PD (10 and 20 µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30 µm), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20 µm of PD with 20 and 30 µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p < 0.01). The synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which demonstrated that PD and EGCG bound in two different sites of the annexin V protein. Data from this study suggested that apoptosis might play an important role in the EGCG-enhanced antiproliferative effects of PD on human colorectal cancer cells"
  • Ginseng as a Potential Novel Addition to the Antikeloid Weaponry - Phytother Res. 2012 Feb 8 - "Keloid scars are large protruding claw-shaped lesions that develop beyond the confines of the wound and uniquely appears only in humans. For thousands of years ginseng has been used in the traditional medicine in oriental countries. It occupies a prominent position in the list of the best-selling medicinal herbs in the world. Panax ginseng often called Asian or Korean ginseng, is the most extensively used and the best grade of ginseng and the term of 'ginseng' generally refers to Panax ginseng. Previous studies have revealed that ginseng inhibits NF-kappa B, TGF-β, IL-6, ACE and MMP-2 and these factors play a pivotal role in keloid formation pathogenesis. Therefore it could be reasoned that ginseng could be effective for the treatment of the keloid scars. Clinical studies by topical applications of iPanax notoginseng (800 µg/ml) are warranted"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Promotes Glucose Uptake Through Activated AMPK Pathway in Insulin-resistant Muscle Cells - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 15 - "Ginsenoside Rg1, a protopanaxatriols saponin, is one of the major active constituents from Panax ginseng and possesses various biological activities ... chronic treatment of insulin resulted in reduced glucose uptake in the muscle cells. The treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly enhanced glucose uptake in the differentiated muscle cells and the relative abundance of GLUT4 through the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 improved the insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells, which might be useful for prevention of T2DM and metabolic syndromes" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High Fat Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Oct 28 - "Many studies have documented that ginseng has antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanism of the effects has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) and investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic and antiobesity effects in obese insulin resistant animal models. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a control group (group I) fed a normal diet, another group (group II) fed only high fat diet (HFD) and a third group (group III) fed HFD with KRG (200 mg/kg, oral) for 18 weeks ... A significant weight reduction, especially fat mass reduction, was observed in the KRG treated group. Increased insulin sensitivity was found in the KRG treated group. We observed increased insulin signalling, increased phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1, Akt, and membranous GLUT4 in muscle by Western blotting assay. In conclusion, KRG may have antidiabetic and antiobesity effects due to partly increased insulin sensitivity by increased adipokine and partly enhanced insulin signalling" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial - Menopause. 2011 Oct 24 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red ginseng (RG) on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women ... either an RG group (supplemented with 3 g of RG, including 60 mg of ginsenosides, per day) or a placebo group for 12 weeks ... Significant improvements in the Kupperman index (P = 0.032) and in the menopause rating scale (P = 0.035) scores were observed in the RG group compared with the placebo group. Total cholesterol (P = 0.009) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.015) significantly decreased in the group receiving RG. The RG group also showed a significant decrease in carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.049). Serum estradiol levels were not influenced by RG supplementation" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive Action of Panax ginseng Roots in Hypercortisolism-induced Impairment of Hippocampal Neurons in Male C57BL/6N Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1242-5 - "An increasing number of people suffering from hypercortisolism are at risk of developing hippocampus impairment and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the water extract of Panax ginseng roots (GWE) could prevent hypercortisolism-induced adverse consequences. Hypercortisolism was experimentally induced by repeated corticosterone injection in male mice. Treatment with corticosterone alone resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampus neurofilament light chain (NF-L) protein expression and induced depression-like behavior. Serum corticosterone was significantly increased in the corticosterone-treated mice. Treatment with GWE (800 and 400 mg/kg) during corticosterone treatment reduced or partially antagonized the effects induced by corticosterone toward the normal values of the controls; however, it failed to normalize increased corticosterone levels in corticosterone-treated mice. Overall, ginseng conclusively exhibited a protective action against hypercortisolism-induced impairment of hippocampal neurons"
  • Effects of Ginseng Rhizome and Ginsenoside Ro on Testosterone 5α-Reductase and Hair Re-growth in Testosterone-treated Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 May 2 - "Extracts of red ginseng rhizome showed greater dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR) when compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg(3) , a unique ginsenoside in red ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC(50) values of 259.4 and 86.1 µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR. Topical administration of extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2 mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2 mg/mouse) to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that red ginseng rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model"
  • Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and Its Isolated Ginsenosides and Polysaccharides on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Individuals - Am J Hypertens. 2010 Feb 4 - "Although preliminary, this study is the first to demonstrate that KRG may improve arterial stiffness as measured by AI"
  • A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals - Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jun 4 - "a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED) ... penile erection index (PEI) ... At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats"
  • Effect of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, on body weight and glucose homeostasis in an obese insulin-resistant rat model - Metabolism. 2009 Jan;58(1):8-15 - "We evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antiobesity effects of ginsam, a component of Panax ginseng produced by vinegar extraction, which is enriched in the ginsenoside Rg3 ... Insulin-resistant rats treated with ginsam had lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations compared with vehicle-treated rats. Importantly, overall glucose excursion during the intraperitoneal 2-hour glucose tolerance test decreased by 21.5% (P < .01) in the treated rats, indicating improved glucose tolerance. Plasma insulin concentration was significantly lower in ginsam-treated rats. These changes may be related to increased glucose transporter 4 expression in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, when the data from both ginsam-treated groups were combined, body weight was 60% lower in the ginsam-treated rats than in the controls (P < .01). Liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were also lower in the ginsam-treated rats. These effects were associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in liver and muscle. Our data suggest that ginsam has distinct beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and body weight control in an obese animal model of insulin resistance by changing the expression of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Panax Ginseng Enhances Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer Disease - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jun 17 - "ginseng group was treated with Panax ginseng powder (4.5 g/d) for 12 weeks ... After ginseng treatment, the cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and continued up to 12 weeks (P=0.029 and P=0.009 vs. baseline, respectively). After discontinuing ginseng, the improved ADAS and MMSE scores declined to the levels of the control group. These results suggest that Panax ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of AD patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Combined effects of swim training and ginseng supplementation on exercise performance time, ROS, lymphocyte proliferation, and DNA damage following exhaustive exercise stress - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Jul;77(4):289-96 - "These findings suggest that the combined effect of swim training and ginseng supplementation sustain lymphocyte function in the presence of reduced ROS production and DNA damage following acute exercise stress"
  • Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women - Menopause. 2006 Dec 28 - "The one randomized, controlled trial of ginseng in postmenopausal women reported improvements in mood and anxiety"
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