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Anti-aging Research > Ginseng
News & Research:
Is Ginseng Effective for
Cancer-Related Fatigue? - Medscape, 8/1/14 - "Barton
and colleagues performed a phase 3, multisite, double-blind, randomized
trial evaluating the use of Wisconsin ginseng (P quinquefolius) (3%
ginsenosides) 2000 mg daily vs placebo for 8 weeks in 364 patients with CRF.
Fatigue was evaluated using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom
Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... At 4 weeks, change from baseline MFSI-SF
score in the ginseng group (n = 147) was 14.4 vs 8.2 in the placebo group (n
= 153) (P = .07). At 8 weeks, the ginseng group (n = 138) had a change in
score of 20 vs 10.3 in the placebo group (n = 133) (P = .003). Patients
receiving active cancer therapy reported greater benefit than those who had
completed treatment. Self-reported toxicities were similar between groups"
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Ginseng can treat, prevent influenza, RSV, researcher finds - Science
Daily, 4/21/14 - "respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
... After infection with influenza A virus, mice that were orally
administered ginseng over a long time showed multiple immune modifying
effects, such as stimulated antiviral production of proteins important in
immune response and fewer inflammatory cells in their bronchial walls ...
Korean red ginseng extract improved the survival of human lung epithelial
cells against RSV infection and inhibited the virus from replicating, or
multiplying, in the body. In addition, treatment with Korean red ginseng
extract suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory genes and the
formation of chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, which play a
role in virus-induced epithelial damage in RSV ... Also, mice that were
orally administered Korean red ginseng extract had lower viral levels after
infection with RSV"
(Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue - Medscape,
"cancer-related fatigue (CRF) ... A multisite,
double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of
American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ... Multidimensional Fatigue
Symptom Inventory–Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... A statistically significant
difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the
ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P = .003). Greater
benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those
who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading
did not differ statistically significantly between arms" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Korean Ginseng Berry
Extract Effect on Sexual Function in ED - Medscape, 5/6/13 -
"were administered 4 tablets of either standardized
Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng berry extract per tablet), or
placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed with the International
Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature ejaculation diagnostic
tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We observed that the total
and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15 increased from
40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the 8th week
(P<0.05). The erectile function domain of IIEF changed slightly from
17.17+/-2.57 to 18.59+/-5.99 in the SKGB group by the 8th week (P<0.05). In
addition, PEDT scores significantly improved from 9.14+/-4.57 to 7.97+/-4.4
and 7.53+/-4.26 in the SKGB group after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P<0.05).
Safety markers including hormone and lipid in the blood were assessed at the
end of the 4th and 8th week and they remained unchanged. Oral administration
of the SKGB extract improved all domains of sexual function"
Ginseng May Banish Cancer Fatigue, New Study Finds - ABC News, 6/4/12 -
"Researchers gave 2,000 milligrams of pure ground
American ginseng or a placebo pill to 340 patients being treated for cancer
and cancer survivors who had finished their treatment. After four weeks,
patients reported little change in their cancer-related fatigue. But after
eight weeks, the patients taking ginseng reported feeling generally more
energized than their sugar pill-popping peers. The response was particularly
strong among patients who were currently undergoing cancer treatment ...
Some studies have shown that ginseng decreases inflammation and the stress
hormone cortisol, both of which may be contributing factors to
cancer-related fatigue ... Extracts of ginseng that are alcohol based change
a characteristic of the ginseng to be somewhat estrogenic ... Stay with very
Natural aphrodisiacs: 'Spicing' up your love life possible, finds study of
ginseng and saffron - Science Daily, 3/28/11 -
"Ours is the most thorough scientific review to date. Nothing has been done
on this level of detail before now ... They found that panax ginseng,
saffron and yohimbine, a natural chemical from yohimbe trees in West Africa,
improved human sexual function ... People report increased sexual desire
after eating muira puama"
Best Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction? - Dr. Weil, 11/30/09 -
"Ginkgo ... Ashwaganda ... Asian ginseng
Ginseng: Nature's Anti-inflammatory? - Science Daily, 5/13/09 -
"The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to
the combined effects of these ginsenosides, targeting different levels of
immunological activity, and so contributing to the diverse actions of
ginseng in humans"
Ginseng May Help Treat Schizophrenia - WebMD, 5/8/08 -
"In a small study, patients had fewer negative
symptoms -- such as lack of motivation and a severe reduction in emotional
expression known as "flat affect" -- when they took Panax ginseng than when
they took a placebo ... patients were 50% less likely to have flat affect
when taking the higher, 200-milligram dose of ginseng than when taking
Ginseng May Relieve Cancer Fatigue - WebMD, 6/4/07
Shows Potential To Reduce Cancer-related Fatigue - Science Daily, 6/3/07
- "Of the four treatment arms, patients receiving
the placebo and the lowest dose of ginseng reported very little improvement
in fatigue or other areas of physical or psychological well-being. The
patients receiving the larger doses showed improvements in overall energy
levels, reporting higher vitality levels and less interference with activity
from fatigue. They also reported an improvement in overall mental, physical,
spiritual and emotional well-being"
Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At
Recommended Doses - Science Daily, 5/1/07 -
"found daily use of ginseng or ginkgo biloba
supplements at the recommended doses, or the combination of both
supplements, are unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics - by which drugs are
absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body - of the
majority of prescription or over-the counter drugs"
Researchers Find Ginseng May Improve Breast Cancer Outcomes - Science
Daily, 3/16/06 - "They also found significant
improvements in both survival and quality of life measures in patients who
Cortisol, Stress, and Health
- Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 -
"Supplements to reduce high
cortisol levels secondary to stress ...
Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3
fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine:
300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea:
100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day,
standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200
mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50
mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
Ginseng for Gesundheit? Latest Study on Colds - WebMD, 10/24/05 -
"one in 10 people in the ginseng group reported
having two or more colds that winter, compared with about 23% of those
taking the placebo ... Colds lasted about 11 days for the ginseng group and
16.5 days for the placebo group"
- Ginseng review
- ConsumerLab.com, 8/29/03 -
"A high amount of the pesticide hexachlorobenzene —
a potential human carcinogen — was found in one of five products labeled as
containing "Korean Ginseng." Levels of two other pesticides, quintozene and
lindane — were also above acceptable levels. Another product that failed the
new testing was a liquid "Chinese Ginseng" sold in single-dose bottles.
Despite being labeled "EXTRA STRENGTH" this product contained less than 10%
of the expected ginsenosides"
- Ginseng May
Help Treat Diabetes - WebMD, 6/16/03 -
"There are two reasons blood sugar can be out of
control in [people with
diabetes] ... Your body's tissues are not responsive enough to insulin
so they don't process it properly and/or you don't make enough insulin to
begin with ... Ginseng, he said, appears to help the patients both to
secrete more insulin and to process better the insulin they have" -
ginseng at Amazon.com
American ginseng products.
- Korean Red Ginseng
Benefits Men with Impotence - New Hope Natural Media, 1/2/03 -
"Men experiencing sexual difficulties due to
inability to achieve erection may be helped by Korean red ginseng (Panax
ginseng), according to a study published in the Journal of Urology ... It is
a problem that affects nearly half of men over age forty worldwide ... Some
60% of participants reported improved erections while receiving ginseng.
Improved sexual desire was also reported during ginseng treatment.
Testosterone levels did not change with treatment, leading the
researchers to conclude that improvements observed with ginseng are not due
to hormonal effects" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com
Korean (Panax) ginseng.
Ginseng May Help Regulate Blood Glucose - Natural Foods Merchandiser,
8/02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by
researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto
and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower
blood-sugar levels in diabetic and nondiabetic
patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
Ginseng Helps Regulate Blood Glucose - Nutrition Science News, Spring
'02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by
researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto,
and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower
blood-sugar levels in
diabetic and nondiabetic patients ... They found no significant
differences between the three doses—each lowered postprandial glucose levels
an average of 11.4 percent"
- Some Herbs Boost
Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/26/02 - "Our
studies show that dong quai and ginseng stimulate the growth of [breast
- Not All Ginseng
Supplements Are Alike - WebMD, 6/26/01 - "a new
analysis of 25 commercial ginseng products suggests that the actual
concentration of ginseng is lower than the label says about half the time
and in six products the concentration was only 1%"
Study: Supplement Can Help Take the 'Dys' Out of Female Sexual Dysfunction,
Researchers Promote Idea of 'Sexual Wellness' - WebMD, 6/5/01 -
"ArginMax -- a dietary
cocktail consisting of ginseng, ginkgo, B vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and
other vitamins and minerals -- is being heralded as one component of a
lifestyle that improves sexual performance and helps prevent problems
associated with intimacy"
Beyond the Label: American Ginseng Protects - Nutrition Science News,
2/01 - "American ginseng has been shown to display
synergistic effects against breast cancer cell growth when combined with
chemotherapy. From the protective perspective, American ginseng displays
potent antioxidant defenses against free radical damage to human LDL
cholesterol, which is reinforced by the vitamin C that inhabits LDL. The
most striking results attributable to this American root are found in its
ability to smooth out post-meal blood-sugar surges and carbohydrate
metabolism in both nondiabetics and type II diabetics."
Saving Yourself from AGE - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/00 - with
American Ginseng, "The researchers found a reduction
in plasma prolactin, a hormone connected with passive "nesting" behavior,
suggesting that this may play a role in the ability of American ginseng to
stimulate sexual activity in the male rat."
Want a love potion? What to know before you try - CNN, 6/15/00 -
"Tissue and animal studies of one form of ginseng,
called panax, give some credence to the root's sexy reputation. A study
published in the May 1995 issue of the journal British Pharmacology, for
instance, concluded that substances in ginseng extract known as ginsenosides
may work in a similar way to Viagra. Viagra enhances the effects of nitric
oxide, which helps relax artery walls, allowing more blood flow into the
penis. Ginsenosides may encourage the release of more nitric oxide."
White Ginseng Protects
Mouse Hippocampal Cells Against Amyloid-Beta Oligomer Toxicity - Phytother
Res. 2017 Jan 23 - "Amyloid-beta oligomer (AβO) is a
soluble oligomer form of the Aβ peptide and the most potent amyloid-beta form
that induces neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the effect
of dried white ginseng extract (WGE) on neuronal cell damage and memory
impairment in intrahippocampal AβO (10 μM)-injected mice ... WGE improved memory
impairment by inhibiting hippocampal cell death caused by AβO. In addition,
AβO-injected mice treated with WGE showed restoration of reduced synaptophysin
and choline acetyltransferase intensity and lower levels of ionized
calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 in the hippocampus compared with those of
vehicle-treated controls. These results suggest that WGE reverses memory
impairment in Alzheimer's disease by attenuating neuronal damage and
neuroinflammation in the AβO-injected mouse hippocampus" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Effects of Ginsenoside
Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task
in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats - Phytother Res. 2016 Oct 20 -
"Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients
of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in
several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through,
based on avoidance ... chronic restraint stress (CRS) ... Rg1 has a good ability
to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity
induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by
BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
American Ginseng Attenuates Colitis Associated Colon Carcinogenesis in
Mice: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Metabolomics - Cancer Prev Res (Phila).
2016 Jul 21 - "oral ginseng significantly decreased AOM/DSS-induced
colitis and colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines,
and restoring the metabolomic and microbiota profiles accordingly"
of ginseng (genus Panax) on blood pressure: a systematic review and
meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens.
2016 Apr 14 - "Ginseng appears to have neutral vascular
affects; therefore, should not be discouraged for concern of increased BP"
Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative
Injury in Rat Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell - Evid Based Complement
Alternat Med. 2016;2016:5326382 - "Diabetic retinopathy,
a leading cause of visual loss and blindness, is characterized by microvascular
dysfunction. Hyperglycemia is considered the major pathogenic factor for
diabetic retinopathy and is associated with increased oxidative stress in the
retina ... Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS) in retinal capillary endothelial
cells (RCECs) ... These results indicate that PNS exerts a protective effect
against high glucose-induced injury in RCECs, which may be partially attributed
to its antioxidative function" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive Function and Quantitative EEG in Patients with
Alzheimer's Disease: A Preliminary Study - J Altern Complement Med. 2016
Mar 14 - "Korean red ginseng (KRG) has a nootropic effect. This study assessed
the efficacy of KRG on cognitive function and quantitative
electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) ...
Fourteen patients with AD (mean age, 74.93 years; 11 women and 3 men) were
recruited and treated with KRG (4.5 g per day) for 12 weeks. Cognitive function
was assessed by the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the
Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) ... The FAB score improved significantly after
12 weeks of treatment. In the relative power spectrum analysis performed
according to responsiveness, alpha power increased significantly in the right
temporal area of the responders. The increments of relative alpha power in the
right temporal, parietal, and occipital areas were significantly higher in the
responders than the nonresponders"
Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng
Extract - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:603198 -
"These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng
extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway"
ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by
Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study - Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:817096 - "Ginseng is
well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects ... P. ginseng treated group in
SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The
protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were
decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P.
ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides
neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses"
Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and
Toxicity in Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:197459 -
"BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract
with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase ... Treatment with BST204 significantly increased
the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control
group ... This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related
fatigue and adverse toxic side effects" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Ginseng Extract Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Imatinib Mesylate Through
Abrogation p38 and STAT5 Activation in KBM-5 Cells - Phytother Res. 2015 Apr
8 - "Although imatinib mesylate (IM) in the treatment of
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) remains the best example of successful
targeted therapy, majority of patients with CML suffer its toxicity profile and
develop chemoresistance to existing therapeutic agents ... Korean red ginseng
extract broadly suppressed the proliferation of five different cell lines, but
KRGE was found to be the most potent inducer of apoptosis against KBM-5 cells
... The combination treatment of KRGE and IM caused pronounced suppression of
p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation and
induced phosphorylation of p53 compared with the individual treatment. Our
results demonstrate that KRGE can enhance the anticancer activity of IM and may
have a substantial potential in the treatment of CML"
Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among
Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based
Study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015 -
"Chinese herbal products (CHPs) ... tamoxifen (TMX) ... The HR for the
development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever
taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those
who never used CHP"
Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells
and Inhibiting Viral Replication - Nutrients. 2015 Feb 4;7(2):1021-1036 -
"Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years
but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We
investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial
virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models ...
Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective
effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include
improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation
of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung"
ginseng at Amazon.com
Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules at Amazon.com.
Antiatherosclerotic effect of korean red ginseng extract involves regulator of
g-protein signaling 5 - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:985174
- "In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and
anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr(-/-) mice and this effect
could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression"
of Radiation-Induced Alterations in Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Expression in
Lung Tissue by Panax Ginseng Extract - Phytother Res. 2014 Sep 15 -
"We investigated the modulating effect of Panax ginseng
extract (PGE) on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) ... A high pretreatment
dose of PGE may be a useful pharmacological approach for protection against
Ginseng Extract Exhibits Neuroprotective Effects through Inhibition of Apoptotic
Cell Death - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(6):938-46 -
"Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for
the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including
notoginseng saponins promotes stroke recovery by influencing expression of Nogo-A,
NgR and p75NGF, in vitro and in vivo - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):560-8 -
"This may be the mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins
that contributes to the recovery of nerve function, which plays an important
role in brain protection after cerebral infarction"
Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice -
Nutrients. 2014 May 5;6(5):1874-85 - "These results
suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a
glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in
peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance"
Treatment Attenuates Autophagic Cell Death in Chronic Cyclosporine Nephropathy
- Nephrology (Carlton). 2014 May 5 - "These findings
suggest that ginseng has a renoprotective effect against CsA-induced autophagic
F2 Reduces Hair Loss by Controlling Apoptosis through the Sterol Regulatory
Element-Binding Protein Cleavage Activating Protein and Transforming Growth
Factor-β Pathways in a Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Mouse Model - Biol Pharm
Bull. 2014;37(5):755-763 - "the proliferation rates of
DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48%
in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group"
ginsenoside F2 (CHEBI:77145) - "A ginsenoside
found in Panax species"
ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid
mobilization in adipose tissue - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 20 -
"Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy
expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng
extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A
(PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation
in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng
extracts prevent HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization" -
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells against G-CSF-Induced DNA Damage - Cancer
Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Mar 10 - "Granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been utilized to treat neutropenia in
various clinical settings. Although clearly beneficial, there are concerns that
the chronic use of G-CSF in certain conditions increases the risk of
myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most
striking example is in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). SCN patients develop
MDS/AML at a high rate that is directly correlated to the cumulative lifetime
dosage of G-CSF. MDS and AML that arise in these settings are commonly
associated with chromosomal deletions. We have demonstrated in this study that
chronic G-CSF treatment in mice results in expansion of the hematopoietic stem
cell population. In addition, primitive hematopoietic progenitors from
G-CSF-treated mice show evidence of DNA damage as demonstrated by an increase in
double strand breaks and recurrent chromosomal deletions. Concurrent treatment
with genistein, a natural soy isoflavone, limits DNA damage in this population
... The protective effect of genistein was accomplished with plasma levels that
are attainable through dietary supplementation" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Rb3 attenuates oxidative stress and preserves endothelial function in
hypertension - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 26 - "Panax
ginseng is commonly used to treat cardiovascular complications in oriental
countries. This study investigated mechanisms underlying vascular benefits of
ginsenoside Rb3 (Rb3) in hypertension ... Ex vivo Rb3 treatment restores the
impaired endothelial function in hypertension through reversing the
over-expression of NADPH oxidases and subsequent ROS overproduction, leading to
improved NO bioavailability. The present novel findings suggest that
Rb3-containing medicinal plants might be effective in curtailing oxidative
stress and protecting endothelial function in hypertension"
Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like
Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3 β
-CREB Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.
2014;2014:506735 - "This study aimed to explore the
antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS) in the corticosterone-induced
mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1),
intragastrically) were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS
were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1),
subcutaneously) injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a
forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21,
respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed
that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) exhibited antidepressant activity and not
statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic
factor (BDNF) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L). Results of Experiment 2
showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) ameliorated depression-like behavior
without normalizing hypercortisolism"
Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection
- Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):517-29 - "We investigated
whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus
infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung
epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the
expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through
interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus
infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple
immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production
after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice
inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens.
Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing
influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions"
Rg3 Up-regulates the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Human
Dermal Papilla Cells and Mouse Hair Follicles - Phytother Res. 2013 Dec 26 -
"Crude Panax ginseng has been documented to possess hair
growth activity and is widely used to treat alopecia, but the effects of
ginsenoside Rg3 on hair growth have not to our knowledge been determined ...
Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was significantly
up-regulated by Rg3 in a dose-dependent manner in human DP cells and in mouse
hair follicles. In addition, the CD8 and CD34 were also up-regulated by Rg3 in
the mouse hair follicles. It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase hair
growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells and it has the potential
to be used in hair growth products" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Ginsenoside Rg3 ≥98% (HPLC) - Sigma-Aldrich - "Ginsenoside
Rg3 is a natural product isolated from Panax ginseng. Similar to other
ginsenosides it exhibits cardio protective effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances
cardiac, hERG (IKr) and KCNQ (Iks), channel currents by interaction with the
channel pore entryway. It also inhibits the palmitate-induced apoptosis of
MIN6N8 mouse insulinoma beta-cells through modulating p44/42 MAPK
activation. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases the level of the transcription factor
Nrf2 and induces the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein
(Mrp) 1 and Mrp3.1 Rg3 modulate neuroinflammation by attenuating the
activation of microglia in response to systemic LPS treatment.2 It activates
AMPK in HepG2 cells and reduces the lipid accumulation thereby decreasing
the risk of cardiovascular disease due to dyslipidemia"
notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate
Sodium Mouse Model - Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 21 -
"Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and
treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
pseudoginseng - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -
"Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax"
Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality:mimetic exercise training
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 15 - "Ginsenoside
Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in
herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent ... In the present study, we
compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on
mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
Three groups of SD rats were studied 1) sedentary control, 2) Rg3-treated and 3)
aerobic exercise trained ... Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise
by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and
quality of mitochondria"
of fermented red ginseng on depression is mediated by lipids - Nutr
Neurosci. 2013 Oct 1 - "The cortico-limbic
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has emerged as an important area for the
cause and treatment of depression. The primary aim of this study was to test the
hypothesis that hormones, energy sources, and minerals have a causal
relationship with depression. The secondary aim was to test whether consumption
of fermented red ginseng (FRG) would influence that causal relationship ... One
group (49 women) was supplied with FRG capsules, and the other group (44 women)
with placebo capsules, for 2 weeks. Both before and after the study, the
participants filled out the Beck depression inventory questionnaire, and then
blood samples were collected ... cognitive depression (CD) and somatic
depression ... the effect of FRG consumption on CD occurred via the energy
factor, which is mainly attributable to cholesterol"
Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Randomized,
Double-Blind Trial, N07C2 - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jul 13 -
"A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued
cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ...
Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions ...
Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an
8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the
Ginsenoside Rg1 Supplementation Improves Age-Related Cognitive Decline by
Promoting Synaptic Plasticity Associated Protein Expression in C57BL/6J Mice
- J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul 5 - "In aging
individuals, age-related cognitive decline is the most common cause of memory
impairment. Among the remedies, ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of
ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects ... This study employed
a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the
age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1
supplementation on the cognitive performance. We found that Rg1 supplementation
improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly
upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in
hippocampus, including synaptophysin, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1,
postsynaptic density-95, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
alpha, via promoting mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation. These
data provide further support for Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during
Korean ginseng berry extract on sexual function in men with erectile
dysfunction: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study
- Int J Impot Res. 2012 Dec 20 - "Ginseng is beneficial
for many aspects of human physiology, including sexual function ... administered
4 tablets of either standardized Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng
berry extract per tablet), or placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed
with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature
ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We
observed that the total and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15
increased from 40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the
8th week (P<0.05)"
Prevention and Immuno-Enhancement Mediated by Daily Consumption of a Proprietary
Extract from North American Ginseng by Elderly Mice of a Cancer-Prone Strain
- Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 7 - "We have previously shown
in a leukemia-induced tumor model (mouse) that a proprietary extract (CVT-E002),
of North American ginseng, administered in the diet, significantly increased the
absolute numbers of NK cells, significantly decreased leukemia cells and
significantly increased the life span of CVT-E002-fed leukemic mice. In the
present study, we assessed the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the
spontaneous development of tumors in elderly mice of the cancer-prone C3H
strain. Dietary CVT-E002 was fed for approximately a year beginning when mice
were almost 2 years of age. Control mice, consuming the same chow without
CVT-E002, all developed assorted, palpable tumors between 22 and 33 months,
while all mice consuming CVT-E002 remained alive and tumor-free until they were
purposely euthanized as healthy animals. The absolute numbers of NK cells at
euthanasia, in CVT-E002-consuming mice, were significantly elevated in both the
spleen and bone marrow. Given these profoundly positive results and the fact
that CVT-E002 already exists in the marketplace under the label Cold-fX®, the
potential for cancer prevention in humans becomes apparent" - See
Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules.
Sun Ginseng on Memory Enhancement and Hippocampal Neurogenesis - Phytother
Res. 2012 Oct 29 - "Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been
used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing
method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known
as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing
method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with
increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun
ginseng (SG) ... These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities
and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of
pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival"
effects of Korean red ginseng on lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme
activity, and LDL oxidation in healthy participants: a randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial - Nutr J. 2012 Jul 17;11(1):47 -
"KRG supplementation may attenuate lymphocyte DNA damage
and LDL oxidation by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity"
Re rapidly reverses insulin resistance in muscles of high-fat diet fed rats
- Metabolism. 2012 May 7 - "Our results show that the
ginsenoside Re induces a remarkably rapid reversal of high-fat diet-induced
insulin resistance of muscle glucose transport by reversing the impairment of
insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface"
Synergistic Apoptotic Interaction of Panaxadiol and Epigallocatechin Gallate in
Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2012 May 8 -
"Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng
saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a
major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant ... Cell growth
was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20 µm) for 48 h. When PD (10 and
20 µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30 µm), significantly enhanced
antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20 µm of
PD with 20 and 30 µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells.
In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased
the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p < 0.01). The
synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which
demonstrated that PD and EGCG bound in two different sites of the annexin V
protein. Data from this study suggested that apoptosis might play an important
role in the EGCG-enhanced antiproliferative effects of PD on human colorectal
Ginseng as a
Potential Novel Addition to the Antikeloid Weaponry - Phytother Res. 2012
Feb 8 - "Keloid scars are large protruding claw-shaped
lesions that develop beyond the confines of the wound and uniquely appears only
in humans. For thousands of years ginseng has been used in the traditional
medicine in oriental countries. It occupies a prominent position in the list of
the best-selling medicinal herbs in the world. Panax ginseng often called Asian
or Korean ginseng, is the most extensively used and the best grade of ginseng
and the term of 'ginseng' generally refers to Panax ginseng. Previous studies
have revealed that ginseng inhibits NF-kappa B, TGF-β, IL-6, ACE and MMP-2 and
these factors play a pivotal role in keloid formation pathogenesis. Therefore it
could be reasoned that ginseng could be effective for the treatment of the
keloid scars. Clinical studies by topical applications of iPanax notoginseng
(800 µg/ml) are warranted"
Rg1 Promotes Glucose Uptake Through Activated AMPK Pathway in Insulin-resistant
Muscle Cells - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 15 -
"Ginsenoside Rg1, a protopanaxatriols saponin, is one of the major active
constituents from Panax ginseng and possesses various biological activities ...
chronic treatment of insulin resulted in reduced glucose uptake in the muscle
cells. The treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly enhanced glucose uptake in
the differentiated muscle cells and the relative abundance of GLUT4 through the
adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest
that ginsenoside Rg1 improved the insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells,
which might be useful for prevention of T2DM and metabolic syndromes" -
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High Fat Fed
Sprague-Dawley Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Oct 28 -
"Many studies have documented that ginseng has antidiabetic and antiobesity
effects, but the mechanism of the effects has not been elucidated. The aim of
this study was to determine the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax
ginseng) and investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic and antiobesity effects
in obese insulin resistant animal models. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided
into three groups: a control group (group I) fed a normal diet, another group
(group II) fed only high fat diet (HFD) and a third group (group III) fed HFD
with KRG (200 mg/kg, oral) for 18 weeks ... A significant weight reduction,
especially fat mass reduction, was observed in the KRG treated group. Increased
insulin sensitivity was found in the KRG treated group. We observed increased
insulin signalling, increased phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1, Akt, and membranous
GLUT4 in muscle by Western blotting assay. In conclusion, KRG may have
antidiabetic and antiobesity effects due to partly increased insulin sensitivity
by increased adipokine and partly enhanced insulin signalling" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk
factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
- Menopause. 2011 Oct 24 - "The aim of this study was to
evaluate the effects of red ginseng (RG) on menopausal symptoms and
cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women ... either an RG group
(supplemented with 3 g of RG, including 60 mg of ginsenosides, per day) or a
placebo group for 12 weeks ... Significant improvements in the Kupperman index
(P = 0.032) and in the menopause rating scale (P = 0.035) scores were observed
in the RG group compared with the placebo group. Total cholesterol (P = 0.009)
and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.015) significantly decreased in
the group receiving RG. The RG group also showed a significant decrease in
carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.049). Serum estradiol levels were not
influenced by RG supplementation"
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Action of Panax ginseng Roots in Hypercortisolism-induced Impairment of
Hippocampal Neurons in Male C57BL/6N Mice - Phytother Res. 2011
Aug;25(8):1242-5 - "An increasing number of people
suffering from hypercortisolism are at risk of developing hippocampus impairment
and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the water
extract of Panax ginseng roots (GWE) could prevent hypercortisolism-induced
adverse consequences. Hypercortisolism was experimentally induced by repeated
corticosterone injection in male mice. Treatment with corticosterone alone
resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampus neurofilament light chain
(NF-L) protein expression and induced depression-like behavior. Serum
corticosterone was significantly increased in the corticosterone-treated mice.
Treatment with GWE (800 and 400 mg/kg) during corticosterone treatment reduced
or partially antagonized the effects induced by corticosterone toward the normal
values of the controls; however, it failed to normalize increased corticosterone
levels in corticosterone-treated mice. Overall, ginseng conclusively exhibited a
protective action against hypercortisolism-induced impairment of hippocampal
Ginseng Rhizome and Ginsenoside Ro on Testosterone 5α-Reductase and Hair
Re-growth in Testosterone-treated Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 May 2 -
"Extracts of red ginseng rhizome showed greater
dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR) when
compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant
ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg(3) , a unique ginsenoside in red
ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC(50) values of 259.4 and
86.1 µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger
amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR. Topical administration of
extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2 mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2 mg/mouse)
to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the
testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that red ginseng
rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a
promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that
ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory
activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model"
Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and Its Isolated Ginsenosides and
Polysaccharides on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Individuals - Am J
Hypertens. 2010 Feb 4 - "Although preliminary, this
study is the first to demonstrate that KRG may improve arterial stiffness as
measured by AI"
herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and
safety study in animals - Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jun 4 -
"a new herbal combination called Etana that is
composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng),
Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed),
Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the
above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for
erectile dysfunction (ED) ... penile erection index (PEI) ... At a 7.5 mg
kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI
of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals.
This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and
than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with
sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1),
but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and
sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion,
this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that
enhance erectile function in male rats"
of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, on body weight and glucose
homeostasis in an obese insulin-resistant rat model - Metabolism. 2009
Jan;58(1):8-15 - "We evaluated the antihyperglycemic
and antiobesity effects of ginsam, a component of Panax ginseng produced by
vinegar extraction, which is enriched in the ginsenoside Rg3 ...
Insulin-resistant rats treated with ginsam had lower fasting and
postprandial glucose concentrations compared with vehicle-treated rats.
Importantly, overall glucose excursion during the intraperitoneal 2-hour
glucose tolerance test decreased by 21.5% (P < .01) in the treated rats,
indicating improved glucose tolerance. Plasma insulin concentration was
significantly lower in ginsam-treated rats. These changes may be related to
increased glucose transporter 4 expression in skeletal muscle.
Interestingly, when the data from both ginsam-treated groups were combined,
body weight was 60% lower in the ginsam-treated rats than in the controls (P
< .01). Liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were
also lower in the ginsam-treated rats. These effects were associated with
increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in liver
and muscle. Our data suggest that ginsam has distinct beneficial effects on
glucose metabolism and body weight control in an obese animal model of
insulin resistance by changing the expression of genes involved in glucose
and fatty acid metabolism" - See
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Panax Ginseng Enhances
Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer Disease - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord.
2008 Jun 17 - "ginseng group was treated with Panax
ginseng powder (4.5 g/d) for 12 weeks ... After ginseng treatment, the
cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and
continued up to 12 weeks (P=0.029 and P=0.009 vs. baseline, respectively).
After discontinuing ginseng, the improved ADAS and MMSE scores declined to
the levels of the control group. These results suggest that Panax ginseng is
clinically effective in the cognitive performance of AD patients" -
ginseng at Amazon.com.
Combined effects of swim training and ginseng supplementation on exercise
performance time, ROS, lymphocyte proliferation, and DNA damage following
exhaustive exercise stress - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Jul;77(4):289-96
- "These findings suggest that the combined effect
of swim training and ginseng supplementation sustain lymphocyte function in
the presence of reduced ROS production and DNA damage following acute
Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women
- Menopause. 2006 Dec 28 - "The one randomized,
controlled trial of ginseng in postmenopausal women reported improvements in
mood and anxiety"
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