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Home > Anti-aging Research > Fatty Acids

Omega-3 - Alpha Linolenic Acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosahexaenoic acid, Docosapentaenoic acid

See my essential fatty acids page for a brief summary of EFAs.

Related Topics:

Specific Recommendations:

Omega 3 in various fish oil capsules as a percentage of the total fat in the capsule

Brand

Total omega 3 EPA DHA Other omega 3 (DPA and ALA)
Twinlab TwinEPA (vc) 1,000 mg capsule 840/1000 = 84% 600/1000 = 60% 240/1000 = 24% 0%
Jarrow Max DHA * 500 mg capsule 400/500 = 80% 100/500 = 20% 250/500 = 50% 50/500 = 10%
Sun Ultra DHA 50 * 500 mg capsule 400/500 = 80% 100/500 = 20% 250/500 = 50% 50/500 = 10%
Sun Ultra 30/20 * 1,000 mg capsule 600/1000 = 60% 300/1000 = 30% 200/1000 = 20% 100/1000 = 10%
Source Naturals EPA 1,000 mg capsule 600/1000 = 60% 450/1000 = 45% 100/1000 = 10% 50/1000 = 5%
RxOmega-3 1,000 mg capsule 630/1065 = 59% 400/1065 = 38% 200/1065 = 19% 30/1065 = 3%
LEF Mega EPA 1,200 mg capsule 700/1200 = 58% 400/1200 = 33% 300/1200 = 25% 0%
Enzymatic Eskimo-3 500 mg capsule 200/500 = 40% 87/500 = 17% 55/500 = 11% 58/500 = 12%
NSI Superior EFA 1,000 mg capsule 400/1000 = 40% 100/1000 = 10% 250/1000 = 25% 50/1000 = 5%
Carlson Norwegian Salmon Oil 1,000 mg capsule 375/1000 = 38% 180/1000 = 18% 125/1000 = 13% 70/1000 = 7%
Twinlab Super MaxEPA 1,200 mg capsule  375/1200 = 31% 225/1200 = 19% 150/1200 = 12% 0%
Sun Ultra Omega 3 1,000 mg capsule 300/1000 = 30% 180/1000 = 18% 120/1000 = 12% 0%
Zone Perfect 1000 mg capsule 267/1000 = 27% 160/1000 = 16% 107/1000 = 11%  
Now Foods Salmon Oil 400/2000 = 20% 240/2000 = 12% 160/2000 = 8% 0%

Vegetable oils (note that the omega 3 is in the form of ALA.  See "General Information" below for why this might not be as good)

Source Natural Omega Flax 1,000 mg capsule 570/1000 = 57% 0% 0% 570/1000 = 57% (ALA)
Canola Oil 10% 0% 0% 10% (ALA)

vc - Vitacost price
* Molecular Distillation

CME:

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: New Findings and Formulations - Continuing Medical Education (CME):Princeton Media Associates, exp. 10/29/06 - "To lower TG levels, the dose of omega-3 therapy is ~4 g of EPA + DHA per day"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Recommendations for Therapeutics and Prevention - Medscape, exp. 10/19/06 - "Studies support low DHA as a risk factor for dementia. Low total n-3 fatty acids levels, EPA and DHA associate with greater risk of CVD, dietary intake and/or supplementation is supported as a secondary or tertiary prevention measure. Omega-3 fatty acids also help to prevent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, two common precursors to CVD. There is some support for schizophrenia, depressive or aggressive disorders; however, large multi-center clinical trials have yet to be conducted. The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids are helpful in decreasing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and may possibly increase remission length in Crohn's patients"
  • Omega 3: Implications in human health and disease - PowerPak (CME course), exp. 8/1/03 - "On average, our society consumes around 35% of its caloric intake from fat, mainly as vegetable oil. The omega 6 LA comprises 7% to 9% of our daily caloric intake, while the omega 3 LNA makes up about 0.7% of energy. It is therefore estimated that the dietary ratio of LA to LNA ranges from 10 to 20:1, at which level the metabolism of LNA is strongly suppressed.2,25 Again, this is far more than the recommended ratio of 2.3:1" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.

General Information:

  • An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to the Appropriate Selection of Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty - PowerPak.com, 6/1/07 - "Fish oils EPA and DHA appear to result in different physiologic effects than their precursor, the plant-derived ALA.12-14 Biosynthesis of EPA or DHA from ALA is limited. Although dietary consumption of ALA alone will prevent EFA deficiency, emerging scientific evidence indicates that for optimum health or body function, the fish oils EPA and DHA should also be ingested regularly, either from dietary or supplement sources. Use of ALA supplementation alone, even with high dose or long-term consumption, does not result in lowered triglyceride concentrations seen with EPA or DHA, nor does it demonstrate similar in vitro susceptibility to oxidation of LDL cholesterol"
  • The Heart-Healthy Benifits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - John Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6/05 - "Fish-oil supplements appear to have much lower levels of toxins than fish. In a study of 5 over the-counter fish-oil preparations, levels of PCBs and organochlorines were below the detectable limit in all of the supplements ... Because consumption of this amount of fish in secondary prevention is difficult for most individuals, dietary supplementation is generally needed and should be recommended. The dose in secondary prevention should be at least 875 mg of EPA + DHA per day. This dose can generally be obtained by taking 2 capsules of concentrated fish oils (at least 50% EPA + DHA) per day. For example, such a preparation would contain 500 mg of EPA + DHA per each 1000-mg fish-oil capsule"
  • Omega 3: Implications in Human Health and Disease - PowerPak.com - "It should be noted, however, that flaxseed or flaxseed oil does not contain EPA or DHA. Thus flaxseed and fish oil are not interchangeable sources of omega 3 fatty acids per se" - I believe the same holds true for canola oil - Ben
  • Omega 3: Implications in Human Health and Disease -PowerPak.com -"The omega 6 LA comprises 7% to 9% of our daily caloric intake, while the omega 3 LNA makes up about 0.7% of energy. It is therefore estimated that the dietary ratio of LA to LNA ranges from 10 to 20:1, at which level the metabolism of LNA is strongly suppressed. Again, this is far more than the recommended ratio of 2.3:1 ... From an evolutionary perspective, a significant change in the diet has occurred in a very short time. The diet of our ancestors in the Paleolithic period (400,000 to 45,000 years ago) was lower in fat and balanced in omega 6 and omega 3—a ratio of 1:1, or 10- to 20-fold lower than today's standard."

News & Research:

  • More Data on Omega-3s and Cognitive Function - Medscape, 7/27/17 - "Their results showed a statistically significant relationship between omega-3 EPA + DHA status, hippocampal brain perfusion, and scoring on memory testing ... The researchers concluded that this positive relationship means that relatively simple dietary changes could favorably impact cognitive functioning" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The top ingredients for cognition, focus and mood - Nutra USA, 7/14/17 - "omega-3 ... Phosphatidylserine (PS) ... B-vitamins ... Vitamin E ... Lutein ... Citicoline ... Magnesium ... L-theanine ... Curcumin ... Resveratrol ... Blueberry anthocyanins ... Inositol-stabilized arginine silicate ... Spearmint extract ... Ashwaganda ... Bacopa ... Teacrine"
  • Can omega-3 help prevent Alzheimer's disease? Brain SPECT imaging shows possible link - Science Daily, 5/18/17 - "Overall, the study showed positive relationships between omega-3 EPA+DHA status, brain perfusion, and cognition ... This is very important research because it shows a correlation between lower omega-3 fatty acid levels and reduced brain blood flow to regions important for learning, memory, depression and dementia ... Although we have considerable evidence that omega-3 levels are associated with better cardiovascular health, the role of the 'fish oil' fatty acids in mental health and brain physiology is just beginning to be explored. This study opens the door to the possibility that relatively simple dietary changes could favorably impact cognitive function"
  • Studies link healthy brain aging to omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the blood - Science Daily, 5/18/17 - "The team found correlations between blood levels of three omega-3 fatty acids -- ALA, stearidonic acid and ecosatrienoic acid -- and fluid intelligence in these adults. Further analyses revealed that the size of the left frontoparietal cortex played a mediating role in this relationship. People with higher blood levels of these three nutrients tended to have larger left frontoparietal cortices, and the size of the frontoparietal cortex predicted the subjects' performance on tests of fluid intelligence ... A lot of research tells us that people need to be eating fish and fish oil to get neuroprotective effects from these particular fats, but this new finding suggests that even the fats that we get from nuts, seeds and oils can also make a difference in the brain ... These findings have important implications for the Western diet, which tends to be misbalanced with high amounts of omega-6 fatty acids and low amounts of omega-3 fatty acids"
    • Stearidonic acid - Wikipedia - "Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an ω-3 fatty acid, sometimes called moroctic acid. It is biosynthesized from alpha-linolenic acid by the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. Natural sources of this fatty acid are the seed oils of hemp, blackcurrant, corn gromwell[1] and echium (although the plant is a source of stearidonic acid, it is toxic for human consumption), and the cyanobacterium Spirulina"
  • Fish Oil For Moms May Cut Kids' Asthma Risk - WebMD, 12/29/16 - "randomly assigned 736 pregnant women to take either fish oil capsules or a placebo every day during the third trimester. The placebo capsules contained olive oil ... In the end, children in the fish-oil group were about one-third less likely to develop asthma or persistent wheezing -- a sign of asthma in very young children. By the age of 5, nearly 17 percent were diagnosed with either condition, versus almost one-quarter of children in the placebo group" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate brown adipose tissue metabolism - Science Daily, 11/21/16 - "The main function of brown adipose tissue is to burn calories and to make physical warmth out of fat (thermogenesis). However, a recent study by this research team has defined that brown adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ and can secrete factors that activate fat and carbohydrates metabolism ... these molecules, released by the adipose tissue (brown adipocytes or batokines) have positive metabolic effects. For this reason, they could be used in new therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases"
  • Omega-3s a Recipe for Healthy BP in Young Adults - WebMD, 11/13/16 - "We found adults in the highest quarter [group] had about 4 millimeters of mercury [mm Hg] lower systolic pressure and 2 mm Hg lower diastolic pressure, compared to those with the least omega-3 fatty acids in their blood"
  • Additional benefit of omega-3 fatty acids for the clearance of metabolites from the brain - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in fish oil, could improve the function of the glymphatic system, which facilitates the clearance of waste from the brain, and promote the clearance of metabolites including amyloid-β peptides, a primary culprit in Alzheimer's disease ... This study should not turn attention away from the roles of these substances in maintaining vascular health, but neither should they restrict our view. The brain is an extremely vascularized organ, while we might also bear in mind that omega-3 fatty acids may impact neurons, glia, and astrocytes themselves"
  • Fish oil may help improve mood in veterans - Science Daily, 9/23/16 - "Kreider says fish oil contains Omega-3 fatty acids that help to boost brain function. He says studies also show that fish oil acts as an anti-inflammatory within the body -- helping athletes and soldiers manage intense training better. Fish oil content is especially important for soldiers due to the consistent training and physical regiments performed in and out of combat and risk to traumatic brain injury"
  • Omega-3, omega-6 supplement improves reading for children - Science Daily, 9/14/16 - "study included 154 schoolchildren from western Sweden in grade 3, between nine and ten years old. The children took a computer-based test (known as the Logos test) that measured their reading skills in a variety of ways, including reading speed, ability to read nonsense words and vocabulary ... The children were randomly assigned to receive either capsules with omega-3 and omega-6, or identical capsules that contained a placebo (palm oil) for 3 months ... After three months, all children received real omega-3/6 capsules for the final three months of the study ... Even after three months, we could see that the children's reading skills improved with the addition of fatty acids, compared with those who received the placebo" - Note:  Most American's get about 20 time the omega-6 they need.  See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds - WebMD, 8/18/16 - "The team found that those who routinely consumed 500 milligrams (mg) a day of omega-3 fatty acid in their diets (equal to two servings of fatty fish per week) were 48 percent less likely to develop diabetic retinopathy than those who consumed less" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 lowers childhood aggression in short term - Science Daily, 5/14/16 - "In a randomized control trial, one group received omega-3 supplements for six months, the other didn't. Those taking the fish oil saw a reduction in aggressive and antisocial behavior ... The Philadelphia randomized control study placed 290 11- and 12-year-olds with a history of violence into four groups: The first received omega-3 in the form of juice, as well as multivitamins and calcium for three months. For that same duration, a second group participated in cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, which included meeting weekly for an hour, with time split between the child, the parent and with both together ... A third group in the study took the supplements and participated in CBT, and a fourth received resources and information targeted at reducing aggressive behavior ... immediately after three months of the nutritional intervention rich in omega-3s, we found a decrease in the children's reporting of their aggressive behavior"
  • Nutrient supplements can give antidepressants a boost - Science Daily, 4/26/16 - "Omega 3 fish oils, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), methylfolate (bioactive form of folate) and Vitamin D, were all found to boost the effects of medication ... They reported mixed results for zinc, vitamin C and tryptophan (an amino acid). Folic acid didn't work particularly well, nor did inositol" - Note: For people who want an increase in energy and mood with anti-aging effects to boot, I’d skip the antidepressants and go with a combination of deprenyl, lithium (the over-the-counter supplement form), GH-3 and beta-arginine. On the beta-arginine, it will weird you out if you don’t start slow and take it with food if possible. Build yourself up to 3200 mg per day.  Don’t take more than 800 mg per three or four hour period.  Check with a doctor first on all of that.  Also, see methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil helps transform fat cells from storage to burning - Science Daily, 12/17/15 - "fish oil transforms fat-storage cells into fat-burning cells, which may reduce weight gain in middle age. Fish oil activates receptors in the digestive tract, fires the sympathetic nervous system, and induces storage cells to metabolize fat ... The team fed a group of mice fatty food, and other groups fatty food with fish oil additives. The mice that ate food with fish oil, they found, gained 5-10% less weight and 15-25% less fat compared to those that did not consume the oil"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention and Survivorship - Medscape, 10/1/15 - "Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case–control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts ... The inflammation-resolving properties and favorable effects of EPA and DHA on oncogenic proteins, as well as on the cardiovascular, bone, and central nervous system, make them excellent candidates for primary and secondary breast cancer prevention trials for individuals at increased risk as well as breast cancer survivors"
  • Fish-rich diet may help curb depression, new research finds - Washington Post, 9/11/15 - "a new study published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health on Friday involving 150,000 people provides the strongest evidence yet that fish may belong in the list of "good mood" foods that may stave off depression ... people eating the most fish had a 17 percent reduction in depression risk compared with those eating the least amount of fish"
  • Fish Oil for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy - Medscape, 8/6/15 - "The supplementation of fish oil significantly (p < 0.01) increased superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase and catalase activity in red blood cells as well as the total plasma antioxidant status in the patients. This approach of using omega-3 fatty acids as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer may help oncologists to manage the side effects of ongoing chemotherapy by improving the antioxidant status in patients"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may help improve treatment, quality of life in cancer patients - Science Daily, 7/28/15 - "The study found evidence of activity in response and disease stabilization rates, reduction in liver metastasis volume, and improved quality of life scores in this group of patients"
  • Fasting Triglycerides Predict CVD Risk in Statin-Treated Patients - Medscape, 5/29/15 - "those with the highest triglyceride levels at baseline (>175 mg/dL) had a significant 61% increased relative risk of cardiovascular events compared with individuals with the lowest triglyceride levels (<80 mg/dL) ... Even in patients with triglycerides in the 130-to-175-mg/dL range, which is at best considered minimally abnormal by current standards, we saw a significant increase in risk in those patients compared with those patients in the lowest quintile ... For the patient with moderately elevated triglycerides, say 150 mg/dL, lifestyle modification—diet, exercise, limiting alcohol intake, controlling existing diabetes, among other things—is first and foremost ... If triglycerides are still elevated, I might have a discussion with the patient regarding the adjunctive use of fish oil" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids enhance cognitive flexibility in at-risk older adults - Science Daily, 5/19/15 - "those who consumed more omega-3 fatty acids did better than their peers on tests of cognitive flexibility -- the ability to efficiently switch between tasks -- and had a bigger anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region known to contribute to cognitive flexibility"
  • Omega-3: Intervention for childhood behavioral problems? - Science Daily, 5/15/15 - "One hundred children, aged 8 to 16, would each receive a drink containing a gram of omega-3 once a day for six months, matched with 100 children who received the same drink without the supplement ... what was particularly interesting was what was happening at 12 months. The control group returned to the baseline while the omega-3 group continued to go down. In the end, we saw a 42 percent reduction in scores on externalizing behavior and 62 percent reduction in internalizing behavior"
  • Fish oil may help with diabetic neuropathy - Science Daily, 5/6/15 - "Approximately 50 percent of patients with diabetes suffer from nerve damage, or neuropathy. No cure exists, and the most effective treatment, keeping blood sugar in control, only slows neuropathy ... fish oil supplements can restore the condition of nerves damaged from diabetes in mice ... Previous studies of obesity and diabetes have reported better blood sugar handling, liver function and reduced inflammation with omega-3 fatty acids treatment. The health benefits were attributed to protective molecules produced from omega-3 fatty acids, including one type called resolvins"
  • Omega-3 Supplementation Helps Meibomian Gland Dysfunction - Medscape, 4/20/15 - "This study supports the potential of omega-3 fatty acids to prevent dry eye syndrome ... The prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction ranges from 30.3% to 63.3% and, in Asia, the prevalence is at the top of that range ... The 30 patients in the treatment group took two capsules of fish oil twice daily. The 1.2 g daily dose of omega-3 fatty acid consisted of eicosapentaenoic acid 720 mg and docosahexaenoic acid 480 mg ... The 30 patients in the placebo group took vitamin E 400 mg daily ... improvement was seen in all measures of meibomian gland dysfunction in the two groups, except the Schirmer's test, but changes were greater in the omega-3 group" - See the table on that link for the results.
  • Eight nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 - "Omega-3 fatty acids have long been shown to contribute to good heart health are now playing a role in cognitive health as well. A study on mice found that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appeared to result in better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory (memories that can be consciously recalled such as facts and knowledge), and adverse response retention (Cutuli, 2014). Foods rich in omega-3s include salmon, flaxseed oil, and chia seeds"
  • How fatty acids can fight prostate cancer - Science Daily, 3/18/15 - "the fatty acids bind to a receptor called FFA4, for "free fatty acid receptor 4." Rather than stimulating cancer cells, the receptor acts as a signal to inhibit growth factors, suppressing proliferation of the cancer cells" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Stem Further Damage After Heart Attack - WebMD, 3/4/15 - "374 heart attack survivors who received standard treatment and took either a 4-gram prescription-only dose of omega-3 fatty acids each day or a placebo ... patients taking the omega-3 capsules had lower levels of inflammation and were 39 percent less likely to show deterioration of heart function. There was also less thickening or scarring of the areas of the heart that were not directly damaged during the heart attack"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D may control brain serotonin, affecting behavior and psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 2/25/15 - "Serotonin affects a wide-range of cognitive functions and behaviors including mood, decision-making, social behavior, impulsive behavior, and even plays a role in social decision-making by keeping in check aggressive social responses or impulsive behavior ... Many clinical disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression share as a unifying attribute low brain serotonin ... This publication suggests that optimizing intakes of vitamin D, EPA, and DHA would optimize brain serotonin concentrations and function, possibly preventing and ameliorating some of the symptoms associated with these disorders without side effects" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com, Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty acids in fish may shield brain from mercury damage - Science Daily, 1/21/15 - "the new research indicates that this relation is far more complex and that compounds present in fish -- specifically polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) -- may also actively counteract the damage that mercury causes in the brain ... These findings show no overall association between prenatal exposure to mercury through fish consumption and neurodevelopmental outcomes"
  • Ask Well: Wild Fish vs. Farmed Fish - NYTimes.com, 12/18/13 - "One farmed variety you will encounter often is salmon. While some commercial fish farms follow unhealthy practices that are environmentally unfriendly and not sustainable, Mr. Fitzgerald said, there are some merchants that set high standards for the farmed salmon they sell, including the supermarket chains Wegmans and Whole Foods, and the producer Verlasso"
  • Fish intake associated with boost to antidepressant response- Science Daily, 10/20/14 - "They categorised the patients into 4 groups, according to their fatty fish intake, and they found that those who took the least fish tended to respond badly to anti-depressants, whereas those who had most fish in the diet responded best to anti-depressants. Those who ate fatty fish at least once a week had a 75% chance of responding to antidepressants, whereas those who never ate fatty fish had only a 23% chance of responding to antidepressants ... So far this is an association between fatty acids in blood and anti-depressant response; so it's not necessarily a causal effect. Our next step is to look at whether these alterations in fatty acid metabolism and hormonal activity are specific for depression, so we are currently repeating these measurements in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Slows Cognitive Decline, With Caveats - Medscape, 10/9/14 - "fish oil supplement use during the study was associated with a significantly lower rate of cognitive decline as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination, but only in participants free of dementia at the time of enrollment. Moreover, in patients with normal cognition at baseline, those who reported taking fish oil supplements demonstrated less brain atrophy in one or more of the MRI regions of interest, compared with those who did use the supplements"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent some forms of depression - Science Daily, 10/1/14 - "They recruited 152 patients with hepatitis C to participate, each of whom was randomized to receive two weeks of treatment with EPA, DHA, or placebo. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are the two main omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements ... Following the two-week treatment, the patients received a 24-week course of interferon-alpha treatment and were evaluated repeatedly for depression ... The researchers found that treatment with EPA, but not DHA or placebo, decreased the incidence of interferon-alpha-induced depression in patients being treated for hepatitis C"
  • Fish, fatty acid consumption associated with lower risk of hearing loss in women - Science Daily, 9/10/14 - "Data were from the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. In the study, 65,215 women were followed from 1991 to 2009. After 1,038,093 person-years of follow-up, 11,606 cases of incident hearing loss were reported. In comparison with women who rarely consumed fish, women who consumed two or more servings of fish per week had a 20 percent lower risk of hearing loss. When examined individually, higher consumption of each specific fish type was inversely associated with risk. Higher intake of long-chain omega-3PUFA was also inversely associated with risk of hearing loss"
  • Low-Dose Fish Oil Shows Reduced Seizures in Epilepsy - Medscape, 9/9/14 - "the previous studies tested a dose of fish oil containing 1700 to 2000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids per day ... But the lower dose in this study — 1000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids per day — showed a reduction in seizure frequency of about one third. "This is quite remarkable given that the patients included all had intractable epilepsy," ... In the low-dose group, 2 patients (10%) actually achieved seizure-free status"
  • Lipids boost the brain, study finds - Science Daily, 8/8/14 - "Consuming oils with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in particular those containing omega-3s, is beneficial for the health ... the presence of these lipids makes the membranes more malleable and therefore more sensitive to deformation and fission by proteins. These results, published on August 8, 2014 in Science, could help explain the extraordinary efficacy of endocytosis in neuron cells"
  • Fish Oil May Guard Against Alcohol-Related Brain Damage - Medscape, 7/25/14 - "The researchers assessed brain samples from adult male rats exposed during a period of several days to repetitive ethanol intoxication. Half of the brain samples were further exposed to omega-3 DHA and the other half were not ... Results showed higher levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) resulting from the excessive alcohol exposure, which led to increased neuroinflammation, or astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and increased brain edema ... Compared with rats that had not been exposed to alcohol, those that had been exposed had significantly higher levels of cPLA2 and phospho-CPLA2 in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and olfactory bulb (all, P < .05). They also had significantly increased levels of sPLA2 in all 3 areas"
  • Omega-3s in Diet May Help Ward Off Lou Gehrig's Disease - WebMD, 7/15/14 - "For the study, Fitzgerald's team looked at the association between ALS and these fatty acids among almost 1,000 ALS patients ... People ranked in the top 20 percent in terms of their omega-3 fatty acid intake cut their odds of developing ALS by a third, compared to those in the bottom 20 percent" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega 3 fatty acids lessen severity of osteoarthritis in mice - Science Daily, 7/11/14 - "The mice were fed one of three high-fat diets: one rich in saturated fat, one rich in omega 6 fatty acids, and one rich in omega 6 fatty acids but supplemented with a small amount of omega 3 fatty acids ... arthritis was significantly associated with the mice’s diets, but not with body weight. The mice that ate diets high in saturated fat or omega 6 fatty acids experienced significant worsening of their arthritis, while mice consuming a small supplement of omega 3 fatty acids had healthier joints ... While omega 3 fatty acids aren’t reversing the injury, they appear to slow the progression of arthritis in this group of mice,” Guilak said. “In fact, omega 3 fatty acids eliminated the detrimental effects of obesity in obese mice ... In mice consuming omega 3 fatty acids, a small ear punch typically used to differentiate mice healed much more quickly than it did in animals that did not receive the supplement" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Plus Inositol Promising in Pediatric BPD - Medscape, 6/26/14 - "The effects that we saw with these products, particularly the combination of high EPA omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol, were comparable to the effects that we are accustomed to seeing with more toxic drugs. It was quite surprising and quite impressive ... The small study included 24 children aged 6 to 12 years ... randomly assigned to receive either monotherapy with EPA/DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) omega-3 fatty acids (3000 mg) plus placebo (n = 7), inositol (2000 mg for children weighing 25 kg or more; 80 mg/kg for children weighing less than 25 kg) plus placebo (n = 7), or the combined active treatment of omega-3 fatty acids and inositol ... At the end of 12 weeks, the children who received the combined treatment of omega-3 fatty acids and inositol showed significantly greater improvement on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) than those treated with inositol (P = .021) and omega-3 fatty acids (P = .046) alone" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and inositol at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 inhibits blood vessel growth in age-related macular degeneration - Science Daily, 6/17/14 - "Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), or blood vessel growth, is the primary cause of blindness in elderly individuals of industrialized countries ... the omega (ω)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), DHA and EPA, and their specific bioactive products derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway, can influence choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular leakage by modulating micro-environmental immune cell recruitment to the site of these lesions ... Given the prevalence of neovascular eye disease, the potential impact of this study is highly significant. We have identified unique endogenous lipid biometabolites that are able to inhibit pathologic retinal angiogenesis, a major driver of vision loss worldwide" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diet Rich in Polyphenols Improves Glucose Metabolism - Medscape, 6/4/14 - "they randomized 45 patients to one of four diets: a standard control diet that was low in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, a diet rich in polyphenols, and a diet that included omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols. All patients were overweight or obese, with a body-mass index >30 ... Although individuals lost more weight on the eight-week omega-3-fatty-acid–enriched diet, there were significantly greater improvements in plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels with the polyphenol-enriched diet during an oral glucose tolerance test. The improvement in glucose metabolism was observed only in those who consumed the polyphenol-enriched diet ... this particular mechanism of action with polyphenols is similar to drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. However, rather than wait until the patient is diagnosed with the metabolic disease, a diet rich in polyphenols could be used as a preventive strategy"
  • Diet can predict cognitive decline, researchers say - Science Daily, 4/27/14 - "What is the takeaway from this research? There is growing evidence that very long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for maintaining cognitive health, and many Americans do not have an adequate intake of these nutrients" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty-Fish Consumption Alters HDL-Particle Profile - Medscape, 3/7/14 - "Although total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol levels did not change, for those who consumed this healthy diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, the intake of fish was strongly correlated with an increased concentration of large HDL particles, including an increase in the average diameter of HDL particles and an increase in the concentrations of large HDL lipid components ... The changes that we saw in large HDL particles could be related to those parameters that are functionally related to reverse cholesterol transport ... Thus, our findings could partly explain the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis"
  • Fish Oil Might Guard Against Loss of Brain Cells - WebMD, 1/22/14 - "The more you consume the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils, the less likely you are to lose as many precious brain cells as you age ... the researchers tested levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the red blood cells of more than 1,000 older women. Eight years later, the women had MRI scans that measured their brain volumes. At the time of the scans, the women were an average of 78 years old ... Participants whose omega-3 levels were twice as high had a 0.7 percent higher brain volume ... The results suggest that the effect on brain volume is the equivalent of delaying the normal loss of brain cells that comes with aging by one to two years" - [Medscape] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish derived serum omega-3 fatty acids help reduce risk of type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 1/14/14 - "Ongoing at the University of Eastern Finland, the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) determined the serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations of 2,212 men between 42 and 60 years of age at the onset of the study, in 1984-1989 ... follow-up of 19.3 years ... The risk of men in the highest serum omega-3 fatty acid concentration quarter to develop type 2 diabetes was 33% lower than the risk of men in the lowest quarter" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Pass Blood-Brain Barrier - Science Daily, 12/4/13 - "omega-3 fatty acids in dietary supplements can cross the blood brain barrier in people with Alzheimer's disease ... The findings are presented in the Journal of Internal Medicine, and strengthen the evidence that omega-3 may benefit certain forms of this seriously debilitating disease ... Thirty-three patients participated in the study, 18 of whom received a daily omega-3 supplement and 15 a placebo for six months. The results show that the first group had higher levels of both DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another omega-3 fatty acid) in their cerebrospinal fluid (which surrounds the CNS) and blood. No such change was seen in the placebo group ... Moreover, they also found that levels of DHA correlated directly with the degree of change in Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid"
  • Low-fat fish oil changes cancer tissue in prostate cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 11/18/13 - "Men with prostate cancer who ate a low-fat diet and took fish oil supplements had lower levels of pro-inflammatory substances in their blood and a lower cell cycle progression score, a measure used to predict cancer recurrence ... lowering the cell cycle progression (CCP) score may help prevent prostate cancers from becoming more aggressive ... The Western diet consisted of 40 percent of calories from fat, generally equivalent to what many Americans consume today .... The low-fat diet consisted of 15 percent of calories from fat. Additionally, the men on this diet took five grams of fish oil per day in five capsules, three with breakfast and two with dinner, to provide omega-3 fatty acids"
  • High serum fatty acid protects against brain abnormalities - Science Daily, 10/17/13 - "3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants ... silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people ... those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood ... people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains"
  • Diet during pregnancy and early life may affect children's behavior and intelligence - Science Daily, 9/13/13 - "Blood samples were taken from 493 schoolchildren, aged between seven and nine years, from 74 mainstream schools in Oxfordshire. All of the children were thought to have below-average reading skills ... Analyses of their blood samples showed that, on average, just under two per cent of the children's total blood fatty acids were Omega-3 DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and 0.5 per cent were Omega-3 EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), with a total of 2.45 per cent for these long-chain Omega-3 combined. This is below the minimum of 4 per cent recommended by leading scientists to maintain cardiovascular health in adults, with 8-12 per cent regarded as optimal for a healthy heart ... levels of Omega-3 fatty acids in the blood significantly predicted a child's behaviour and ability to learn. Higher levels of Omega-3 in the blood, and DHA in particular, were associated with better reading and memory, as well as with fewer behaviour problems as rated by parents and teachers"
  • Fatty acids could aid cancer prevention and treatment - Science Daily, 8/1/13 - "new research from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London ... In vitro tests showed omega-3 fatty acids induced cell death in malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect normal cells, suggesting they have the potential to be used in both the treatment and prevention of certain skin and oral cancers"
  • Diets lacking omega-3s lead to anxiety, hyperactivity in teens: Generational omega-3 deficiencies have worsening effects over time - Science Daily, 7/29/13 - "in a rodent model second-generation deficiencies of omega-3s caused elevated states of anxiety and hyperactivity in adolescents and affected the teens' memory and cognition ... this dietary deficiency can compromise the behavioral health of adolescents, not only because their diet is deficient but because their parents' diet was deficient as well. This is of particular concern because adolescence is a very vulnerable time for developing psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction."Diets lacking omega-3 fatty acids -- found in foods like wild fish, eggs, and grass-fed livestock -- can have worsened effects over consecutive generations, especially affecting teens"
  • Fish Oil's Link to Prostate Cancer Unproven - Medscape, 7/26/13 - "The bottom line is that we cannot determine from this study design whether the intake of omega-3 fatty acids will cause prostate cancer and raise a man's risk for high-grade disease. The media has taken this and sensationalized the risk associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake"
  • Low Omega-3 in Kids Linked to Behavior, Cognitive Deficits - Medscape, 7/23/13 - "This study formed the screening stage of a previously published randomized controlled intervention study that included 362 healthy children aged 7 to 9 years from primary schools in Oxfordshire, a large county in the UK, who had low reading scores. The DOLAB study reported that supplementation with 600 mg DHA daily for 16 weeks improved reading and behavior in children with the lowest 20% of reading scores ... The study showed that reading scores were significantly and positively associated with the omega-3 fatty acids DHA (P < .003), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; P < .04), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; P < .005), and the omega-3 index (EPA+DHA; P < .04). Total omega-6 fatty acids also showed a positive correlation with reading ... Results were similar for working memory. Scores for Recall of Digits Forward were significantly and positively associated with DHA (P < .003), DPA (P < .04), EPA (P < .005), the omega-3 index (P < .001), and total omega-3 (P < .004)"
  • How a SELECTed Bad Study Became Big News - Dr. Michael Murray, 7/12/13 - "This study is not consistent with other studies (discussed below) ... There is no evidence that anybody in this study took fish oil supplements or even ate fish ... In usual circumstances, plasma levels of EPA and DHA reflect very recent intake and are considered a poor biomarker of long-term omega-3 intake ... Patients with prostate cancer may have only recently increased their fish and/or fish oil consumption ... Fish and fish oil ingestion produces a big rise in plasma omega-3 levels in about 4.5 hours and washes out around 48 hours ... The data may reflect cancer activity rather than a causative association. Without dietary history or documentation of fish oil use there is no way of knowing"
  • Experts slam omega-3 link to prostate cancer as 'scaremongering' - Nutra USA, 7/12/13 - "if the findings of the new study were true, "then prostate cancer would be rampant in any country with high seafood consumption (Scandinavia, Japan etc) and conversely, low level consumption should be protective"
  • Specific Fish Oils May Protect Against Breast Cancer - Medscape, 6/27/13 - "The consumption of higher levels of dietary marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with a 14% lower risk for breast cancer than lower levels of consumption ... They found that marine n-3 PUFAs were associated with a 14% reduction in the risk for breast cancer (relative risk [RR] for highest vs lowest intake, 0.86) ... no significant association was observed for exposure to alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which is contained in some nuts and in vegetable oils. About half of the studies in the meta-analysis contained data on ALA. Both ALA and n-3 PUFAs are types of omega-3 fatty acids" - [Science Daily] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Could a Diet High in Fish and Flax Help Prevent Broken Hips? - Science Daily, 6/27/13 - "The study showed that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids from both plant and fish sources in those blood cells were associated with a lower likelihood of having fractured a hip ... The study also showed that as the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3s increased, so did the risk for hip fracture ... Inflammation is associated with an increased risk of bone loss and fractures, and omega-3 fatty acids are believed to reduce inflammation ... omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and omega-6 fatty acids seem to have both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects ... women who had the highest ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids had nearly twice the risk of hip fractures compared to women with the lowest ratios. The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that previous research has suggested should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, by increasing omega-3s, to improve overall health. The primary omega-6 fatty acid in the diet is linoleic acid, which composes about 99 percent of Americans' omega-6 intake and is found in corn, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils"
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Medscape, 6/11/13 - "Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass that results in a reduction in skeletal muscle function, quality of life and an increased risk of falls. Older muscle has an 'anabolic resistance' to both nutrients and exercise, with the precise underlying mechanism still to be elucidated. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil can be incorporated into the membranes of skeletal muscles, where they may have anti-inflammatory effects. This alteration in muscle membrane fatty acid composition may have anabolic effects in aging muscle and, thus, be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia ... The current data presented suggest that n-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in the treatment of sarcopenia"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may help heal a broken heart - Science Daily, 5/30/13 - "The potency of these compounds corresponds to concentrations that have been measured in the blood of human subjects taking high dose fish oil supplements for short periods of time. In rabbits, researchers treated the artery with RvD at the time of the balloon angioplasty procedure by infusing the drug directly into the vessel, and found that this one-time treatment reduced inflammation and subsequent scarring of the vessel after one month"
  • Fish Oil Supplements May Help Fight Against Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/22/13 - "Fish oil supplements, also called omega 3 fatty acid capsules, raise levels of adiponectin in the bloodstream. Adiponectin is an important hormone that has beneficial effects on metabolic processes like glucose regulation and the modulation of inflammation. In long-term human studies, higher levels of adiponectin are associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease ... The meta-analysis reviewed and analyzed results from 14 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials"
  • Fish oil may help the heart beat mental stress - Science Daily, 5/22/13 - "volunteers who took fish oil supplements for several weeks had a blunted response to mental stress in several measurements of cardiovascular health, including heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), part of the "fight or flight" response, compared to volunteers who took olive oil instead. The results may explain why taking fish oil could be beneficial to the heart and might eventually help doctors prevent heart disease in select populations"
  • Fish oil may stall effects of junk food on brain - Science Daily, 5/14/13 - "high-fat diets could disrupt neurogenesis, a process that generates new nerve cells, but diets rich in omega-3s could prevent these negative effects by stimulating the area of the brain that control feeding, learning and memory ... Excessive intake of certain macronutrients, the refined sugars and saturated fats found in junk food, can lead to weight gain, disrupt metabolism and even affect mental processing ... These changes can be seen in the brain's structure, including its ability to generate new nerve cells, potentially linking obesity to neurodegenerative diseases ... omega-3 fish oils can reverse or even prevent these effects ... omega-3s restore normal function by interfering with the production of these inflammatory molecules, suppressing triglycerides, and returning these nerve growth factors to normal ... Fish oils don't appear to have a direct impact on weight loss, but they may take the brakes off the detrimental effects of some of the processes triggered in the brain by high-fat diets. They seem to mimic the effects of calorie restrictive diets and including more oily fish or fish oil supplements in our diets could certainly be a positive step forward for those wanting to improve their general health"
  • Eating fish associated with lower risk of dying among older adults: Risk of dying from heart disease significantly lowered - Science Daily, 4/1/13 - "Older adults who have higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids -- found in fatty fish and seafood -- may be able to lower their overall mortality risk by as much as 27% and their mortality risk from heart disease by about 35% ... older adults who had the highest blood levels of the fatty acids found in fish lived, on average, 2.2 years longer than those with lower levels ... The researchers examined 16 years of data from about 2,700 U.S. adults aged 65 or older who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a long-term study supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ... One type in particular -- docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA -- was most strongly related to lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death (40% lower risk), especially CHD death due to arrhythmias (electrical disturbances of the heart rhythm) (45% lower risk). Of the other blood fatty acids measured -- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) -- DPA was most strongly associated with lower risk of stroke death, and EPA most strongly linked with lower risk of nonfatal heart attack"
  • High Intake of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure in Children Born With Low Birth Weight: NHANES 2003-2008 - Hypertension. 2013 Mar 4 - "Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure ... In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4])" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Taking omega-3 supplements may help prevent skin cancer, new study finds - Science Daily, 2/26/13 - "the study analysed the effect of taking omega-3 on 79 healthy volunteers ... taking a regular dose of fish oils boosted skin immunity to sunlight. Specifically, it also reduced sunlight-induced suppression of the immune system, known as immunosuppression, which affects the body's ability to fight skin cancer and infection ... it was the first time the research had been carried out on humans"
  • Omega-3s inhibit breast cancer tumor growth, study finds - Science Daily, 2/21/13 - "A lifelong diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit growth of breast cancer tumours by 30 per cent ... the researchers created a novel transgenic mouse that both produces omega-3 fatty acids and develops aggressive mammary tumours. The team compared those animals to mice genetically engineered only to develop the same tumours ... Mice producing omega-3s developed only two-thirds as many tumours -- and tumours were also 30-per-cent smaller -- as compared to the control mice"
  • Fish oil may protect dialysis patients from sudden cardiac death - Science Daily, 2/6/13 - "We found that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood of patients who were just starting hemodialysis were very strongly associated with a lower risk of sudden cardiac death over the first year of their treatment ... The five-year survival rate for patients on hemodialysis is 35 percent, with the risk of death highest in the first few months of starting treatment. The most common cause of death in these patients is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for about one out of every four deaths"
  • Omega-3-Rich Ground Beef Available Soon - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "The U.S. currently does not have a recommended daily intake of omega-3s, though many doctors and nutritionists recommend between 1,200-1,600 milligrams daily ... A quarter-pound hamburger made of the enriched ground beef has 200 milligrams of omega-3s" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com which has 765 milligrams of omega-3 in one capsule.  So you'd have to eat 3.825 hamburgers to get the omega-3 in one capsule.  At 330 calories per hamburger, that's 1262 calories compared to 10 calories for the capsule.
  • Limiting Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Pregnancy May Influence Body Fat of Children - Science Daily, 1/10/13 - "mothers who have higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in cooking oils and nuts, during pregnancy have fatter children ... assessed the fat and muscle mass of 293 boys and girls at four and six years, who are part of the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a large prospective mother-offspring cohort ... the higher the level of n-3 the less fat and more muscle and bone in the baby ... This could suggest that a pregnancy supplementation strategy would be beneficial"
  • Association Between use of Specialty Dietary Supplements and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations - Medscape, 12/28/12 - "In summary, this study adds support to laboratory research and to some human studies which suggest that glucosamine, chondroitin, and fish oil may reduce systemic inflammation. In doing so, this study adds biologic plausibility to previous studies which have shown beneficial effects of these supplements on chronic diseases. Given the number of diseases with which inflammation is associated, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, there is a need to find safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation. Research suggests that these 3 supplements have excellent safety profiles, [88–92] supporting their potential role in disease prevention" - See glucosamine products at Amazon.com, chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Fish Oil May Reduce Inflammation - Medscape, 11/27/12 - "Inflammation is now recognized as a factor in cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as many rheumatoid diseases ... the researchers found hs-CRP reductions of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7% - 26%) with glucosamine, 22% (95% CI, 8% - 33%) with chondroitin, and 16% (95% CI, 0.3% - 29%) with fish oil compared with participants who did not take the supplements"
  • Eating more fish could reduce postpartum depression - Science Daily, 11/15/12 - "Low levels of omega-3 may be behind postpartum depression ... Because omega-3 is transferred from the mother to her fetus and later to her breastfeeding infant, maternal omega-3 levels decrease during pregnancy, and remain lowered for at least six-weeks following the birth" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 intake heightens working memory in healthy young adults - Science Daily, 10/25/12 - "In the first study of its kind, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have determined that healthy young adults ages 18-25 can improve their working memory even further by increasing their Omega-3 fatty acid intake ... After six months of taking Lovaza -- an Omega-3 supplement approved by the Federal Drug Administration -- the participants were asked to complete this series of outpatient procedures again. It was during this last stage, during the working memory test and blood sampling, that the improved working memory of this population was revealed" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • New link between high-fat 'Western' diet and atherosclerosis identified - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "endothelial lipase (EL), an enzyme associated with the development of atherosclerosis ... In the current study, a strain of mice susceptible to atherosclerosis was fed a normal diet enriched with either palmitic acid (a common saturated fat) or eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid, or polyunsaturated fat, found in fish oil, among other foods). After 12 weeks, the mice's aortas were examined for changes in the expression of EL and inflammatory factors. Aortas of mice fed the saturated fat diet showed a significant increase in EL and detrimental changes in inflammatory factors, while those of mice fed the polyunsaturated fat diet showed a significant decrease in EL and beneficial changes in inflammatory factors ... when the macrophages were given rosiglitazone, the expression of EL increased markedly. The addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the cells blocked this increase. "This would suggest that besides raising LDL cholesterol levels, rosiglitazone can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing EL,""
  • Prenatal mercury exposure may be linked to risk of ADHD-related behaviors; Fish consumption may be linked to lower risk - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "Nonoccupational methylmercury exposure comes primarily from eating fish, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have recommended pregnant women limit their total fish intake to no more than two, six-ounce servings per week. However, fish is also a source of nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to benefit brain development, potentially confounding mercury-related risk estimates ... analyzed data from the New Bedford birth cohort, a group of infants born between 1993 and 1998, to investigate the association of peripartum maternal hair mercury levels (n=421) and prenatal fish intake (n=515) with ADHD-related behaviors at age 8 years ... In this population-based prospective cohort study, hair mercury levels were consistently associated with ADHD-related behaviors, including inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. We also found that higher prenatal fish consumption was protective for these behaviors"
  • Omega-3 supplements may slow a biological effect of aging - Science Daily, 10/1/12 - "In the study, lengthening of telomeres in immune system cells was more prevalent in people who substantially improved the ratio of omega-3s to other fatty acids in their diet ... Omega-3 supplementation also reduced oxidative stress, caused by excessive free radicals in the blood, by about 15 percent compared to effects seen in the placebo group ... Study participants took either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams of active omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ... The supplements were calibrated to contain a ratio of the two cold-water fish oil fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of seven to one ... the typical American diet tends to be heavy on omega-6 fatty acids and comparatively low in omega-3s that are naturally found in cold-water fish such as salmon and tuna. While the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids averages about 15-to-1, researchers tend to agree that for maximum benefit, this ratio should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1 ... when the researchers analyzed the participants' omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in relationship to telomere lengthening, a lower ratio was clearly associated with lengthened telomeres ... omega-3 supplements lowered IL-6 by 10 to 12 percent, depending on the dose. By comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... This finding strongly suggests that inflammation is what's driving the changes in the telomeres"
  • Omega-3 lowers inflammation in overweight older adults - Science Daily, 6/21/12 - "Chronic inflammation is linked to numerous conditions, including coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, as well as the frailty and functional decline that can accompany aging ... Participants received either a placebo or one of two different doses of omega-3 fatty acids -- either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams per day ... After four months, participants who had taken the omega-3 supplements had significantly lower levels in their blood of two proteins that are markers of inflammation, also called pro-inflammatory cytokines. The low-dose group showed an average 10 percent decrease in the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the high-dose group's overall IL-6 dropped by 12 percent. In comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that researchers suggest should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, to improve overall health"
  • Omega-3 Heart Trial Fails the Test - vitalchoice.com, 6/15/12 - "Authors acknowledge their study's limitations and flaws ..."
  • Why omega-3 oils help at the cellular level - Science Daily, 5/15/12 - "The scientists fed mouse macrophages -- a kind of white blood cell -- three different kinds of fatty acid: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). EPA and DHA are major polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, essential to a broad range of cellular and bodily functions, and the primary ingredient in commercial fish oil dietary supplements. AA is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid prevalent in the human diet ... They discovered that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which produces the prostaglandin hormones that spark inflammation. The action is similar to what happens when one takes an aspirin, which disrupts the COX-2 signaling pathway, thus reducing inflammation and pain ... On the other hand ... omega-3 oils do not inhibit another group of enzymes called lipoxygenases (LOX), which are also produced by stimulated macrophages. One type of generated LOX enzyme in turn produces fat-signaling molecules called leukotrienes, which are pro-inflammatory. But Norris noted that LOX enzymes may also generate anti-inflammatory compounds called resolvins from EPA and DHA"
  • Nutrition: More Omega-3, Less of a Suspect Protein - NYTimes.com, 5/7/12 - "Amyloid plaques and tangles in the brain are characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease and are known to increase the risk for mental decline ... higher levels of omega-3 intake were associated with significantly lower beta-amyloid blood levels"
  • Eating fish, chicken, nuts may lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - "A new study suggests that eating foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish, chicken, salad dressing and nuts, may be associated with lower blood levels of a protein related to Alzheimer's disease and memory problems ... 1,219 people older than age 65, free of dementia, provided information about their diet for an average of 1.2 years before their blood was tested for the beta-amyloid. Researchers looked specifically at 10 nutrients, including saturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin D ... the more omega-3 fatty acids a person took in, the lower their blood beta-amyloid levels. Consuming one gram of omega-3 per day (equal to approximately half a fillet of salmon per week) more than the average omega-3 consumed by people in the study is associated with 20 to 30 percent lower blood beta-amyloid levels ... Other nutrients were not associated with plasma beta-amyloid levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil added to yogurt may help consumers meet daily nutritional requirements - Science Daily, 3/28/12 - "In a preliminary study, tasters could not differentiate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurt, but they could discern yogurt flavored with oxidized fish oil, which has a strong fishy taste" - Hmmm!!! Fish flavored and chili and lime flavored yogurt.  Try selling that idea.  I'll stick to my fish oil capsules.
  • Fatty diets may be associated with reduced semen quality - Science Daily, 3/14/12 - "The study of 99 men in the USA found an association between a high total fat intake and lower total sperm count and concentration. It also found that men who ate more omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (the type of fat often found in fish and plant oils) had better formed sperm than men who ate less ... if men make changes to their diets so as to reduce the amount of saturated fat they eat and increase their omega-3 intake, then this may not only improve their general health, but could improve their reproductive health too ... the relationship between dietary fats and semen quality was largely driven by the consumption of saturated fats. Men consuming the most saturated fats had a 35% lower total sperm count than men eating the least, and a 38% lower sperm concentration"
  • Omega-3 reduces inflammatory marker to offer ‘multiple’ health benefits - Nutra USA, 3/2/12 - "The first of the two new studies ... indicated that omega-3 supplements were associated with reduced levels of sICAM-1, which may contribute to a decrease in the risk of atherosclerosis ... The second study ... indicated that increased levels of omega-3 may counteract the pro-carcinogenic action of sICAM-1" - [Abstract] [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Brain Age Better - WebMD, 2/27/12 - "the results suggest diets lacking in omega-3 fatty acids may cause the brain to age faster ... people whose DHA levels were in the bottom 25% of the group had lower brain volumes compared with people with higher DHA levels ... In addition, people with both low DHA and all the other omega-3 fatty acid levels scored lower on tests of visual memory, processing, and abstract thinking ... Researchers say the results suggest that low DHA and other omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with a pattern of memory and brain function problems even in people free of dementia"
  • Omega-3s linked to slower eye sight loss in people with retinal disease: Study - Nutra USA, 2/14/12 - "people with the condition who consume at least 0.2 grams per day of omega-3 fatty acids have a 40% slower average annual rate of decline in distance visual acuity, compared with people with lower intakes"
  • Study to determine whether fish oil can help prevent psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 2/8/12 - "Researchers at Zucker Hillside Hospital's Recognition and Prevention (RAP) Program who have worked with teenagers at risk for serious mental illness for the past decade are now studying the effectiveness of Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for treating psychiatric symptoms ... Of the 300 adolescents who have participated in the RAP Program, most have shown substantial improvement"
  • Maternal omega-3 reduces eczema risk in children: Study - Nutra USA, 1/31/12 - "children whose mothers had consumed omega-3 daily had 36% less risk of developing eczema, a 38% reduction in the chance of being sensitised to egg, and 50% less chance of having egg allergy"
  • Omega-3 may enhance benefits of strength training for the elderly - Nutra USA, 1/6/12 - "fish oil may be an attractive supplement for the elderly to maximize their neuromuscular responses to strength training, which is important to life quality" - [Abstract]
  • Healthy oil components may fight pancreatitis - Nutra USA, 1/3/12 - "They found that the oleic acid and hydroxytyrosol – both of which are present in a particularly high concentration in virgin olive oil and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids – offered protection from inflammatory damage from induced pancreatitis in pancreatic cells"
  • Alzheimer's: Diet patterns may keep brain from shrinking - Science Daily, 12/29/11 - "People with diets high in several vitamins or in omega 3 fatty acids are less likely to have the brain shrinkage associated with Alzheimer's disease than people whose diets are not high in those nutrients ... Those with diets high in omega 3 fatty acids and in vitamins C, D, E and the B vitamins also had higher scores on mental thinking tests than people with diets low in those nutrients ... people with diets high in trans fats were more likely to have brain shrinkage and lower scores on the thinking and memory tests than people with diets low in trans fats"
  • Possible cure for leukemia found in fish oil - Science Daily, 12/22/11 - "The compound -- delta-12-protaglandin J3, or D12-PGJ3 -- targeted and killed the stem cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia, or CML, in mice ... The compound is produced from EPA -- Eicosapentaenoic Acid -- an Omega-3 fatty acid found in fish and in fish oil ... During the experiments, the researchers injected each mouse with about 600 nanograms of D12-PGJ3 each day for a week. Tests showed that the mice were completely cured of the disease. The blood count was normal, and the spleen returned to normal size. The disease did not relapse ... The researchers focused on D12-PGJ3 because it killed the leukemia stem cells, but had the least number of side effects"
  • Some Fish Oil Supplements Fishy on Quality - WebMD, 12/7/11 - "None of the fish oil supplements contained contaminants, such as lead, mercury, or PCBs, that exceeded levels set by USP or the European Union ... the total PCB amounts in four brands (CVS Natural, GNC Triple Organic, Nature’s Bounty Odorless, and Sundown Naturals) were below the USP safe limit but within the range that would require a warning label under California’s Proposition 65, 90 parts per billion ... For the report, the consumer agency purchased three lots of 15 different top-selling brands of fish oil supplements online and in the New York metropolitan area ... Two of the three samples of Kirkland Signature Enteric 1200 fish oil supplements had an enteric coating (designed to prevent a fishy aftertaste) that did not disintegrate properly. The coating may break up in the stomach rather than in the small intestine, as desired for proper absorption by the body" - Note:  So those bargains at Costco may not be such a bargain if they aren't absorbed.
  • Young women may reduce heart disease risk eating fish with omega 3 fatty acids, study finds - Science Daily, 12/5/11 - "In the first population-based study in women of childbearing age, those who rarely or never ate fish had 50 percent more cardiovascular problems over eight years than those who ate fish regularly. Compared to women who ate fish high in omega-3 weekly, the risk was 90 percent higher for those who rarely or never ate fish ... Fish oil contains long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are believed to protect against heart and vascular disease. Few women in the study took fish oil supplements, so these were excluded from the analyses and the results were based on the dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, not intake from supplements"
  • Eating fish can reduce the risk of diabetes - Science Daily, 11/11/11 - "the consumption of fish is associated with a decreased prevalence of diabetes and lower glucose concentrations whereas the consumption of red meat, especially cured meats is related to increased weight gain and obesity ... Eating red meat in excess is linked to higher cardiovascular risk, higher blood pressure, diabetes and a moderate decrease in life expectancy mainly due to cancer or heart disease. In contrast, fish appears in the Mediterranean diet and has health benefits for the heart"
  • You are what you eat: Low fat diet with fish oil slows growth of human prostate cancer cells, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - "Men who ate a low-fat diet with fish oil supplements for four to six weeks before having their prostate removed had slower cancer-cell growth in their prostate tissue than men who ate a traditional, high-fat Western diet ... The short-term study also found that blood obtained from patients after the low-fat, fish oil diet slowed the growth of prostate cancer cells in a test tube, while blood from men on the Western diet did not slow cancer growth ... Preclinical studies suggest that lowering dietary omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and increasing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression," the study states. "We found this diet intervention resulted in a decrease in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acid ratios in benign and malignant prostate tissue and a decrease in malignant cell proliferation"
  • Boosting mental performance with fish oil? - Science Daily, 10/21/11 - "overall, taking either of two different types of fish oil supplement for three months had no consistent impact on mental function in 18 -- 35-year-olds, however they did find evidence of reduced mental fatigue and faster reaction times. Contrary to popular belief, these results suggest that taking omega-3 or fish oil supplements may not have an immediate or measureable impact on mental performance in healthy young adults, possibly due to the fact that this population is already performing at its mental peak or that higher doses or longer than 12 weeks supplementation are required ... Interestingly, in the second of these studies it was found that taking DHA-rich fish oil over the same time period did increase blood flow to active areas of the brain during performance of similar mental tasks. The researchers claim these findings could have implications for mental function later on in life, as evidence suggests regularly eating oily fish or taking omega-3 supplements may prevent cognitive decline and dementia, and increased blood flow to the brain may be a mechanism by which this occurs"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids shown to prevent or slow progression of osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 10/17/11 - "New research has shown for the first time that omega-3 in fish oil could "substantially and significantly" reduce the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis ... omega-3-rich diets fed to guinea pigs, which naturally develop osteoarthritis, reduced disease by 50 per cent compared to a standard diet ... Furthermore, there was strong evidence that omega-3 influences the biochemistry of the disease, and therefore not only helps prevent disease, but also slows its progression, potentially controlling established osteoarthritis ... The only way of being certain that the effects of omega-3 are as applicable to humans as demonstrated in guinea pigs is to apply omega-3 to humans. However, osteoarthritis in guinea pigs is perhaps the most appropriate model for spontaneous, naturally occurring osteoarthritis, and all of the evidence supports the use of omega-3 in human disease ... Most diets in the developed world are lacking in omega-3, with modern diets having up to 30 times too much omega-6 and too little omega-3. Taking omega-3 will help redress this imbalance and may positively contribute to a range of other health problems such as heart disease and colitis"
  • Omega-3 may ease depression symptoms, slash dementia risk: RCT - Nutra USA, 9/23/11 - "recruited 50 people over the age of 65 to participate in their six-month double-blind, randomized controlled trial ... Participants received daily supplements of EPA- or DHA-rich fish oil, or the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA, 2.2 grams per day). The EPA-rich supplement provided 1.67 grams of EPA and 0.16 grams of DHA, while the DHA-rich supplement provided 1.55 grams of DHA and 0.40 grams of EPA ... compared with the group receiving the LA supplements, the EPA-rich supplement group displayed higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale ... On the other hand, the DHA group displayed improvements in verbal fluency ... These results indicate that DHA-rich and EPA-rich fish oils may be effective for depressive symptoms and health parameters, exerting variable effects on cognitive and physical outcomes" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 supplements show benefits against anxiety: Human data - Nutra USA, 9/14/11 - "the Ohio State researchers recruited 68 medical students to participate in their parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The med students were given either placebo capsules or omega-3 capsules containing 2085 mg of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 348 mg DHA (docosahexanoic acid) ... Results showed a 14% reduction in levels of the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as a 20% reduction in anxiety symptoms in the omega-3 group, compared to the placebo group ... Proinflammatory cytokines promote secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a primary gateway to hormonal stress responses; CRH also stimulates the amygdala, a key brain region for fear and anxiety. Accordingly, alterations in inflammation could also influence anxiety" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  Note:  CRH increases cortisol.  See:
  • Maternal omega-3 intake may influence childhood allergy - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Omega-3 fatty acids may aid the development of the infant gut and improve how gut immune cells respond to bacteria and foreign substances, making the baby less likely to suffer from allergies in the long term, according to new research in pigs ... These findings suggest that feeding fatty acids of the omega-3 family during pregnancy and lactation impact newborn intestinal barrier function ... such changes “are likely to reduce the risk of developing allergies in later life" ... The end result is that the baby's immune system may develop and mature faster – leading to better immune function and less likelihood of suffering allergies ... the pig intestine is an excellent model of the human gut, however, so they are hopeful that the findings can be extrapolated" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 Effective for Treating Child ADHD - Medscape, 9/8/11 - "In an evaluation of 10 trials with 699 total children with ADHD, investigators found that those who received omega-3 supplements had a "small but significant" improvement in symptom severity compared with those who were given placebo. This effect was also significant in the children who received supplements that specifically contained higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid ... Omega-3 supplements that included higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid were also significantly associated with lowering ADHD symptoms ... There were no significant differences found for any dose of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid, or between omega-3 monotherapy vs augmenting traditional ADHD medications with omega-3" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Marine, but not plant, omega-3s may boost heart health for women: Study - Nutra USA, 9/7/11 - "High intakes of long chain omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) was associated with a 38% reduction in the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women, but not men ... Much attention has been paid to the conversion of ALA to the longer chain EPA, with many stating that this conversion is very small. Indeed, between 8 and 20 per cent of ALA is reportedly converted to EPA in humans, and between 0.5 and 9 per cent of ALA is converted to DHA ... high intakes of long chain omega-3s ranging from 0.45 to 11.2 grams per day were associated with a 38% reduction in IHD risk for women only" - [Abstract]
  • Fish oil's impact on cognition and brain structure identified in new study - Science Daily, 8/17/11 - "Researchers at Rhode Island Hospital's Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center have found positive associations between fish oil supplements and cognitive functioning as well as differences in brain structure between users and non-users of fish oil supplements ... compared to non-users, use of fish oil supplements was associated with better cognitive functioning during the study. However, this association was significant only in those individuals who had a normal baseline cognitive function and in individuals who tested negative for a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease known as APOE4. This is consistent with previous research ... The unique finding, however, is that there was a clear association between fish oil supplements and brain volume ... In other words, fish oil use was associated with less brain shrinkage in patients taking these supplements during the ADNI study compared to those who didn't report using them"
  • Omega-3 Supplements May Lower Anxiety - Medscape, 7/22/11 - "In a small randomized controlled trial of medical students, those who received omega-3 supplements for 3 months showed a 20% reduction in anxiety scores and a 14% reduction in stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production ... Chronic inflammation has been linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis ... A total of 68 first- and second-year medical students (56% male; mean age, 23.65 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive 3 times daily either omega-3 supplement capsules (consisting of 2085 mg of EPA and 348 mg of DHA, n = 34) or fish-flavored placebo capsules (n = 34) for 12 weeks ... We chose the 7:1 EPA/DHA balance because of evidence that EPA has relatively stronger anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects than DHA"
  • Earlier the better for omega-3 benefits for brains & hearts? - Nutra USA, 7/4/11 - "the older animals did benefit from fish oil supplementation, but the benefits were limited to diastolic function, or the filling of the heart with blood following contraction (systolic) ... The younger animals had better spatial memory than the older animals, and the fish oil supplements were not associated with any reversal of the age-related memory deficits or increases in inflammation in the brain, wrote the researchers" - [Abstract]
  • DHA and EPA Have Differential Effects on LDL-Cholesterol - Medscape, 5/22/11 - "EPA inhibited lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) formation by 42% and 54% in vesicles with normal and elevated cholesterol levels, respectively. DHA, on the other hand, inhibited LOOH by 28% in vesicles with elevated cholesterol levels only. The separate effects of EPA, DHA, and EPA/DHA were enhanced when used in combination with statin therapy, including atorvastatin, atorvastatin metabolite, simvastatin, or rosuvastatin. The most potent antioxidant capacity was observed with EPA and the active metabolite of atorvastatin"
  • Heart failure risk lower in women who often eat baked/broiled fish - Science Daily, 5/24/11 - "In a large-scale analysis, women who ate the most baked/broiled fish (five or more servings/week) had a 30 percent lower risk of heart failure compared to women who seldom ate it (less than one serving/month) ... dark fish (salmon, mackerel and bluefish) were associated with a significantly greater risk reduction than either tuna or white fish (sole, snapper and cod) ... eating fried fish was associated with increased heart failure risk. Even one serving a week was associated with a 48 percent higher heart failure risk"
  • Omega-3 may reduce depression symptoms in the elderly: Study - Nutra USA, 5/18/11 - "According to findings published in The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, depressed women who received daily supplements containing 2.5 grams of omega-3 experienced significant reductions in their symptoms ... In addition, researchers from the University of Pavia also report that omega-3 supplements providing a daily EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) dose of 1.67 grams and a daily DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) dose of 0.83 grams reported improvements in the ‘quality of life’" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil boosts responses to breast cancer drug tamoxifen, researchers find - Science Daily, 4/6/11 - "omega-3 fatty acids -- abundant in fish -- could be a safe and beneficial booster for tamoxifen therapy ... [in rats] Omega-3 fatty acids produced a greater expression of genes related to cellular specialization, or differentiation -- a sign of lower cancer severity -- compared to corn oil. The combination of fish oil and tamoxifen reduced the expression of genes linked to tumor growth and spreading ... If a tumor was being treated with tamoxifen, the addition of an omega-3 fatty acid diet seemed to make the tumor, at least at the molecular level, more benign and less aggressive and responsive to tamoxifen"
  • Eskimo study suggests high consumption of omega-3s in fish-rich diet reduces obesity-related disease risk - Science Daily, 3/24/11 - "A study of Yup'ik Eskimos in Alaska, who on average consume 20 times more omega-3 fats from fish than people in the lower 48 states, suggests that a high intake of these fats helps prevent obesity-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease ... The fats the researchers were interested in measuring were those found in salmon, sardines and other fatty fish: docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA ... in participants with low blood levels of DHA and EPA, obesity strongly increased both blood triglycerides (a blood lipid abnormality) and C-reactive protein, or CRP (a measure of overall body inflammation). Elevated levels of triglycerides and CRP increase the risk of heart disease and, possibly, diabetes ... While genetic, lifestyle and dietary factors may account for this difference ... it is reasonable to ask, based on our findings, whether the lower prevalence of diabetes in this population might be attributed, at least in part, to their high consumption of omega-3-rich fish"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid intake linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration in women - Science Daily, 3/14/11 - "Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, and colleagues collected data on 38,022 women who had not been diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Information on women's eating habits was obtained via questionnaire at the beginning of the study and included information on intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish], and arachidonic acid and linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acids). During ten years of follow-up, additional questionnaires tracked the women's eye health, with specific focus on diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration ... women who consumed the most DHA compared with women who consumed the lowest amount had a 38 percent lower risk of developing age-related macular degeneration. Similar results were observed for higher intake of EPA and for higher consumption of both types of acid together ... consumption of one or more servings of fish per week, when compared to less than one per month, was associated with a 42 percent lower risk of age-related macular degeneration ... For omega-6 fatty acids, higher intake of linoleic acid but not arachidonic acid was associated with an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration, however this association was non-significant after adjustment for other risk factors and fats"
  • Fish oil fights weight loss due to chemotherapy - Science Daily, 2/28/11 - "supplementing the diet with fish oil may prevent muscle and weight loss that commonly occurs in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy ... Researchers suspect that supplementing the diet with fish oil -- which contains omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid -- may help patients maintain or gain muscle ... Patients who did not take fish oil lost an average of 2.3 kilograms whereas patients receiving fish oil maintained their weight. Patients with the greatest increase in eicosapentaenoic acid concentration in the blood following fish oil supplementation had the greatest gains in muscle. Sixty-nine percent of patients in the fish oil group gained or maintained muscle mass. Comparatively, only 29 percent of patients in the standard care group maintained muscle mass, and overall, patients in this group lost 1 kilogram of muscle. No difference in total fat tissue was observed between the two groups" - Note: 2.3 kilograms equals 5.1 pounds.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Good diets fight bad Alzheimer's genes: Diets high in fish oil have a beneficial effect in patients at risk, researcher says - Science Daily, 2/15/11 - "APOE comes in two forms, a "good" APOE gene and a "bad" APOE gene, called APOE4. He has developed animal models to investigate the effects of diet and environment on carriers of APOE4, the presence of which is a known risk factor for Alzheimer's. It appears in 50% of all Alzheimer's patients, and in 15% of the general population which due to APOE4 is the population which is at risk of getting the disease ... The good news? In preliminary results, the researchers are exhilarated to find that a diet high in Omega 3 oils and low in cholesterol appears to significantly reduce the negative effects of the APOE4 gene in mouse models"
  • How omega 3s help to prevent several forms of blindness - Science Daily, 2/9/11 - "The cost of omega-3 supplementation is about $10 a month, versus up to $4,000 a month for anti-VEGF therapy ... In the new study, they document another protective mechanism: a direct effect on blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) that selectively promotes the growth of healthy blood vessels and inhibits the growth of abnormal vessels ... In addition, Smith and colleagues isolated the specific compound from omega-3 fatty acids that has these beneficial effects in mice (a metabolite of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, known as 4-HDHA), and the enzyme that produces it (5-lipoxygenase, or 5-LOX). They showed that COX enzymes are not involved in omega-3 breakdown, suggesting that aspirin and NSAIDs -- taken by millions of Americans -- will not interfere with omega-3 benefits ... Finally, the study demonstrated that 5-LOX acts by activating the PPAR-gamma receptor, the same receptor targeted by "glitazone" drugs such as Avandia, taken by patients with type 2 diabetes to increase their sensitivity to insulin. Since these drugs also increase the risk for heart disease, boosting omega-3 intake through diet or supplements might be a safer way to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes"
  • Fish Oil May Reduce the Risk of Kidney Stones - Medscape, 2/3/11 - "Five days of supplementation with EPA and DHA didn't alter urinary oxalate excretion. But after 30 days of supplements, urinary oxalate excretion dropped from 0.277 to 0.238 mmol/24 hours ... Similarly, after 5 days there was no change in relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate (RS CaOx), a proxy for the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. But after 30 days, RS CaOx decreased by 23%"
  • Deficiency of dietary omega-3 may explain depressive behaviors - Science Daily, 1/30/11 - "The dietary ratio between omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 increased continuously over the course of the 20th century. These fatty acids are "essential" lipids because the body cannot synthesize them from new ... the researchers studied mice fed a life-long diet imbalanced in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. They found that omega-3 deficiency disturbed neuronal communication specifically. The researchers observed that only the cannabinoid receptors, which play a strategic role in neurotransmission, suffer a complete loss of function. This neuronal dysfunction was accompanied by depressive behaviours among the malnourished mice"
  • Eating poorly can make you blue: Trans-fats increase risk of depression, while olive oil helps avoid risk - Science Daily, 1/26/11 - "the participants with an elevated consumption of trans-fats (fats present in artificial form in industrially-produced pastries and fast food, and naturally present in certain whole milk products) "presented up to a 48% increase in the risk of depression when they were compared to participants who did not consume these fats," ... In addition, the study demonstrated a dose-response relationship, "whereby the more trans-fats were consumed, the greater the harmful effect they produced in the volunteers," ...Furthermore, the team, ... also analyzed the influence of polyunsaturated fats (abundant in fish and vegetable oils) and of olive oil on the occurrence of depression. "In fact, we discovered that this type of healthier fats, together with olive oil, are associated with a lower risk of suffering depression,""
  • Fish Oil Lowers Cortisol and Body Fat Levels - Vital Choice, 12/13/10 - "Black tea is shown to rapidly normalize cortisol levels after stress ... Fish oil has also been found to improve body composition in preliminary clinical studies … an outcome attributed to various physiological effects of omega-3s ... In tests performed at the end of the six-week study, members of the fish oil group showed significantly lower cortisol levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Not All Omega-3s Equal When It Comes to Antidepressant Effects - Medscape, 12/8/10 - "In fact, only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) — and not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) — is associated with mood improvement in patients with depression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • New evidence for eye-protective effects of omega-3-rich fish, shellfish - Science Daily, 12/1/10 - "Our study corroborates earlier findings that eating omega-3-rich fish and shellfish may protect against advanced AMD"
  • Fish Oil to Fend Off Psychosis: New Evidence - Medscape, 10/28/10 - "the intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was associated with a decreased relative risk for psychotic-like symptoms ... Two of 41 (4.9%) of those receiving the active agent transitioned to psychosis, compared to 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the placebo group, which represented a statistically significant difference. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids also reduced the severity of positive, negative, and general symptoms, and improved functioning compared to the placebo condition ... the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in red blood cells were negatively correlated with hostility scores (the higher the level of those omega-3 fatty acids, the lower the severity of hostility) ... On the other hand, the concentration of arachidonic acid was positively correlated with hostility scores. This and related studies may have clinical implications in terms of either dietary modifications that could be beneficial to people with schizophrenia, or the use of specific polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements among such patients"
  • Consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids may lower the incidence of gum disease - Science Daily, 10/26/10 - "There was an approximately 20% reduction in periodontitis prevalence in those subjects who consumed the highest amount of dietary DHA. The reduction correlated with EPA was smaller, while the correlation to LNA was not statistically significant" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Got fish? Nutrition studies explore health benefits - Science Daily, 10/8/10 - "DHA protected the animals against two harmful side effects of CLA: CLA-induced insulin resistance and CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease. In contrast, EPA offered only partial protection against CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and provided no protection against insulin resistance"
  • Why fish oils work swimmingly against inflammation and diabetes - Science Daily, 9/2/10 - "Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified the molecular mechanism that makes omega-3 fatty acids so effective in reducing chronic inflammation and insulin resistance ... omega-3 fatty acids activate this macrophage receptor, resulting in broad anti-inflammatory effects and improved systemic insulin sensitivity ... It's just an incredibly potent effect ... omega-3 fatty acids switch on the receptor, killing the inflammatory response"
  • Excessive intake of omega 6 and deficiencies in omega 3 induce obesity down the generations - Science Daily, 7/26/10 - "Chronic excess of linoleic acid (omega 6), coupled with a deficiency in alpha-linoleic acid (omega 3), can increase obesity down the generations ... In the past forty years, there has been a steady rise in obesity over the generations in Western societies. During the same period, the diet in industrialized countries has seen a quantitative increase in the calories ingested (lipids account for 35 to 40% of food intake), high levels of linoleic acid (omega 6) and low levels of alpha-linoleic acid (omega 3). Indeed, the amount of omega 6 consumed during the past forty years has rocketed (+250%) while that of omega 3 has fallen by 40%, thus destabilizing the omega 6/omega 3 ratio when compared with the recommended intakes. While the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) recommends an omega 6/omega 3 ratio of 5/1, actual consumption is 15 omega 6 for 1 omega 3. In the USA, this ratio can even reach 40 omega 6 for 1 omega 3 ... researchers exposed four generations of mice to a Western-style diet, characterized by these same omega 6/omega 3 ratios. As a result, they saw a gradual increase in fat mass over several generations"
  • Fish oil may reduce risk of breast cancer - Science Daily, 7/8/10 - "asked 35,016 postmenopausal women who did not have a history of breast cancer to complete a 24-page questionnaire about their use of non-vitamin, non-mineral "specialty" supplements in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study ... Regular use of fish oil supplements, which contain high levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, was linked with a 32 percent reduced risk of breast cancer. The reduction in risk appeared to be restricted to invasive ductal breast cancer, the most common type of the disease"
  • Treating depression with Omega-3: Encouraging results from largest clinical study - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Initial analyses failed to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of Omega-3 for all patients taking part in the study. Other analyses, however, revealed that Omega-3 improved depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with depression unaccompanied by an anxiety disorder. Efficacy for these patients was comparable to that generally observed with conventional antidepressant treatment"
  • Omega-3 intakes may improve diabetic kidney health - Nutra USA, 4/12/10 - "Albumin is the most abundant protein in human serum and in people with kidney problems the protein leaks from the kidney into the urine. A level of 30 mg per 24 hours is reportedly representative of sufficient function ... people with a higher average intake of omega-3s had albumin excretion levels 22.7 mg per 24 hours lower than people with the lowest average intakes of omega-3" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3: Healthy no matter what? - Science Daily, 4/6/10 - :"Rancid fish oil smells bad and tastes so awful that no-one would want to swallow it. But if the fish oil is in capsules, it is impossible to smell if it is rancid or not. That is why it is important for us to examine whether rancid fish oil is less beneficial to health, or, at worst, harmful to anyone who takes it ... One of the possible negative impacts of ingesting rancid fish oil to which Frøyland is referring is what is known as oxidative stress in the cell membrane, i.e. where oxidants break down the cell membrane ... fish oil from capsules caused oxidation of the cell membrane, even when antioxidants had been added and when the capsules still had over a year left before their expiration date. Juice containing omega-3, on the other hand, produced no oxidation ... The fish oil in Smartfish products comes from the company Marine Harvest Ingredients AS and is manufactured from the discards from salmon production -- within an hour of the salmon being slaughtered" - That's why I don't buy cheap band X brands when I buy supplements. - Ben
  • Trans Fats May Promote Endometriosis: Study - Medscape, 3/24/10 - "women in the highest quintile of omega-3 fatty acid consumption were 22% less likely to develop endometriosis than women in the lowest quintile"
  • Omega 3 curbs precancerous growths in those prone to bowel cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/17/10 - "randomly assigned to six months of treatment with 2 g daily of a new highly purified form of the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) EPA. The other 27 were given the same amount of a dummy treatment (placebo) ...number of polyps increased by almost 10% among those treated with the placebo, but fell by more than 12% among those treated with the EPA capsules, representing a difference of almost 22.5% ... Similarly, polyp size increased by more than 17% among those in the placebo group but fell by more than 12.5% in those taking the EPA capsules, representing a difference of just under 30% ... the effects of EPA were similar to those produced by celecoxib, which is used to help curb the growth of new and existing polyps in patients with FAP ... celecoxib has been associated with harmful cardiovascular side effects in older patients" - See See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • In defence of omega-3 - Nutra USA, 3/4/10
  • Omega-3 may boost lung function during sport - Nutra USA, 3/3/10 - "Amateur Iranian wrestlers, and not the Hulk Hogan kind, experienced improvements in numerous measures of lung capacity, including lung volume [forced vital capacity (FVC)] and airflows [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)], and found significant improvements following 12 weeks of supplementation and training ... At the end of the study, improvements in FEV1 of 41 per cent and FVC of 53 per cent, in the omega-3 supplements and training group as well as four other measures, compared to the other groups" - [Abstract]
  • Very high omega-3 intakes linked to big health benefits - Nutra USA, 2/18/10 - "High levels of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) were associated with lower levels of triglycerides, as well as higher levels of HDL cholesterol ... Raised levels of the fatty acids were also associated with decreased levels of markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), which is produced in the liver and is a known marker for inflammation. Increased levels of CRP are a good predictor for the onset of both type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 may combat mouth bacteria, boost oral health - Nutra USA, 2/10/10 - "The study, sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health, found that all six compounds showed cent 50 per cent inhibitory activity for concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 micrograms per millilitre"
  • Omega-3 may boost kidney health in diabetics: Study - Nutra USA, 2/3/10 - "Our results showed a significant decrease in serum creatinine level after fish-oil supplement in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients"
  • Fish oil may reduce the risk of psychotic disorders in high-risk individuals - Science Daily, 2/1/10 - "For 12 weeks, 41 individuals were assigned to take daily fish oil capsules containing 1.2 grams of omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids and 40 were assigned to take placebo; a total of 76 (93.8 percent) completed the intervention. By the end of the study, two (4.9 percent) in the omega-3 group and 11 (27.5 percent) in the placebo group had transitioned to psychotic disorder. The difference between progression to psychosis was 22.6 percent ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids also significantly reduced symptoms and improved functioning compared with placebo" - [WebMD]
  • Omega-3 may reduce risk of Alzheimer’s: Rat study - Nutra USA, 2/1/10 - "This study, for the first time, reported […] a clear correlation between the decrease in acetylcholine release and memory deficit, [and] E-EPA improves memory by attenuating the reduction of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression ... In this study, our findings add further evidence that E-EPA may improve memory by the modulation of acetylcholineand neurotrophin functions" - [Abstract]
  • Krill oil – hope or hype for the omega-3 market? - Nutra USA, 1/7/10 - It's a four minute audio. - See Krill Oil products at Amazon.com.
  • High Omega-3 Levels May Slow Aging in Heart Patients - WebMD, 1/19/10 - "Heart disease patients with the highest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids appear to age more slowly than those with the lowest blood levels ... Farzaneh-Far and his colleagues looked at a marker of biological age -- the rate of shortening of telomeres, structures at the end of a chromosome involved in its replication and stability. As the telomeres shorten over time, the eventual result is cell death, scientists believe ... In the new study, the higher the blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the patients evaluated, the slower the rate of telomere shortening ... patients with the lowest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids exhibited a rate of telomere shortening 2.6 times faster than patients with the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids" - [Science Daily]
  • Fish oil given intravenously to patients in intensive care has many benefits, study finds - Science Daily, 1/18/10 - "A randomised controlled trial of fish oil given intravenously to patients in intensive care has found that it improves gas exchange, reduces inflammatory chemicals and results in a shorter length of hospital stay"
  • Review supports omega-3 for liver health - Nutra USA, 1/6/10 - "A review of four human studies found that the fatty acids could improve liver health and function, and increase insulin sensitivity in people suffering from fatty liver, a condition that is usually symptomless but said to increase the risk for liver inflammation, and ultimately results in liver failure"
  • A Fish Tale That You Can Believe: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Their Benefits - Medscape, 12/28/09 - Good video summarizing the studies on the benefits of omega-3 fish oil.
  • Moderate Fish Consumption May Lower Risk in Patients with a History of Heart Failure - Science Daily, 12/18/09 - "Including fish in a balanced diet has long been associated with the prevention of heart disease, and scientists now believe that it can help preserve heart function in patients who have experienced heart failure. A new study in the Journal of Food Science reports that moderate fish consumption can help reduce the risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in post acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients"
  • Sea of science deepens for fish heart benefits - Nutra USA, 12/16/09 - "left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) ... moderate fish consumption, defined as , was associated with 53 per cent reduction in the risk of developing LVSD compared to no/rare consumption of fish ... In addition, moderate fish consumption was associated with a lower inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme which produces nitric oxide – a potent vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels and improves blood flow"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of colon cancer - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "Patients who consumed more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer. Compared to the lowest quartile, fat intake in the highest quartile was linked with a 39 percent reduced risk of cancer"
  • How fish is cooked affects heart-health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids - Science Daily, 11/17/09 - "If you eat fish to gain the heart-health benefits of its omega-3 fatty acids, baked or boiled fish is better than fried, salted or dried"
  • Fish Oil May Protect Against Stroke From Ruptured Carotid Artery Plaques - Science Daily, 11/1/09 - "unstable carotid artery plaques – those in danger of rupturing and leading to a stroke – contain more inflammation and significantly less omega-3 fatty acids than asymptomatic plaques ... This suggests that increasing the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in carotid artery plaques could either prevent strokes or improve the safety of treatment. This may be accomplished by increasing dietary intake of foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Why Fish Oils Help With Conditions Like Rheumatoid Arthritis How They Could Help Even More - Science Daily, 10/28/09 -"New research from Queen Mary, University of London and Harvard Medical School has revealed precisely why taking fish oils can help with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis ... researchers describe how the body converts an ingredient found in fish oils into another chemical called Resolvin D2 and how this chemical reduces the inflammation that leads to a variety of diseases"
  • Omega-3 deficiency may be hurting our hearts - MSNBC, 10/23/09 - "Studies show that these special fatty acids accumulate in the brain and can aid children with learning disabilities, reduce violence in prison populations, and even improve everyday mood ... How could omega-3s possibly be this powerful? Scientists believe it's because Americans are suffering from a widespread deficiency. A recent study conducted by Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, of the Harvard School of Public Health, found that the absence of these fatty acids in our diet is responsible annually for up to 96,000 premature deaths in this country"
  • Men who consumed more than 0.39 grams of PUFAs per day had an associated risk of ACS 27 per cent lower than men who consumed less than 0.39 grams per day - Nutra USA, 10/16/09 - "Men who consumed more than 0.39 grams of PUFAs per day had an associated risk of ACS 27 per cent lower than men who consumed less than 0.39 grams per day" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 may prevent age-related sight loss - Nutra USA, 10/8/09 - "a meta-analysis published in the June 2008 issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology found that a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids and fish may reduce the risk of AMD by up to 38 per cent ... Over 12 years of study, the researchers found that intakes of omega-3, estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire, were related to both wet and dry AMD risk ... Indeed, participants with the highest omega-3 intakes, equivalent to about 0.11 per cent of their total energy intakes, had a 30 per cent lower risk of developing both types than people with the lowest intakes"
  • Health Advice: Do Omega-3 Supplements Affect Mood? - US News and World Report, 9/18/09 - "Researchers have shown that depressed patients have, on average, lower levels of omega-3 in their blood than nondepressed individuals; furthermore, they have found evidence that greater severity of depression is linked to lower levels of omega-3. A number of well-controlled depression treatment studies have found therapeutic benefits following omega-3 supplementation. Omega-3 fatty acids also benefit patients with cardiovascular disease, and there is a very well-known association between depression and cardiovascular disease that may reflect a common factor for both: deficiencies in omega-3 fatty acids"
  • There's Nothing Fishy About Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Dry Eye Syndrome - Medscape, 9/1/09 - "the essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil and alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) in flax seed oil, are also thought to improve evaporative dry eye. Omega-3 fatty acids are believed to competitively inhibit the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. With fewer proinflammatory compounds available, the ocular tear film is thought to be able to better promote a healthy ocular surface. A higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased incidence of DES in women"
  • How Much Omega-3 Fatty Acid Do We Need To Prevent Cardiovascular Disease? - Science Daily, 9/1/09 - "a 200 mg dose of DHA per day is enough to affect biochemical markers that reliably predict cardiovascular problems, such as those related to aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. This study is the first to identify how much DHA is necessary to promote optimal heart health" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • More omega-3, less omega-6 for colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/09 - "the dietary total omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk ... Compared to women with the lowest ratio, women with the highest ratio of omega-6 to -3 had a relative risk 95 per cent higher" - [Abstract]
  • Daily Omega-3s Recommended for Heart - WebMD, 8/3/09 - "omega-3 fatty acids' strongest protective effect appears to be in people with established heart disease after a heart attack. In these people, a daily dose of DHA and EPA is associated with a 30% reduction in the risk of heart-related death ... But researchers say healthy people can also benefit from including omega-3s in their diet. Research shows a diet rich in omega-3s can also reduce the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), heart attack, sudden cardiac death, and heart failure"
  • Omega-3 may prevent blindness in the elderly: Study - Nutra USA, 7/23/09 - "A diet high in omega-3 fatty acids may prevent the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... mice fed a high omega-3 fatty acid diet displayed a slower development of lesions in their retina, compared to animals fed a low omega-3 diet. Furthermore, some of the mice in the omega-3 group displayed some reversion of the lesions" - [Abstract] - [Science Daily] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Supplements Provide Mixed Results as Antidepressant - Medscape, 7/8/09 - "There is a large body of epidemiological data to support a link between omega-3 and depression ... For example, 8 of 11 epidemiological studies evaluating the association between depression and fish consumption report a statistically significant inverse association. In other words, less fish means more depression"
  • Oily fish may reduce dementia risk: Transcontinental study - Nutra USA, 7/8/09 - "Almost 15,000 people aged 65 or over were surveyed. After adjusting for various confounders and pooling the data from all the sites, the researchers report that they observed a dose-dependent inverse association between dementia and fish consumption" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Rat study: Krill beats fish omega-3s in battling metabolic dysfunctions - Nutra USA, 6/30/09
  • Omega-3 deficiency causes 96,000 US deaths per year, say researchers - Nutra USA, 6/26/09 - "this new study validates that Omega-3 EPA/DHA is more than just part of a healthy diet...it's a matter of life and death ... We know that daily doses of Omega-3 EPA/DHA can help with many conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, and we're committed to increasing consumer awareness about the drastic Omega-3 EPA/DHA deficiency in the Western diet"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Protect Against Progression Of Age-related Macular Degeneration - Science Daily, 6/18/09 - "we observed participants with early stages of AMD in the placebo group benefited from higher intake of DHA, but it appears that the high-dose supplements of the antioxidants and/or the minerals somehow interfered with the benefits of DHA against early AMD progression ... The antioxidant supplements did not seem to interfere with the protective effects of DHA and EPA against progression to advanced stages of AMD. Participants who consumed higher amounts of DHA and EPA appeared to have lower risk of progression to both wet and dry forms of advanced AMD" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 plus AREDS supplement works for eye health: Study - Nutra USA, 6/16/09 - "Increased intake of DHA was associated with a 27 per cent reduction in the progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), while EPA was linked to a 26 per cent reduction" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Can Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Depression In Coronary Heart Disease? - Science Daily, 6/9/09 - "The prevalence of depression ranged from 23% in participants in the lowest tertile of omega –3 fatty acids (< 3.1% of total blood fatty acids) to 13% in participants in the highest tertile ( >4.3% of total blood fatty acids; p for trend = 0.004). Each unit decrease in EPA + DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms as a continuous variable, and these associations persisted after adjustment for age, sex and race. Similarly, each SD decrease in EPA + DHA was associated with significantly greater odds of depression as a dichotomous variable (Patient Health Questionnaire score >10)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 may improve blood pressure during weight loss - Nutra USA, 6/2/09 - "Consumption of fatty fish like salmon, or fish oil supplements, may reduce blood pressure during an energy-restricted diet"
  • Omega Fatty Acid Balance Can Alter Immunity And Gene Expression - Science Daily, 5/29/09 - "Anthropological evidence suggests that human ancestors maintained a 2:1 w6/w3 ratio for much of history, but in Western countries today the ratio has spiked to as high as 10:1. Since these omega fatty acids can be converted into inflammatory molecules, this dietary change is believed to also disrupt the proper balance of pro- and anti- inflammatory agents, resulting in increased systemic inflammation and a higher incidence of problems including asthma, allergies, diabetes, and arthritis ... many key signaling genes that promote inflammation were markedly reduced compared to a normal diet, including a signaling gene for a protein called PI3K, a critical early step in autoimmune and allergic inflammation responses"
  • Eating Fish, Nuts And Olive Oil May Be Associated With Reduced Risk Of Age-related Blindness - Science Daily, 5/15/09 - "Individuals who consumed higher levels of trans-unsaturated fats—found in baked goods and processed foods—were more likely to have late AMD, whereas those who consumed the most omega-three fatty acids were less likely to have early AMD. "Olive oil intake (100 milliliters or more per week vs. less than 1 milliliter per week) was associated with decreased prevalence of late AMD," the authors write. "No significant associations with AMD were observed for intakes of fish, total fat, butter or margarine.""
  • Mediterranean Diet May Boost Eye Health - WebMD, 5/11/09 - "people who ate one serving of fish per week had a 31% lower risk of early signs of AMD. Those who ate one to two servings of nuts rich in omega-3 fatty acids had a 35% lower risk" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fatty Fish And Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Risk Of Heart Failure - Science Daily, 4/28/09 - "men who consumed approximately 0.36 grams a day were 33% less likely to develop heart failure than men who consumed little or no marine omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Fatty Fish May Lower Heart Failure Risk - WebMD, 4/22/09 - "Study participants who got the equivalent of 0.36 grams of omega-3 a day from fish had a 33% reduction in heart failure risk"
  • Eating Fatty Fish And Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Risk Of Heart Failure - Science Daily, 4/21/09
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Benefit Cancer Patients Undergoing Major Operations - Science Daily, 4/10/09 - "A randomised controlled trial showed omega-3 fatty acids given as part of an oral nutritional supplement resulted in the preservation of muscle mass in patients undergoing surgery for oesopahageal cancer, a procedure normally associated with significant weight loss and quality of life issues ... Patients given the standard supplement without omega 3 lost a significant amount of weight comprising 100% muscle mass. In fact 68% of patients suffered ‘clinically severe’ weight loss post surgery in the standard group (without omega 3) versus only 8% in the omega 3 group"
  • Resolvins Have Potential To Resolve Periodontal Inflammation And Restore Tissue Health - Science Daily, 4/4/09 - "These results support the hypothesis that both EPA- and DHA-derived Resolvins have therapeutic potential in resolving periodontal inflammation and restoring the tissues' health" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • ALA-DHA conversion negligible, say fatty acids experts - Nutra USA, 3/25/09 - "Alpha-linolenic acid, (ALA) does not convert to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels that confer any physiological benefit ... Each type of omega-3 has distinct nutritional functions. Nevertheless, seafood/algal omega-3s – also known as long-chain omega-3s – are more potent than terrestrial plant sources of omega-3s and boast certain critical functions that terrestrial plant-based omega-3s simply cannot perform"
  • Fatty Fish May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/24/09 - "Men in the study who ate one or more servings of fatty fish a week were found to have a 63% lower risk for developing aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported never eating fish"
  • Really? - The Claim - Fish Oil Supplements Can Contain Mercury - NYTimes.com, 3/23/09 - "The concern is a common one, but studies have found that most of the widely available supplements contain little or no mercury, dioxins or PCBs. For one thing, most companies use species of fish that are lower on the food chain, like cod and sardines, which accumulate less mercury. And many companies distill their oils to help remove contaminants"
  • Teenage Boys Who Eat Fish At Least Once A Week Achieve Higher Intelligence Scores - Science Daily, 3/9/09 - "Eating fish once a week was enough to increase combined, verbal and visuospatial intelligence scores by an average of six per cent, while eating fish more than once a week increased them by just under 11 per cent"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3 fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/11/09 - "a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes ... the fatty acids contained in fish oil markedly inhibit the entry of "bad," or LDL, cholesterol into arteries and, as a result, much less cholesterol collects in these vessels ... Dr. Deckelbaum advises those interested in increasing omega-3 intakes do so by either increasing fish intake or by using supplements that contain the "long-chain" fatty acids, EPA and DHA, which are found in cold water fish" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "Now, a CUMC research team led by Richard J. Deckelbaum, M.D., Director of the Columbia Institute of Human Nutrition, has found that a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Ease Depressive Symptoms Related To Menopause - Science Daily, 1/28/09 - "Their study, published in the February issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, presents the first evidence that omega-3 supplements are effective for treating common menopause-related mental health problems ... Test results before and after the eight-week period indicate that omega-3s significantly improved the condition of women suffering symptoms of psychological distress and mild depression ... Women with hot flashes also noted that their condition improved after consuming omega-3s. At baseline, the number of daily hot flashes was 2.8 and dropped by an average of 1.6 in the group taking omega-3s and by 0.5 in the control group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A Little Wine Boosts Omega-3 In The Body: Novel Mechanism For A Healthier Heart Found - Science Daily, 12/5/08 - "moderate alcohol drinking acts like a 'trigger', boosting the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in our body ... the association was stronger between wine drinking and omega-3 fatty acids levels. This suggests that components of wine other than alcohol is associated with omega-3 fatty acids concentration. We may guess this effect can be ascribed to polyphenols"
  • Oily fish may boost prostate cancer survival rate: Study - Nutra USA, 11/24/08 - "The prospective cohort study with 20,167 men also found that men who ate five portions of fish per week had a 48 per cent improved survival rate from the disease than men who consumed only one portion per week" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes Patients: Fish May Help Kidneys - WebMD, 11/4/08 - "fish consumption lowers abnormal levels of protein in the urine in people with diabetes ... Abnormal amounts of protein appear in the urine when the kidneys are damaged; it's a key indicator of kidney disease ... Leslie Spry, MD, a kidney specialist in Lincoln, Neb., who serves as a National Kidney Foundation spokesman, says he typically doesn't tell patients to eat more fish but recommends fish oil supplements to control triglycerides (blood fats)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • High-fat Diet Could Promote Development Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/28/08 - "the main neurological markers for Alzheimer's disease are exacerbated in the brains of mice fed a diet rich in animal fat and poor in omega-3s"
  • Eating Fish in Infancy Lowers Eczema Risk - WebMD, 9/24/08 - "Babies in a newly published study whose diets included fish before the age of 9 months were 24% less likely to develop eczema by their first birthdays than babies who did not eat fish"
  • More fish during pregnancy boosts child development: Study - Nutra USA, 9/22/08 - "The children of mothers who had higher intakes of fish during pregnancy were found to have higher development scores than children of women with low fish intake" - [Abstract]
  • 8 natural pain relievers - MSNBC, 9/14/08 - "Capsaicin: For arthritis, shingles, or neuropathy ... InflaThera or Zyflamend: For arthritis ... Aquamin: For osteoarthritis ... SAM-e (S adenosylmethionine): For osteoarthritis ... Fish oil: For joint pain from arthritis or autoimmune disorders ... Methylsulfonyl-methane (MSM): For osteoarthritis"
  • Flaxseed Oil Pills vs. Fish Oil Pills - WebMD, 9/12/08 - "As expected, blood levels of EPA and DHA rose in the fish oil group, and ALA rose in the flaxseed oil group. EPA levels also rose in the flaxseed oil group, but only at the higher doses (2.4 to 3.6 grams per day). The researchers write that it's "quite attainable" to get that much ALA from foods without taking supplements ... Since flaxseed oil doesn't contain EPA, the firefighters' bodies must have converted some of the ALA into EPA. That didn't seem to happen at the lower doses of flaxseed oil ... DHA was a different story. The flaxseed oil group didn't get any increase in DHA levels; DHA only rose in the fish oil group"
  • Eating Fish While Pregnant, Longer Breastfeeding Lead to Better Infant Development - Doctor's Guide, 9/10/08 - "Both higher fish consumption and longer breastfeeding are linked to better physical and cognitive development in infants"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Mixed Findings for Elderly - WebMD, 9/5/08
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, but Not Statin Therapy, Cuts Mortality and Hospitalizations in Heart Failure - Medscape, 9/3/08 - "Speaking to the media, Tavazzi said the advantage of n-3 PUFA, as documented by the primary end points, is that they appear to have a beneficial effect on the mechanisms leading to the progression of heart failure. Although the exact reasons are unknown, omega-3 fatty acids could possibly exert favorable effects on inflammatory processes, such as reductions in endothelial activation and cytokine production, as well as influence platelet aggregation, blood pressure, heart rate, ventricular function, and autonomic tone"
  • Effects Of N-3 PUFA In Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure: The GISSI-HF Results - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "undertook a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 357 cardiology sites in Italy. They enrolled 6 975 patients with chronic heart failure of New York Heart Association class II-IV, assigned to n-3 PUFA 1 g daily or placebo. Patients were followed up for a median of 3•9 years ... In a per-protocol analysis performed in about 5000 full complier patients, the relative risk of death was reduced by 14% (p 0.004). Safety was excellent"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, But Not Statin Therapy, Cuts Mortality and Hospitalizations in Heart Failure - Medscape, 8/31/08 - "The long-term administration of omega-3 fatty acids reduced all-cause mortality and admission to the hospital for cardiovascular reasons, while there was no effect on these end points with 10-mg rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca)"
  • Fish oil helps patients with chronic heart failure - MSNBC, 8/31/08 - "Comparing the results from both studies, the researchers concluded that fish oil is slightly more effective than the drug because the oil performed better against a placebo than did Crestor ... Both studies were paid for by an Italian group of pharmaceuticals including Pfizer Inc., Sigma Tau SpA and AstraZeneca PLC"
  • Eat Oily Fish At Least Once A Week To Protect Your Eyesight In Old Age - Science Daily, 8/8/08 - "people who habitually consume oily fish at least once a week compared with less than once a week are 50% less likely to have wet AMD. There was no benefit from consumption of non oily white fish. There was a strong inverse association between levels of DHA and EPA and wet AMD. People in the top 25% of DHA and EPA levels (300 mg per day and above) were 70% less likely to have wet AMD" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish May Reduce the Risk for Subclinical Brain Abnormalities - Medscape, 8/7/08 - "Dietary intake of tuna and other fish appear to lower the prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white-matter abnormalities ... We also found that broiled and baked fish appeared to be beneficial, while fried fish was not ... The findings add to prior evidence suggesting fish with higher eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content appear to have clinically important health benefits" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish May Boost Memory, Prevent Stroke - WebMD, 8/4/08 - "Researchers reporting in tomorrow’s issue of Neurology have found that older adults whose diets include three or more weekly helpings of baked or broiled tuna and other fish high in omega-3 fatty acids are less likely to develop "silent" brain lesions that can lead to cognitive decline and vascular stroke"
  • Fish Oil, Red Yeast Rice Cut Cholesterol - WebMD, 7/23/08 - "We followed them for a three-month period ... The LDL declined 42% in the supplement group and 39% in the Zocor group ... The supplement group also lost an average of 10 pounds in 12 weeks, but there was no significant weight loss in the medication group. Triglyceride levels, while on average normal in both groups at the start, decreased by 29% in the supplement group but just 9.3% in the medication group -- a significant difference" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha-linolenic acid reduces risk of nonfatal MI - theheart.org, 7/9/08 - "ALA is an intermediate-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is often overshadowed by the more famous long-chain members of the n-3 family, namely EPA and DHA acids that are found in fish oils ... ALA intake, g/day ... 1.79 ... Relative risk of MI ... 0.43 ... The relationship between ALA and myocardial infarction was nonlinear ... We see a dose effect, but only up to about 0.7% of adipose tissue, which corresponds to about 1.8 g/day. Increasing intake further was not associated with increased protection" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • Milestones in Prenatal Nutrition: The Emerging Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 7/2/08
  • Lowering Blood Cholesterol With Fish Oil And Red Yeast Rice Instead Of Statins - Science Daily, 7/8/08 - "The alternative treatment group participants received daily fish oil and red yeast rice supplements ... The statin group participants received 40 milligrams (mg) of Zocor (simvastatin) daily ... The researchers noted that there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol levels in both groups. The alternative treatment group experienced a 42.4 percent reduction, and the statin group experienced a 39.6 percent reduction. Members of the alternative therapy group also had a substantial reduction in triglycerides, another form of fat found in the blood, and lost more weight" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Potential Role Of Fish-based Fatty Acids In Resolving, Preventing Asthma - Science Daily, 6/24/08 - "a molecule produced by the body from omega-3 fatty acids helps resolve and prevent respiratory distress in laboratory mice"
  • Failure To Bridle Inflammation Spurs Atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 6/18/08 - "When a person develops a sore or a boil, it erupts, drawing to it immune system cells that fight the infection. Then it resolves and flattens into the skin, often leaving behind a mark or a scar ... A similar scenario plays out in the blood vessels. However, when there is a defect in the resolution response -- the ability of blood vessels to recover from inflammation -- atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries can result ... Some natural mediators that 'cool' this inflammation are derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids"
  • Pilot study gives sign of fish oil for insulin sensitivity - Nutra USA, 6/18/08 - "The supplements they were given contained 440mg of DHA and 660mg of EPA ... They saw evidence of increased insulin sensitivity through a reduction in the plasma glucose response, and a mean reduction in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol ... What was significant, however, was the reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Clinically significant reductions in all other biomarkers associated with coronary heart disease risk and mortality" - There's no write-up in the abstract.
  • Oily Fish Can Protect Against Rheumatoid Arthritis, But Smoking And Psychosocial Stress Increase Its Risk - Science Daily, 6/13/08 - "For the first time, the intake of oily fish has been demonstrated to have a protective effect against the development of RA, reducing an individual's risk by 20-30%"
  • Eating Fatty Fish Can Help Aging Eyes - WebMD, 6/10/08
  • Eating Fish And Foods With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Linked To Lower Risk Of Age-related Eye Disease - Science Daily, 6/9/08 - "When results from all nine studies were combined, a high dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids was associated with a 38 percent reduction in the risk of late (more advanced) AMD, while eating fish twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of both early and late AMD ... "Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid in particular, form an integral part of the neural retina," the layer of nerve cells in the retina"
  • Fish-Oil Supplements Plus Regular Aerobic Exercise Benefit Overweight Patients - Medscape, 5/22/08 - "FO [fish oil] supplements and regular exercise both reduce body fat and improve cardiovascular and metabolic health ... Increasing intake of n-3 FAs could be a useful adjunct to exercise programs aimed at improving body composition and decreasing cardiovascular disease risk"
  • Omega-3 linked to lower colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 5/16/08 - "In terms of fish intake, the highest average intake was associated with a 40 per cent reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, this link was relevant for both colon and rectal cancers"
  • Omega-3 carrier key to boosting children's attention: study - Nutra USA, 5/15/08 - "Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) scores ... In terms of attention measures, both omega-3 supplemented groups produced increased in TOVA scores, with an increase of 94 per cent in the PL-omega-3 group and 37 per cent in the fish oil group" - [Abstract]
  • Diets With High Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratios Enhance Risk for Depression, Inflammatory Disease - Medscape, 4/25/08 - "Whereas the early hunter-gatherers had a dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1 to 3:1, this ratio is now 15:1 to 17:1 in North America today ... It is believed that these dietary changes might be related to increases in inflammatory-related diseases, including depression and cardiovascular disease ... at higher levels of depressive symptoms, as the omega-6:omega-3 ratio increased, there was a marked increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels ... compared with the study participants who did not have syndromal depression, the 6 participants who had depression had significantly higher omega-6:omega-3 ratios and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines"
  • Dietary Fish Oil Has Antiarrhythmic Effects in Ischemic Heart Disease - Medscape, 4/22/08 - "This stabilizing effect may be one way in which fish oil reduces mortality in patients with coronary artery disease"
  • Omega-3 EPA may benefit depressives, says study - Nutra USA, 4/7/08 - [Abstract] - "were randomly assigned to receive a daily EPA supplement (1000 mg, supplied by Minami Nutrition, Belgium), or 20 mg fluoxetine daily, or a combination of the two for two months ... At the end of the study, data from the 48 people who finished the study showed a 50 per cent reduction in HDRS scores for people in the EPA group, a 56 per cent reduction in people in the fluoxetin group, and a 81 per cent reduction in people in the combined intervention group"
  • Mom's fish intake may boost child's brain power - MSMBC, 4/1/08 - "Preschoolers whose mothers regularly ate low-mercury fish during pregnancy may have sharper minds than their peers ... Oily fish such as tuna, salmon and sardines contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are important in fetal and child brain development. The problem is that fatty fish are more likely to be contaminated with mercury, a metal that is toxic to brain cells, particularly in fetuses and young children"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Be Useful for Cardioprotection - Medscape, 3/18/08 - "To date, the strongest evidence showing a CV benefit from omega-3 fatty acid intake derives from 3 large controlled trials in which a total of 32,000 participants were randomized to a control group or to receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing DHA and EPA. In these trials, the supplemented group had a 19% to 45% reduction in CV events vs the control group ... Patients with hypertriglyceridemia should consume 3 to 4 g/day of DHA and EPA, which can lower triglyceride levels by 20% to 50%"
  • Fish Diet May Cut Sudden Coronary Death - WebMD, 3/12/08 - "Men who reported eating an average of 6 grams of fatty fish daily -- that's two servings, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's serving-size guidelines -- were 55% less likely than men who ate no fatty fish to die of sudden coronary death ... The researchers chalk up the results to the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Cardiovascular Benefits Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reviewed - Science Daily, 3/12/08 - "The most compelling evidence for the cardiovascular benefit provided by omega-3 fatty acids comes from three large controlled trials of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing DHA and EPA or to act as controls ... These trials showed reductions in cardiovascular events of 19 percent to 45 percent ... keeping fish oil capsules in the freezer ... may help reduce burping and upset stomach symptoms" - I've always done the freezer thing and haven't had any problem with the burp even on an empty stomach.  Also note that it's the DHA and EPA that count.  I have friends that buy cheap fish oil capsules that have very low DHA and EPA (omega-3) and they think they are getting a great deal.  I take Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  They've got the highest percentage of omega-3 that I've found.
  • Typical North American Diet Is Deficient In Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Science Daily, 3/7/08 - "the typical North American diet of eating lots of meat and not much fish is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and this may pose a risk to infant neurological development ... the women who ate lots of meat and little fish were deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and their babies didn't do as well on eye tests as babies from mothers who weren't deficient. The results were noticeable as early as two months of age"
  • Farmed Fish Fed Cheap Food May Be Less Nutritious For Humans - Science Daily, 2/26/08 - "Vegetable oils have been shown to stimulate the appetite and feed intake of fish, and to increase growth rate and carcase quality ... Marine oils are rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), which have been shown to have beneficial effects on heart and circulatory system disease in man ... heart patients with atherosclerosis (disease of the cardiac arteries) were placed on three different diets, using salmon meat containing varying amounts of fish oil and vegetable oil. It was shown that the fat composition of the salmon meat affected the fatty acid profile of the patients’ blood and that the advantageous marine omega-3 fatty acids increased markedly in those patients that ate fish fed on feed containing pure fish oils. It was also shown that in these patients the levels of marker substances for heart and vessel disease were much better than in patients eating fish fed pure rapeseed oil"
  • Consumption of fish/fish oil associated with specific heart-rate variability parameters - theheart.org, 2/21/08 - "fish and omega-3 fatty-acid consumption are associated with "more optimal" values of various heart-rate variability (HRV) indices" - [Abstract]
  • Essential Fatty Acid Accelerates Treatment Response in Early Psychosis - Medscape, 1/22/08 - "For the primary and secondary prevention of emerging psychotic disorders, physicians should "keep an open mind towards neuroprotective substances, such as omega-3 fatty acids or other experimental neuroprotective substances,""
  • Alpha-Linolenic Acid May Lower Risk of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy - Medscape, 1/7/08 - "Alpha-linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid found in many vegetable oils, including flaxseed, walnuts, and canola oil ... Relative to adults in the lowest quintile of alpha-linolenic acid intake (< 0.61 g/day), the multivariate-adjusted odds of having peripheral neuropathy was 0.54 for subjects in the fourth quintile (1.35 - 2.10 g/day) of intake and 0.40 for adults in the fifth quintile (2.11 g/day or higher)" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • More support for omega-3 and weight management - Nutra USA, 12/21/07 - "Laboratory mice fed a high fat diet and supplemented with eight per cent fish oil gained less weight and metabolised more fat than their murine counterparts not receiving the supplement" - [Abstract]
  • How Much Fish Is Enough? - Medscape, 12/19/07 - "the American Heart Association recommends the equivalent of 1 gram of active omega-3 compounds (eicosapentaenoic [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acids [DHA]) ingested daily.[3] This amount can be obtained by consuming a 4-ounce serving of white albacore tuna, 2 to 3 ounces of salmon (pink or red), 2 ounces of herring, and 2 to 3 ounces of sardines daily. Alternatively, significantly higher quantities of shellfish would need to be consumed, including 8 or more ounces of crab, shrimp, and lobster daily.[3] For significant TG-lowering effects (20% reduction and greater), the amount of EPA/DHA required is considerably higher (ie, 2 to 4 grams daily) and exceedingly difficult to obtain unless a person consumes vast quantities of fish every day. Therefore, patients with CHD can get the omega-3 fatty acids needed from a diet rich in oily fish. Similarly, patients with TG levels in the borderline-elevated range (150-199 mg/dL) may reduce TG levels by approximately 10% with consumption of fish equivalent to 1 gram of EPA/DHA. However, with higher TG levels, and especially when levels exceed 500 mg/dL, a diet rich in fish is most likely to be insufficient for reducing TG levels to an acceptable range"
  • Omega-3 shows benefits for fat loss in diabetics - Nutra USA, 12/13/07 - "either daily supplements of fish oil (three grams, providing 1.8 grams of omega-3) or placebo (paraffin oil) for two months ... At the end of the study, Kabir and co-workers report significant reductions in total fat mass and the diameter of fat cells beneath the surface of the skin (subcutaneous adipocytes) in the omega-3, but not the placebo, group ... risk factors for plaque formation in the arteries (atherogenic markers), such as triacylglycerol levels and the ration of triacylglycerol to HDL ('good') cholesterol, were significantly lower as a result of omega-3 supplementation" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Against Parkinson's, Study Says - Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against Parkinson's disease ... omega-3 fatty acids--in particular DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), a specific type of omega-3--had replaced the omega-6 fatty acids already present in the brains of the mice that had been given omega-3 supplementation" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • The Ethyl Ester vs. Triglyceride Form of Fish Oils - Dr. Murray's Natural Living, 11/21/07 - "Some fish oil products are made by synthesizing the free fatty acids back to a triglyceride form while others, including the pharmaceutical forms, maintain the purified oil in the ethyl ester (EE) form. Some companies selling fish oils claim that the triglyceride form is more natural, has better stability, and is better absorbed than the EE form. None of these claims is true. The recombined triglycerides are not necessarily in their natural form, they are not more stable, and they certainly are not better utilized by the body. My personal opinion is that the EE form actually possesses some advantages: ... The specific fish oil product that I recommend is RxOmega-3 Factors from Natural Factors" - See RxOmega-3 products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish for brain health supported by trio of studies - Nutra USA, 11/14/07 - "These recent reports are novel in that they address the association of n-3 fatty acid intake and cognitive function in non-demented individuals and, thus, present a shift in the attention to earlier stages of cognitive decline with the hope of preventing progression to states of dementia and disability before they become irreversible"
  • Eating Fish, Omega-3 Oils, Fruits And Veggies Lowers Risk Of Memory Problems - Science Daily, 11/13/07 - "people who regularly consumed omega-3 rich oils, such as canola oil, flaxseed oil and walnut oil, reduced their risk of dementia by 60 percent compared to people who did not regularly consume such oils ... people who ate fish at least once a week had a 35-percent lower risk of Alzheimer's disease and 40-percent lower risk of dementia, but only if they did not carry the gene that increases the risk of Alzheimer's, called apolipoprotein E4, or ApoE4 ... Given that most people do not carry the ApoE4 gene, these results could have considerable implications in terms of public health"
  • Omega-3 Fish Oil Improves Lupus Symptoms, Shows Possible Cardiovascular Benefits - Doctor's Guide, 11/12/07 - "They received 3 grams of omega-3 fish oils, daily, for 24 weeks ... Low dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in SLE not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may, therefore, confer cardiovascular benefits" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Got omega-3? Not so much - USATODAY.com, 11/11/07 - "Most mayonnaise is made with soybean oil, which is a source of ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). But that kind of omega-3 fat, found most abundantly in flaxseed, has not been proven to convey the same health benefits as DHA plus EPA ... if the label just says omega-3 and makes no mention of DHA and EPA, there's a good chance it's ALA"
  • Eat Fish, Get Smarter? - WebMD, 11/8/07 - "Most participants ate fish, and the more fish they ate, the better their test scores were -- up to a point ... Test scores leveled off for people who ate more than about 2.5 to 2.8 daily ounces of fish" - Note:  The article includes a total of three studies.
  • Staving Off Alzheimer's Disease With The Right Diet, Prescriptions - Science Daily, 11/7/07 - "Fish oil elevated the level of a protein that prevents the formation of amyloid, the tell-tale protein found in Alzheimer's. Caffeine reversed memory impairment in animal models of the disease. In addition, environmental copper reduced the clearance of amyloid, from the brain to blood ... scientists have identified ways that essential omega-3 fatty acid -- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or fish oil -- can help prevent Alzheimer's ... DHA also reduced pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid in brains of Alzheimer's model mice, consistent with the anti-inflammatory effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are associated with reduced Alzheimer's in people" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Supplements May Ease Lupus - WebMD, 11/7/07 - "Fish oil supplements may help improve the symptoms of lupus ... the supplements also improve blood flow and blood vessel function in people with lupus who are known to be at increased risk for heart disease"
  • Fish May Be Adjunct for Postpartum Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 11/07 - "The only study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements given specifically for postpartum depression was a dose-ranging study in 16 women. It found significant and similar reductions in depression in each of three dosage groups; patients received between 500 mg and 2.8 g per day of supplement capsules for 8 weeks"
  • Omega-3 to cut colon cancer: meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 10/25/07 - "the highest consumption of fish oil was associated with 12 per cent reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation Reduced With Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet - Doctor's Guide, 10/17/07 - "The survival rate was 25.52% in the control group versus 63.09% in the ALA group at the end of the 12-month period" - Note:  ALA is the shorter chain omega-3 found in vegetable sources such as flaxseed.
  • Baby Formula WIth Fish Oil Added May Help Infants - Science Daily, 10/11/07 - "The researchers noticed that in the piglets that were fed the control formula, fewer proteins were produced in their body over time and, at the same time, their insulin became less effective at lowering blood sugar levels. But piglets that drunk the test formula showed increased protein production and their insulin was as effective at using the proteins in the test formula for their growth as when they were born"
  • Vitamin C May Slow Skin Wrinkling - WebMD, 10/8/07 - "After adjusting for other factors likely to influence skin aging, such as sun exposure and smoking, vitamin C and linoleic acid were independently associated with skin aging ... After digestion, linoleic acid is converted to DHA and EPA -- two fatty acids" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com. - Note:  I'm not sure that is correct.  Linoleic acid is an omega-6, which is not converted to DHA and EPA.  Most Americans get about ten time too much omega-6 already.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Borderline Personality Disorder - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/07 - "Omega-3 fatty acids may be effective for reducing aggression and depression in females who suffer with moderate BPD. The results are consistent with prior findings on the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depression (Evidence-Based Psychiatric Medicine, CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY NEWS, May 2005, p. 28)"
  • Report: Fighting Depression And Improving Cognition With Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Life Extension Magazine, 10/07 - "subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1200 mg EPA plus 900 mg DHA, or placebo, for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the group receiving omega-3 fatty acids had significantly greater improvements compared with the placebo group in scores for depression, suicidality and daily stresses"
  • Omega-3 May Lower Type 1 Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 9/25/07 - "Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fats may help keep high-risk children from developing type 1 diabetes"
  • Omega-3 may boost blood vessel elasticity - study - Nutra USA, 9/21/07 - "fish oil supplementation improved large artery elasticity, compared to placebo (15.51.5 versus 12.83.7 ml.mm.Hg-1 x 10, respectively)"
  • Omega-3 Can Prevent Blindness In Premature Mice: Hospital Treatment Soon? - Science Daily, 8/18/07 - "Mice that ate omega-3 initially lost fewer blood vessels in their retinas than mice that ate omega-6, and they evinced only half as much abnormal vessel growth. Their retinas also showed lower inflammatory activity"
  • More Fish Oil, Less Vegetable Oil, Better For Your Health - Science Daily, 7/26/07 - "using more fish oil than vegetable oil in the diet decreases the formation of chemicals called prostanoids, which, when produced in excess, increase inflammation in various tissues and organs"
  • Different omega-3 may offer different colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 7/11/07 - "Increased intake of EPA was associated with a 41 per cent reduction in risk, while DHA was associated with a 37 per cent reduction in risk, comparing highest against lowest average intakes" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3s May Help Prevent Blindness - WebMD, 6/25/07
  • Can Blindness Be Prevented Through Diet? - Science Daily, 6/24/07 - "Increasing intake of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, found in popular fish-oil supplements, may protect against blindness resulting from abnormal blood vessel growth in the eye ... Mice on the omega-3 diet, rich in DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and its precursor EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), had less initial vessel loss in the retina than the omega-6-fed mice: the area with vessel loss was 40 to 50 percent smaller"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Help Slow Prostate Cancer Growth - Science Daily, 6/21/07
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Lower Genetic Risk for Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/21/07 - "Overall, diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids reduced prostate tumor growth, slowed histopathological progression, and increased survival, the researchers write. The 12-month survival rate was 60% for mice fed a diet high in omega-3, 10% on the low–omega-3 diet, and 0% on the high–omega-6 diet. The ideal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is 1:1, and mice fed diets with this ratio of fatty acids were able to delay both the formation and progression of prostate tumors and prolong their survival"
  • Omega-3 Supplements Can Help With Alzheimer's Symptoms, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/21/07 - "There was no observable difference in therapeutic effect between the patients receiving the omega-3 and the placebo group. However, when the researchers took into account which of the patients carried the susceptibility gene APOE4 and which did not, an appreciable difference appeared. Carriers of the gene who had received active treatment responded positively to the omega-3 as regards agitation symptoms, while non-bearers of the gene showed an improvement in depressive symptoms"
  • Omega-3s May Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 6/4/07 - "Participants with the highest intake of omega-3 fatty acids tended to have the lowest blood pressure"
  • Eating Fish May Preserve Eyesight - WebMD, 5/15/07
  • Higher Intake Of Fish And Vitamin D Levels Linked To Lower Risk Of Age-related Macular Disease - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "Individuals who have higher dietary intake of foods with omega-3 fatty acids and higher fish consumption have a reduced risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration, while those with higher serum levels of vitamin D may have a reduced risk of the early stages of the disease"
  • Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have Positive Effect On Muscle Mass, Study Shows - Science Daily, 5/9/07 - "In mammals, the ability to use nutrients from food and convert them into muscle proteins decreases with age. Though the exact cause of this phenomenon is still unclear, insulin resistance of aging muscle cells has been suggested as a possible answer ... omega-3 fatty acids are known to improve glucose metabolism in people and animals showing insulin resistance ... After five weeks, animals with the marine omega-3 diet showed increased sensitivity to insulin which, in turn, improved protein metabolism"
  • Preventing Breast Cancer? - Dr. Weil, 5/3/07 - "Take 2 grams of fish oil a day. High omega-3 fatty acid intake significantly reduces your risk of breast cancer"
  • Fish Oil May Help Kidney Disease Sufferers - Science Daily, 4/30/07 - "daily doses of fish oil in the form of a tablet or liquid had been shown to decrease inflammation - a common problem in people with kidney disease"
  • Fish-diabetes pollution link may boost supplements - Nutra USA, 4/13/07 - "the risk of pollutants from oily fish, such a methyl mercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) have led to some claims to reduce fresh fish intake, especially for pregnant women who may damage the development of their babies ... Most extracted fish oils are molecularly distilled and steam deodorised to remove contaminants ... The study, led by Professor Duk-Hee Lee observed a link between POP levels and diabetes"
  • Fish Oil: Getting to the Heart of It - Medscape, 4/12/07 - "A food-based approach to increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids is preferable. However, for those with known CHD, the increased dose required to lower triglycerides could be as much as 4 g/day. Consuming fish 2.5 to 3 times a week would provide a combined intake of about 500 mg EPA and DHA/day.[21] It is unrealistic to think that these high daily doses could be achieved through diet alone, resulting in a requirement for supplementation"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid May Protect Heart - WebMD, 3/29/07 - "2.8% of those taking EPA along with statins experienced a major coronary event, compared with 3.5% of those only taking statins ... That's a 19% difference"
  • Supplement 'boosts' brain power - BBC News, 3/12/07 - "they were given two capsules a day of the VegEPA supplement, which contains an omega-3 fatty acid called EPA ... Tests done at the end of the three-month study found the children showed an increase in reading age of well over a year, their handwriting became neater and more accurate and they paid more attention in class ... In three months you might expect to see a small NAA increase ... But we saw as much growth as you would normally see in three years"
  • Omega-3 in fish oils might ease depression - USA Today, 3/6/07 - "The more DHA a person consumed, the more gray matter there was in three areas of the brain linked to mood: the amygdala, the hippocampus and the cingulate, Conklin says. Seriously depressed people tend to have less gray matter in these areas" [WebMD]
  • Balancing Omega-3 and Omega-6? - Dr. Weil, 2/22/07 - "Many nutrition experts believe that before we relied so heavily on processed foods, humans consumed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in roughly equal amounts. But to our great detriment, most North Americans and Europeans now get far too much of the omega-6s and not enough of the omega-3s. This dietary imbalance may explain the rise of such diseases as asthma, coronary heart disease, many forms of cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegenerative diseases, all of which are believed to stem from inflammation in the body. The imbalance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may also contribute to obesity, depression, dyslexia, hyperactivity and even a tendency toward violence"
  • Omega-3 and joint health – more support - Nutra USA, 1/31/07 - "randomly assigned 24 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), also known as Bechterews disease, to receive either high-dose (4.55 g) or low-dose (1.95 g) daily supplement of omega-3 (Epax 5500 TG) ... The patients in the high-dose group exhibited a significant decrease in disease activity according to the Bath Ankylosing Disease Activity Index, which was not seen in the low-dose group" - [Abstract]
  • Fish Oil for Moms May Benefit Babies - WebMD, 12/21/06 - "children of mothers who took fish oil supplements scored significantly higher on tests of hand-eye coordination than those who took olive oil supplements"
  • More support omega-3 may protect against colorectal cancer - Nutra USA, 11/22/06 - "A diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 85 per cent"
  • Soy, Fish May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/14/06 - "men who ate the most fish -- and that was five or more servings per week of fish -- compared to the least fish -- less than one time per week -- had a 40% lower risk of developing colorectal cancer"
  • Omega fatty acids to stop mental decline, says study - Nutra USA, 10/31/06 - "ARA plus DHA supplementation produced significant improvements in the immediate memory and attention RBANS scores (eight and five points, respectively)"
  • Omega 3 Fatty Acid Prescribing Behaviors - Medscape, 10/25/06 - "Fish oil intake, through diet or supplementation, is recommended by the AHA and can potentially reduce mortality in patients with CVD. Despite this, family physicians do not often advise increasing dietary fish intake to their patients with CVD. Improving physician awareness of fish oil's benefits on sudden death and simplifying the message should be explored further as potential strategies to increase physician recommendation of this important advice"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Slow Cognitive Decline In Some Patients With Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/11/06 - "For six months, 89 patients (51 women and 38 men) took 1.7 grams of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and .6 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), while 85 patients (39 women and 46 men) took placebo ... among a subgroup of 32 patients with very mild cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study, those who took the fatty acids experienced less decline in six months compared with those who took placebo"
  • New Study Finds Omega-3's in Fatty Fish Can Reduce Risk of Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 9/26/06 - "At least one portion of fatty fish a week during the period (1987-2004) reduced the risk of renal cancer by 74 per cent compared with those who never ate fatty fish"
  • Fatty Fish Fight Cancer - WebMD, 9/19/06 - "Those who consistently ate lots of fatty fish over a 10-year period had a 74% lower risk of kidney cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at iHerb.
  • Why You Need More Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Life Extension Magazine, 9/06
  • Protection for Aging Eyes - New Hope Natural Media Online, 8/31/06 - "A 40% reduction in the incidence of early age-related macular degeneration was associated with eating fish at least once a week; eating fish at least three times per week even reduced the incidence of late-stage age-related macular degeneration"
  • Fish Oils May Be Lifesavers - WebMD, 8/30/06 - "Sudden death risk dropped 6.4% with adequate omega-3 fatty acid intake, compared with 3.3% for implantable defibrillators, and less than 1% with easy access to AEDS"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids after Myocardial Infarction - Medscape, 8/30/06 - "OMACOR, containing 900 mg of highly purified n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 46%; decosahexaenoic acid, 38%) ... The incremental number of life-years saved by OMACOR during the 4 years' follow-up was 0.054 per patient, or 54 per 1000 patients"
  • Altering Fatty Acid Levels In Diet May Reduce Prostate Cancer Growth Rate - Science Daily, 8/1/06 - "tumor cell growth rates decreased by 22 percent and PSA levels were 77 percent lower in the group receiving a healthier balance of fatty acids compared with the group that received predominantly omega-6 fatty acids"
  • Fatty Fish Helps Heart Keep Its Rhythm - WebMD, 7/28/06 - "suggests eating fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids regularly acts directly on the heart's electrical function, which regulates the heart rate and keeps it from beating too fast or too slow"
  • Fish Oil May Help Save Your Eyes - WebMD, 7/10/06 - "men with the highest fish consumption (at least two weekly servings) were 45% less likely to have AMD than those with the lowest fish consumption (less than one weekly serving)"
  • A Safer Alternative to NSAIDs? - Physician's Weekly, 7/3/06 - "omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) may be as effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relieving neck and lower back pain without the risk of harmful complications"
  • Omega-3s may help depressive kids - pilot study - Nutra USA, 6/23/06 - "seven out of ten children in the omega-3 group and none of the children in the placebo group had depression score reductions of 50 per cent or more"
  • Hypertriglyceridemia - Medscape, 6/1/06 - "Omega-3 fatty acids (4 g per day) will reduce triglyceride levels by 30%"
  • MIT Research Offers New Hope For Alzheimer's Patients - Science Daily, 4/27/06 - "The three compounds in the treatment cocktail - omega-3 fatty acids, uridine and choline - are all needed by brain neurons to make phospholipids, the primary component of cell membranes"
  • Does Eating Salmon Lower the Murder Rate? - New York Times, 4/16/06 - "enrolled 231 volunteers at a British prison in his study; one-half received a placebo, while the other half received fatty acids and other supplements. Over time, the antisocial behavior (as measured by assaults and other violations) of the inmates who had been given the supplements dropped by more than a third relative to their previous records"
  • Fish Oil May Help Ease Back Pain - WebMD, 4/6/06 - "88% of patients said they would keep taking fish oil supplements"
  • Fish Oil May Help Protect Against Retinal Degenerative Diseases - Science Daily, 4/6/06
  • Omega-3s could stop liver cancer cells growth - Nutra USA, 4/3/06 - "Both omega-3 fatty acids had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect"
  • Study: Benefits of Omega-3s Fishy - WebMD, 3/24/06
  • In search of those omega-3 fatty acids -  San Diego Union-Tribune, 3/7/06 - "Fish oils from supplements or dietary sources can reduce triglycerides by 20 percent to 50 percent ... Studies have used triglyceride-lowering doses of 1 to 4 grams (1,000 mg to 4,000 mg) daily"
  • In a Bad Mood? Eat Your Fish - WebMD, 3/3/06 - "People in our study who had low blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids were more likely to report mild to moderate symptoms of depression, more moodiness, and more impulsivity ... people with higher blood levels of omega-3s were found to be more agreeable"
  • Fish oils cool anger levels - Nutra USA, 1/23/06 - "The 13 patients who received the fish oil showed a clinically significant and progressive decrease in their POMS anger subscale scores"
  • Oily fish makes 'babies brainier' - BBC News, 1/20/06 - "mothers with the lowest intake of the essential fatty acid had children with a verbal IQ six points lower than the average ... Low intake of the crucial fatty acid also appeared to lead to more problems of social interactions - such as an inability to make friends"
  • Fish Oil Reduces Airway Inflammation Caused by Exercise-Induced Asthma - Doctor's Guide, 1/10/06 - "the post-exercise lung function of participants -- adults with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma -- improved by about 64% and their use of emergency inhalers decreased by 31% when they consumed a diet supplemented with fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), for three weeks"
  • Have a Daily Dose of Omega-3 - US News, 12/26/05 - "Farmed salmon are raised on fish oil pellets derived from local fish, which are often contaminated with cancer-causing PCB s. The most recent study, in the November issue of the Journal of Nutrition, reports that contaminant levels in farmed salmon from certain regions increase the risk of cancer enough to outweigh benefits"
  • Fish Oil Prevents Potentially Deadly Heart Rate Variability - Science Daily, 12/15/05 - "In this randomized controlled trial, fish oil supplementation prevented the reduction in heart rate variability associated with the same-day exposure to indoor particulate matter"
  • Fish Oil May Treat Lung Disease - WebMD, 12/12/05 - "People in the omega-3 group had two advantages. They had a significant drop in lung inflammation. They also walked farthest in the six-minute walking test"
  • Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
  • Fatty Acids May Protect against Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/21/05 - "After 4.5 years of follow-up, patients taking EPA were 19% less likely to have adverse coronary events compared to controls"
  • The Nude Mouse Tale: Omega-3 Fats Save The Life Of A Terminal Cancer Patient - Science Daily, 11/14/05 - "In 2000 he was told by his doctor he had only a few months to live ... But five years later, he is still alive, and has even gained a little weight ... It was a nutritional intervention, drastically increasing the patient’s intake of omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Fish Oil Supplements Improve Lipid Risk Factors in Obese Children - Medscape, 11/14/05 - "given 3 g of a daily fish oil supplement ... After 12 weeks, the researchers found that triglyceride levels in the control group did not significantly differ from baseline. In contrast, triglyceride levels in children treated with fish oil significantly decreased. However, differences in other lipid measures were not statistically significant"
  • The Perricone Weight Loss Program - Life Extension Magazine, 11/05 - "The reason that traditional low-calorie diets fail is that they lack omega-3s, which are essential for healthy metabolism. If you follow the anti-inflammatory diet and ensure the intake of plenty of omega-3 fatty acids, you will successfully lose weight"
  • Oxidation Negates Fish Oil's Many Benefits - mercola.com, 10/31/05
  • Fish Oil Improves Endothelial Function of Healthy Subjects - Doctor's Guide, 10/27/05 - "fish oil supplementation resulted in a significant increase in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow mediated vasodilation (EDV) and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin mediated vasodilation (EIDV)"
  • Fatty Acid Supplementation for ADHD - Medscape, 10/26/05 - "finally studies are emerging that are evaluating these possible benefits. One such study found significant improvements in reading, spelling, and behavior in a cohort of children who received dietary supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[1] In addition, studies of infants fed infant formula with fatty acid supplementation have suggested cognitive enhancement into the second year of life"
  • Dietary Fat Intake Linked To Dry Eye Syndrome In Women - Science Daily, 10/24/05 - "a high intake of omega 3 fatty acids, often referred to as a 'good' fat, commonly found in fish and walnuts, is associated with a protective effect. Conversely, a higher ratio of omega 6, a fat found in many cooking and salad oils and animal meats, compared to omega 3 in the diet, may increase the risk of dry eye syndrome"
  • Eating Fish Associated with Slower Cognitive Decline - Doctor's Guide, 10/12/05 - "Consuming fish at least once a week was associated with a 10% per year slower rate of cognitive decline in elderly people ... consumption of one omega-3 fatty acid in particular, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is important for memory performance in aged animals" - See DHA products at iHerb.
  • Balance of Essential Fats May Prevent Bone Loss After Menopause - Doctor's Guide, 7/13/05 - "After 12 weeks, rats with the lowest ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in their diet experienced significantly less bone loss than rats in the other dietary groups ... A 5-to-1 dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids led to a conservation of bone mineral content that we didn't see with a 10-to-1 ratio"
  • Omega-3, Omega-6 Fatty Acids Can Affect Bone Loss - CBS 2 Chicago, 7/12/05 - "eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids -- found in walnuts and salmon -- may prevent bone thinning. While excess amounts of omega-6 -- found in grains and beef -- may actually promote bone loss ... a low ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 appears to be best"
  • Getting Enough Omega-3? - Dr. Weil, 7/14/05
  • Fish Help the Heart by Fighting Inflammation - WebMD, 7/5/05 - "compared with those who said they didn't eat fish, those who ate at least 10.5 ounces of fish per week had 33% lower C-reactive protein and 33% lower tumor necrosis factor-alpha (another indicator of inflammation) levels as well as much lower levels of other signs of inflammation"
  • Omega-3 Offers Hope For New Anti-breast Cancer Drugs - Science Daily, 6/8/05 - "Compounds of Omega-3 fatty acids and propofol reduce the ability of breast cancer cells to develop into malignant tumours, inhibiting cancer cell migration by 50% and significantly reducing their metastatic activity ... Propofol is a potent anti-oxidant known to inhibit cancer cell migration by only 5-10%"
  • Modern diet may be causing depression - Nutra USA, 5/26/05 - "The finding lends itself nicely to the theory that increased omega-3 fatty acid intake may shift the balance between the two fatty acid families in the brain, since it has been demonstrated in animal studies that increased omega-3 fatty acid intake may result in decreased brain arachidonic acid"
  • Omega-3 Boosts Mood Throughout Pregnancy - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/05 - "In a small, open-label, flexible-dose study of 15 patients using doses up to 2.8 g/day of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, patients showed a mean decrease on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) of 39% and a mean decrease of 34% on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/05 - "English investigators conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of EPA doses of 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 mg/day in addition to unchanged standard treatment in 70 patients with persistent depression. The 1,000-mg group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared with placebo, but the other groups showed little evidence of efficacy ... The bulk of evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is effective in treating depression in patients with low omega-3 diets"
  • Breast Cancer Protection Starts in the Womb - WebMD, 4/20/05 - "Mothers who choose foods packed with omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and while nursing and then feed their kids such a diet after weaning may reduce the risk of breast cancer in their daughters by nearly 90%, early research in mice indicates"
  • High-Dose Omega-3 Oils Used to Treat Non-Surgical Neck and Back Pain - Doctor's Guide, 4/20/05 - "this could be the answer to the adverse effects seen with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, which have been associated with potentially catastrophic adverse effects ... 88% percent said they were pleased enough with the outcomes that they planned to continue using the fish oils"
  • Fish, Soy Oil Supplements May Cut Heart Death - WebMD, 4/11/05 - "participants were randomly assigned to take fish oil supplements or soy oil pills (2 grams daily for both groups) for 11 weeks ... Both groups significantly increased their heart rate variability while taking the supplements. Greater heart rate variability reduces the risk of dangerous irregular heart beats or sudden death"
  • Fish Oil May Fight Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 3/22/05 - "Brain imaging showed that the high-DHA diet cut brain plaque by 40%. The largest drops were seen in brain areas vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease ... The high-DHA diet also delivered the biggest drop (70%) in levels of beta-amyloid protein in the brain, a building block of plaque"
  • The Mechanism of Action of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 3/16/05 - "omega-3 fatty acids play a significant role in secondary prevention post-myocardial infarction. The mechanisms through which two of these omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, exert their action appear to be distinct and adjuvant to the available standard secondary prevention therapies"
  • Eating Oily Fish May Reduce Inflammation - Science Daily, 3/24/05 - "This research group recently identified a new class of aspirin-triggered bioactive lipids, called resolvins, the activity of which may in part explain the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Oily fish helps cut inflammation - BBC News, 3/13/05 - "We always suggest that people with arthritis eat two or three portions of oily fish a week, or take 1,500mg fish oil capsules a day"
  • Low Fatty Acid Levels, Dementia Associated in Large Study - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/05 - "The n-3 fatty acids are an important component of the neuronal membrane, influencing membrane fluidity and all the related functions, such as signal transduction and enzyme function ... Subjects with dementia had the lowest n-3 fatty acid plasma concentrations ... Subjects with dementia had the highest plasma concentrations of saturated fatty acids"
  • Applications of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 3/1/05 - "Fish saves lives, and physicians must recognize this potential life-saving treatment choice in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, family physicians can safely offer patients an alternative therapeutic approach for difficult-to-treat conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia and rheumatoid arthritis. For those without cardiovascular disease, including young mothers and women, it is reasonable to recommend 650 to 1000 mg of low-risk fish oils per day through dietary approaches as suggested by the National Institutes of Health working group, AHA, and the FDA—easily achieved by 1 to 2 fatty fish meals per week"
  • Antidepressant Foods - Forbes.com, 2/10/05 - "The Omega-3 diet showed results after one month, and uridine was effective as long as the rats were fed enough of it. But when given both together, within ten days the rats who were eating the good foods behaved as well as those on medications ... Uridine fuels mitochondria, and paired with the lubricating effect of the Omega-3s, helps them make more energy more efficiently"
  • Omega-3s to enter weight loss category? - Nutra USA, 1/25/05 - "The fish oil concentrates not only caused weight reduction in the mice but they also appeared to stop the animals from gaining weight when given free access to food"
  • Arthritis Patients Can Seek Natural Pain Relief - CBS Chicago, 1/15/05 - "They placed 120 patients on fish oil supplements. About 59 percent of reported decreased joint pain, and 68 percent were able to discontinue prescription drugs entirely"
  • Fish oil supplements slow ageing of brain - Nutra USA, 12/21/04 - "People who eat oily fish or take fish oil supplements score 13 per cent higher in IQ tests and are less likely to show early signs of Alzheimer’s disease ... The brains of fish oil users seemed to be faster. There was a strong relationship between mental test scores and the omega-3 content in the blood"
  • Fish Oil Could Help Crohn's Disease - WebMD, 12/10/04
  • Low-Fat Diet May Protect Against Alzheimer's - WebMD, 12/7/04 - "mice fed a low-fat diet rich in the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and soy, produced more of a protein that helps eliminate the amyloid peptides that cause plaque in the brain"
  • The high five for hypertension - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 12/04 - "Co-enzyme Q10 ... Omega-3 fatty acids ... Garlic ... L-arginine ... Calcium"
  • Alpha-Linolenic Acid Intake Inversely Associated With Cardiac Events - Medscape, 11/11/04 - "women who consumed the highest levels of ALA — defined as approximately 1.5 g per day — "had a 46% lower risk of sudden cardiac death than women who consumed the least amount of [ALA], which was just over half a gram a day ... 1.5 g equals "about two capfuls of flaxseed oil or a handful of walnuts"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Good For The Heart, And (maybe) Good For The Brain - Science Daily, 11/8/04 - "There is mounting evidence that a diet containing omega-3 fatty acids, already known to help prevent cardiovascular disease, may also prevent depression"
  • ConsumerLab.com - Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA) from Fish/Marine Oils review - ConsumerLab.com, 10/6/04 - "None of the products were found to contain detectable levels of mercury ... none of the products contained unsafe levels of PCBs ... none of these supplements contained unsafe levels of dioxins"
  • Fish Oil's Breast Cancer Benefits May Vary - WebMD, 9/23/04
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Get New Health Claim - WebMD, 9/8/04 - "The FDA now says it will allow foods and supplements containing eiscosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids to carry a qualified health claim that says eating the product may reduce the risk of heart disease"
  • Fish Containing N-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Risk of AF - Medscape, 7/19/04 - "Intake of fatty fish containing N-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but fish sandwiches or fried fish are not protective"
  • Omega-3s appear to protect against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 6/23/04 - "alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-6 fat, may raise the risk of advanced prostate cancer ... Men with the highest quintiles of EPA and DHA combined had an 11 per cent lower total prostate cancer risk and advanced prostate cancer risk was 26 per cent lower"
  • Fish Oil Prevents Deadly Irregular Heartbeats - WebMD, 4/30/04 - "If these and other trials confirm the anti-arrhythmic properties of these [omega-3 acids], fish oil may become a less toxic and more appetizing alternative to traditional anti-arrhythmic"
  • Salmon and Cod Liver Oil Contamination: Key Point - Rely on Pharmaceutical Grade Fish Oil for Your Omega-3 Fatty Acid Needs - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 4/21/04 - "To reduce your chances of eating salmon and other fish that is tainted with chemical toxins: ... Eat wild Alaskan salmon as opposed to farm-raised salmon ... Limit your intake of fresh water fish ... Eat smaller, young fish ... The specific product that I recommend is RxOmega-3 Factors from Natural Factors"
  • Improving Omega-3 Oils - ffnmag.com, 1/04
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Vital to a longer, healthier life - Life Extension Foundation, 12/03 - "While an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of roughly 2:1 is optimal, most Americans consume far more omega-6s than omega-3s, yielding a ratio skewed at least 10:1 in favor of omega-6s. Some estimates put the ratio as high as 40:1 ... Because omega-6s break down into arachidonic acid in the body, and arachidonic acid is converted to highly inflammatory chemicals, a huge increase in the availability of arachidonic acid translates into a huge increase in the potential for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases"
  • Get Hooked On Fish - Wellness Insider, 11/25/03 - "Fish is a good source of omega 3s. Elderly individuals who consume fish three times per week can almost cut their risk in half for developing Alzheimer's disease"
  • Fish And N-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease - Life Extension Foundation, 11/03 - "A new study, from the Rush-Presbyterian, St. Lukes Medical Center, in Chicago, shows that people who consumed at least one serving of fish a week dramatically reduced their risk of Alzheimer’s disease, compared to those who rarely or never ate fish. Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a similar risk-lowering effect"
  • Diet and Exercise - Medscape, 9/9/03 - "Consumption of the omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis and the risk of sudden death[1,2] and stroke.[3] In high doses, omega-3 fatty acids may reduce blood triglyceride levels, but in dietary amounts, they have little effect on blood lipids. Even in modest amounts, however, omega-3 fatty acids reduce platelet aggregation, impairing thrombogenesis. They may also have antiarrhythmic and plaque-stabilizing properties"
  • Inflammation Syndrome a Red-Hot Topic - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "What are some of the key anti-inflammatory supplements? ... At the top of the list are omega-3 fish oils, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, an omega-6 fat that behaves more like an omega-3) and vitamin E. Several studies have shown that natural vitamin E supplements lower CRP levels by 30 percent to 50 percent"
  • The Omega Principle - WashingtonPost.com, 8/19/03 - "Omega-3s, dubbed the "happy" fats in some quarters, are under investigation for treating depression, bipolar disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcoholism, Alzheimer's disease and even the so-called baby blues, or postpartum depression ... there are many profound neurological disorders that are known to be caused by lipid problems ... The brain itself, is, in fact, about 60 percent fat ... while the body can manufacture saturated fat, cholesterol and even some unsaturated fat -- it is incapable of producing two of the fatty acids that are most vital ... there has been an 1,000-fold increase in [consumption of] omega-6 fatty acids ... Flooding brains and bodies with a diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids theoretically could give an unfair advantage to these molecules, allowing them to block omega-3s from getting inside cells" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish Lowers Heart Rate - WebMD, 8/12/03 - "This current study involves more than 9,700 men -- all between 50 and 59 years old -- who had no signs of heart disease. Researchers kept track of them from 1991 to 1993, documenting their heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol, and other heart disease risk factors ... Fish eaters had the lowest heart rates. It's important information because even small reductions in heart rate can make a difference in sudden heart death"
  • Beyond the Mediterranean Diet: The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease - Medscape, 8/1/03 - "The current US consumption of n-3 fatty acids is significantly below recommended levels and new American Heart Association recommendations suggest consuming at least two fish meals per week. Although additional trials are needed, the favorable safety profile and existing clinical trials suggest n-3 fatty acids should be considered a new important adjunct to existing cardiovascular prevention strategies"
  • Is Your Salmon Safe? - WebMD, 7/31/03 - "bought 10 salmon filets in grocery stores in Washington, D.C.; Portland, Ore.; and San Francisco. Lab analysis showed "high" PCB levels in seven of the 10 samples"
  • Fish Once a Week Cuts Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 7/21/03 - "Weekly fish eaters had a 60% lower risk of Alzheimer's than people who rarely or never ate fish ... The beneficial effects of [fatty acids] from fish may be counterbalanced by toxins ... A high antioxidant/low saturated fat diet pattern with a greater amount of fish, chicken, fruits, and vegetables and less red meat and dairy products is likely to lower the risk of AD, as well as that for heart disease and stroke ... Furthermore, B vitamin supplements, containing vitamins B12 and B6 and folic acid, lower plasma total homocysteine levels, possibly decreasing the risk of stroke, heart disease and perhaps Alzheimer's disease"
  • New Research Supports Omega-3's Benefits - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 7/03 - "Research keeps piling up to support omega-3 use for a whole host of purposes, from brain food to arrhythmia prevention. In fact, Andrew Weil, M.D., the alternative medicine promoter and guru, recommends omega-3s for no fewer than 20 conditions on his Web site"
  • Essential Fatty Acid Beneficial for Women with Personality Disorder - New Hope Natural Media, 7/3/03 - "30 women with moderately severe BPD between the ages of 18 and 40 received 500 mg twice a day of EPA or a similar looking placebo for eight weeks ... Compared with the placebo group, average aggression and depression scores decreased in the EPA treatment group by 44% and 22%, respectively ... a purified EPA product, called ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA), was used in this study. This product is not yet commercially available" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Pretty in Pink: Atlantic Salmon Under Fire - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 6/03 - "farm-bred salmon—which accounts for 95 percent of Atlantic salmon—is naturally gray. Wild salmon, on the other hand, derives its familiar pink hue from its diet of small crustaceans. So salmon farmers add a dye to their fish feed mix, making it indistinguishable from wild salmon and more appealing to consumers ... Many consumers, however, seek to avoid farm-raised salmon because of concerns about its exposure to antibiotics and PCBs, its higher fat content and its lower omega-3 profile. Research also suggests that canthaxanthin, the most common colorant, may cause an accumulation of pigments in the retina, resulting in impaired vision"
  • Fish May Fight Pregnancy Depression Risks - Intelihealth, 5/21/03 - "the more omega-3 fatty acids a woman consumed in seafood during the third trimester, the less likely she was to show signs of major depression at that time and for up to eight months after the birth"
  • Fish Oil Benefits Your Eyes - WebMD, 5/8/03 - "Why might fish oil protect eyes from age-related macular degeneration? One component of fish oil is docosahexaenoic acid -- DHA for short. It's one of the omega-3 fatty acids linked to other health benefits. Interestingly, DHA builds up in the eye near light-sensing nerve cells ... Those whose diets had the most fish oil were less likely to have dry eye syndrome than those whose diets had the least fish oil"
  • Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Risk of AMD - Medscape, 5/6/03 - "Dietary omega-3 fatty acids but not beta-carotene supplementation is associated with a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... omega-3 fatty acids may also reduce the risk of dry eye syndrome in women" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Acids Added To Infant Formula May Cut Later Heart Disease Risks - Doctor's Guide, 5/1/03 - "Several studies have reported lower blood pressure in adults whose diet was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids, but no published studies have looked at the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on blood pressure in children ... The LCPUFA group had significantly lower mean blood pressure: mean difference -3.0 mm Hg, and mean difference of -3.5 mm Hg diastolic"
  • Fortified Formulas Promote Healthy Heart - WebMD, 5/1/03
  • Anti-Inflammatory Diet Plus Fish Oil Effective for Rheumatoid Arthritis - New Hope Natural Media, 5/1/03 - "An anti-inflammatory diet and fish oil supplements are both helpful for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but combining them has an even greater effect ... The anti-inflammatory diet improved joint pain, swelling, and overall ability to function by 14%, while the Western diet did not improve symptoms or functioning. Benefits were observed with the addition of fish oil, bringing total improvement to 17% in those eating a Western diet and 37% in those eating the anti-inflammatory diet. Furthermore, the need for anti-inflammatory medications was significantly reduced for those receiving fish oil on both diets, although the group eating the anti-inflammatory diet had greater medication reduction. Medication usage increased for those on the Western diet plus placebo"
  • Eating Fish Lowers Heart Disease Risk in Women With Diabetes - WebMD, 3/31/03 - "Women with type 2 diabetes who ate fish once a week were 40% less likely to develop heart disease than those who rarely ate it, and eating fish almost every day was associated with a two-thirds reduction in risk ... It is believed that omega-3 fatty acids abundant in the fat of many fish reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering triglyceride levels, improving blood vessel function, and reducing blood-clot formation"
  • Lipid Benefits With Monounsaturated-Fatty-Acids Diet In Healthy People - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/03 - "A moderate supplementation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in healthy individuals reduces both fasting and post-prandial triacylglycerol concentrations but increases LDL cholesterol, irrespective of the type of diet"
  • New Fish Oil Guidelines Endorse Use of Supplements - Clinical Psychiatry News, 1/03 - "the American Heart Association (AHA) has recommended that these patients [documented coronary heart disease] consume about 1g of omega-3 fatty acids per day ... In a major departure, the AHA also said, for the first time, that a recommended nutrient could alternatively be consumed as a supplement"
  • The Importance of Pharmaceutical Grade Marine Lipids - Dr. Murray's Newsletter, 1/22/03 - "A diet that is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, results in altered cell membranes. Without a healthy membrane, cells lose their ability to hold water, vital nutrients, and electrolytes. They also lose their ability to communicate with other cells and be controlled by regulating hormones. They simply do not function properly. Cell membrane dysfunction is a critical factor in the development of virtually every chronic disease, especially cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease ...RxOmega-3 Factors from Natural Factors is an example of this revolutionary new source of long-chain fatty acids"
  • Fish Oil Soothes Personality Disorder - WebMD, 1/17/03 - "a new study shows daily fish oil supplementation can significantly reduce their symptoms without the negative side effects associated with other treatments" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • BPD Patients Respond To Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Psychiatric News, 1/17/03 - "recruited women for their study through ads placed in Boston newspapers. The ads asked questions such as, "Are you extremely moody? Do you often feel out of control? Are your relationships painful and difficult?" ... In an eight-week study period, 20 of the 30 subjects received daily two 500 mg capsules of an omega-3 fatty acid called E-EPA (ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid). The remaining 10 subjects received a placebo daily—two capsules containing mineral oil ... They found that while depression and aggression levels had declined in the placebo group from the start of the study to the end, they had dropped even more so in the treatment group ... the omega-3 fatty acid used—E-EPA—"may be a safe and effective form of monotherapy for women with moderately severe borderline personality disorder." ... Perhaps it works, at least in part, through its ability to lead to [cell] membrane stabilization [in the brain] ... the brain is made up of at least 60 percent lipids"
  • E-EPA Helpful in Borderline Personality Disorder - Medscape, 1/16/03
  • Fatty Acid Effective against Depression - New Hope Natural Media, 1/9/03 - "E-EPA is a chemically modified form of EPA ... the best results were achieved with the smallest amount of E-EPA tested ... The authors of the study speculated that taking too much E-EPA might cause an imbalance between the two major classes of essential fatty acids: the omega-3 class (which includes EPA) and the omega-6 class (which includes linoleic and arachidonic acids ... E-EPA is not widely available at the present time"
  • Combating Skin Aging - Life Extension Magazine, 1/03 - "The oral ingestion of fish, flax or perilla oil provides abundant quantities of the omega-3 fatty acids that are so beneficial to the health and appearance of the skin"
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enhances Vasodilatation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients - Doctor's Guide, 12/30/02 - "The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid EPA has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in atherosclerotic arteries"
  • Study in 43,000 men touts benefits of even a little fish - USA Today, 12/24/02 - "Men who ate about 3 to 5 ounces of fish one to three times a month were 43% less likely to have a stroke during 12 years of follow-up ... Omega-3 fatty acids, found in most fish, have been shown to lower levels of blood fats linked to cardiovascular disease and to help keep blood from clotting"
  • Evidence-based Products - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 12/02 - "3g EPA/d and 3g DHA/d (ROPUFA) increased systemic arterial compliance in 38 dyslipidemic men and women, resulting in reduced pulse pressure and total vascular resistance ... Results showed that ROPUFA increased SAC—36 per cent with EPA and 27 per cent with DHA—compared with placebo"
  • Heart Risks Tied Directly To Mercury In Nine-Country Study - Doctor's Guide, 12/2/02 - "High mercury content in some fish may diminish the cardioprotective effects associated with consumption of omega-three fatty acids fish ... While the toenail mercury level was directly associated with risk of myocardial infarction, the fish oil level was inversely associated with this risk"
  • Losing Out on Omega-3s? - Dr. Weil, 11/26/02 - "Omega-3s can be destroyed by air, light and heat, which is why the less exposure and processing that fish undergo between being caught and ending up on your plate, the better"
  • Fatty acids from fish can ward off heart attacks - Intelihealth, 11/19/02 - "Studies now suggest that components of fish oil, called omega-3 fatty acids, can save the lives of people with heart disease ... The heart association also cited recent research indicating that even people with healthy hearts can benefit from a diet rich in such fish as salmon, bluefish, Arctic char, mackerel and swordfish ... fish can reduce a man's risk of dying from a heart attack by 80% ... omega-3 fatty acids can cut a woman's risk of death by heart attack by 33% ... Fatty fish can contain significant levels of mercury"
  • Those With Heart Disease Should Eat Fish - Intelihealth, 11/19/02 - "Various studies of fish or supplements showed a 4 percent to 30 percent reduction in triglycerides, but a doctor's care is advised because large doses can present a risk of bleeding in some people ... People can get the recommended 1 gram per day of DHA and EPA combined by eating a 3- to 4-ounce serving of fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, trout or white tuna ... Harris said people who take supplements should read the labels and make sure they are getting at least 1 gram of DHA and EPA. With a typical supplement, you need about three capsules to get this amount"
  • Supplementation with Fatty Acids Helps Schizophrenic Patients - New Hope Natural Media, 11/14/02 - "E-EPA is a derivative of the dietary fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, commonly abbreviated as EPA" - I was wondering what the difference between E-EPA and EPA was.  To bad it doesn't tell you what percentage of EPA that E-EPA is so that you could interpolate it to the following study:
  • Hold The Mercury - CBS News, 11/5/02 - "89 percent of patients with a fish-heavy diet had blood-mercury levels exceeding that deemed safe by the government"
  • Eating Fish Cuts Risk of Dementia - WebMD, 10/24/02 - "Those who ate fish or seafood at least once a week had a significantly lower risk of being diagnosed with dementia during the seven-year study period ... The fatty acids in fish oils provide protection for arteries, which could improve blood flow to the brain. In addition, the fatty acids may reduce inflammation in the brain. They may also have a specific role in brain development and regeneration of nerve cells, the authors suggest"
  • Further Evidence Of Fish Consumption Link To Lower Alzheimer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 10/24/02
  • Breast Cancer Answers: Strategies Show Promise In Mice - Intelihealth, 10/23/02 - "Another study found that young female mice who ate lots of fish oil had lower breast cancer rates"
  • Study Records Elevated Mercury - Intelihealth, 10/19/02 - "A study of Californians who loaded their lunch and dinner menus with fish shows 89 percent wound up with elevated mercury levels in their bodies ... Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe. Four people had mercury levels 10 times as high as the government recommends"
  • Fish Oil Eases Depression - WebMD, 10/18/02 - "people who added a daily dose of omega-3 fatty acids to their regular antidepressant treatment had significant improvement in symptoms, including anxiety, sleeping problems, sadness, decreased sexual desire, and suicidal tendencies ... Previous studies have suggested that depressed people have lower-than-normal levels of a fatty acid known as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), which plays an important role in maintaining normal brain function"
  • Fish Oil May Help Relieve Stubborn Depressionicon - Reuters, 10/17/02 - "Daily supplements of an omega-3 fatty acid--found in fish and fish oil--may help alleviate the symptoms of depression in patients who do not respond to standard antidepressant medications, new research findings suggest ... Previous researchers have suggested that the balance of omega-3 fatty acids in the brain may become skewed in people with depression, and earlier studies have shown that fish oil supplements can help alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, or manic depression"
  • More Antioxidants, Less Fat May Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Data are now strong enough to recommend a dietary strategy for reducing Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk that includes low fat intake and high consumption of fish and antioxidants, along with vitamin E, folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 supplements"
  • Herbs for ADD? - Dr. Weil, 10/8/02 - "Dr. Newmark does recommend a dietary supplement, omega-3 fatty acids, for all children with ADHD because levels of omega-3s in the plasma and red blood cells of children with ADHD are lower than in normal children"
  • Keep The Engine Oiled - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 10/02 - "Remember, that's not 3 g of fish oils, but 3 g of the specific essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid" - Something I've been saying all along.  The fish oil doesn't count.  The omega-3 is the sum of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA).  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Can I Stop My Hair from Thinning? - Dr. Weil, 9/13/02 - "Make sure you’re getting enough omega-3 fatty acids ... supplement your diet with GLA (gamma-linolenic acid) in the form of black currant oil or evening primrose oil"
  • EPA Useful Add-on Therapy in Schizophrenia - Medscape, 9/9/02 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, the EPA group had significantly greater reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores and of dyskinesia scores than the placebo group ... We regard these results as remarkable, considering the refractory nature of schizophrenia in the subjects" - See Mega Twin EPA at  or iHerb.
  • Fish Oil May Augment Atorvastatin As Treatment For Dyslipidemia In Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/02 - "fish oils significantly decreased plasma levels of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein-apoB, decreased the very low density lipoprotein-apoB secretion rate ... combined treatment with atorvastatin and fish oils decreased very low density lipoprotein-apoB secretion and increased the fractional catabolic rate of apoB in each lipoprotein fraction , as well as the percent conversion of very low density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein" - See Mega Twin EPA at  or iHerb.
  • Omega-3 May Cut Bipolar Symptoms in Pregnancy - Clinical Psychiatry News, 8/02 - "From studies on animals, scientists now know that omega-3 fatty acids provide for normal brain and central nervous system development. Depriving animals of these compounds is associated with abnormalities in offspring ... Omega-3 fatty acids are thought to dampen signal transduction pathways associated with the pathophysiologic characteristics of bipolar disorder, similar to medications such as lithium and valproate. Omega-3 fatty acids also boost the brain's levels of serotonin ... fish oil supplement capsules carry no danger for pregnant women, according to an FDA spokesperson" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Prevent Heart Disease By Improving Arterial Elasticity - Intelihealth, 7/25/02 - "The research focused on the effects of two forms of omega-3 fatty acid--eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--on systemic arterial compliance, a measure of the degree of large artery elasticity. Increased stiffness in the large arteries can lead to systolic hypertension and increased pulse pressure (the difference between diastolic and systolic pressure), both factors that may contribute to increased coronary risk. Thirty-eight middle-aged men and women with elevated plasma total cholesterol consumed an EPA supplement, a DHA supplement, or a placebo during a 7-week dietary intervention. In contrast to the placebo group who showed no change, systemic arterial compliance rose 36% in the EPA group and 27% in the DHA group, while there was a trend toward reduced systolic and pulse pressure. Both omega-3 fatty acid supplement groups experienced significant declines in plasma total triacylglycerol concentrations"
  • Essential Fatty Acids Improve Thought Process and Behavior in Children with ADHD - New Hope Natural Media Online, 6/13/02 - "ADHD is characterized by impulsive behavior, lack of concentration, restlessness and, in some cases, learning disabilities ... The children were given either a supplement containing 186 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 480 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 96 mg of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), 864 mg of linoleic acid, and 60 IU of vitamin E per day, or a placebo ... the children who took the essential fatty acid supplement had significant improvement in symptom scores related to learning and behavior"
  • Sizing up omega-3 - USA Today, 5/1/02 - "The omega-3 picture is muddled by theories about omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, cottonseed and sunflower oils. Simopoulos says people in the USA consume too many of these oils and need to eat a more balanced ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. She doesn't support eating soybean oil, she says, because it's too high in omega-6"
  • Eating Away At High Cholesterol Levels - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 4/02
  • Fish Oil May Fight Diabetes - WebMD, 4/23/02
  • Experiments Strengthen Link Between Fish Oil, Mental Problems - Intelihealth, 4/18/02 - "Infant monkeys fed baby formulas supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids - the ones found in "fish oil" - were stronger and more alert even at less than a week old than monkeys given standard baby formula ... Harvard researchers gave two groups of persons who had recently been hospitalized with depression diets that were high in omega-3 and omega-6, respectively. The results were so dramatic that after three months, the scientists were directed by a research oversight committee to stop the experiment and allow all the subjects to take omega-3"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In Heart Transplant Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/11/02 - "gave 25 stable heart transplant patients two capsules of omega-3 fatty acid daily - each capsule contained 500 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ... The results suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increased concentrations of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10, from 119 to 268 pg/mL (p=0.00008). There were reductions in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory IL-12, from 473 to 376 pg/mL (p=0.001), and IL-6, from 695 to 569 pg/mL (p<0.0001)" - Why is it important for everyone to keep inflammation in check?  See:
  • Fish Oil Supplements Protect Heart - WebMD, 4/8/02 - "A daily fish oil supplement may help heart attack survivors reduce their risk of sudden death by as much as 42% ... taking one gram daily of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the risk of death in people who had heart attacks ... the researchers found these benefits were not related to common explanations such as lowering cholesterol levels or reducing blood clots ... fatty acids may play a part in regulating the electrical activity of heart muscle cells -- a process responsible for the heart rhythm"
  • Fat in Fish May Fight Postpartum Depression - WebMD, 4/8/02 - "Loading up on fatty fish like tuna and salmon while you're pregnant may help ward off postpartum depression as well as give your unborn child a mental boost. New research suggests there's a link between an essential fatty acid known as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) found in these fish and mental health ... high DHA intake among pregnant women can also reduce pregnancy and birth-related risks like low birth weight, premature birth, and pregnancy-induced high blood pressure"
  • Concepts and Controversies in Nutrition, Immune-Enhancing Formulas - Medscape, 3/21/02 - "Immune-enhancing formulas (IEFs), also known as immune-modulating formulas, include arginine, glutamine, nucleic acids, and omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Salmon May Help Relieve Depression - WebMD, 3/15/02 - "Patients randomly received either the fish oil capsule or a sugar pill in addition to the antidepressant medication they were taking ... After four weeks, six of 10 patients receiving E-EPA -- but only one of 10 receiving placebo -- had significantly reduced symptoms of depression ... The effect of E-EPA was significant from week two of treatment ... Depressed mood, guilt feelings, worthlessness, and insomnia were all improved" - Note: See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com contains 600 mg of EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid).
  • Formula With Supplements Boosts Infant-Brain Function - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/02 - "Despite a dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) from breast milk during the first six weeks of life, infants who were weaned to formula that did not provide long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids had significantly poorer visual acuity at 17, 26, and 52 weeks of age and significantly poorer steroacuity at 17 weeks of age than did infants who were weaned to LCP-supplemented formula ... She added that better acuity and steroacuity at 17 weeks was correlated with higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid in plasma. Better acuity at 52 weeks was correlated with higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid in plasma and red blood cells"- See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Consumption May Prevent Pre-Term Birth - Doctor's Guide, 2/21/02 - "Low consumption of fish oils appears a strong risk factor for pre-term delivery and low birth weight ... A study among 8,729 pregnant Danish women indicates that long chain omega n.3 fatty acids in amounts above 2 g a day may delay spontaneous delivery and prevent recurrence of pre-term delivery"
  • Omega-3s, the Heart-Healthy Fats --- HealthandAge - HealthandAge, 1/11/02 - "It appears that omega-3s protect the heart in several ways. They may lower the risk of abnormal heart rhythms; reduce the "stickiness" of blood cells, which makes them less likely to form clots and block arteries; and lower high blood triglyceride levels. Most studies have centered on marine sources of omega-3 fatty acids; less is known about the vegetable sources"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Fish Oil Supplements Pass Mercury Standards, But Lack Adequate Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Intelihealth, 11/29/01 - "Although none of the products tested positive for mercury (a poison sometimes found in fish), 30% of the products had lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than stated on their labels and 10% had lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA and DHA are the two main fatty acids found in fish oil and are principle sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are thought to provide many health benefits, including prevention of heart disease and treatment of pain associated with the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Safe for Pregnant Women With Mood Disorders - Clinical Psychiatry News, 11/01 - "Omega-3 fatty acids are well tolerated, nontoxic, and appear to be safe in pregnancy—characteristics that have made them attractive for many patients with mood disorders ... Calculating the dose of commercial preparations can be tricky. Front product panels should be ignored. “You'll see things all over the bottles, like ‘over 1,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids,’ but they won't necessarily have it,” she said, advising consumers to turn the bottle on its side to add up the milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)" - I think you'll find that Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com has the most bang per capsule. - Ben
  • question regarding your new cholesterol-lowering supplement, Policosanol - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Make sure you are taking at least six Mega EPA fish oil capsules daily, as low dose fish oil may not adequately suppress triglycerides"
  • Nutritional Supplement Boosts Immune Function In Surgery Patients - Intelihealth, 9/13/01 - "A new study published in the journal Lancet suggests that people who are at high risk of infection after heart surgery may benefit from taking a nutritional supplement containing L-arginine and omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Free Fatty Acids May Be Linked to Sudden Cardiac Death in Healthy Men - WebMD, 8/14/01 - "Very high levels of free fatty acids were associated with "2.5 to three times the risk for sudden cardiac death" ... Several factors, including cigarette smoking, fasting, hyperthyroidism, or heart attack, can trigger the release of free fatty acids ... The real risk, says Leaf, who is professor of clinical medicine at Harvard Medical School, comes from omega-6 fatty acids, which are found in foods fried in corn, safflower, or sunflower oils ... By contrast omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fatty fish and canola oil are actually heart healthy"
  • Fats for Life - Life Extension Magazine, 7/01 - "Essential fatty acids (EFAs) cannot be produced within the body and therefore must be provided through the diet. If the diet is lacking in EFAs, saturated fats will take the place of EFAs within cell membranes, reducing membrane fluidity and efficiency, and thereby starting a process of premature aging and disease development. In addition, by taking the right kinds of EFAs in the right proportions, we can maximize the production of beneficial prostaglandins and other chemical messengers, while minimizing production of harmful ones"
  • Go Fish! Types High in Fatty Acids May Prevent Prostate Cancer, Herring, Mackerel, and Salmon Recommended - WebMD, 6/1/01 - "Eating fatty fish reduces risk of prostate cancer by about 70%, compared to not eating it, and reduces the risk for death from the disease by about 50%."
  • News - Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Women's Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 5/31/01 - "Trans fatty acids increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women, while polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce that risk"
  • Fish Oil Risks Minimal - Nutrition Science News, 5/01 - "This suggests FO may offer a cardioprotective benefit for postmenopausal women without an increased risk of oxidative stress"
  • Letter - Mercury and Fish Oil Supplements - Medscape, 4/13/01 - "The following oils were tested: Twinlab Emulsified Super Max EPA ... Twinlab EPA New & Improved ... Twinlab Omege-3 Concentrate ... In conclusion, it appears that the independent testing and/or the quality control measures claimed by these companies are being done as far as potential mercury contamination is concerned. At the least, the amount of mercury in the fish used is so minimal as to be below the detectable limit by the method used.  In any event, the common brands tested appear to offer no mercury risk. While this is positive health news, it cannot be assumed that every brand is free of mercury"
  • Study Reaffirms Value Of Eating Fatty Fish - Intelihealth, 3/4/01 - "We found that eating modest amounts of fatty fish was associated with a 44 percent lower risk in fatal heart attacks"
  • Daily Specials: Fatty Fish and Soy Protein - WebMD, 3/2/01 - "In one study of 4,000 men and women with an average age of 72, those who ate one serving per week of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids had a 44% lower risk of suffering a fatal heart attack, compared to their counterparts who ate fatty fish less frequently. . . In another study of 150 adults with normal blood cholesterol levels, those who consumed 40 g of soy protein per day showed a 4.7% increase in their levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good," cholesterol -- without significantly affecting their low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol levels."
  • Bone Loss and Fatty Acids - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "People often use omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the inflammation associated with arthritis. As it turns out, these fatty acids may actually help prevent bone loss."
  • Fatty Fish -- Not Fried -- Reduces Heart Attack Deaths in Older Adults - WebMD, 2/28/01 - "Those who ate at least one serving of fatty fish every week were 35% less likely to die of a heart attack."
  • Omega-3s May Help Rheumatoid Arthritis - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "Omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil supplements may provide modest improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Newcastle in Australia."
  • Study: Low Fat Linked To Stroke Risk - Intelihealth, 2/13/01
  • Women Who Eat Fish A Few Times Weekly May Cut Stroke Risk, Study Says - Intelihealth, 1/16/01 - "Omega-3 fatty acids, found in most fish, have been shown to lower levels of blood fats linked to cardiovascular disease and to help keep blood from clotting."

Abstracts:

  • n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Promising Nutrients for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017 Aug 24 - "Taken together, n-3 PUFAs are comprehensively able to attenuate the atherogenic response. Therefore, n-3 PUFA intake is recommended to prevent cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine attacks: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jun 30 - "In conclusion, omega-3 intake leads to a significant reduction of approximately 3.44 hours in the duration of migraine" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial - Neurology. 2017 May 17 - "To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) ... 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year ... The primary outcome was the 1-year change in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, with sensory and nerve conduction measures as secondary outcomes ... Baseline CNFL was 8.3 we2.9 mm/mm2 and increased 29% to 10.1 an3.7 mm/mm2 (p = 0.002) after 12 months of supplementation"
  • n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation restored impaired memory and GABAergic synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus of stressed rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 May 8:1-14 - "Supplementation with n-3 PUFA improved dendritic architecture and restored the frequency of inhibitory post-synaptic currents of hippocampal pyramidal neurons of rats from stress group. In addition, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved spatial memory. Our results demonstrate that n-3 PUFA supplementation had three beneficial effects on stressed rats: prevented or compensated dendritic atrophy in CA3; restored the probability of GABA release in CA1; and improved spatial memory. We argue that n-3 PUFA supplementation can be used in treating stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety"
  • Efficacy of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation in Managing Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(2):187-192 - "Based on meta-analysis of seven studies, the analysis of aggregated data showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (p=0.005; WMD: -0.53" - Note: I assume that's 0.53 inches.
  • A double- blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPFA ɷ-3) for the prevention of migraine in chronic migraine patients using amitriptyline - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jan 5:1-5 - "Polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids (OPFAϖ-3) are useful for prophylaxis of migraine attacks"
  • n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction - Br J Nutr. 2016 Sep 13:1-12 - "dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA"
  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Ethyl-Ester Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Taiwanese Hypertriglyceridemic Patients - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2016 Sep 6 - "Omacor®, a prescription ethyl-ester omega-3 fatty acid for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia ... After a five-week diet lead in period patients with triglycerides =200-1000 mg/dL were randomized to receive Omacor®, a concentrated preparation of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a dose of 1 g twice daily (2 g Omacor®), 2 g twice daily (4 g Omacor®) or placebo, for eight weeks ... the percentage change in triglyceride serum levels in both the Omacor® 4 g/day (-32.1%) and 2 g/day (���29.7%) groups was larger than in the placebo group (-5.4%)"
  • Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Arterial Elasticity in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia on Statin Therapy - Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, Oct. 2016 - "We carried out an 8-week randomized, crossover intervention trial to test the effect of 4 g/d ω3-FA supplementation (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) on arterial elasticity in 20 adults with FH on optimal cholesterol-lowering therapy. Large and small artery elasticity were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. ω3-FA supplementation significantly (P<0.05 in all) increased large artery elasticity (+9%) and reduced systolic blood pressure (-6%) and diastolic blood pressure (-6%), plasma triglycerides (-20%), apoB concentration (-8%). In contrast, ω3-FAs had no significant effect on small artery elasticity" - [Nutra USA]
  • Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack - WebMD, 8/1/16 - "360 heart attack survivors were followed for six months. Half of them were given 4 grams of omega-3 fatty acid supplements daily for six months, while the other half were given placebo pills ... Using MRIs of the heart, the researchers found there was a 6 percent improvement in both heart function and scarring in undamaged parts of the organ among patients who took 4 grams of omega-3 fatty acids daily"
  • Fish Oil Supplementation Enhances Pulmonary Strength and Endurance in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy - Nutr Cancer. 2016 Jun 24:1-8 - "We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation, at 4 g/day, on the respiratory performance and blood lipid profile of 32 patients with breast cancer at the beginning of chemotherapy. They were randomized into two groups: control (C) and FO supplemented (S) ... The S group showed a significant increase in the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P ≤ 0.05 vs. Day 0) and in the maximum voluntary ventilation (P ≤ 0.05). In the treadmill 6-min-walk test, the S group had a significant increase in the walked distance (P ≤ 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the S group after 60 days, at rest, when compared to C (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration remained the same after 60 days of supplementation, while in the C group, it decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 Day 0 vs. Day 60). Triacylglycerol (TAG) plasma concentration in the S group was lower when compared to the C group (P ≤ 0.05 Day 60S vs. Day 60). Supplementation with FO caused improvement in the respiratory muscle strength and endurance, ameliorated functional performance, and kept TAG, HDL cholesterol, and lactate plasma concentration at normal levels"
  • Association between serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive performance in elderly men and women: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 13 - "We found statistically significant associations between serum EPA+DPA+DHA and better performance in the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test. The individual associations with EPA and DHA were similar with the findings with EPA+DPA+DHA, although the associations with DHA were stronger. No associations were observed with serum DPA. Pubic hair mercury content was associated only with a worse performance in the Trail Making Test, and mercury had only little impact on the associations between the serum PUFAs and cognitive performance" - [Nutra USA]
  • Are Supplementation of Omega-3 and Ascorbic Acid Effective in Reducing Oxidative Stress and Depression among Depressed Shift Workers? - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 May 10:1-12 - "Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ... Among the participants, 33 received omega-3 fatty acid soft gel (1000 mg twice daily) with vitamin C (250 mg twice daily) (group 1), 31 took omega-3 fatty acid supplements and vitamin C placebo (group 2), 30 took omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C (group 3), and 32 received omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C placebo (group 4) for 2 months ... the BDI score was reduced significantly in all 4 groups, however, the level of decrease was more in the omega-3 fatty acid (alone) supplementation group (mean 6.29 score decrease) (p < 0.001)"
  • Effects of omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy and youth on neurodevelopment and cognition in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis - The FASEB Journal Apr 2016 - "Omega-3 supplementation during either pregnancy or infancy improves child neurodevelopment. These findings indicate the importance of sufficient polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by pregnant women and young children" - [Nutra USA]
  • Association between Fish Intake and Depressive Symptoms among Community-living Older Chinese Adults in Singapore: A Cross-sectional Study - J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(4):404-7 - "Fish intake was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms ([odds ratio] OR = 0.60"
  • Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice - Nutrients. 2016 Mar 15;8(3) - "one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC) ... Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis"
  • Supplementation with α-Lipoic Acid Alone or in Combination with Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates the Inflammatory Status of Healthy Overweight or Obese Women Consuming an Energy-Restricted Diet - J Nutr. 2016 Mar 9 - "Dietary supplementation with LA improves some systemic inflammatory and cardiovascular disease-related risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women independently of weight loss, whereas EPA modulates inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com and fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren - Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan;115(2):361-73 - "Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years ... On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened"  - [Nutra USA]
  • An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity - Nutrients. 2016 Mar 2;8(3) - "In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher ... Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)"
  • The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers - J Nutr. 2016 Mar 2 - "An inverse association between the omega-3 index and depressive symptoms was observed among participants with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers. These data suggest that oxidative stress status may identify those who might benefit from ω-3 FA consumption to improve depressive symptoms"
  • Consumption of Fish Oil Providing Amounts of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid That Can Be Obtained from the Diet Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults with Systolic Hypertension: A Retrospective Analysis - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 27 - "In a double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT, healthy men and women (n = 312) consumed a control oil or fish oil (FO) providing 0.7 or 1.8 g EPA+DHA/d, in random order, each for 8 wk ... FO-induced reduction (mean: 5 mm Hg) in systolic BP, specifically in those with isolated systolic hypertension" - [Nutra USA]
  • Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment - J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(2):161-169 - "cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) ... INTERVENTION: Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks ... Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content, working memory performance, and BOLD signal in the posterior cingulate cortex during greater working memory load in older adults with subjective memory impairment suggesting enhanced neuronal response to working memory challenge"
  • Which has the stronger impact on coronary artery disease, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid? - Hypertens Res. 2016 Jan 7 - "Our findings suggest that interventions with EPA agents or supplemental EPA intake, compared with DHA agents or supplemental DHA, may confer greater benefit for plaque stabilization to prevent the onset of ACS in patients with CAD"
  • Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents - Nutrients. 2016 Jan 2;8(1) - "This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index"
  • Fish oil supplementation during chemotherapy increases posterior time to tumor progression in colorectal cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Dec 23:1-7 - "Thirty individuals never submitted to chemotherapy were randomized into supplemented group (SG), which received 2 g/day of fish oil (0.6 g/day of EPA and DHA) for 9 wk or control group (CG), which received neither fish oil nor placebo ... Time to tumor progression was significantly longer in SG [S593 days (±211.5)] vs. CG [330 days"
  • Lower availability of omega-3 fatty acids in the body associated with bipolar disorder - Science Daily, 11/24/15 - "the availability of omega-3 in the body is lower in bipolar subjects ... Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can shift the balance of inflammation, which we think is important in bipolar disorder ... However, the researchers did not find altered ratios of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in bipolar subjects ... Although the researchers did find lower levels of omega-3s in patients with bipolar disorder that correlated with symptoms"
  • Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid treatment over mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behavior associated with experimental diabetes - Behav Brain Res. 2015 Nov 4 - "It was observed that the diabetic (DBT) animals, when compared to normoglycemic (NGL) animals, developed a significant mechanical allodynia since the second week after diabetes induction, peaking at fourth week which is completlely prevented by FO treatment (0.5, 1 or 3g/Kg). Moreover, DBT animals showed an increase of immobility frequency and a decrease of swimming and climbing frequencies in modified forced swimming test (MFST) since the second week after diabetes injection, lasting up at the 4th week. FO treatment (only at a dose of 3g/Kg) significantly decreased the immobility frequency and increased the swimming frequency, but did not induce significant changes in the climbing frequency in DBT rats. Moreover, it was observed that DBT animals had significantly lower levels of BDNF in both hippocampus and pre frontal cortex when compared to NGL rats, which is completely prevented by FO treatment"
  • Fish, n-3 PUFA consumption, and pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese: a large, population-based, prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 4 - "we found an inverse association of marine n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) and DHA consumption with pancreatic cancer risk: compared with the lowest quartile, multivariate-adjusted HRs in the highest quartile were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95; P-trend = 0.07) and 0.69 (0.51, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), respectively"
  • Low n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Improves Lipid Metabolism, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function in Rats Using Plant Oils as n-3 Fatty Acid Source - Lipids. 2015 Nov 2 - "The 1:1 and 5:1 ratio groups had significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinflammatory cytokines compared with the 20:1 group ... The 1:1 group had a significantly decreased lipid peroxide level compared with the other groups ... We demonstrated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (1:1 and 5:1) had a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors by enhancing favorable lipid profiles, having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects, and improving endothelial function. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (20:1) had adverse effects"
    • Omega-6 fatty acids - University of Maryland Medical Center - "The typical American diet tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Lowers Serum FSH in Normal Weight but not Obese Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov 2 - "Dietary administration with omega-3 PUFA decreased serum FSH levels in NW but not in obese women with normal ovarian reserve. This effect is intriguing and is directionally consistent with murine data whereby higher dietary omega-3 PUFA extends reproductive lifespan. Our results imply that this nutritional intervention should be tested in women with diminished ovarian reserve in an attempt to delay ovarian aging"
  • Fish Oil Supplementation and Quality of Life in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: A 24-Month Follow-Up Study - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Sep 18 - "Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine fish oil supplementation in relation to QoL, recurrence, and all-cause mortality. An increase in fish oil supplementation over 24 mo postdiagnosis was associated with an increase in the physical component score of the 12-item Medical Outcomes Short Form (β = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.10-4.76)"
  • n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Neonatal Hypoxic/Ischemic Brain Injury by Promoting Phosphatidylserine Formation and Akt Signaling - Stroke. 2015 Sep 15 - "n-3 PUFAs robustly protect against H/I-induced brain damage in neonates by activating Akt prosurvival pathway in compromised neurons. In addition, n-3 PUFAs promote the formation of membrane phosphatidylserine, thereby promoting Akt activity and improving cellular survival"
  • Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder - Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Sep - "Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo ... EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children ... EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children ... this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD" - [Nutra USA]
  • Higher Plasma Phospholipid n-3 PUFAs, but Lower n-6 PUFAs, Are Associated with Lower Pulse Wave Velocity among Older Adults - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 26 - "Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by GC at baseline, and fish oil intake was assessed at 3 time points, namely, early life (ages 14-19), midlife (ages 40-50), and late life (ages 66-96, AGES-Reykjavik baseline) with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... Our results show a positive association between plasma n-6 PUFAs and arterial stiffness, and suggest that higher concentrations of plasma long-chain n-3 PUFAs are associated with less arterial stiffness and therein may be one of the mechanisms behind n-3 PUFAs and lower CVD risk"
  • Chemopreventive effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in an experimental myeloid leukemia - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Aug 19 - "Supplemented mice exhibited a decrease in leukemia burden and a decrease in the LSC colony-forming unit (LSC-CFU). The decrease in LSCs was confirmed through serial transplantation assays in all disease models. The results support a chemopreventive role for EPA in myeloid leukemia, which is dependent on the ability to efficiently convert EPA to endogenous cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids, including Δ12-PGJ3"
  • Omega-3 Treatment Shows Long-term Psychosis Prevention - Medscape, 8/20/15 - "Adolescents and young adults considered to be at high risk for psychosis show significant reductions in progression to psychotic disorder 7 years after a brief, 12-week intervention of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared with a group receiving placebo ... the cumulative conversion rate to psychosis was 9.8% in the omega-3 PUFA group, compared with 40% in the placebo group ... The proportion of patients who reported being prescribed antipsychotic medication at the time of long-term follow-up was 29.4% in the omega-3 PUFA group, compared with 54.3% in the placebo group ... Among those in the placebo group, 82.9% met the criteria for at least one DSM-IV Axis I disorder during the long-term follow-up period, compared with 52.9% in the omega-3 PUFA group" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 18:1-6 - "A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy ... plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA ... When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1 % total fatty acids) associated with a 12 % increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1·12; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·23; P=0·02) ... Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0·85; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·99; P=0·047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA"
  • Omega-3s May Protect Against Schizophrenia - WebMD, 8/11/15 - "Omega-3 supplements may help keep young people with a high risk of schizophrenia from getting the condition ... 9.8% of the group given omega-3 supplements (4 of 41) developed psychosis, an episode where you lose touch with reality. It's a symptom of different illnesses, including schizophrenia ... 40% of the group given a fake placebo supplement (16 out of 40) developed psychosis ... The group not given omega-3s also developed psychosis more quickly and had a higher overall risk of getting other psychiatric disorders"
  • Higher Maternal Plasma n-3 PUFA and Lower n-6 PUFA Concentrations in Pregnancy Are Associated with Lower Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 5 - "Higher maternal plasma n-3 PUFA and lower n-6 PUFA concentrations during pregnancy are associated with a lower systolic blood pressure in childhood"
  • Fish Oil Enhances T Cell Function and Tumor Infiltration and Is Correlated With a Cancer Prevention Effect in HER-2/neu But Not PyMT Transgenic Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Jul 30 - "FO significantly reduced the incidence and multiplicity of tumors (P < 0.001) in HER-2/neu, but not PyMT mice"
  • The Antipsychotic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Rats - Am J Med Sci. 2015 Jul 21 - "This study shows that omega-3 fatty acids, "similar to antipsychotics," reversed the psychotic like effects, increase of oxidants and decrease of antioxidants that are composed experimentally in rats"
  • Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched high fat diet delays the development of fatty liver in mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Jul 22 - "Dietary EPA and DHA counteracted development of HFD-induced fatty liver. The liver transcriptome data implicate that the quality of dietary fat could modulate Ppar-related gene expression that in turn affects hepatic lipid storage and maintenance of metabolic health"
  • Fish consumption and risk of myeloma: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Jul 9 - "After pooling all risk estimates, a significant inverse association was found between the highest category versus lowest category of fish consumption and MM risk (relative risk = 0.65" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;102(1):215-21 - "included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85) ... There was a significant interaction (P = 0.024) between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates. In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group" - [Nutra USA]
  • The relationship between the parenteral dose of fish oil supplementation and the variation of liver function tests in hospitalized adult patients - Nutr J. 2015 Jul 2;14(1):65 - "parenteral nutrition (PN) ... GGT, AP and ALT improved with FO PN-supplementation. Moreover, the improvement was greater when the doses of FO were higher. FO administration in PN is safe"
  • Omega-3 supplements, antioxidants may help with preclinical Alzheimer's disease -Science Daily, 6/30/15 - "A new report published in the July 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal describes the findings of a very small study in which people with mild clinical impairment, such as those in the very early stages of the disease, saw clearance of the hallmark amyloid-beta protein and reduced inflammation in neurological tissues. Although the findings involved just 12 patients over the course of 4 to 17 months, the findings suggest further clinical study of this relatively inexpensive and plentiful supplement should be conducted"
  • Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Protumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-Like and Claudin Low Breast Cancer - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Jun 22 - "Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes ... EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the pro-tumorigenic effects of obesity"
  • Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye - Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 - "This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye" - [Nutra USA]
  • A review of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood triacylglycerol levels in normolipidemic and borderline hyperlipidemic individuals - Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Jun 6 - "In summary, a 9-26 % reduction in circulating TG was demonstrated in studies where ≥ 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA were consumed from either marine or EPA/DHA-enriched food sources, while a 4-51 % reduction was found in studies where 1-5 g/day of EPA and/or DHA was consumed through supplements"
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Clin Nutr. 2015 May 21 - "In NASH patients, the supplementation of omega-3 PUFA from flaxseed and fish oils significantly impacts on plasma lipid profile of patients with NASH. Plasma increase of these PUFAs was associated with better liver histology"
  • Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on hepatic dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced steatosis - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 May 28 - "Hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly decreased in obese mice, but increased with EPA administration. Our data suggest that EPA supplementation has a beneficial effect on NAFLD progression"
  • Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 20 - "Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n-3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05), and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: -0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075) ... Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults" - [Nutra USA]
  • Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes - Eur J Sport Sci. 2015 Jun;15(4):305-14 - "The effects of dietary supplementation (n-3 PUFA at a dose of 1.3 g twice daily for 3 weeks) and placebo administration ... Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after n-3 PUFA dietary protocol (13.9 ± 4.2 vs. 23.5 ± 3.6 µmol·l(-1); P < 0.001). Higher post-intervention baseline NO level was observed after n-3 PUFA diet compared with placebo (23.5 ± 3.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0 µmol·l (-1); P < 0.01, respectively). The n-3 PUFA increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO) by 6.7 ± 3.8 µmol·l(-1) and placebo by 1.6 ± 4.4 µmol·l(-1). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and also between ΔNO and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.54; P < 0.05) in response to omega-3 fatty acids supplementation. There was an association between a 5.25% higher FMD (P < 0.05) and higher [Formula: see text] (P < 0.001) after n-3 PUFA diet compared with lower values of placebo" - [Nutra USA]
  • Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 15 - "included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85). The subjects underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and 2 y later ... In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group" - Note:  I take a good multi and even that only has 4 mg of B6.  See B complex supplements at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com, vitamin B6 at Amazon.com vitamin B12 at Amazon.com and fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Korea - Ann Nutr Metab. 2015 Mar 24;66(2-3):141-148 - "n-3 PUFAs demonstrated an advantage over placebo that did not reach clinical significance, although CGI-I score was significantly decreased in the n-3 PUFA group as compared with the placebo group"
  • Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Mar 25 - "Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA ... Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P < 0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P < 0.001), respectively" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Consumption, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2015 Mar 24;7(4):2085-2100 - "Nine independent cross-sectional samples (seven cross-sectional studies) and three independent prospective cohorts (two prospective cohort studies) were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis ... The pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.58, 0.87), comparing the highest to the lowest category of fish consumption, and 0.94 (0.90, 0.98) for one serving/week increment. Consistent results were found for LCω3PUFA intake"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fish-oil consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 18 - "Daily fish-oil consumption in late life was associated with lower fracture risk in men (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.91). Daily fish-oil consumption in midlife was associated with lower fracture risk in women (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98)"
  • n-3 Long-chain PUFAs reduce respiratory morbidity caused by iron supplementation in iron-deficient South African schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):668-79 - "Iron supplementation increased morbidity (mostly respiratory) in iron-deficient South African schoolchildren with low DHA/EPA intake, but when iron was given in combination with DHA/EPA, this effect was prevented"
  • Long-chain ω-3 fatty acid intake and endometrial cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 4 - "In women with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) <25, those in the upper compared with lowest quintiles of total LCω-3PUFA intake (sum of eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) had significantly reduced endometrial cancer risk (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.82; P-trend = 0.001), whereas there was little evidence of an association in overweight or obese women" - Note:  The RSS version contained significantly more text than the link that went to the NIH page.  I think they must have changed the abstract after it was fed to the RSS feed.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids protect from diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation through PPARγ dependent and independent actions - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Jan 31 - "high-fat diet (HFD) ... High endogenous n-3 fatty acid levels protect from HFD obesity, glucose intolerance, and adipose tissue inflammation"
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to incident mobility disability and decline in gait speed; the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan 14 - "In women, but not men, every s.d. increment increase of total n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with lower mobility disability risk, odds ratio 0.48 (0.25; 0.93) and odds ratio 0.45 (0.24; 0.83), respectively. There was no association between n-6 PUFAs and the risk of incident mobility disability or gait speed decline ... Higher concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and, particularly, DHA may protect women from impaired mobility but does not appear to have such an effect in men" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan 8 - "Observational data support the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs may provide a therapeutic strategy for managing COPD"
  • n-3 Fatty Acids Attenuate the Risk of Diabetes Associated With Elevated Serum Nonesterified Fatty Acids: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis - Diabetes Care. 2015 Jan 8 - "Chronically high nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are a marker of metabolic dysfunction and likely increase risk of type 2 diabetes. By comparison, n-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to have various health benefits and may protect against disease development ... Over a mean 11.4 years of study period, higher diabetes incidence was found across successive NEFA quartiles (Q) (hazard ratio [95% CI]): Q1, 1.0; Q2, 1.35 (1.07, 1.71); Q3, 1.58 (1.24, 2.00); and Q4, 1.86 (1.45, 2.38) (Ptrend < 0.001). A significant interaction of n-3 FAs on the relation between NEFAs and type 2 diabetes was also observed (Pinteraction = 0.03). For individuals with lower n-3 levels (<75th percentile), a higher risk of type 2 diabetes was observed across quartiles of NEFAs: Q1, 1.0; Q2, 1.41 (1.07, 1.84); Q3, 1.77 (1.35, 2.31); and Q4, 2.18 (1.65, 2.88)"
  • The Effects of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fish Oils and Multivitamins on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Function: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Jan 7:1-11 - "Absolute increases in the red blood cell omega-3/6 ratio were associated with improvements in spatial working memory. The group receiving 6 g fish oil without the multivitamin displayed a significant decrease in aortic pulse pressure and aortic augmentation pressure, two measures of aortic blood pressure and aortic stiffness"
  • Fish consumption and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Dec 23 - "n-3 PUFA was associated with 51 % reduction in HCC risk (highest vs. lowest category SRRs = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.19-0.79). However, no significant inverse association was found in ALA"
  • ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain aging - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Dec 11 - "The purpose of this review is to analyze the developments in the area during the last 2 years ... Human brain MRI studies have confirmed previous findings that ω-3 PUFA can protect the brain during aging; two intervention studies obtained clear evidence"
  • Serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid is associated with cognitive function in patients with coronary artery disease - Nutr J. 2014 Dec 4;13(1):112 - "Serum EPA concentration is associated with cognitive function in patients with CAD, suggesting that a low serum EPA level is a risk factor for cognitive impairment independent of cardiac function, including left ventricular ejection fraction. This correlation potentially lends further support to a role of dietary n-3 PUFAs in preventing the cognitive decline in CAD patients"
  • Administration of high dose eicosapentaenoic acid enhances anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein in Japanese patients with dyslipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Oct 18 - "Oral administration of EPA regenerated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions of HDL, and promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Therefore, EPA may transform "dysfunctional HDL" to "functional", in patients with coronary risk factors"
  • Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon - Nutrients. 2014 Nov 26;6(12):5405-5418 - "heart rate (HR) ... HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) ... Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February) or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period) ... The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety"
  • The Consumption of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improves Clinical Outcomes and Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer Patients: A Systematic Evaluation - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Nov 25:1-7 - "Eleven trials met our inclusion criteria. There was a significant increase in body weight [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.69, P < 0.00001) and lean body mass (WMD = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06, P < 0.00001), a significant decrease in resting energy expenditure (WMD = -29.74; 95% CI, -55.89-3.59, P = 0.03), and an increase in overall survival (130-259 days vs. 63-130 days) in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients who consumed an oral nutrition supplement enriched with n-3 PUFAs compared to those who consumed conventional nutrition"
  • The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer - Nutrients. 2014 Nov 18;6(11):5184-5223 - "Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis ... Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research"
  • n-3 PUFA Induce Microvascular Protective Changes During Ischemia/Reperfusion - Lipids. 2014 Oct 26 - "we may conclude that consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in the triacylglycerol form, could be a promising therapy to prevent microvascular damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and its consequent clinical sequelae" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish and fatty acid consumption and the risk of hearing loss in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Nov;100(5):1371-7 - "Data were from the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study ... In comparison with women who rarely consumed fish (<1 serving/mo), the multivariable-adjusted RR for hearing loss among women who consumed 2-4 servings of fish per week was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.88) (P-trend < 0.001) ... In comparison with women in the lowest quintile of intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, the multivariable-adjusted RR for hearing loss among women in the highest quintile was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.91) and among women in the highest decile was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.85) (P-trend < 0.001)"
  • Plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and inflammatory markers in Chinese vegetarians - Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Sep 29;13(1):151 - "Vegetarians have higher plasma n-6 PUFA and IL-6, but lower LTB4, n-3 PUFA, 22:6n-3, COX2 and PGE2 levels. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA, while reduce dietary n-6 PUFA and thus reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases"
  • Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly - Nutrients. 2014 Sep 12;6(9):3624-3640 - "Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33) ... Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Sep 5 - "FuOx-resistant (chemo-resistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were utilized for this study. While EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (a) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation and sphere-forming frequency, (b) increasing sphere disintegration, (c) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (d) decreasing pro-inflammatory metabolites in mice. Additionally, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population"
  • Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids Therapy for Dry Eye Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies - Med Sci Monit. 2014 Sep 6;20:1583-1589 - "our findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acid offers is an effective therapy for dry eye syndrome"
  • Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial - J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Aug 22 - "a community sample of 8-16 year old children were randomized into a treatment group (N = 100) and a placebo-control group (N = 100). The supplementation consisted of a fruit drink containing 1 g/day of omega-3 or a placebo consisting of the same fruit drink without omega-3 ... Findings provide initial evidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems" - [Nutra USA]
  • Alpha linolenic acid and oleic acid additively down-regulate malignant potential and positively cross-regulate AMPK/S6 axis in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cells - Metabolism. 2014 Jul 25 - "Both oleic acid (OA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been proposed to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells ... conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether OA and ALA alone or in combination may regulate malignant potential in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cell lines ... Our novel mechanistic studies provide evidence for an important role for OA and ALA in esophageal cancer, and suggest that OA and/or ALA might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of esophageal cancer" - Note:  Oleic acid is an omega-9 for which olive oil is a good source.  Alpha-linolenic acid is the omega-3 from plant sources.
  • Regular Fish Consumption and Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Loss - Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul 29 - "Data were analyzed from 260 cognitively normal individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Study with information on fish consumption from the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... Weekly consumption of baked or broiled fish was positively associated with gray matter volumes in the hippocampus, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex even after adjusting for covariates" - [Science Daily]
  • Fish Intake Is Associated with Slower Cognitive Decline in Chinese Older Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Jul 30 - "Among adults aged ≥65 y, compared with individuals who consumed <1 serving/wk (i.e., 100 g) fish, the mean annual rate of global cognitive decline was reduced by 0.35 point (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58) among those consuming ≥1 serving/week, equivalent to the disparity associated with 1.6 y of age. Fish consumption was also associated with a slower decline in composite and verbal memory scores"
  • Association of fish oil supplement use with preservation of brain volume and cognitive function - Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Jun 18 - "fish oil supplements (FOSs) ... Older adults (229 cognitively normal individuals, 397 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 193 patients with Alzheimer's disease) were assessed with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months ... FOS use during follow-up was associated with significantly lower mean cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores among those with normal cognition ... FOS use during the study was also associated with less atrophy in one or more brain regions of interest" - [Science Daily]
  • A randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of manufacturers' recommended doses of omega-3 fatty acids from different sources in facilitating cardiovascular disease risk reduction - Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Jun 21;13:99 - "This was an open-label, randomized, cross-over study involving thirty-five healthy subjects. Supplements and daily doses (as recommended on product labels) were: Concentrated Triglyceride (rTG) fish oil: EPA of 650 mg, DHA of 450 mg Ethyl Ester (EE) fish oil: EPA of 756 mg, DHA of 228 mgPhospholipid (PL) krill oil: EPA of 150 mg, DHA of 90 mg Triglyceride (TG) salmon oil: EPA of 180 mg, DHA of 220 mg ... At the prescribed dosage, the statistical ranking of the four products in terms of increase in whole blood omega-3 fatty acid levels was concentrated rTG fish oil > EE fish oil > triglyceride TG salmon oil > PL krill oil. Whole blood EPA percentage increase in subjects consuming concentrated rTG fish oil was more than four times that of krill and salmon oil. Risk reduction in several elements of cardiovascular disease was achieved to a greater extent by the concentrated rTG fish oil than by any other supplement. Krill oil and (unconcentrated) triglyceride oil were relatively unsuccessful in this aspect of the study" - [Lipids World Abstract] - Note:  According to the NutraUSA article, the Concentrated Triglyceride (rTG) fish oil: EPA of 650 mg, DHA of 450 mg was Nordic Naturals - ProOmega.  See Nordic Naturals - ProOmega at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs Are Associated with Decreased Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Jun 25 - "Our findings revealed that a higher content of cis n-3 PUFA (mainly very long-chain cis n-3 PUFA) may benefit BP progress, probably mediated by decreasing serum TGs and BMI"
  • Serum phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - J Diabetes Complications. 2014 Apr 18 - "Serum phospholipid ω-3 PUFA levels were significantly decreased in patients with T2DM and NAFLD, and were negatively related with insulin resistance. Thus, reduced ω-3 PUFAs may play an important role in the development of T2DM and NAFLD"
  • Effects of fish oil supplementation on prefrontal metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A preliminary 1H MRS study - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jun 10 - "10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO ... In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (-20%, P = 0.06)"
  • Fish or n3-PUFA intake and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Obes Rev. 2014 May 29 - "we performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and the first meta-analysis on the association between fish or fish oil intake and body composition measures. We found evidence that participants taking fish or fish oil lost 0.59 kg more body weight than controls (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.96 to -0.21). Treatment groups lost 0.24 kg m-2 (body mass index) more than controls (-0.40 to -0.08), and 0.49 % more body fat than controls (-0.97 to -0.01). Fish or fish oil reduced waist circumference by 0.81 cm (-1.34 to -0.28) compared with control"
  • Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats - Behav Brain Res. 2014 May 24 - "results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines"
  • Inhibition of endometrial cancer by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in preclinical models - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 May 27 - "Taken together, our findings provide comprehensive preclinical evidences that n-3 PUFAs efficiently prevent endometrial cancer and establish mTORC1/2 as a target of n-3 PUFAs"
  • Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 May 13 - "We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of PCa progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against PCa progression in men with low-risk PCa"
  • Fish Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Apr 7 - "The pooled results from all studies indicated that high fish consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (pooled RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69-0.92)"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota - Int J Cancer. 2014 Mar 19 - "We tested the effectiveness of substituting EPA-FFA, for other dietary fats, in preventing inflammation and cancer in the AOM-DSS model of CAC ... EPA-FFA diet strongly decreased tumor multiplicity, incidence and maximum tumor size in the promotion and initiation arms. Moreover EPA-FFA, in particular in the initiation arm, led to reduced cell proliferation and nuclear β-catenin expression, whilst it increased apoptosis ... Taken together, our data suggest that EPA-FFA is an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention in CAC"
  • Stabilizing effect of combined eicosapentaenoic acid and statin therapy on coronary thin-cap fibroatheroma - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Mar 5;234(1):114-119 - "The addition of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to statin therapy prevents cardiovascular events ... Patients were randomly assigned to EPA (1800 mg/day) + statin (23 TCFA, 15 patients) or statin only (26 TCFA, 15 patients) treatment. The statin (rosuvastatin) dose was adjusted to achieve a target low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level of <70 mg/dL ... The concomitant use of EPA and rosuvastatin may stabilize vulnerable plaques better than the statin alone, possibly by suppressing arterial inflammation"
  • Effects of a Diet Rich in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Hepatic Lipogenesis and Beta-Oxidation in Mice - Lipids. 2014 Mar 14 - "In conclusion, a diet rich in fish oil has beneficial effects on hepatic insulin resistance, lipogenesis and beta-oxidation and prevents hepatic tissue from liver damage and NAFLD"
  • Dietary omega-3 deficiency reduces BDNF content and activation NMDA receptor and Fyn in dorsal hippocampus: Implications on persistence of long-term memory in rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Nov 26 - "Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are important for adequate brain function and cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) in an aversive memory task and to explore the putative mechanism involved ... brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ... these data suggest that n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of LTM by maintaining adequate levels of DHA and BDNF as well as by influencing the activation of NR2B and Fyn during the period of memory formation"
  • Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid and Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Am J Hypertens. 2014 Mar 6 - "randomized controlled trials (RCTs) ... Seventy RCTs were included. Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA provision reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.52mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.25 to -0.79) and diastolic blood pressure ( - 0.99mm Hg; 95% CI = - 1.54 to - 0.44) in the meta-analyses of all studies combined. The strongest effects of EPA+DHA were observed among untreated hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure = - 4.51mm Hg, 95% CI = - 6.12 to - 2.83; diastolic blood pressure = - 3.05mm Hg, 95% CI = - 4.35 to - 1.74), although blood pressure also was lowered among normotensive subjects (systolic blood pressure = - 1.25mm Hg, 95% CI = - 2.05 to - 0.46; diastolic blood pressure = - 0.62mm Hg, 95% CI = - 1.22 to - 0.02)"
  • Dietary fish oil improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure via suppression of sphingolipid-mediated contractions in spontaneously hypertensive rats - J Hypertens. 2014 Feb 24 - "Dietary fish oil lowers BP in SHRs and improves endothelial function in association with suppression of sphingolipid-dependent vascular contraction"
  • Fish consumption is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 19 - "Individuals in the highest tertile of fish intake were 65% less likely to have the metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.88) ... high fish intake was inversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01-0.85), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.19-0.89) and elevated blood pressure (odds ratio: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.89)"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid 1:1 ratio improves histological alterations in obese rats with metabolic syndrome - Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Feb 11;13(1):31 - "spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB) were fed for 13 weeks with 3 different suplemmentation of fish oil containing EPA and DHA ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively) ... EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment tended to improve the density and the wrinkling of elastic layers in SHROB rats. Only Wistar rats fed with EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment did not show mast cells in adipose tissue and has less kidney atrophy. In both strains EPA:DHA 1:1 treatment improved inflammation related parameters in liver and kidney" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and DHA products at Amazon.com.  Most fish oil supplements have more EPA than DHA so you'd probably have to add the DHA to get the 1:1 ratio.
  • Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults - Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jan 28 - "following the EPA-rich supplementation, participants' brains worked 'less hard' and achieved a better cognitive performance than prior to supplementation. Conversely, the increase in functional activation and lack of improvement in time or accuracy of cognitive performance following DHA-rich supplementation may indicate that DHA-rich supplementation is less effective than EPA-rich supplementation in enhancing neurocognitive functioning after a 30-day supplementation period in the same group of individuals" - [Nutra USA]
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and protein metabolism: enhancement of anabolic interventions for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Mar;17(2):145-50 - "The metabolic derangements and other consequences associated with sarcopenia can be slowed or even prevented by specific nutritional interventions. New evidence is available about the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation to improve protein metabolism and counteract anabolic resistance through indirect effects. Studies show that the anabolic stimuli from substrates (e.g. amino acids or proteins), hormones (e.g. insulin) and/or physical activity in skeletal muscle can be enhanced by long-term fish oil administration"
  • n-3 Fatty acids affect haemostasis but do not increase the risk of bleeding: clinical observations and mechanistic insights - Br J Nutr. 2014 Jan 28:1-11 - "Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in patients undergoing invasive procedures or being treated with anti-platelet or anticoagulation drugs ... The present overview found no support for discontinuing the use of n-3 fatty acid treatment before invasive procedures or when given in combination with other agents that affect bleeding. On the contrary, the use of these fatty acids in several settings improved clinical outcomes"
  • Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake and cardiovascular disease mortality risk in Japanese: A 24-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80 - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Feb;232(2):384-9 - "We followed-up a total of 9190 individuals (56.2% women, mean age 50.0 years) randomly selected from 300 areas across Japan and free from CVDs at baseline. Dietary LCn3FA intake was estimated using household weighed food records ... 24-year follow-up ... Adjusted HR for CVD mortality was lower in the highest quartile of LCn3FA intake (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile"
  • Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes - Neurology, 2014 Jan 22 - "RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study ... A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • N-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation prevents high fat diet induced mouse liver steatosis and inflammation in relation to PPAR-α upregulation and NF-κB DNA binding abrogation - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Jan 16 - "Data presented indicate that n-3 LCPUFAs supplementation prevents liver steatosis and inflammation induced by HFD, with underlying mechanisms involving enhanced PPAR-α signaling and diminished NF-κB activation"
  • Omega-3 supplementation alters mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal muscle - J Physiol. 2014 Jan 6 - "we supplemented young healthy male subjects (n=18) with fish oils (2g EPA & 1g DHA per day) for 12 wks and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken prior to (Pre) and following (Post) supplementation for the analysis of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and various assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics ... these data suggest that prolonged omega-3 intake improves ADP kinetics in human skeletal muscle mitochondria through alterations in membrane structure and/or post-translational modification of ATP synthase and ANT isoforms. Omega-3 supplementation also increased the capacity for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission without altering the content of oxidative products, suggesting the absence of oxidative damage. The current data strongly emphasize a role for omega-3s in reorganizing the composition of mitochondrial membranes while promoting improvements in ADP sensitivity" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
    • ADP - thefreedictionary.com - "ADP ... Adenosine diphosphate; an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy"
  • Fish oil, contained in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, attenuates testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in rats - Andrologia. 2013 Dec 18 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of the fish oil (FO) supplementation on oxidative stress, sperm characteristics and histological alterations in the male reproductive system of rats against cisplatin (CP) toxicity. The rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups (control, FO, CP and FO + CP) ... The results showed that CP caused a significant oxidative damage via induction of lipid peroxidation and reduction in the antioxidant defence system potency in the testis tissue. In addition, sperm motility and sperm concentration significantly decreased but the abnormal sperm rate and histopathological testicular damage increased with CP treatment. On the other hand, FO treatment prevented oxidative, histopathological and spermatological effects of CP and reversed side effects of CP" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Erythrocyte n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Koreans: A Case-Control Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 Dec 7;63(4):283-290 - "The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFAs are negatively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes and correlated with levels of glucose and HbA1c in Koreans ... A total of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes and 260 age- and sex-matched controls participated in this study ... The risk of type 2 diabetes was negatively associated with erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFA, which were negatively correlated with HbA1c levels in Koreans, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in Asians" - See See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Significance of Imbalance in the Ratio of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome - Am J Cardiol. 2013 Nov 7 - "We enrolled 1,119 patients who were treated and in whom serum PUFA level was evaluated in 5 divisions of cardiology in a metropolitan area in Japan ... eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) ... According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, the group with the lowest EPA/AA (≤0.33) had a greater probability of ACS (odds ratio 3.14, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 8.49), but this was not true for DHA/AA. In conclusion, an imbalance in the ratio of serum EPA to AA, but not in the ratio of DHA to AA, was significantly associated with ACS" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Atorvastatin plus omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride production in insulin resistant obese men - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Dec 3 - "In insulin resistant, dyslipidemic, obese men, atorvastatin improves VLDL-TG metabolism by increasing VLDL-TG FCR. The addition of 4 g/day ω-3 FAEE to statin therapy provides further TG-lowering by lowering VLDL-TG PR"
  • Omega 3:6 ratio intake and incidence of glaucoma: The SUN cohort - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 12 - "followed-up 17,128 participants initially free of glaucoma for a median time of 8.2 years. Validated data of diet were collected at baseline with a 136-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and information of new diagnosis of glaucoma in biennial follow-up questionnaires ... median follow-up time of 8.2 years ... Participants in the highest quintile of omega 3:6 ratio intake had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma than participants in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio (HR): 1.91 [95%CI: 1.05-3.46], p for trend 0.03). The association became stronger (HR for the comparison of the 5th versus the 1st quintile: 2.43 [95%CI: 1.17-5.03], p for trend 0.02) when we considered only those participants who were ≥40 years old"
  • An Increase in the EPA/AA Ratio is Associated with Improved Arterial Stiffness in Obese Patients with Dyslipidemia - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013 Nov 22 - "88 patients received either highly purified EPA treatment(1.8g daily, n=45) or treatment without EPA(control, n=43) ... These findings suggest that EPA improves the arterial stiffness in association with an increase in the EPA/AA ratio and a decrease in inflammation in obese patients with dyslipidemia"
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on dry eye syndrome subjects: randomized controlled trial - Biomed Res. 2013;34(5):215-20 - "Twenty-seven typical dry eye subjects were selected from 43 candidates by the diagnostic criterion for dry eye in this study. They were assigned to the randomized fish oil group (n = 15) or the placebo group (n = 12). Fish oil group ingested fish oil capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1245 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 540 mg/day) for 12 weeks ... The subjective symptom of "eye pain", BUT, and changes in rose bengal staining score of the fish oil group were significantly improved after 8-12 weeks of supplementation and/or 4 weeks of washout, compared to those of the placebo group. These results suggest that fish oil supplementation added to usual care may be effective in the treatment of dry eye"
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil in ovaries of laying hens target prostaglandin pathways - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Oct 24;12(1):152 - "The domestic hens spontaneously develop ovarian adenocarcinomas that share similar histological appearance and symptoms such as ascites and metastasis with humans. There is a link between chronic inflammation and cancer ... Our findings suggest that the lower doses of fish oil reduce inflammatory PG and may be an effective approach in preventing ovarian carcinogenesis. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials utilizing fish oil as a dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer"
  • Antitumor and anti-cachectic effects of shark liver oil and fish oil: comparison between independent or associative chronic supplementation in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Oct 16;12(1):146 - "Shark liver oil (SLOil) and fish oil (FOil), which are respectively rich in alkylglycerols (AKGs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are able to reduce the growth of some tumors and the burden of cachexia. It is known that FOil is able to reduce proliferation rate and increase apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation of tumor cells efficiently ... Weanling male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: fed regular chow (C), supplemented (1g/kg body weight) with SLOil (CSLO), FOil (CFO) and both (CSLO + FO) ... Fourteen days after inoculation, SLOil was able to restore cachexia parameters to control levels, similarly to FOil. WSLO rats presented significantly lower tumor weight (40%), greater tumor cell apoptosis (~3-fold), decreased tumor cell proliferation (35%), and higher tumor content of lipid hydroperoxides (40%) than observed in W rats, but FOil showed more potent effects. Supplementation with SLOil + FOil did not promote additive effects"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 16 - "omega-3 fatty acids have been correlated with the prevention of obesity and subsequent development of chronic disease sequalae ... Current evidence suggests a positive, dose-dependent relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and circulating levels of adiponectin. In obese subjects, this may translate into a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In non-obese subjects, omega-3 is observed to decrease circulating levels of leptin; however, omega-3-associated increases in leptin levels have been observed in obese subjects. This may pose benefits in the prevention of weight regain in these subjects following calorie restriction"
  • Energy-restricted, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-rich diet improves the clinical response to immuno-modulating drugs in obese patients with plaque-type psoriasis: a randomized control clinical trial - Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 28 - "Forty-four obese patients with mild-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis treated with immuno-suppressive drugs were randomized to assume for six months either their usual diet or an energy-restricted diet (20 kcal/kg/ideal body weight/day) enriched of n-3 PUFAs (average 2.6 g/d) ... At 3 and 6 months, a significant clinical improvement was observed in patients assuming the low-calorie high n-3 PUFAs diet respect to controls. Specifically Psoriasis Area Score Index (7.7 +/- 3.7, 5.3 +/- 4.3 and 2.6 +/- 3.0, respectively; p < 0.05), itch scores (15.4 +/- 13.5, 12.3 +/- 12.1 and 1.8 +/- 5.9, respectively; p < 0.05) and Dermatological Life Quality Index (19.5 +/- 1.9, 11.4 +/- 3.5 and 5.1 +/- 1.6; respectively, p < 0.05) all decreased respect to baseline. In these subjects but not in controls, a significant decrease in body weight (93.8 +/- 10.1, 85.8 +/- 11.4 and 83.1 +/- 12.1 kg, respectively; p < 0.05), waist circumference (112.7 +/- 7.2, 106.1 +/- 10.3 and 101.9 +/- 10.4 cm; p < 0.05), serum triglycerides (141.8 +/- 51.1, 100.5 +/- 26.6 and 90.2 +/- 34.5 mg/dL; respectively, p < 0.05), serum total cholesterol (198.3 +/- 31.7, 171.4 +/- 29.0 and 176.5 +/- 20.5 mg/dL; respectively, p < 0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio intake also occurred (5.1 +/- 0.9, 2.0 +/- 0.9 and 2.3 +/- 1.1; respectively, p < 0.05)"
  • Protective effect of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid 1:1 ratio on cardiovascular disease risk markers in rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Oct 1;12(1):140 - "Female Wistar rats were fed for 13 weeks with 5 different dietary supplements of oils; 3 derived from fish (EPA/DHA ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 1:2) plus soybean and linseed as controls ... Our results showed that a diet of a 1:1 ratio of EPA/DHA improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD and GPx in erythrocytes), plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and cardiovascular risk factors (glycated haemoglobin) relative to the other diets"
  • Associations of serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with echocardiographic measures among older adults: the Hoorn Study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 2 - "left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ... the lowest eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid quartiles compared with the highest quartiles were cross-sectionally associated with lower LVEF. Lower eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were associated with higher heart rate: 3.7 b.p.m. (1.5, 6.0; P for trend <0.001) and 3.4 b.p.m. (1.2, 5.6; P for trend 0.001), respectively. Multivariate longitudinal analyses showed a significant trend across quartiles for alpha-linolenic acid in relation to LVEF. The lowest linoleic acid quartile was significantly associated with a decreased LVEF of -4.0% compared with the highest quartile"
    • Understanding Your Ejection Fraction - clevelandclinic.org - "Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the measurement of how much blood is being pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart (the main pumping chamber) with each contraction"
  • Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Nutr Cancer. 2013 Sep 20 - "A total of 68,109 Washington residents aged 50-76 completed a questionnaire between 2000-2002 and were followed for CRC through 2008 (n = 488). Persons using fish oil supplements on 4+ days/wk for 3+ yr experienced 49% lower CRC risk than nonusers (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.26-1.00; P trend = 0.06). The association between fish oil use and decreased CRC risk was primarily observed for men (P interaction = 0.02; P trend men = 0.02; P trend women = 0.88) and for colon cancer (P difference = 0.05; P trend colon = 0.03; P trend rectum = 0.87). Although dark fish and total EPA + DHA intake were not associated with CRC risk overall, these associations varied by genetic risk (P interaction = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively), with inverse associations observed among low-moderate genetic risk groups and positive associations observed among high risk groups"
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Reduces Cardiovascular Events: Relationship with the EPA/Arachidonic Acid Ratio - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013 Sep 18 - "Fish oil contains saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that have pharmacological effects opposite to those of ω3 fatty acids (ω3). Moreover, ω3, such as EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not necessarily have the same metabolic and biological actions ... Recently, the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) of hp-EPA-E established the clinical efficacy of EPA for CVD, and higher levels of blood EPA, not DHA, were found to be associated with a lower incidence of major coronary events. A significant reduction in the risk of coronary events was observed when the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) (EPA/AA) was >0.75 ... Compared with DHA, EPA administration increases the EPA/AA ratio and the (PGI2+PGI3)/TXA2 balance to a state that inhibits the onset and/or progression of CVD" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intakes Are Inversely Related to Elevated Depressive Symptoms among United States Women - J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "assessed whether self-reported depressive symptoms were inversely associated with n-3 fatty acid intakes by using a cross-sectional study in 1746 adults (aged 30-65 y) in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2009). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used, with a CES-D score ≥16 suggestive of elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) ... In sum, among United States women, higher intakes of n-3 fatty acids [absolute (n-3) and relative to n-6 fatty acids (n-3:n-6)] were associated with lower risk of elevated depressive symptoms, specifically in domains of somatic complaints (mainly n-3 PUFAs) and positive affect (mainly n-3 HUFAs)"
  • Stimulation of Wound Healing by n-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 8/27/13 - "Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to full-thickness skin wounds and assigned to 3 experimental diet groups (an n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet, a diet with a 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids, and an n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet) ... The number of days to wound healing in the n-3/n-6 fatty acid group (18.4 +/- 1.8 days) was significantly shorter than in the n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet (21.6 +/- 1.6 days) and n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet groups (21.9 +/- 1.8 days). This suggests that the n-3/n-6 fatty acid diet stimulates wound healing (P < 0.05). Changes in wound area, however, were not significantly different. The n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet was found to have potent immunopotentiating and anti-inflammatory effects in the group receiving this diet, as evidenced by total blood lymphocyte count and plasma levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and sialic acid on day 1 after wounding. The plasma hydroxyproline concentrations noted in the groups with a diet containing n-3 fatty acids indicate that this fatty acid type stimulates wound healing" - Note:  It claims the 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids but the average ratio for American's is something like 1:16.
  • Omega-3 reduces ADHD symptoms in rats - Science Daily, 8/23/13 - "The results show a clear improvement in ADHD-related behaviour from supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a faster turnover of the signal substances dopamine, serotonin and glutamate in the nervous system ... The new findings indicate that ADHD has a biological component and that the intake of omega-3 may influence ADHD symptoms ... we have without a doubt found molecular changes in the brain after rats with ADHD were given omega-3 ... We saw that the turnover of dopamine and serotonin took place much faster among the male rats that had been given omega-3 than among those that had not. For serotonin the turnover ratio was three times higher, and for dopamine it was just over two and a half times higher"
  • n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs - Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 15:1-7 - "A total of ninety-six cross-bred (Large White × Landrace) growing-finishing pigs (73.8 (sem 1.6) kg) were chosen and fed one of the four isoenergetic diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The growth performance of pigs fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 was the best, but the group fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the highest muscle mass and the lowest adipose tissue mass"
  • Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 concentrations and risk of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas in Australian adults - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Jul 24 - "In 1,191 white Australian adults, we prospectively investigated associations between baseline plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) ... follow-up (1997 to 2007) ... Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations and omega-3/-6 ratio showed significant inverse associations with SCC tumours, comparing higher tertiles to the lowest, in age and sex-adjusted models (p trend=0.02 and 0.03 respectively) which weakened after adjustment for past sun exposure. Associations between EPA and SCC were stronger among participants with a history of skin cancer at baseline (n=378) (highest vs. lowest tertile: RR=0.50, 95% CI=0.28-0.92; p trend=0.01). Total omega-6 was inversely associated with BCC tumours in multivariate models (p=0.04) (highest vs. lowest tertile: RR=0.71, 95% CI=0.51-0.99), and more strongly in the subgroup with past skin cancer"
  • Fish oil-enriched diet protects against ischemia by improving angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cell function and postnatal neovascularization - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Aug;229(2):295-303 - "C57Bl/6 mice were fed a diet containing either 20% fish oil, rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or 20% corn oil, rich in n-6 PUFAs. After 4 weeks, hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by femoral artery removal. We found that blood flow recovery was significantly improved in mice fed a fish oil diet compared to those fed a corn oil diet (Doppler flow ratio (DFR) at day 21 after surgery 78 +/- 5 vs. 56 +/- 4; p < 0.01). Clinically, this was associated with a significant reduction of ambulatory impairment and ischemic damage in the fish oil group. At the microvascular level, capillary density was significantly improved in ischemic muscles of mice fed a fish oil diet. This correlated with increased expression of VEGF and eNOS in ischemic muscles, and higher NO concentration in the plasma. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to have an important role for postnatal neovascularization. We found that the number of EPCs was significantly increased in mice fed a fish oil diet. In addition, oxidative stress levels (DCF-DA, DHE) were reduced in EPCs isolated from mice exposed to fish oil, and this was associated with improved EPC functional activities (migration and integration into tubules). In vitro, treatment of EPCs with fish oil resulted in a significant increase of cellular migration. In addition, the secretion of angiogenic growth factors including IL6 and leptin was significantly increased in EPCs exposed to fish oil"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipid ameliorates insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in diet-induced-obese mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Jul 23;12(1):109 - "Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 7) were fed one of the following 4 diets for a period of 4 weeks: 1) a modified AIN-96G diet with 5% corn oil (control diet); 2) a high fat (20%, wt/wt) and high fructose (20%, wt/wt) diet (HF diet); 3) the HF diet containing 1% SOY-PL (SOY-PL diet); 4) the HF diet containing 1% EPA-PL (EPA-PL diet) ... According to our study, EPA-PL supplementation was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, and alleviating insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis by modulating the secretion of adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines, suppression of SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and enhancement of fatty acid beta-oxidation. These results demonstrate that EPA-PL is a novel beneficial food component for the prevention and improvement of metabolic disorders"
  • Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and higher-order cognitive functions in 7- to 9-y-olds: a cross-sectional study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 3 - "Seventy 7- to 9-y-old children completed three 24-h diet recalls and a subset of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery. Parents provided information on their demographics and children's diet histories ... There was a significant interaction between the ratio and fatty acid intake; when children had high ratios, a higher intake of n-3 fatty acids predicted a better performance on the planning task than when children had lower n-3 intakes"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - "Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid"
  • Effect of Fish Oil on Circulating Adiponectin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 23 - "In placebo-controlled RCTs, fish oil moderately increases circulating adiponectin"
  • Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios - Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr 24 - "Dietary ω-6:EPA+DHA ratios did not affect body weight, but lower ω-6:EPA+DHA ratio diets decreased liver lipid accumulation, which possibly contributed to the lower aortic cholesterol accumulation" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A low dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 Fatty acids may delay progression of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):556-62 - "High amounts of omega-6 fatty acids have been linked with increased prostate cancer risk, whereas omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit PCa growth. However, because omega-3 and omega-6 are both essential fatty acids and part of a complete diet, it is more relevant to determine the ideal ratio of the two that would allow patients to benefit from the therapeutic properties of omega-3 fatty acids. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with dietary-based ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids under hormone-deprivation conditions, and effects on various cellular processes were determined. A low omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio can delay the progression of cells toward castration-resistance by suppressing pathways involved in prostate cancer progression, such as the Akt/mTOR/NFκB axis. It also suppresses the expression of cyclin D1, and activation of caspase-3 and annexin V staining shows induction of proapoptotic events. Taken together, our data demonstrates that maintaining a low omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio can enhance efficacy of hormone ablation therapy"
  • Adiponectin Gene Variant Interacts with Fish Oil Supplementation to Influence Serum Adiponectin in Older Individuals - J Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "Individuals homozygous for the +45 T-allele aged >58 y had a 22% increase in serum adiponectin concentration compared with baseline after the highest dose (P-treatment effect = 0.008). If substantiated in a larger sample, a diet high in n3 PUFAs may be recommended for older individuals, especially those of the +45 TT genotype who have reported increased risk of hypoadiponectinemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity"
  • Dietary Fat, Fatty Acids, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr;22(4):697-707 - "NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline with self-administered food-frequency questionnaires ... Total fat and mono- and polyunsaturated fat intakes were not associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Saturated fat intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQuintile 5 vs. Qunitile 1 (Q1 vs. Q5), 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.46; Ptrend = 0.03) and fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.15; Ptrend = 0.04). α-Linolenic acid (ALA) intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31; Ptrend = 0.01). Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) intake was related to decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.04; Ptrend = 0.02)"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Glucose Metabolism without Effects on Obesity Values and Serum Visfatin Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Oct;31(5):361-8 - "controlled clinical trial was conducted on 61 women who were diagnosed with PCOS, had a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 40 kg/m(2), and were from 20-35 years old. Thirty of the subjects had taken four 1-g omega-3 fatty acids capsules per day, providing 1200 mg n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), and 31 were given a placebo over 8 weeks ... Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased glucose (by 11.4%, p < 0.001), insulin (by 8.4%, p < 0.05), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (by 21.8%, p < 0.001) compared with placebo"
  • Fish oil supplementation alters circulating eicosanoid concentrations in young healthy men - Metabolism. 2013 Mar 20 - "Fasted serum samples were collected from 10 young healthy males (23.4+/-1.7years) before and after a 3-month supplementation of fish-oil containing 2.0g EPA and 1.0g DHA ... A 3-month fish oil supplementation in young healthy men improved circulating triglyceride levels and the HDL-c ratio while, concomitantly, increasing the concentrations of two eicosanoids (prostaglandin-F2α and thromboxane-B2). This suggests that fish oil supplementation does have significant benefits in young healthy adults"
  • Total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes in relation to insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 21:1-5 - "Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples"
  • Short-term effects of fish-oil supplementation on heart rate variability in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 20 - "systematic search of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and references of related reviews and studies ... Short-term fish-oil supplementation may favorably influence the frequency domain of heart rate variability, as indicated by an enhanced vagal tone, which may be an important mechanism underlying the antiarrhythmic and other clinical effects of fish oil"
  • Effect of different dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratios on reproduction in male rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Mar 13;12(1):33 - "These findings demonstrated that a balanced n-3/n-6 ratio was important in male rat reproduction. Therefore there is a necessity to determine an appropriate n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in man and different male animals in the future"
  • Omega 3 fatty acids increase the chemo-sensitivity of B-CLL-derived cell lines EHEB and MEC-2 and of B-PLL-derived cell line JVM-2 to anti-cancer drugs doxorubicin, vincristine and fludarabine - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Mar 16;12(1):36 - "N-3's are promising chemo-sensitizing agents for the treatment of CLL. Selective enhancement of chemo-sensitivity of EHEB, JVM-2 and MEC-2 to drugs by n-3 that is not dependent on increased lipid peroxidation and ROS generation indicates alternative mechanisms by which n-3 enhances chemo-sensitivity"
  • trans Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Increased Risk and n3 Fatty Acid Intake with Reduced Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - J Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "diets high in TFAs, processed meats, and higher fat dairy products were positively associated with NHL risk, whereas diets high in n3 fatty acids and total seafood were inversely associated with risk"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure by directly activating large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 4 - "This finding has practical implications for the use of omega-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals for the general public and also for the critically ill receiving omega-3-enriched formulas"
  • High Concentrations of Plasma n3 Fatty Acids Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "High dietary intakes of n3 (Ω3) PUFA and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y ... After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma TGs, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01" - Note:  18:3n3 is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the form of omega-3 found in plant sources such as flax.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Patients Following Esophageal Cancer Surgery: Effect on Inflammation and Immune Function - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):71-75 - "inflammation [serum procalcitonin (PCT) ... PCT level was notably lower and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was markedly higher in the ω-3 PUFAs group ... ω-3 PUFAs supplemented PN can reduce inflammation and improve immune function in patients following esophageal cancer surgery"
  • Supplementation with n3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Increases Large and Small Arterial Elasticity in Obese Adults on a Weight Loss Diet - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "carry out a 12-wk randomized, single-blind trial to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit weight loss diet alone (WL) (n = 12) or WL plus 4 g/d Omacor (46% EPA and 38% DHA) supplementation (WL+FAEE) (n = 13) on arterial elasticity in obese adults. Large (C1) and small artery elasticity (C2) were measured ... Supplementation with n3 FAEEs improves C1 and C2 independent of weight loss in obese adults"
  • Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and CACO-2 Cells - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 16 - "The (n-3) PUFAs, 20:5 (n-3) EPA and 22:6 (n-3) DHA, are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion ... We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFA was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in cancer - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Jan 7 - "Inflammation dictates tumour initiation, progression and growth. Omega-3 fatty acids exert anti-inflammatory effects, and therefore recent studies investigated their role in cancer prevention, in cancer cachexia treatment and in enhancement of antitumour therapies. Limited evidence suggests a role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in cancer prevention, but they have been shown to preserve muscle mass and function in cancer patients even during active treatment. During chemotherapy, omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to a reduced inflammatory response, but whether cancer treatment toxicity can be prevented remains to be assessed. Finally, small studies showed that omega-3 fatty acids increase response rate to chemotherapy"
  • The Impact of Supplemental n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Dietary Antioxidants on Physical Performance in Postmenopausal Women - Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):76-80 - "126 postmenopausal women. Intervention: 2 fish oil (1.2g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or 2 placebo (olive oil) capsules per day for 6 months ... Physical performance, measured by change in walking speed, was significantly affected by fish oil supplementation. Dietary intake of antioxidants (selenium and vitamin C) and changes in TNFα also contributed to change in walking speed suggesting LCPUFA may interact with antioxidants and inflammatory response to impact physical performance"  
  • Association of Marine-Origin n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Consumption and Functional Mobility in the Community-Dwelling Oldest Old - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):82-9 - "Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a lower habitual intake of EPA+DHA was significantly associated with poor functional mobility in men but not in women (OR (95%CI) per 1 SD increase of EPA+DHA intake; 0.55 (0.33-0.91), 0.88 (0.59-1.32), men and women respectively)"
  • The Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Adults With Diabetes: Results of the GO-FISH trial - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 28 - "placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria ... These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early evidence of kidney disease"
  • Platelet Redox Balance in Diabetic Patients With Hypertension Improved by n-3 Fatty Acids - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 13 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, largely as a result of defective production of cardioprotective nitric oxide and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress ... We randomized hypertensive T2DM patients (T2DM HT; n = 22) and age-and-sex matched hypertensive study participants without diabetes (HT alone; n = 23) in a double-blind, crossover fashion to receive 8 weeks of n-3 PUFAs (1.8 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g docosahexaenoic acid) or identical olive oil capsules (placebo), with an intervening 8-week washout period ... Our finding that n-3 PUFAs diminish platelet superoxide production in T2DM HT patients in vivo suggests a therapeutic role for these agents in reducing the vascular-derived oxidative stress associated with diabetes" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Dec 3;11(1):165 - "Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity ... 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks ... There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne"
  • Effects of EPA, γ-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 30:1-8 - "A total of 504 healthy men with serum PSA level ≤ 2.5 ng/ml were recruited into the study ... Participants were randomly assigned to a daily dietary supplement containing n-3 fatty acids (1.12 g of EPA and 0.72 g of DHA per capsule) (group 1, n 126), n-6 fatty acid (600 mg γ-linolenic acid (GLA) each capsule) (group 2, n 126), CoQ10 (100 mg per capsule) (group 3, n 126) or a similar regimen of placebo (group 4, n 126) for 12 weeks ... EPA treatment significantly reduced serum PSA level by 30.0 (95 % CI 25, 36) % (P = 0.004) from baseline. In contrast, GLA therapy significantly increased serum PSA concentration by 15.0 (95 % CI 11, 20) % (P = 0.02). CoQ10 therapy also significantly reduced serum PSA level by 33.0 (95 % CI 27, 40) % (P = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, serum values of PSA were strongly correlated with duration of EPA (r - 0.62; 95 % CI - 0.42, - 0.77; P = 0.003), n-6 (r 0.42; 95 % CI 0.31, 0.58; P = 0.02) and CoQ10 use (r - 0.77; 95 % CI - 0.56, - 0.87; P = 0.001). There were also significant correlations between serum values of DHA, EPA, GLA and CoQ10 and serum PSA levels. The present study demonstrates that dietary supplements containing EPA, GLA or CoQ10 may significantly affect serum PSA levels"
  • Effect of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in patients with sickle cell anemia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 28 - "Blood cell aggregation and adherence to vascular endothelium and inflammation play a central role in vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. The antiaggregatory, antiadhesive, antiinflammatory, and vasodilatory omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (DHA and EPA) are significantly reduced in patients with the disease ... One hundred forty patients recruited from a single center in Sudan were randomly assigned and received, daily, 1 (age 2-4 y), 2 (age 5-10 y), 3 (age 11-16), or 4 (age ≥17 y) omega-3 capsules containing 277.8 mg DHA and 39.0 mg EPA or placebo for 1 y ... Omega-3 treatment reduced the median rate of clinical vaso-occlusive events (0 compared with 1.0 per year, P < 0.0001), severe anemia (3.2% compared with 16.4%; P < 0.05), blood transfusion (4.5% compared with 16.4%; P < 0.05), white blood cell count (14.4 +/- 3.3 compared with 15.6 +/- 4.0 ×10(3)/μL; P < 0.05), and the OR of the inability to attend school at least once during the study period because of illness related to the disease to 0.4 ... The findings of this trial, which need to be verified in a large multicenter study, suggest that omega-3 fatty acids can be an effective, safe, and affordable therapy for sickle cell anemia"
  • Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study - Nutr J. 2012 Nov 22;11(1):99 - "Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily) were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p < 0.05). In contrast to placebo, n-3 PUFA lowered plasma triacylglycerides (P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), f-glucose (p = 0.05), and s-TNF-alpha (p = 0.05), were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests ... Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline"
  • Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood ... Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth"
  • Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 15:1-9 - "These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS"
  • Titrating lovaza from 4 to 8 to 12 grams/day in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia who had triglyceride levels >500 mg/dl despite conventional triglyceride lowering therapy - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Oct 30;11(1):143 - "With TG >500 mg/dl despite Type V diet, hyperinsulinemia and diabetes control, and fibric acids, Lovaza (4 g/d) was added for 1 month, and if TG remained >500 mg/dl, increased to 8 g/d for 1 month, and then to 12 g/d for 1 month, and subsequently reduced to 4 g/day for 4 months ... Titration of Lovaza from 4 to 8 to 12 g/d safely offers an effective way to lower TG beyond conventional 4 g therapy"
  • Attenuation of post-myocardial infarction depression in rats by n-3 fatty acids or probiotics starting after the onset of reperfusion - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 15:1-7 - "Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in depression-like behaviour and apoptosis in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). A PUFA n-3 diet or the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 probiotics, when given before the ischaemic period, reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines as well as apoptosis in the limbic system ... These results indicate that a high-PUFA n-3 diet or the administration of probiotics, starting after the onset of reperfusion, are beneficial to attenuate apoptosis in the limbic system and post-MI depression in the rat"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in ischemic stroke: Importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the risk for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep 20 - "intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) ... no cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis, NCAS ... Age, coexistence of hypertension/diabetes were significantly different among the groups. Phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between non-stroke control and ischemic stroke patients, and interestingly, between NCAS and ICAS in stroke patients. Pattern analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the ω3-polyunsaturated FAs were important FAs in distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Particularly, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with levels of DHA contents in phospholipids (OR: 0.590, 95% CI: 0.350-0.993, p < 0.05), indicating that the risk may be increased at lower levels of DHA contents ... DHA and EPA are important FAs for distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Additionally, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with the levels of phospholipid DHA, which indicates that sufficient amounts of DHA in plasma or in diet may reduce the risk of ICAS"
  • Effects of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratios on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin-Treated Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 2 - "A low ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with cardiovascular events ... Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions in the percutaneous coronary intervention vessel was evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in 101 patients at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention and 8 months after statin therapy ... decreases in serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios are associated with progression in coronary atherosclerosis evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease"
  • Fish consumption and risk of stroke and its subtypes: accumulative evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "A database was derived from 16 eligible studies (19 cohorts), including 402 127 individuals (10 568 incident cases) with an average 12.8 years of follow-up ... Accumulated evidence generated from this meta-analysis suggests that fish intake may have a protective effect against the risk of stroke, particularly ischemic stroke"
  • n-3 Long-chain PUFA reduce allergy-related mediator release by human mast cells in vitro via inhibition of reactive oxygen species - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-11 - "Increased n-6 and reduced n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) intake in Western diets may contribute to the increased prevalence of allergic diseases ... This suggests that dietary supplementation with EPA and/or DHA may alter the MC phenotype, contributing to a reduced susceptibility to develop and sustain allergic disease"
  • The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to dietary fatty acid intake, bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the Women's Health Initiative - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep 27 - "Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBC) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk ... A nested case-control study (n=400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study ... In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC a-linolenic acid [Hazard ratio (HR) Tertile 3 (T3): 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154)], eicosapentaenoic acid (HR T3: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181) and total n-3 PUFAs (HR T3: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (HR T3: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho=0.45, p<0.0001), total n-6 PUFAs (rho=0.17, p<0.0001) and linoleic acid (rho= 0.09, p<0.05). These results suggest that higher RBC a-linolenic acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women"
  • Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial triglycerides and monocyte activation - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep 13 - "Patients were treated with 4 g n3-FA/day or placebo for 3 weeks in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Relative postprandial TG increase reached its maximum 4 h after fat intake (185.1 +/- 10.9% of baseline). n3-FA reduced fasting TG from 137.1 +/- 12.9 to 112.2 +/- 8.6 mg/dl (p < 0.05), and maximum ppTG concentrations from 243.6 +/- 24.6 to 205.8 +/- 17.1 mg/dl (p < 0.05), while relative TG increase (192.8 +/- 12.7%) was comparable to placebo"
  • Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Sep 5 - "We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO) ... We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks ... We conclude that short term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signaling, and vascular dysfunction"
  • Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep 5 - "The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month" - Note:  alpha linolenic acid is the omega-3 in flaxseed oil.  See Jarrow Formulas, Flax Seed Oil, 32 fl oz (946 ml) or Flora, Flax-O-Mega, 180 Capsules.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid in mild-to-moderate depression: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Aug 18 - "Eighty-one mild-to-moderately depressed outpatients were randomly assigned to receive either 1g/d of EPA or DHA or placebo (coconut oil) for 12 weeks ... Although there was no significant difference between groups at baseline, patients in the EPA group showed a significantly lower mean HDRS score at study endpoint compared with those in the DHA (p<0.001) or placebo (p=0.002) groups. Furthermore, response to treatment (defined as a ≥50% decrease from the baseline HDRS score) was only observed in 6 patients receiving EPA, while no one in any of DHA or placebo groups responded to treatment" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid Increases Interleukin-10 Levels of Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Obese Patients With Dyslipidemia - Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 21 - "Peripheral blood monocytes were prepared from 26 obese patients without and 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia. Of the latter 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia, 82 patients were treated with or without EPA treatment (1.8 g daily) for 3 months ... This study is the first to show that EPA increases the monocyte IL-10 expression in parallel with decrease of arterial stiffness, which may contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of EPA in obese dyslipidemic patients"
  • Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe - Neurology. 2012 Aug 1 - "A total of 281 community dwellers from the Three-City Study, aged 65 years or older, had plasma fatty acid measurements at baseline and underwent MRI examinations at baseline and at 4 years. We studied the association between plasma EPA and DHA and MTL gray matter volume change at 4 years ... Higher plasma EPA, but not DHA, was associated with lower gray matter atrophy of the right hippocampal/parahippocampal area and of the right amygdala (p < 0.05, familywise error corrected). Based on a mean right amygdala volume loss of 6.0 mm(3)/y (0.6%), a 1 SD higher plasma EPA (+0.64% of total plasma fatty acids) at baseline was related to a 1.3 mm(3) smaller gray matter loss per year in the right amygdala. Higher atrophy of the right amygdala was associated with greater 4-year decline in semantic memory performances and more depressive symptoms ... The amygdala, which develops neuropathology in the early stage of AD and is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, may be an important brain structure involved in the association between EPA and cognitive decline and depressive symptoms" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 Fatty acids inhibit transcription of human IL-13: implications for development of T helper type 2 immune responses - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-11 - "These data indicate the potential of n-3 fatty acids to attenuate IL-13 expression, and suggest that they may subsequently reduce allergic sensitisation and the development of allergic disease"
  • Erythrocyte n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Seafood Intake Decrease the Risk of Depression: Case-Control Study in Korea - Ann Nutr Metab. 2012 Jul 6;61(1):25-31 - "Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis showed that the risk of depression was significantly and negatively associated with erythrocyte levels of 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, 16:0 and 18:0, but positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 18:2t and 16:1 after adjusting for confounding factors. In addition, the risk of depression was negatively associated with the intake of energy, carbohydrate, seafood and grains, but positively with the intake of fat and meat after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions: The risk of depression could be decreased with increased erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFA and saturated fatty acids, as well as seafood intake, but decreased erythrocyte levels of trans fatty acids in Koreans"
  • Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: A meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 6 - "Using random effect model, the pooled relative risk for heart failure comparing the highest to lowest category of fish intake was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.73-0.99), p = 0.04; corresponding value for marine omega-3 fatty acids was 0.86 (0.74-1.00), p = 0.05 ... there was no evidence for publication bias"
  • "Metabolic syndrome" in the brain: Deficiency in omega-3-fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signaling and cognition - J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2 - "high-dietary fructose consumption leads to increase in insulin resistance index, insulin and triglyceride levels, which characterize MetS. Rats fed on an n-3 deficient diet showed memory deficits in Barnes Maze, which were further exacerbated by fructose intake. In turn, n-3 deficient diet and fructose interventions disrupted insulin receptor signaling in hippocampus as evidenced by a decrease in phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its downstream effector Akt. We found that high fructose consumption with n-3 deficient diet disrupts membrane homeostasis as evidenced by an increase in the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids and levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Disturbances in brain energy metabolism due to n-3 deficiency and fructose treatments were evidenced by a significant decrease in AMPK phosphorylation and its upstream modulator LKB1 as well as a decrease in Sir2 levels. The decrease in phosphorylation of CREB, synapsin I and synaptophysin (SYP) levels by n-3 deficiency and fructose shows the impact of metabolic dysfunction on synaptic plasticity. All parameters of metabolic dysfunction related to the fructose treatment were ameliorated by the presence of dietary n-3 fatty acid. Results showed that dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency elevates the vulnerability to metabolic dysfunction and impaired cognitive functions by modulating insulin receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity"
  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: the potential role for supplementation in cancer - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Feb 23 - "Low n-3 fatty acids are associated with loss of skeletal muscle, suggesting a need for supplementation ... Recent evidence appears to favour providing n-3 fatty acids early in the disease trajectory, during antineoplastic therapy for preservation of muscle and also to improve treatment tolerance"
  • Immunomodulation of microglia by docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Mar;15(2):134-43 - "Immunomodulation by ω-3 FAs is mediated by several pathways that are interconnected and is a potential therapy for disorders in the CNS"
  • Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 20 - "Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids significantly improves the endothelial function without affecting endothelium-independent dilation"
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction - Eur Heart J. 2012 Feb 1 - "In statin users, an additional amount of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular events [HR(adj) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.31; P = 0.88]. In statin non-users, however, only 9% of those who received EPA-DHA plus ALA experienced an event compared with 18% in the placebo group ... In patients with a history of MI who are not treated with statins, low-dose supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may reduce major cardiovascular events. This study suggests that statin treatment modifies the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the incidence of major cardiovascular events"
  • The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inhibits Mouse MC-26 Colorectal Cancer Cell Liver Metastasis Via Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E(2) -Dependent Cell Motility - Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb 2 - "Treatment with 5% (w/w) EPA-FFA was associated with a reduced MC-26 mouse CRC cell liver tumour burden compared with control animals (median liver weight 1.62g versus 1.03g; P < 0.034). Administration of 5% EPA-FFA was also linked to a significant increase in tumour EPA incorporation and lower intra-tumoral PGE(2) levels (with concomitant increased production of PGE(3) ). Liver tumours from 5% EPA-FFA treated mice demonstrated decreased bromodeoxyuridine-positive CRC cell proliferation and reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 expression at the invasive edge of tumours. A concentration-dependent reduction in MC-26 CRC cell Transwell® migration following EPA-FFA treatment (50-200µM) in vitro was rescued by exogenous PGE(2) (10µM) and PGE(1) -alcohol (1µM). Conclusions:  EPA-FFA inhibits MC-26 CRC cell liver metastasis. EPA incorporation is associated with a 'PGE(2) to PGE(3) switch' in liver tumours. Inhibition of PGE(2) -EP4 receptor-dependent CRC cell motility likely contributes to the anti-neoplastic activity of EPA"
  • Fish Oil Supplement Alters Markers of Inflammatory and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Feb 1 - "The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk ... Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio"
  • Association of Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids with Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study - Circulation. 2012 Jan 26 - "In multivariable Cox models adjusted for other risk factors, the RR in the top versus lowest quartile of total n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) levels was 0.71 (95%CI=0.57-0.89, P-trend=0.004); and of DHA levels, 0.77 (95%CI=0.62-0.96, P-trend=0.01). EPA and DPA levels were not significantly associated with incident AF. Evaluated non-parametrically, both total n-3 PUFA and DHA showed graded and linear inverse associations with incidence of AF"
  • (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary? - J Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially for DPA. Nonetheless, the present evidence suggests that EPA and DHA have both shared and complementary benefits. Based on current evidence, increasing consumption of either would be advantageous compared to little or no consumption. Focusing on their combined consumption remains most prudent given the potential for complementary effects and the existing more robust literature on cardiovascular benefits of their combined consumption as fish or fish oil for cardiovascular benefits"
  • Dietary intake of PUFAs and colorectal polyp risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "n-6 PUFAs were not associated with adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps in either men or women. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in women only, with an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.97) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest quintile of intake (P-trend = 0.01). Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with an increased risk of hyperplastic polyps in men (P-trend = 0.03), which was not seen in women"
  • Associations of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jan 20 - "Our results suggest that plasma PL n-3 PUFA was significantly inversely associated with hypertension in Chinese. It would seem appropriate for hypertensive subjects to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA which may help reduce BP"
  • Oral nutritional supplements containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect quality of life and functional status in lung cancer patients during multimodality treatment: an RCT - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 11 - "(2.02 g eicosapentaenoic acid+0.92 g docosahexaenoic acid/day) or an isocaloric control supplement ... The intervention group reported significantly higher on the quality of life parameters, physical and cognitive function (B=11.6 and B=20.7, P<0.01), global health status (B=12.2, P=0.04) and social function (B=22.1, P=0.04) than the control group after 5 weeks. The intervention group showed a higher Karnofsky Performance Status (B=5.3, P=0.04) than the control group after 3 weeks. Handgrip strength did not significantly differ between groups over time. The intervention group tended to have a higher physical activity than the control group after 3 and 5 weeks (B=6.6, P=0.04 and B=2.5, P=0.05)"
  • Associations between n-3 PUFA concentrations and cognitive function after recovery from late-life depression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 4 - "sample of 132 eligible participants who had recovered from major depression (mean +/- SD age: 67.8 +/- 6.6 y) were enrolled from outpatient psychiatric services. A series of cognitive tests and a structured questionnaire were administered. Fasting blood samples were collected for n-3 PUFA measurements ... the strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression ... Total erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations are positively associated with cognitive function, particularly immediate recall, in older people with previous depression. Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in older people with previous recurrent depression"
  • ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes and the risk of breast cancer in Mexican women: impact of obesity status - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Dec 22 - "Overall, there was no significant association between ω-3 PUFA intake and breast cancer risk (p=0.31). An increased risk of breast cancer was associated with increasing ω-6 PUFA intake in pre-menopausal women (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.13;3.26; p=0.04). A decreased risk of breast cancer was significantly associated with increasing ω-3 PUFA intake in obese women (OR=0.58, 95%CI=0.39;0.87; p=0.008), but not in normoweight nor in overweight women (p for heterogeneity = 0.017)
  • Fish oil attenuates surgery-induced immunosuppression, limits post-operative metastatic dissemination and increases long-term recurrence-free survival in rodents inoculated with cancer cells - Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 26 - "ω-3FA feeding attenuates or even overcomes postoperative NK cell suppression, increases resistance to experimental and spontaneous metastasis, and enhances recurrence-free survival following excision of metastasizing primary tumors"
  • Hypothalamic gene expression in ω-3 PUFA-deficient male rats before, and following, development of hypertension - Hypertens Res. 2011 Nov 10 - "Dietary deficiency of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 DEF) produces hypertension in later life ... Animals were fed experimental diets that were deficient in ω-3 fatty acids, sufficient in short-chain ω-3 fatty acids or sufficient in short- and long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, from the prenatal period until 10 or 36 weeks-of-age. There was no difference in blood pressure between groups at 10 weeks-of-age; however, at 36 weeks-of-age ω-3 DEF animals were hypertensive in relation to sufficient groups. At 10 weeks, expression of angiotensin-II(1A) receptors and dopamine D(3) receptors were significantly increased in the hypothalamic tissue of ω-3 DEF animals. In contrast, at 36 weeks, α(2a) and β(1) adrenergic receptor expression was significantly reduced in the ω-3 DEF group. Brain docosahexaenoic acid was significantly lower in ω-3 DEF group compared with sufficient groups. This study demonstrates that dietary ω-3 DEF causes changes both in the expression of key genes involved in central blood pressure regulation and in blood pressure. The data may indicate that hypertension resulting from ω-3 DEF is mediated by the central adrenergic system"
  • Enteral n-3 fatty acids and micronutrients enhance percentage of positive neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion molecules: a potential mediator of pressure ulcer healing in critically ill patients - Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 1:1-6 - "n-3 Fatty acids are recognised as influencing both wound healing and immunity. We assessed the impact of a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula (study formula) on the healing of pressure ulcers and on immune function in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit ... intervention group, n 20, received study formula; and a control group, n 20, received an isoenergetic formula ... Patients who received the study formula showed significant increases in the percentage of positive CD18 and CD11a lymphocytes and of CD49b granulocytes as compared to controls (P < 0.05). While the severity of pressure ulcers was not significantly different between the two groups on admission, severity increased significantly over time for the control group (P < 0.05), but not for the study group. The present study suggests that a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula may prevent worsening of pressure ulcers and that this effect may be mediated by an effect on adhesion molecule expression"
  • Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):974-80 - "A total of ten n-3 trials met the final inclusion criteria; four using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and six using arterial compliance, measured as capacitive compliance or systemic arterial compliance, as respective outcome measures. Meta-analysis revealed that n-3 was statistically significant in effectively improving both PWV (g = 0.33; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.56; P < 0.01) and arterial compliance (g = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.72; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Management of Hypercalciuric Stone Formers - Urology. 2011 Oct 13 - "All patients received empiric dietary recommendations for intake of fluids, sodium, protein, and citric juices. All subjects with hypercalciuria (urinary calcium >250 mg/d for males or >200 mg/d for females) on at least two 24-hour urine collections were counseled to supplement their diet with fish oil (1200 mg/d) ... Twenty-nine patients were followed for 9.86 +/- 8.96 months. The mean age was 43.38 +/- 13.78 years. Urinary calcium levels decreased in 52% of patients, with 24% converting to normocalciuria. The average urinary calcium (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (329.27 +/- 96.23 to 247.47 +/- 84.53, P <.0001). Urinary oxalate excretion decreased in 34% of patients. The average urinary oxalate (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (45.40 +/- 9.90 to 32.9 +/- 8.21, P = .0004). Urinary citrate (mg/d) increased in 62% of subjects from baseline (731.67 +/- 279.09 to 940.22 +/- 437.54, P = .0005). Calcium oxalate supersaturation decreased in 38% of the subjects significantly from baseline (9.73 +/- 4.48 to 3.68 +/- 1.76, P = .001)"
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 20:1-12 - "Depressive symptoms may increase the risk of progressing from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Consumption of n-3 PUFA may alleviate both cognitive decline and depression ... A total of fifty people aged >65 years with MCI were allocated to receive a supplement rich in EPA (1.67 g EPA+0.16 g DHA/d; n 17), DHA (1.55 g DHA+0.40 g EPA/d; n 18) or the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 2.2 g/d; n 15). Treatment allocation was by minimisation based on age, sex and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). Physiological and cognitive assessments, questionnaires and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes were obtained at baseline and 6 months (completers: n 40; EPA n 13, DHA n 16, LA n 11). Compared with the LA group, GDS scores improved in the EPA (P = 0.04) and DHA (P = 0.01) groups and verbal fluency (Initial Letter Fluency) in the DHA group (P = 0.04). Improved GDS scores were correlated with increased DHA plus EPA (r 0.39, P = 0.02). Improved self-reported physical health was associated with increased DHA. There were no treatment effects on other cognitive or QOL parameters. Increased intakes of DHA and EPA benefited mental health in older people with MCI. Increasing n-3 PUFA intakes may reduce depressive symptoms and the risk of progressing to dementia. This needs to be investigated in larger, depressed samples with MCI"
  • n-3 PUFA prevent metabolic disturbances associated with obesity and improve endothelial function in golden Syrian hamsters fed with a high-fat diet - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 16:1-11 - "In conclusion, n-3 PUFA prevent some metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet and improve endothelial function in hamsters"
  • Dietary {alpha}-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3)  ... Four hundred seventy-one cases of IHD were observed during a median follow-up period of 23.3 y. Higher intake of ALA was not significantly associated with decreased risk of IHD among women or men. Although the HR of IHD was stepwise decreased with increasing ALA intake in men [0.84 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.14) in the medium compared with the lowest tertile (reference) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.24) in the highest compared with the lowest tertile], this change was far from significant (P-trend: 0.39). No evidence of effect modification by n-3 LC-PUFA or LA was observed. High n-3 LC-PUFA intake, in comparison with low intake, was inversely associated with risk of IHD; this trend was significant in women (P = 0.04; HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97) but not in men (P = 0.15; HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.06). No associations were observed between intake of LA and risk of IHD" - Note:  α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is the form of omega-3 found in things like vegetable and flax seeds, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is what's in most vegetable oils like corn and soy.
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissue and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome - Circulation. 2011 Aug 22 - "Comparing men in the highest and lowest quintiles gave a hazard ratio of 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.95) for total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.73) for docosahexaenoic acid. Nonfatal cases constituted >86% of cases, and the association was driven primarily by a reduction in the risk of nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. No consistent associations were found among women. Conclusion- Intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against acute coronary syndrome in men"
  • Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations - a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil - Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Aug 22;10(1):145 - "In a double-blinded crossover trial, we compared the uptake of three EPA+DHA formulations derived from fish oil (re-esterified triacylglycerides [rTAG], ethyl-esters [EE]) and krill oil (mainly PL). Changes of the FA compositions in plasma PL were used as a proxy for bioavailability. Twelve healthy young men (mean age 31 y) were randomized to 1680 mg EPA+DHA given either as rTAG, EE or krill oil. FA levels in plasma PL were analyzed pre-dose and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after capsule ingestion. Additionally, the proportion of free EPA and DHA in the applied supplements was analyzed ... The highest incorporation of EPA+DHA into plasma PL was provoked by krill oil (mean AUC 0-72h: 80.03 +/- 34.71 %*h), followed by fish oil rTAG (mean AUC 0-72h: 59.78 +/- 36.75 %*h) and EE (mean AUC 0-72h: 47.53 +/- 38.42 %*h). Due to high standard deviation values, there were no significant differences for DHA and the sum of EPA+DHA levels between the three treatments. However, a trend (p = 0.057) was observed for the differences in EPA bioavailability. Statistical pair-wise group comparison's revealed a trend (p = 0.086) between rTAG and krill oil. FA analysis of the supplements showed that the krill oil sample contained 22% of the total EPA amount as free EPA and 21% of the total DHA amount as free DHA, while the two fish oil samples did not contain any free FA" - See krill oil products at iHerb, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com. - Note: Eyeballing the math, it krill oil doesn't seem cost effective to me.
  • A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA reduces the risk of the metabolic syndrome - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 12 - "Clinical intervention study: the patients (n=337) were randomly assigned to one of four diets for 12 weeks each: two high fat diets, one rich in saturated fat (HSFA) and the other rich in monounsaturated fat (HMUFA), and two low fat diets, one high in complex carbohydrates (LFHCC) supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n-3) and the other LFHCC diet with placebo (LFHCC) ... An enlarged waist circumference (≥88cm for women and ≥102cm for men) was present among 95% of the participants, 88% had elevated blood pressure (>130/85mm Hg or antihypertensive drugs), 77% had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55mmol/L), 51% were hypertriacylglycerolemic (≥1.7mmol/L), and 72% had low HDL cholesterol (<1.0mmol/L for men, and <1.3mmol/L for women). The prevalence of enlarged waist circumference, hypertension and hypertriacylglycerolemia were reduced after the LFHCC n-3 diet (p<0.05). Thus the prevalence of MetS fell by 20.5% after LFHCC n-3 diet compared with the HSFA (10.6%), HMUFA (12%) diet or LFHCC (10.4%) diets (p<0.028)"
  • Estimating health and economic benefits from using prescription omega-3 Fatty acids in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Sep 1;108(5):691-7 - "In patients with severe (≥500 mg/dl) hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG), clinical trials have demonstrated that prescription ω-3 fatty acids (P-OM3s) 4 g/day can decrease triglyceride levels by 45% ... Simulation results for the control arm indicated that subjects with SHTG are at about 2 times higher risk for myocardial infarction than those with normal triglyceride levels. Using estimates from previous epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses with OM3s, the model predicted 29% to 36% decreases in various measurements of adverse cardiac events for the intervention arm. The model also predicted a decrease in ischemic stroke of 24% (95% confidence interval 15 to 33)"
  • Fish intake and type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 20 - "During the 5-y period, 971 new cases (572 men and 399 women) of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. In men, fish intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes; multivariable-adjusted ORs of type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.00; P-trend = 0.04) for total fish and seafood and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.92; P-trend = 0.016) for small and medium fish (horse mackerel and sardine, saury and mackerel, and eel). Additional analysis by fat content of fish did not detect any significant association for each category. In women, fish intake was not appreciably associated with type 2 diabetes risk"
  • Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jul 13 - "Two hundred patients were randomized to receive fish oil (providing 4.6 g/day of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids) or a control oil starting 3 weeks before surgery; 194 subjects completed the study, with 47 of 97 subjects in the control group and 36 of 97 subjects in the fish oil group developing AF (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 1.11). There was a nonstatistically significant delay in time to onset of AF in the fish oil group (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.01). There was a significant decrease in mean length of stay in the intensive care unit in the fish oil group (ratio of means 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.90). In conclusion, in a mixed cardiac surgery population, supplementation with dietary fish oil did not result in a significant decrease in the incidence of postsurgical AF. However, there was a significant decrease in time spent in the intensive care unit" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Consumption in Healthy Adults Is Associated with Decreased Circulating Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation during a 6-Year Follow-Up - J Nutr. 2011 Jul 13 - "endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI) ... consumption of fish (per 100 g/wk), but none of the other food groups, was inversely associated with changes in ED [β (95%CI) = -0.06 (-0.10; -0.02); P = 0.003] and LGI [-0.05 (-0.09; -0.003); P = 0.036]. Additionally, EPA+DHA intake was inversely associated with changes in ED [β (95%CI) = -0.13 (-0.19; -0.07); P ≤ 0.001] and LGI [-0.09 (-0.16; -0.02); P = 0.013] and explained 83 and 40% of the association between fish and changes in ED and LGI. In conclusion, fish consumption, but not fruit, vegetable, alcoholic beverage, or dairy product consumption, was associated with decreased ED and LGI in healthy adults"
  • Omega-3 reduces anxiety and inflammation in healthy students, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/13/11 - "A new study gauging the impact of consuming more fish oil showed a marked reduction both in inflammation and, surprisingly, in anxiety among a cohort of healthy young people ... The supplement was probably about four or five times the amount of fish oil you'd get from a daily serving of salmon ... But the psychological surveys clearly showed an important change in anxiety among the students: Those receiving the omega-3 showed a 20 percent reduction in anxiety compared to the placebo group ... We saw a 14 percent reduction in the amounts of IL-6 among the students receiving the omega-3." Since the cytokines foster inflammation, "anything we can do to reduce cytokines is a big plus in dealing with the overall health of people at risk for many diseases,""
  • Impact of low v. moderate intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on risk of coronary heart disease - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-13 - "The objective of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of ≥ 250 v. < 250 mg of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCFA) per d is associated with a reduction in the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD in individuals with no prior history of CHD. A comprehensive and systematic review of the published scientific literature resulted in the identification of eight prospective studies (seven cohorts and one nested case-control study) that met predefined inclusion criteria. Relative to the consumption of < 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d, the consumption of ≥ 250 mg/d was associated with a significant 35.1 % reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death and a near-significant 16.6 % reduction in the risk of total fatal coronary events, while the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was not significantly reduced. In several meta-analyses, which were based on US studies, risk of CHD death was found to be dose-dependently reduced by the n-3 LCFA, with further risk reductions observed with intakes in excess of 250 mg/d. Prospective observational and intervention data from Japan, where intake of fish is very high, suggest that n-3 LCFA intakes of 900 to 1000 mg/d and greater may confer protection against non-fatal myocardial infarction. Thus, the intake of 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d may, indeed, be a minimum target to be achieved by the general population for the promotion of cardiovascular health"
  • Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary plaque instability: An integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 1 - "Patients with acute coronary syndrome had significantly lower levels of ω3 PUFAs (especially of EPA and DPA) than those without it. IB-IVUS analyses showed that ω3 PUFAs correlated inversely with % lipid volume and positively with % fibrous volume. Patients with low EPA levels, low DPA levels, and low DHA levels had a significantly higher % lipid volume (p=0.048, p=0.008, and p=0.036, respectively) and a significantly lower % fibrous volume (p=0.035, p=0.008, and p=0.034, respectively) than those with high levels of these fatty acids. Even after adjustment for confounders, the presence of both low EPA and low DPA levels proved to be an independent predictor for lipid-rich plaques in any of the two categories ... A lower serum content of ω3 PUFAs (especially of EPA and DPA) was significantly associated with lipid-rich plaques, suggesting the contribution to the incidence of acute coronary syndrome"
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester (AMR101) Therapy in Patients With Very High Triglyceride Levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] Trial) - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jun 15 - "AMR101 is an omega-3 fatty acid agent containing ≥96% eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and no docosahexaenoic acid ... AMR101 4 g/day reduced the placebo-corrected TG levels by 33.1%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 15 - "Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid intakes were inversely associated with T2D in women. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.96 (0.86, 1.06), 0.84 (0.75, 0.94), 0.80 (0.71, 0.90), and 0.89 (0.78, 1.01) (P for trend = 0.003) and for shellfish were 1.00, 0.91 (0.82, 1.01), 0.79 (0.71, 0.89), 0.80 (0.71, 0.91), and 0.86 (0.76, 0.99) (P for trend = 0.006). In men, only the association between shellfish intake and T2D was significant. The RRs (95% CI) for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.92 (0.75, 1.13), 0.80 (0.65, 1.00), 0.89 (0.72, 1.11), and 0.94 (0.74, 1.17) (P for trend = 0.50) and for shellfish intake were 1.00, 0.93 (0.76, 1.12), 0.70 (0.56, 086), 0.66 (0.53, 0.82), and 0.82 (0.65, 1.02) (P for trend = 0.003)"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Progression to Hormone Independence Is Associated With Suppression of mTOR Signaling and Androgen Receptor Expression - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jun 10:1-7 - "We used an in vitro model of androgen ablation to determine the effect of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids on the progression to an androgen-independent state. The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were able to prevent progression of LNCaP cells while the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) actually promoted cell growth under conditions of hormone depletion. These results correlated with a decrease in the expression of the androgen receptor as well as suppression of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Connecting the mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids affect phenotypic outcome is important for effective exploitation of these nutrient agents as a therapeutic approach" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effect of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in intestinal microvascular endothelium - Clin Nutr. 2011 May 30 - "DHA led to a decreased VCAM-1, TLR4, cyclooxygenase-2 and VEGFR2 expression and a decreased production of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF and a reduced production of PGE(2) and LTB(4) (p < 0.001) in IL-1β-induced HIMEC. Similarly, dietary intervention with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA significantly decreased colon production of PGE(2) and LTB(4,) endothelial VCAM-1 and VEGFR2 in rats with colitis ... Data obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies reveal a potential anti-angiogenic role of long chain n-3 PUFA in intestinal endothelial cells. This protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFA may partly explain the observed benefit of dietary intake of long chain n-3 PUFA in IBD development"
  • Omega-3 status in pregnancy linked to childhood obesity: Study - Nutra USA, 5/6/11 - "A higher ratio of cord plasma omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher subscapular and triceps [skinfold thicknesses] and odds of obesity ... around one fifth expectant mothers ate more than 2 fish meals per week at mid-pregnancy, however only about half of these women achieved the recommend intake of DHA of 200 mg per day ... Only three per cent of pregnant women in the study were found to consume the recommended intake of 200 mg/day of DHA in the last month of pregnancy ... this is the time when large amounts of DHA are transferred from the mother to the infant to support brain development ... the odds of obesity in 3-year-olds were between two and four times higher when cord blood had a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ... In contrast, the odds of obesity were 32 per cent lower when maternal consumption of omega-3s was high or if the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 was at close to recommended levels" - [Abstract]
  • Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 28;10(1):66 - "The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats ... Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms"
  • Brain histological changes in young mice submitted to diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during maternal pregnancy and lactation - Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr 1 - "N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for brain development and function, but the appropriate quantity of dietary n-3 PUFAs and ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs have not been clearly determined ... The feeding regimens began two months before mouse conception and continued throughout lactation for new pups. As compared with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet, both the flaxseed oil n-3 PUFA diets and the flaxseed/fish oil n-3 PUFA diets significantly increased the expression levels of brain neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein, somewhat dose-dependently, in new pup mice at 21 d and 42 d of age. The expression of PPAR-γ in the brains of pup mice was increased only at 7 d of age with the n-3 PUFA diet, and no changes in the expression of PPAR-�� and PPAR-β were found among all the diet groups. These results suggest that the higher intake amount of n-3 PUFAs with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs at about 1-2:1, supplied during both maternal pregnancy and lactation, may be more beneficial for early brain development, and PPAR-γ may act in one of the pathways by which n-3 PUFAs promote early brain development"
  • Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, and nuts and risk of inflammatory disease mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "Women in the highest tertiles of total n-3 PUFA intake, compared with those in the lowest tertile of intake at baseline, had a 44% reduced risk of inflammatory disease mortality (P for trend = 0.03). This association was not observed in men" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A Dietary Mixture Containing Fish Oil, Resveratrol, Lycopene, Catechins, and Vitamins E and C Reduces Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Mice - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes ... AIDM was evaluated in an inflammation model, male human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice, and an atherosclerosis model, female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice. Two groups of male human-CRP transgenic mice were fed AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 6 wk. The effects of AIDM on basal and IL-1β-stimulated CRP expression were investigated. AIDM reduced cytokine-induced human CRP and fibrinogen expression in human-CRP transgenic mice. In the atherosclerosis study, 2 groups of female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 16 wk. AIDM strongly reduced plasma cholesterol, TG, and serum amyloid A concentrations compared with placebo. Importantly, long-term treatment of ApoE*3Leiden mice with AIDM markedly reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 96% compared with placebo. The effect on atherosclerosis was paralleled by a reduced expression of the vascular inflammation markers and adhesion molecules inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. Dietary supplementation of AIDM improves lipid and inflammatory risk factors of CVD and strongly reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in female transgenic mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com, Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 9 - "The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood ... Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory ... To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and blood pressure in adolescents - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Feb 10 - "systolic BP was inversely associated with intakes of polyunsaturated (b=-0.436, P<0.01), omega-3 (b=-2.47, P=0.02), omega-6 (b=-0.362, P=0.04) and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (b=-4.37, P=0.04) in boys. Diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure were inversely associated with intakes of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in boys (b=-3.93, P=0.01, b=-4.05, P=0.01, respectively). For specific long-chain omega-3s, significant inverse associations were observed between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, such as systolic BP decreasing by 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI -9.3 to -0.1) for a quarter gram increase in EPA, but no significant associations were observed with docosapentaenoic acid. No significant associations were observed in girls, or with the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. Our results suggest that gender may moderate relationships between fatty acid intake and BP in adolescence"
  • Relation of Whole Blood n-3 Fatty Acid Levels to Exercise Parameters in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 7 - "After multivariable adjustment, n-3 fatty acid levels (DHA + EPA) were strongly associated with heart rate recovery (beta 2.1, p = 0.003), exercise capacity (beta 0.8, p <0.0001), and exercise time (beta 0.9, p <0.0001). Increasing levels of (DHA + EPA) were also associated with decreased risk of impaired heart rate recovery (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.004) and exercise time (odds ratio 0.7, p = 0.01) and trended toward significance for exercise capacity (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.07). These associations were not modified by demographics, body mass index, smoking, co-morbid conditions, statin use, or β-blocker use (p for interaction >0.1 for all comparisons). In conclusion, an independent association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and important exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease. These findings support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may increase vagal tone and physical conditioning"
    • vagal tone - encyclopedia.com - "The effect produced on the heart when only the parasympathetic nerve fibres (which are carried in the vagus nerve) are controlling the heart rate. The parasympathetic nerve fibres slow the heart rate from approximately 70 beats per minute to 60 beats per minute"
  • Consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid and fish is associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan 24:1-8 - "The highest compared with the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with a reduced likelihood of CKD (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.97; P for trend = 0.02). The present study shows that an increased dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA and fish reduces the prevalence of CKD. Hence, a diet rich in n-3 PUFA and fish could have a role in maintaining healthy kidney function, in addition to roles of these nutrients in the prevention and modulation of other diseases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on semen profile and enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study - Andrologia. 2011 Feb;43(1):38-47 - "Effective medical treatments of infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT) have yet to be determined ... A significant improvement of sperm cell total count (from 38.7 +/- 8.7 ' 10(6) to 61.7 +/- 11.2 ' 10(6) , P = 0.001) and sperm cell concentration (from 15.6 +/- 4.1 ' 10(6) per ml to 28.7 +/- 4.4 ' 10(6) per ml, P = 0.001) was observed in the omega-3 group. A significant positive correlation was found between the EPA and DHA in seminal plasma and the semen parameters. Seminal plasma EPA and DHA concentrations were positively correlated with seminal plasma SOD-like and catalase-like activity (both P = 0.001). In seminal plasma, both SOD-like and catalase-like activity were positively correlated with sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Oligoasthenoteratospermic men with low levels of EPA and DHA may benefit from omega-3 FA supplementation"
  • Serum omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous p53 expression in an Australian population - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jan 7 - "There was an inverse association, showing a dose-response relationship, between total n-3 fatty acid serum concentrations and p53 immunoreactivity in the whole epidermis as well as basal layer. This was due particularly to eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid concentrations. There was no evidence for increased p53 immunoreactivity in participants with relatively high serum n-6 fatty acid concentrations. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acid concentrations was not associated with p53 immunoreactivity ... The prospect that increased intake of n-3 fatty acids could help prevent skin cancer is attractive"
  • Fish consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 29 - "Fish consumption was significantly inversely associated with risk of total stroke but not cerebral infarction or hemorrhagic stroke. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of fish consumption (<1.0 servings of fish/wk), the multivariable RR of total stroke for women in the highest quintile (>3.0 servings of fish/wk) was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.98; P for trend = 0.049). Consumption of lean fish but not of other fish types was inversely associated with risk of stroke. The multivariable RR of total stroke was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.93; P for trend = 0.07) for ≥3 servings of lean fish/wk compared with that for no consumption"
  • Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Urinary Risk Factors for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation - J Urol. 2010 Dec 18 - "evaluated the physiological effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate stone formation under standardized conditions ... After short-term supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in phase 1 we noted no changes in urinary parameters compared to the control phase. After 30-day supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in phase 3 relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate decreased significantly by 23% from a mean +/- SD of 2.01 +/- 1.26 to 1.55 +/- 0.84 due to significantly decreased urinary oxalate excretion (p = 0.023) ... Calcium oxalate stone formers may benefit from long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation"
  • Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 - "Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older adults and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 - "effects of 0.85 and 3.4 g EPA+DHA/d ... The higher dose of EPA+DHA lowered triglycerides by 27% compared with placebo (173 +/- 17.5 compared with 237 +/- 17.5 mg/dL; P = 0.002), whereas no effect of the lower dose was observed on lipids. No effects on cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL), endothelial function [as assessed by flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry/EndoPAT (Itamar Medical Ltd, Caesarea, Israel), or Doppler measures of hyperemia], inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), or the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in isolated lymphocytes were observed" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "Of the 75 relevant studies located, we considered 38 studies to be appropriate for review. Results revealed support for intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fish oils (Cohen's d = 0.21-0.81) and soy isoflavones (Cohen's d = 0.35-0.39) in the treatment of arterial stiffness. There was limited but consistent evidence to suggest that salt restriction (Cohen's d = 0.28-0.37) as well as consumption of fermented-milk products (Cohen's d = 0.15-0.33) that contain bioactive peptides improved arterial stiffness. The evidentiary support for intakes of vitamins, micronutrients, and herbal medicines was insufficient. Limited but consistent evidence suggested that caffeine intake acutely increased arterial stiffness (Cohen's d = 0.34-0.51) ... Current evidence from several small studies suggests that omega-3 and soy isoflavone supplementation provides an effective means of reducing arterial stiffness" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study - Clin Interv Aging. 2010 Nov 2;5:313-6 - "PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition" - See phosphatidylserine at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption and myocardial infarction: a second prospective biomarker study from northern Sweden - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov 3 - "fish also contains methylmercury, which may increase the risk of MI ... mercury (Ery-Hg) ... selenium (Ery-Se) ... (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) in plasma phospholipids (P-EPA+DHA) ... sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) ... Odds ratios for the third compared with the first tertile were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91) for Ery-Hg, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.06) for Ery-Se, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.11) for P-EPA+DHA. Ery-Hg and P-EPA+DHA were intercorrelated (Spearman's R = 0.34). No association was seen for reported fish consumption ... High concentrations of Ery-Se were associated with an increased risk of SCD" - Note:  See my Toxins in Fish/Fish oil page.  Mercury has not been a problem in brand name supplements.
  • Pilot, Prospective, Randomized, Double-masked, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of an Omega-3 Supplement for Dry Eye - Cornea. 2010 Oct 28 - "Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in dry eye showed no significant effect in meibum lipid composition or aqueous tear evaporation rate. On the other hand, the average tear production and tear volume was increased in the omega-3 group as indicated by both Schirmer testing and fluorophotometry"
  • n-3 Fatty Acids and Periodontitis in US Adults - J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Nov;110(11):1669-75 - "Compared with the lowest tertiles, the adjusted odds ratios for periodontitis associated with the highest tertiles of dietary n-3 intake were 0.78 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.00; P=0.009) for DHA, 0.85 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.08; P=0.10) for EPA, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.23; P=0.28) for LNA"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder associated with the menopausal transition: a preliminary open trial - Menopause. 2010 Oct 27 - "The pretreatment and final mean MADRS scores were 24.2 and 10.7, respectively, reflecting a significant decrease in MADRS scores (P < 0.0001). The response rate was 70% (MADRS score decrease of ≥50%), and the remission rate was 45% (final MADRS score of ≤7). Responders had significantly lower pretreatment docosahexaenoic acid levels than nonresponders did (P = 0.03). Hot flashes were present in 15 (75%) participants. Among those with hot flashes at baseline, the number of hot flashes per day improved significantly from baseline (P = 0.02) and Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale scores decreased significantly ... These data support further study of omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder and hot flashes in women during the menopausal transition" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct 27 - "From the lowest to highest quintiles of marine omega-3 intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for T2D were 1.0 (referent), 1.17 (1.03, 1.33), 1.20 (1.05, 1.38), 1.46 (1.28, 1.66), and 1.44 (1.25, 1.65), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). A similar association was observed with fish intake, but additional adjustment for docosahexaenoic acid led to the elimination of the association ... Our data suggest an increased risk of T2D with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, especially with higher intakes (≥0.20 g omega-3/d or ≥2 servings of fish/d)"
  • Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Chinese women: A prospective cohort study - Int J Cancer. 2010 Sep 28 - "We found no association of breast cancer risk to dietary intake of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, or marine-derived n-3 PUFA. We found a statistically significant interaction between n-6 PUFA intake, marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake and breast cancer risk (p = 0.008). Women with lower intake (the lowest tertile) of marine-derived n-3 PUFA and higher intake (the highest tertile) of n-6 PUFA had an increase risk for breast cancer (RR=2.06; 95% CI=1.27-3.34) compared to women with higher intake (the highest tertile) of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs and lower intake (the lowest tertile) of n-6 PUFAs after adjusting for potential confounders. The relative amounts of n-6 PUFA to marine-derived n-3 PUFAs may be more important for breast cancer risk than individual dietary amounts of these fatty acids"
  • Prospective randomized comparison between omega-3 fatty acid supplements plus simvastatin versus simvastatin alone in Korean patients with mixed dyslipidemia: lipoprotein profiles and heart rate variability - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 29 - "After 6 weeks of drug treatment, triglyceride levels decreased by 41.0% in the combination treatment group and 13.9% in the simvastatin monotherapy group (from 309.2+/-95��mg per 100 ml to 177.7+/-66 versus 294.6+/-78 mg per 100 ml to 238.3+/-84��mg per 100 ml, respectively"
  • Intake of marine n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and risk for epilepsy in the offspring: A population-based cohort study - Epilepsy Res. 2010 Aug 24 - "Children born to mothers in the lowest (IRR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.67) and highest (IRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.74) quintile of n-3 LCPUFA intake had an increased risk of epilepsy after adjustment for potential confounders compared to children born to mothers with an average intake ... Maternal deficiency of n-3 LCPUFA and a high intake of n-3 LCPUFA perhaps related to a high consumption of contaminated fish may be associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in early childhood" - Note: See my Toxins in fish oil/fish page. Contamination with the higher end omega-3 supplements has not been a problem.
  • Fish and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study - Pediatrics. 2010 Aug 16 - "The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.97]; P for trend = .04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54-0.94]; P = .04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59-1.05]; P = .11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55-0.96]; P = .08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids early supplementation improves ultrasound indices of endothelial function, but not through NO inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction N-3 PUFA supplementation in acute myocardial infarction - Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "the study group (group P; n = 20; standard therapy + n-3 PUFA 1g daily) or the control group (group C; n = 20; standard therapy) ... There was a significant difference between both groups in mean delta (baseline/after one month) FMD (P: 8.1 +/- 12.6% vs C: -2.2 +/- 11.8%; p = 0.02) with no difference in mean delta NMD (P: 3.3 +/- 11.9% vs 0.66 +/- 14.3%; p = 0.53). We found also a significant increase in mean FMD (7.4 +/- 6.4 to 15.5 +/- 10.5%; p = 0.02) with a nonsignificant change in mean NMD values (26.9 +/- 12.1 to 30.2 +/- 14.0%; p = 0.24) after 1-month therapy with n-3 PUFA. FMD and NMD mean values did not change in control patients (FMD: 11.6 +/- 6.1% to 9.4 +/- 8.0%; p = 0.5 NMD: 25.1 +/- 11.4% to 25.8 +/- 14.0%; p = 0.84). The comparison of mean delta ADMA values for both groups revealed no differences (P: 6.2 +/- 9.7 mumol/l vs C: 3.6 +/- 9.5 mumol/l; p = 0.43). Mean serum ADMA concentrations were significantly increased after 1-month therapy in the group P (P: 2.1 +/- 1.8 to 8.3 +/- 9.7 mumol/l; p = 0.001; C: 4.5 +/- 7.1 to 8.1 +/- 9.5 mumol/l; p = 0.09). However, there was a nonsignificant difference in mean baseline serum ADMA levels between both groups (P: 2.1 +/- 1.8 mumol/l vs C: 4.5 +/- 7.1 mumol/l; p = 0.32). There were no significant correlations between FMD, NMD, ADMA levels and demographic, clinical or biochemical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Early and short-term n-3 PUFA supplementation improved ultrasound indices of endothelial function without affecting serum ADMA levels in patients with AMI and successful primary PCI"
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Confers Long-Term Neuroprotection Against Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Through Anti-Inflammatory Actions - Stroke. 2010 Aug 12 - "neonatal hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) ... : Female rats were treated with or without an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy until 14 days after parturition ... Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation significantly reduced brain damage and improved long-term neurological outcomes up to 5 weeks after neonatal H/I injury. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in microglia both in an in vivo model of H/I and in in vitro microglial cultures subjected to inflammatory stimuli by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids confer potent neuroprotection against neonatal H/I brain injury through, at least partially, suppressing a microglial-mediated inflammatory response"
  • Adherence to an (n-3) Fatty Acid/Fish Intake Pattern Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among Puerto Rican Adults in the Greater Boston Area - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "The (n-3) fatty acid/fish factor was associated with a lower likelihood of metabolic syndrome (Q5 vs. Q1: odds ratio: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.86)"
  • Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study in Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "The prevalence of NAFLD was 45.3% in men and 17.5% in women. In comparison with the first tertile, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were 0.59 (0.31-1.14) and 0.45 (0.23-0.90), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.024), and the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking EPA+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.44 (0.23-0.86) and 0.48 (0.24-0.95), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.035). However, there was no significant relation between NAFLD and each of these nutrients in women.Conclusions:Dietary EPA and EPA+DHA may be independent and preventive nutrients for NAFLD in Japanese men"
  • Intake of Fish and n-3 Fatty Acids and Future Risk of Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jul;110(7):1018-1026 - "After controlling for potential cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate OR for metabolic syndrome was 0.43 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) for men who ate fish daily when compared with those eating fish less than once a week. Similarly, metabolic syndrome risk was halved for men in the top decile of n-3 fatty acid intake when compared with those in the bottom decile (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.99). In particular, fish intake was significantly associated with triglyceride level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among the metabolic syndrome components. For women, apparent associations were not observed between fish intake or n-3 fatty acid intake and metabolic syndrome risk. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study, high consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome among men, but not among women. Whether or not encouraging fish intake can help prevent the development of metabolic syndrome warrants further studies"
  • Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms and on Health-Related Quality of Life in the Treatment of Elderly Women with Depression: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):55-64 - "Supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA is efficacious in the amelioration of depressive symptoms and quality of life in the treatment of depressed elderly female patients"
  • Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun 9 - "There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had >/=2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had <1 serving of fish/wk had a significantly reduced risk (42%) of developing presbycusis at follow-up (multivariate-adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.95). There was an association between consumption of >/=1 to <2 servings/wk of fish and a reduced risk of a progression of hearing loss (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: There was an inverse association between higher intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and regular weekly consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss" - [Nutra USA]
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Kidney Disease - Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 May 19 - "guidelines suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids should be considered in progressive IgA nephropathy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease blood pressure, a known accelerant of kidney disease progression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • EPA supplementation improves teacher rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD - Acta Paediatr. 2010 May 19 - "Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15 weeks EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of a 1-year dietary intervention with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched olive oil on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a preliminary study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May 13 - "Consumption of olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA demonstrated a significant improvement of liver echo-texture and of the Doppler Perfusion Index after 12 months (after: 0.19 +/- 0.02 vs. pre: 0.15 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were seen at the end of follow-up in controls. Moreover, patients who consumed the olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA showed a significant amelioration of liver enzymes, and of triglycerides (post: 132.8 +/- 63.7 vs. pre: 164.5 +/- 85.5 mg/dl; P = 0.04) in a general linear model adjusted for age and gender. Interestingly, patients reported to have a significant increase of adiponectin levels (post: 1,487.9 +/- 96.7 vs. pre: 1,143 +/- 24.8 mug/ml; P = 0.04)"
  • EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Oct;28(5):525-42 - "Meta-regression studies showed a significant effect of higher levels of baseline depression and lower supplement DHAEPA ratio on therapeutic efficacy. Subgroup analyses showed significant effects for: (1) diagnostic category (bipolar disorder and major depression showing significant improvement with omega3 LC-PUFA supplementation versus mild-to-moderate depression, chronic fatigue and non-clinical populations not showing significant improvement); (2) therapeutic as opposed to preventive intervention; (3) adjunctive treatment as opposed to monotherapy; and (4) supplement type. Symptoms of depression were not significantly reduced in 3 studies using pure DHA (standardized mean difference 0.001, 95% CI -0.330 to 0.332, z = 0.004, p = 0.997) or in 4 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% DHA (standardized mean difference = 0.141, 95% CI = -0.195 to 0.477, z = 0.821, p = 0.417). In contrast, symptoms of depression were significantly reduced in 13 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.446, 95% CI = -0.753 to -0.138, z = -2.843, p = 0.005) and in 8 studies using pure ethyl-EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.396, 95% CI = -0.650 to -0.141, z = -3.051, p = 0.002). However, further meta-regression studies showed significant inverse associations between efficacy and study methodological quality, study sample size, and duration, thus limiting the confidence of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and diabetic nephropathy - cohort analysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) - Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar 31 - "In a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, we observed a lower mean UAER [difference 22.7 mg/24 hr (95% CI 1.6, 43.8)] in the top vs. bottom third of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs, but found no association with incident albuminuria ... Dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs appear inversely associated with the degree, but not with the incidence of albuminuria in type 1 diabetes"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces rectal polyp number and size in familial adenomatous polyposis - Gut. 2010 Mar 26 - "Treatment with EPA-FFA for 6 months was associated with a mean 22.4% (95% CI 5.1% to 39.6%) reduction in polyp number (p=0.012) and a 29.8% (3.6% to 56.1%) decrease in the sum of polyp diameters (p=0.027). Global polyp burden worsened over 6 months in the placebo group (-0.34) unlike the EPA-FFA group (+0.09, difference 0.42 (0.10-0.75), p=0.011) ... EPA-FFA has chemopreventative efficacy in FAP, to a degree similar to that previously observed with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. EPA holds promise as a colorectal cancer chemoprevention agent with a favourable safety profile" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Marine (n-3) Fatty Acids, Fish Consumption, and the 10-Year Risk of Fatal and Nonfatal Coronary Heart Disease in a Large Population of Dutch Adults with a Low Fish Intake - J Nutr. 2010 Mar 24 - "Compared with the lowest quartile of EPA+DHA, participants in the top quartile had a 49% lower risk of fatal CHD (95% CI: 6-73%) and a 62% lower risk of fatal MI (95% CI: 23-81%). We observed inverse dose-response relations for EPA+DHA intake and fatal CHD (P-trend = 0.05) and fatal MI (P-trend = 0.01)"
  • The effects of omega-3 supplementation on pulmonary function of young wrestlers during intensive training - J Sci Med Sport. 2010 Mar;13(2):281-286 - "consuming omega-3 during 12 weeks training had a significantly positive effect on pulmonary variables such as FEV1, FVC, VC, MVV, FEF25-75, FIV1 (p=0.001), but no significant changes were observed in FEV1% (p=0.141) and FIV1% (p=0.117). The results of the present study suggest that consuming omega-3 during intensive wrestling training can improve pulmonary function of athletes during and in post-exercise" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of very high intakes of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with biomarkers of chronic disease risk among Yup'ik Eskimos - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Means (5th-95th percentiles) for RBC EPA and DHA were 2.8% (0.5-5.9%) and 6.8% (3.3-9.0%), respectively. Associations of EPA and DHA were inverse and linear for triglycerides (beta +/- SE = -0.10 +/- 0.01 and -0.05 +/- 0.01, respectively) and positive and linear for HDL cholesterol (beta +/- SE = 2.0 +/- 0.5 and 0.9 +/- 0.6, respectively) and apolipoprotein A-I (beta +/- SE = 2.6 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 0.8, respectively). Positive linear associations of DHA with LDL and total cholesterol (beta +/- SE = 7.5 +/- 1.4 and 6.80 +/- 1.57, respectively) were observed; for EPA, these associations were nonlinear and restricted to concentrations approximately <5% of total fatty acids. Associations of EPA and DHA with C-reactive protein were inverse and nonlinear: for EPA, the association appeared stronger at concentrations approximately >3% of total fatty acids; for DHA, it was observed only at concentrations approximately >7% of total fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing EPA and DHA intakes to amounts well above those consumed by the general US population may have strong beneficial effects on chronic disease risk"
  • Successful Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with a Formula Diet Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Medium-Chain Triglycerides - Ann Nutr Metab. 2010 Feb 12;56(3):170-175 - "Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears to be a fast but expensive method to reduce triglyceride levels. In this study we describe the use of a new omega-3 fatty acid and medium-chain triglyceride-rich formula diet as a therapeutic concept to reduce plasma triglyceride levels fast and effectively ... Thirty-two patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia were treated with the especially composed formula diet for a period of 7 days. Results: Within this period of time, plasma triglycerides decreased from 1,601 (402-4,555) to 554 (142-2,382) mg/dl (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol levels were reduced from 417 (211-841) to 287 (165-457) mg/dl (p < 0.001). Fasting glucose and uric acid levels also slightly decreased (-8%; -12%). The formula diet as a 1-week treatment was well tolerated and accepted by the patients"
  • Fish-oil supplement has neutral effects on vascular and metabolic function but improves renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus - Diabet Med. 2010 Jan;27(1):54-60 - "serum creatinine was lower (-4.5 mumol/l, P = 0.01) in fish-oil-treated patients as compared with control subjects"
  • Long-Chain {omega}-3 Fatty Acids for Indicated Prevention of Psychotic Disorders: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;67(2):146-54 - "The difference between the groups in the cumulative risk of progression to full-threshold psychosis was 22.6% ... Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs reduce the risk of progression to psychotic disorder and may offer a safe and efficacious strategy for indicated prevention in young people with subthreshold psychotic states" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at iHerb.
  • Association of marine omega-3 fatty acid levels with telomeric aging in patients with coronary heart disease - JAMA. 2010 Jan 20;303(3):250-7 - "Individuals in the lowest quartile of DHA+EPA experienced the fastest rate of telomere shortening (0.13 telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio [T/S] units over 5 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.17), whereas those in the highest quartile experienced the slowest rate of telomere shortening (0.05 T/S units over 5 years; 95% CI, 0.02-0.08; P < .001 for linear trend across quartiles). Levels of DHA+EPA were associated with less telomere shortening before (unadjusted beta coefficient x 10(-3) = 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.10) and after (adjusted beta coefficient x 10(-3) = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.08) sequential adjustment for established risk factors and potential confounders. Each 1-SD increase in DHA+EPA levels was associated with a 32% reduction in the odds of telomere shortening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98)"
  • Reductions of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression are correlated with memory impairment induced by interleukin-1beta administrations: effects of omega-3 fatty acid EPA treatment - J Neurochem. 2009 Dec 3 - "E-EPA treatment significantly improved the memory, which was correlated with normalizing ACh release, and expressions of NGF and IL-1beta"
  • Review article: omega-3 fatty acids - a promising novel therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec 30 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 10-35% of the adult population worldwide; there is no consensus on its treatment ... Omega-3 fatty acids are important regulators of hepatic gene transcription. Animal studies demonstrate they reduce hepatic steatosis, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce markers of inflammation. Clinical trials in human subjects generally confirm these findings but have significant design inadequacies. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids are a promising treatment for NAFLD which require to be tested in randomised placebo controlled trials" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA reduces weight gain and improves postprandial lipaemia and the associated inflammatory response in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Nov 16 - "n-3 PUFA treatment resulted in a significant improvement (i.e. decrease) in the postprandial response for triglyceride (45%) (p < 0.05), apoB48 (45%) (p < 0.03) and LBP (33%) (p < 0.05) compared to controls (measured as area under the clearance curve). In contrast, we observed a significant elevation in postprandial haptoglobin (165%) (p < 0.001) in obese rats supplemented with 10% n-3 PUFA. Treatment with 5% n-3 PUFA in the JCR:LA-cp obese animals resulted in a complementary decrease in total body weight gain (6%) (p < 0.001) and an increase (i.e. improvement) in adiponectin (33%) (p < 0.05) compared to controls, without a concomitant reduction in food intake"
  • Fish Oil Supplementation Inhibits NNK-Induced Lung Carcinogenesis in the A/J Mouse - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):663-9 - "fish oil supplementation was able to decrease lung tumor prevalence by 78% and 80% compared to groups receiving soybean oil and corn oil supplementation, respectively"
  • Dietary intake of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary syndrome - a cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct 14:1-6 - "Men in the four highest quintiles of n-3 PUFA intake (>0.39 g n-3 PUFA per d) had a lower incidence of ACS compared with men in the lowest quintile. The hazard ratio was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.67, 1.03) when we compared men in the second lowest and lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake"
  • {omega}-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and 12-y incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and central geographic atrophy: a prospective cohort study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct 7 - "Participants who reported the highest omega-3 LCPUFA intake (median: 0.11% of total energy intake) were 30% less likely than their peers to develop CGA and NV AMD. The respective odds ratios were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P </= 0.02) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.94; P </= 0.02)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis - Adv Ther. 2009 Sep 4 - "The aim was to see if a combination of glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/day) and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (group A), showed equivalence (noninferiority) or superiority as opposed to glucosamine sulfate alone (group B) ... OA symptoms (morning stiffness, pain in hips and knees) were reduced at the end of the study: by 48.5%-55.6% in group A and by 41.7%-55.3% in group B" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and glucosamine products at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of [omega]3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 on blood pressure and heart rate in chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial - J Hypertens. 2009 Sep;27(9):1863-72 - "patients were randomized to either omega3FA (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g), daily for 8 weeks ... omega3FA, but not CoQ, reduced 24-h ambulatory heart rate (P<0.0001) and blood pressure ... omega3FA reduced triglycerides 24%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A prospective study of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese women - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Aug;18(8):2283-91 - "The dietary total n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with women in the lowest quintile group, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for the second [RR, 1.52; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.00-2.32], third (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.41-3.45), fourth (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.99-2.75), and fifth (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54) quintile groups. Arachidonic acid was associated with colorectal cancer risk with elevated RRs of 1.20(Q2-Q1) (95% CI, 0.87-1.64), 1.44(Q3-Q1) (95% CI, 1.05-1.98), 1.61(Q4-Q1) (95% CI, 1.17-2.23), and 1.39(Q5-Q1) (95% CI, 0.97-1.99; P(trend) = 0.03) with increasing dietary quintile"
  • Higher sea fish intake is associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women - Osteoporos Int. 2009 Aug 6 - "After adjusting for the potential confounders, we observed dose-dependent relations between sea fish intake and BMDs, BMCs, and osteoporosis risk; the mean BMDs were 3.2-6.8% higher, and BMCs 5.1-9.4% higher in the top quintile groups (Q5) of sea fish intake than in the bottom quintile (Q1) at the whole body and hip sites (p < 0.05); the odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) for osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5) in Q5 were 0.23 (0.08-0.66), 0.12 (0.03-0.59), and 0.06 (0.01-0.44) compared with those in Q1 at the whole body, total hip, and femur neck, respectively. No independent association between consumption of freshwater fish or shellfish and bone mass was observed ... Higher intake of sea fish is independently associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk among postmenopausal Chinese women"
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Aug 11;54(7):585-94 - "The most compelling evidence for CV benefits of omega-3 PUFA comes from 4 controlled trials of nearly 40,000 participants randomized to receive eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with or without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in studies of patients in primary prevention, after myocardial infarction, and most recently, with heart failure (HF) ... The target EPA + DHA consumption should be at least 500 mg/day for individuals without underlying overt CV disease and at least 800 to 1,000 mg/day for individuals with known coronary heart disease and HF"
  • A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Reduces Retinal Lesions in a Murine Model of Macular Degeneration - Am J Pathol. 2009 Jul 16 - "Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that ingested a high n-3 fatty acid diet showed a slower progression of retinal lesions compared with the low n-3 fatty acids group. Some mice that were given high levels of n-3 fatty acids had lesion reversion" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: a randomised controlled trial employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jul 21 - "Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a beneficial effect on liver fat content and other cardiovascular risk factors in women with PCOS, including those with hepatic steatosis"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity - Acta Cardiol. 2009 Jun;64(3):321-7 - "were given 1 gram of fish oil as a single capsule, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid daily for 6 months. Control subjects did not receive any supplementation over the same period. RESULTS: The study was completed by 47 subjects in the intervention group and 42 subjects in the control group. Treatment with omega 3 supplements was associated with a significant fall in body weight (P < 0.05), systolic blood pressures (P < 0.05), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05), and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglycerides (P < 0.05), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P < 0.01), and Hsp27 antibody titres (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: It appears that omega 3 improves the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, having effects on weight, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and markers of inflammation and autoimmunity"
  • Dietary fish and meat intake and dementia in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "We found a dose-dependent inverse association between fish consumption and dementia (PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31)
  • Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsions Prevent and Reverse Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: The Boston Experience - JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jul 1 - "Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is the most prevalent and most severe complication of long-term parenteral nutrition. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, largely remains to be elucidated. The currently approved parenteral lipid emulsions in the United States contain safflower or soybean oils, both rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Mounting evidence indicates that the omega-6 PUFAs originating from plant oils in these lipid emulsions may play a role in the onset of liver injury. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, are primarily composed of omega-3 PUFAs, thus providing a promising alternative. The authors review the literature on the role of lipid emulsions in the onset of PNALD and discuss prevention and treatment strategies using a fish oil- based lipid emulsion. They conclude that a fish oil-based emulsion is hepatoprotective in a murine model of PNALD, and it appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of this type of liver disease in children" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil and Heart Health - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 26 - "Large controlled trials have shown that intake of fish oil (marine n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid), whether from dietary sources or fish oil supplements, may exhibit beneficial effects on total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Stabilization of cell membranes and suppression of cardiac arrhythmias have been identified as possible mechanisms. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects, reduce blood pressure, and may also be antiatherogenic. Finally, high doses of n-3 fatty acids can lower elevated serum triglyceride levels. The n-3 index (erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid) may be considered as a potential risk marker for coronary heart disease mortality, especially sudden cardiac death. The balance of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids is an important determinant in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease, both in the primary and in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Patients with known coronary heart disease should be recommended to consume n-3 fatty acid supplements at 1 g per day, without raising concerns for interactions with other medications or side effects. On the other hand, fish in the diet (preferably oily fish, 1-2 meals/week) should be considered as part of a healthy diet low in saturated fat"
  • Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case-control study - BMC Cancer. 2009 Jun 30;9(1):216 - "Using a multivariate logistic regression model, high intake of fatty fish was associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women (OR [95% CI] for highest vs. lowest intake quartiles, p for trend: 0.19 [0.08 to 0.45], p < 0.001 for premenopausal women, 0.27 [0.11 to 0.66], p = 0.005 for postmenopausal women). Similarly, reductions in breast cancer risk were observed among postmenopausal subjects who consumed more than 0.101 g of EPA (OR [95% CI]: 0.38 [0.15 to 0.96]) and 0.213 g of DHA (OR [95% CI]: 0.32 [0.13 to 0.82]) from fish per day compared to the reference group who consumed less than 0.014 g of EPA and 0.037 g of DHA per day. Among premenopausal women, there was a significant reduction in breast cancer risk for the highest intake quartiles of omega-3 fatty acids (ORs [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.22 to 0.96]), compared to the reference group who consumed the lowest quartile of intake" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the age-related eye disease study supplements? - Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jun 12 - "Independent of AREDS supplementation, higher intakes of DHA (>/= 64.0 vs. < 26.0 mg/d) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57, 0.94), EPA (>/= 42.3 vs. < 12.7 mg/d) (HR = 0.74, 95% CI, 0.59, 0.94), and lower dGI (dGI, < 75.2 vs. >/= 81.5) (HR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.60, 0.96) were associated with lower risk for progression to advanced AMD. Participants consuming lower dGI and higher DHA or EPA had the lowest risk (P for synergistic interaction < 0.001) ... Our findings show an association of consuming a diet rich in DHA with lower progression of early AMD" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 10 - "A high EPA+DHA intake changed the expression of 1040 genes, whereas HOSF intake changed the expression of only 298 genes. EPA+DHA intake resulted in a decreased expression of genes involved in inflammatory- and atherogenic-related pathways, such as nuclear transcription factor kappaB signaling, eicosanoid synthesis, scavenger receptor activity, adipogenesis, and hypoxia signaling. CONCLUSION: These results are the first to show that intake of EPA+DHA for 26 wk can alter the gene expression profiles of PBMCs to a more antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic status"
  • Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity - Br J Nutr. 2009 May 19:1-5 - "Plasma fatty acid composition was determined by GC. BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference were inversely correlated with n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA (P < 0.05 for all) in the obese group. Obese individuals had significantly lower plasma concentrations of total n-3 PUFA, compared with healthy-weight individuals (4.53 (sd 1.11) v. 5.25 (sd 1.43) %)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Suppressive effect of EPA on the incidence of coronary events in hypercholesterolemia with impaired glucose metabolism: Sub-analysis of the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr 5 - "investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on coronary artery disease (CAD) ... impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and normoglycemic (NG) patients ... Compared to NG patients, IGM patients had a significantly higher CAD hazard ratio (1.71 in the non-EPA group and 1.63 in the EPA group). The treatment with EPA resulted in a 22% decrease in the CAD incidence (P=0.048) in IGM patients and an 18% decrease (P=0.062) in NG patients" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fatty acids and the 10-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study - Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 May;127(5):656-65 - "1 serving of fish per week was associated with reduced risk of incident early AMD (relative risk, 0.69 [95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.98]), primarily among participants with less than the median linoleic acid consumption (0.57 [0.36-0.89]). Findings were similar for intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One to 2 servings of nuts per week was associated with reduced risk of incident early AMD (relative risk, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.91])"
  • Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration - Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 May;127(5):674-80 - "Higher trans-unsaturated fat intake was associated with an increased prevalence of late AMD; the odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of trans fat was 1.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-3.37; P = .02). Higher omega-3 fatty acid intake (highest quartile vs lowest quartile) was inversely associated with early AMD (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.02; P = .03). Olive oil intake (> or =100 mL/week vs <1 mL/week) was associated with decreased prevalence of late AMD (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.04; P = .03). No significant associations with AMD were observed for intakes of fish, total fat, butter, or margarine" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish with biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]) - Am J Cardiol. 2009 May 1;103(9):1238-43 - "Long-chain n-3 PUFA intake was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (p = 0.01) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (p = 0.03) independent of age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary variables. Nonfried fish consumption was inversely related to C-reactive protein (p = 0.045) and interleukin-6 (p <0.01) ... the results of this study suggest that the dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and fish is inversely associated with concentrations of some biomarkers, reflecting lower levels of inflammation and endothelial activation. These results may partially explain the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on urine protein excretion and kidney function: meta-analysis of clinical trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 29 - "The dose of n-3 LCPUFAs ranged from 0.7 to 5.1 g/d, and the median follow-up was 9 mo. In the pooled analysis, there was a greater reduction in UPE in the n-3 LCPUFA group than in the control group: Cohen's d for all trials was -0.19 (95% CI: -0.34, -0.04; P = 0.01). In a patient with 1 g UPE/d , this corresponds to a reduction of 190 mg/d. Effects on GFR were reported in 12 trials. The decline in GFR was slower in the n-3 LCPUFA group than in the control group, but this effect was not significant (0.11; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.29; P = 0.24)"
  • Marine n-3 fatty acids promote size reduction of visceral adipose depots, without altering body weight and composition, in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet - Br J Nutr. 2009 Apr 28:1-12 - "Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Rats were fed diets including lard (19.5 % lard) or n-3 FA (9.1 % lard and 10.4 % Triomar) for 7 weeks. Feed consumption and weight gain were similar, whereas plasma lipid concentrations were lower in the n-3 FA group. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed smaller visceral (mesenteric, perirenal and epididymal) adipose depots in the n-3 FA-fed animals (35, 44 and 32 % reductions, respectively). n-3 FA feeding increased mRNA expression of cytokines as well as chemokines in several adipose depots. Expression of Adipoq and Pparg was enhanced in the mesenteric adipose depots of the n-3 FA-fed rats, and fasting plasma insulin levels were lowered. Expression of the lipogenic enzymes Acaca and Fasn was increased in the visceral adipose depots, whereas Dgat1 was reduced in the perirenal and epididymal depots. Cpt2 mRNA expression was almost doubled in the mesenteric depot and liver. Carcass analyses showed similar body fat (%) in the two feeding groups, indicating that n-3 FA feeding led to redistribution of fat away from the visceral compartment" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • An inverse relationship between plasma n-3 fatty acids and C-reactive protein in healthy individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 8 - "The highest hs-CRP tertile (>3.0 mg/l) had significantly lower concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DPA, when compared with the other tertiles (P<0.05). This study provides evidence that in healthy individuals, plasma n-3 fatty acid concentration is inversely related to hs-CRP concentration, a surrogate marker of CVD risk"
  • An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 - "Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):138-46 - "n-3 PUFA supplementation has clinical significance in the prevention and reversal of insulin resistance"
  • Protective Effect of Fish Consumption on Colorectal Cancer Risk. Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Eastern Europe - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Jan 26;53(3-4):295-302 - "The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86)"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels and invasiveness in prostate cancer cells - Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jan 16 - "Treatment with EPA inhibited I(Na) directly and also indirectly, by down-regulation of Na(v) mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells, thus inhibiting their metastatic potential" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec 30 - "Psychological distress (PD) ... To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1618-1625 - "Compared with fish consumption of <1 serving/mo, consumption of 1 serving/wk and of 2-4 servings/wk was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease of approximately 15%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial - Menopause. 2008 Nov 20 - "At baseline, the average number of HFs was 2.8 per day. After 8 weeks, HF frequency and score decreased significantly in the E-EPA group compared with the placebo group. There was no difference in the change in HF intensity between groups. Frequency of HFs declined by a mean of 1.58 per day (95% CI, -2.18 to -0.98) in the E-EPA group and by 0.50 per day (95% CI, -1.20 to 0.20) in the placebo group. The odds of being a responder among those taking E-EPA were about three times greater than among those taking placebo (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.03-7.03; P = 0.04). Menopause-Specific Quality of Life scores improved significantly over time in both groups but no significant differences were noted between them"
  • A 22-y prospective study of fish intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1297-303 - "Survival analysis among the men diagnosed with prostate cancer revealed that those consuming fish >or=5 times/wk had a 48% lower risk of prostate cancer death than did men consuming fish less than once weekly [relative risk (RR) = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.91; P for trend = 0.05]. A similar association was found between seafood n-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer mortality (RR(Q5 versus Q1) = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99; P for trend = 0.02). These associations became stronger when the analyses were restricted to clinically detected cases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 as well as caloric restriction prevent the age-related modifications of cholesterol metabolism - Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Sep 26 - "both caloric restriction and Omega-3 supplemented diets are able to prevent hypercholesterolemia, by regulating HMG-CoAR activation state by controlling ROS production and p38 phosphorylation. Moreover also the age-dependent loss of LDLr membrane exposition is prevented"
  • Intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish in relation to measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1111-8 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and nonfried (broiled, steamed, baked, or raw) fish were inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT but not by iCIMT, CAC score, or ABI. The multivariate odds ratio comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary exposures in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.86; P for trend < 0.01) for n-3 PUFA intake; 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P = 0.054) for nonfried fish consumption; and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.11; P = 0.38) for fried fish consumption"
  • Increasing dietary fish intake has contributed to decreasing mortality from CHD among the older population in Hong Kong - Public Health Nutr. 2008 Oct 7:1-6 - "The time trend of CHD mortality was inversely related to the trend of fish intake. The frequency of fish intake may have a substantial impact on the population for the prevention of CHD deaths in Hong Kong"
  • Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):789-96 - "Higher maternal fish intake and greater duration of breastfeeding were associated with higher child developmental scores at 18 mo [odds ratio: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.38) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of fish intake, and 1.28 (1.18, 1.38) for breastfeeding for > or =10 mo compared with breastfeeding for < or =1 mo]. Associations were similar for development at 6 mo. ... Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding are independently associated with better early child development. Future research and consumption guidelines, incorporating nutritional benefits as well as contaminant risks, should consider the overall effect of prenatal fish consumption on child development"
  • Dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer - Int J Cancer. 2008 Sep 9 - "Breast cancer risk was not related to any dietary PUFA overall; however, opposite associations were seen according to food sources, suggesting other potential effects than PUFA per se. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake from fruit and vegetables [highest vs. lowest quintile, hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63, 0.88; p trend < 0.0001], and from vegetable oils (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71, 0.97; p trend 0.017). Conversely, breast cancer risk was positively related to ALA intake from nut mixes (p trend 0.004) and processed foods (p trend 0.068), as was total ALA intake among women in the highest quintile of dietary vitamin E (p trend 0.036). A significant interaction was also found between omega-6 and long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, with breast cancer risk inversely related to long-chain omega-3 PUFAs in women belonging to the highest quintile of omega-6 PUFAs (p interaction 0.042). These results emphasize the need to consider food sources, as well as interactions between fatty acids and with antioxidants, when evaluating associations between PUFA intakes and breast cancer risk" - Note:  Alpha-linolenic acid is the vegetable form of omega-3.
  • Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by 29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006) in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish, omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, and Mortality From Cardiovascular Diseases in a Nationwide Community-Based Cohort of Japanese Men and Women The JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 16;52(12):988-996 - "For mortality from total cardiovascular disease, intakes of fish and omega-3 PUFA were associated with 18% to 19% lower risk ... We found an inverse association between fish and omega-3 PUFA dietary intakes and cardiovascular mortality, especially for heart failure, suggesting a protective effect of fish intake on cardiovascular diseases"
  • Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and depressive symptomatology are independent predictors of dementia risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):714-21 - "A high plasma EPA concentration may decrease the risk of dementia, whereas high ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and of AA to DHA may increase the risk of dementia, especially in depressed older persons. The role of EPA in dementia warrants further research" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):398-406 - "neovascular AMD (NV-AMD) ... Eating oily fish at least once per week compared with less than once per week was associated with a halving of the OR for NV-AMD" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of EPA on coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic patients with multiple risk factors: Sub-analysis of primary prevention cases from the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Jun 19 - "Multiple risk factors besides cholesterol are associated with markedly increased incidence of CAD. High TG with low HDL-C represents a particularly potent risk factor. EPA was effective in reducing the incidence of CAD events for patients with this dyslipidemic pattern, suggesting that EPA may be especially beneficial in patients who with abnormal TG and HDL-C levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term fish consumption and n-3 fatty acid intake in relation to (sudden) coronary heart disease death: the Zutphen study - Eur Heart J. 2008 Jul 18 - "long-term fatty-fish consumption lowered the risk of sudden coronary death [HR: 0.46"
  • The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevents the damaging effects of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation - Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Jul 18;7(1):24 - "deleterious effects of TNF-alpha on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA ... EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-alpha on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury"
  • Women's awareness of the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption during pregnancy: knowledge of risks, benefits and information accessibility - Public Health Nutr. 2008 May 29:1-8 - "Pregnant women lack knowledge of LC n-3 PUFA and health-care services do not provide pregnant women with adequate information on the importance of eating foods high in LC n-3 PUFA during pregnancy"
  • Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1170-80 - "Test of Variables of Attention; TOVA ... Total TOVA scores increased in the PL-n-3 (mean +/- SD: 3.35 +/- 1.86) and FO (1.72 +/- 1.67) groups but not in the placebo group (-0.42 +/- 2.51) (PL-n-3 > FO > placebo; P < 0.001). A significant correlation between the alterations in FAs and increased TOVA scores mainly occurred in the PL-n-3 group"
  • A 22-year Prospective Study of Fish, n-3 Fatty Acid Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May;17(5):1136-43 - "Fish intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk [multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) for highest versus lowest category, 0.60 (0.40-0.91); P(trend) = 0.01]. The inverse association was observed for both colon and rectal cancers. Our findings for n-3 fatty acids were similar to those for fish; the multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) of total colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of n-3 fatty acids was 0.74 (0.57-0.95; P(trend) = 0.01) ... Our results from this long-term prospective study suggest that intakes of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish may decrease the risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is inversely associated with severity of depressive symptomatology in the elderly: data from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-City Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1156-62 - "Higher plasma EPA was associated with a lower severity of DS in elderly subjects, especially those taking antidepressants"
  • In vivo and in vitro regulation of syndecan 1 in prostate cells by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 30 - "These findings indicate that syndecan 1 is upregulated by n-3 fatty acids by a transcriptional pathway involving PPARgamma. This mechanism may contribute to the chemopreventive properties of n-3 fatty acids in prostate cancer"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid concentrates in the treatment of moderate hypertriglyceridemia - Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 May;9(7):1237-48 - "Prescription omega-3 fatty acid concentrates (P-OM3) are indicated for use in people with very high triglycerides ... P-OM3 are effective in reducing triglycerides by approximately 30% in this population"
  • Impact of postoperative omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes and immunomodulations in colorectal cancer patients - World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr 21;14(15):2434-2439 - "Patients in the FO group trended to need a shorter postoperative hospital stay (17.45 +/- 4.80 d vs 19.62 +/- 5.59 d, P = 0.19) ... Postoperative supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids may have a favorable effect on the outcomes in colorectal cancer patients undergoing radical resection by lowering the magnitude of inflammatory responses and modulating the immune response" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder During Pregnancy: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 18;:e1-e8 - "As compared to the placebo group, subjects in the omega-3 group had significantly lower HAM-D scores at weeks 6 (p = .001) and 8 (p = .019), a significantly higher response rate (62% vs. 27%, p = .03), and a higher remission rate, although the latter did not reach statistical significance (38% vs. 18%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • New evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of long chain omega-3 Fatty acids - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007 Dec;9(6):434-40 - "The role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 FAs) as cardioprotective agents has become even clearer with the recent publication of the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study. This was the largest randomized controlled trial in the field, and it demonstrated that even in a population with one of the highest LC n-3 FA intakes in the world, the addition of eicosapentaenoic acid could reduce cardiac events" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Mar 24 - "Out of 49 patients 19 (39%) in the cod liver oil group and out of 48 patients 5 (10%) in the placebo group were able to reduce their daily NSAID requirement by >30% ... This study suggests that cod liver oil supplements containing n-3 fatty acids can be used as NSAID-sparing agents in RA patients" - See cod liver oil at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at iHerb
  • Omega-3 fatty acid containing diets decrease plasma triglyceride concentrations in mice by reducing endogenous triglyceride synthesis and enhancing the blood clearance of triglyceride-rich particles - Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar 22 - "Levels of hepatic TG and apoB synthesis were 30-50% and 42% lower in mice fed with the fish oil diet compared to the other three diets. In addition, compared to soy oil diet, fish oil feeding significantly increased blood clearance of chylomicron-like lipid emulsions by 21-26%"
  • Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with CRP levels, especially among male smokers - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Mar 14 - "Sufficient dietary intake of n-3PUFA may attenuate inflammatory reaction and this effect is more evident among high-risk populations such as male smokers although the small numbers of female ex-smokers and nonsmokers limited statistical power to draw strong conclusions about these groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Prescription omega-3 fatty acids and their lipid effects: physiologic mechanisms of action and clinical implications - Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008 Mar;6(3):391-409 - "Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Very high triglyceride (TG) levels (>/=500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]) increase the risk of pancreatitis. One therapeutic option to lower TG levels is omega-3 fatty acids, which are derived from the oil of fish and other seafood. The American Heart Association has acknowledged that fish oils may decrease dysrhythmias, decrease sudden death, decrease the rate of atherosclerosis and slightly lower blood pressure, and has recommended fish consumption or fish oil supplementation as a therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. A prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) preparation has been available in many European nations for at least a decade, and was approved by the US FDA in 2004 to reduce very high TG levels (>/=500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]). Mechanistically, most evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the synthesis and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and increase TG removal from VLDL and chylomicron particles through the upregulation of enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase. Omega-3 fatty acids differ mechanistically from other lipid-altering drugs, which helps to explain why therapies such as P-OM3 have complementary mechanisms of action and, thus, complementary lipid benefits when administered with statins"
  • Effect of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Inducibility of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy - Am J Cardiol. 2008 Mar 15;101(6):758-61 - "Increased consumption of fish and/or fish oil was associated with decreased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreased the inducibility of VT in patients at risk of SCD. These findings suggest that dietary fish oil can have an antiarrhythmic effect"
  • Omega3 Fatty acids for cardioprotection - Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Mar;83(3):324-32 - "The most compelling evidence for the cardiovascular benefit provided by omega-3 fatty acids comes from 3 large controlled trials of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or to act as controls. These trials showed reductions in cardiovascular events of 19% to 45%. These findings suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids, whether from dietary sources or fish oil supplements, should be increased, especially in those with or at risk for coronary artery disease. Patients should consume both DHA and EPA. The target DHA and EPA consumption levels are about 1 g/d for those with known coronary artery disease and at least 500 mg/d for those without disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia benefit from treatment with 3 to 4 g/d of DHA and EPA, a dosage that lowers triglyceride levels by 20% to 50%. Although 2 meals of oily fish per week can provide 400 to 500 mg/d of DHA and EPA, secondary prevention patients and those with hypertriglyceridemia must use fish oil supplements if they are to reach 1 g/d and 3 to 4 g/d of DHA and EPA, respectively" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  I take both because the percentage of omega-3 (EPA and DHA) is very low in other supplements.  I don't know what the rest of that oil is but your not saving anything by getting supplements with a low percentage.  Just do the math plus if the rest of the oil is an omega-6 you're not helping the omega-6/omega-3 ratio.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces one-year risk of atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction - Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 29 - "N-3 PUFA reduced the relative risk of the hospitalization for AF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.51] and was associated with a further and complementary reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.46)"
  • Very Low n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status in Austrian Vegetarians and Vegans - Ann Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb 28;52(1):37-47 - "The vegetarian diet, with an average n-6/n-3 ratio of 10/1, promotes biochemical n-3 tissue decline. To ensure physical, mental and neurological health vegetarians have to reduce the n-6/n-3 ratio with an additional intake of direct sources of EPA and DHA, regardless of age and gender" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil in critical illness - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Mar;11(2):121-7 - "Inclusion of fish oil in nutrition may influence the immune response and clinical outcomes by balancing the negative effects of n-6 fatty acids. Application as a part of enteral immunonutrition in surgical or acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and in lipid emulsions in surgical patients has beneficial effects" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fish and {omega}-3 Fatty Acid Consumption and Heart Rate Variability in US Adults - Circulation. 2008 Feb 19 - "Habitual tuna/other fish and marine omega-3 consumption are associated with specific HRV components in older adults, particularly indices of vagal activity, baroreceptor responses, and sinoatrial node function"
  • Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study - Nutr J. 2008 Feb 14;7(1):8 - "ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales ... These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder - Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;42(3):192-8 - "EPA + fluoxetine combination was significantly better than fluoxetine or EPA alone from the fourth week of treatment. Fluoxetine and EPA appear to be equally effective in controlling depressive symptoms. Response rates (>/=50% decrease in baseline HDRS) were 50%, 56% and 81% in the fluoxetine, EPA and combination groups, respectively" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence - Br J Nutr. 2008 Jan 17;:1-9 - "These results indicate that n-3 LCPUFA may have immuno-stimulating effects"
  • n-3 Fatty acids, hypertension and risk of cognitive decline among older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study - Public Health Nutr. 2008 Jan;11(1):17-29 - "Word Fluency Test (WFT) ... an increase of one standard deviation in dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (% of energy intake) and balancing long-chain n-3/n-6 decreased the risk of 6-year cognitive decline in verbal fluency with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.79 (0.66-0.95) and 0.81 (0.68-0.96), respectively, among hypertensives. An interaction with hypertensive status was found for dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (g day-1) and WFT decline (likelihood ratio test, P = 0.06). This exposure in plasma cholesteryl esters was also protective against WFT decline, particularly among hypertensives (OR = 0.51"
  • Treatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1670-9 - "A moderate dose of n-3 PUFAs for 2 mo reduced adiposity and atherogenic markers without deterioration of insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Some adipose tissue inflammation-related genes were also reduced. These beneficial effects could be linked to morphologic and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue"
  • n-3 Fatty acids, hypertension and risk of cognitive decline among older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Jul 12;:1-13 - "Word Fluency Test (WFT) ... Findings indicated that an increase of one standard deviation in dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (% of energy intake) and balancing long-chain n-3/n-6 decreased the risk of 6-year cognitive decline in verbal fluency with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.79 (0.66-0.95) and 0.81 (0.68-0.96), respectively, among hypertensives. An interaction with hypertensive status was found for dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (g day-1) and WFT decline (likelihood ratio test, P = 0.06). This exposure in plasma cholesteryl esters was also protective against WFT decline, particularly among hypertensives (OR = 0.51"
  • High {omega}-6 and Low {omega}-3 Fatty Acids are Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Neuroticism - Psychosom Med. 2007 Nov 8 - "Lower EPA, and higher AA, AA:EPA ratio and AA:DHA ratio were associated with greater NEO-PI-R Neuroticism" - See Mega Twinlab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1470-8 - "In the elderly, a diet high in fish and fish products is associated with better cognitive performance in a dose-dependent manner"
  • n 3 Fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1479-85 - "In this population, plasma n-3 PUFA proportions were associated with less decline in the speed-related cognitive domains over 3 y"
  • Serum phospholipid n 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and physical and mental health in a population-based survey of New Zealand adolescents and adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1278-85 - "The results from this population-based survey of New Zealanders suggest a strong and consistent association between eicosapentaenoic acid in serum phospholipids and self-reported physical well-being; the association with mental well-being is less compelling"
  • Low Omega-3s in Diet Linked to Higher Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Heart Failure Patients - Doctor's Guide, 11/7/07 - "Heart Failure patients who were prone to depressive symptoms ate 15% fewer omega-3 fatty acids and those with anxiety consumed 14% fewer omega-3 fatty acids than heart failure patients without symptoms"
  • Fish oil attenuates adrenergic overactivity without altering glucose metabolism during an oral glucose load in haemodialysis patients - Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov 1;:1-7 - "Fish oil decreases adrenal activation induced by mental stress and has an insulin sensitizing effect in healthy subjects ... Fish oil supplementation blunted both re-increase in thermogenic response and concomitant increase in plasma epinephrine, but not in plasma norepinephrine, over the last 2 h of the experiment. Fish oil did not alter either whole-body glucose metabolism or substrate oxidation. These data show that in haemodialysis patients, fish oil attenuates adrenal overactivity induced by oral glucose but does not modulate whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity"
  • A randomised placebo-controlled interventional trial of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus - Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Sep 17 - "Low dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in SLE not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may therefore confer cardiovascular benefits"
  • Beyond lipids: the role of omega-3 Fatty acids from fish oil in the prevention of coronary heart disease - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007 Aug;9(2):145-53 - "Results of the recent JELIS trial in a Japanese population already consuming a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids showed a 19% risk reduction in major coronary events"
  • EPA and DHA in blood cell membranes from acute coronary syndrome patients and controls - Atherosclerosis. 2007 Sep 15 - "acute coronary syndromes (ACS) ... Compared with the lowest EPA+DHA group, the odds ratio for an ACS event was 0.58 (95% CI 0.42-0.80), in the intermediate EPA+DHA group and was 0.31 (95% CI 0.14-0.67; p for trend <0.0001) in the highest EPA+DHA group ... Odds for ACS case status increased incrementally as the EPA+DHA content decreased suggesting that low EPA+DHA may be associated with increased risk for ACS"
  • Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription Omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to Simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: An 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Clin Ther. 2007 Jul;29(7):1354-67 - "This study evaluated the effects on non-HDL-C and other variables of adding prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3; Lovaza(TM), formerly Omacor(R) [Reliant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Liberty Corner, New Jersey]) to stable statin therapy in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia ... At the end of treatment, the median percent change in non-HDL-C was significantly greater with P-OM3 plus simvastatin compared with placebo plus simvastatin (-9.0% vs -2.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). P-OM3 plus simvastatin was associated with significant reductions in TG (29.5% vs 6.3%) and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.5% vs 7.2%), a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.4% vs -1.2%), and a significant reduction in the total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio (9.6% vs 0.7%) (all, P < 0.001 vs placebo) ... In these adult, mainly white patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, P-OM3 plus simvastatin and dietary counseling improved non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than simvastatin alone"
  • Fish Consumption, n-3 Fatty Acids, and Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Sep 6 - "
  • Fish oil supplementation improves large arterial elasticity in overweight hypertensive patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 5 - "After 8 weeks follow-up, the large artery elasticity in the fish oil group, compared with its baseline, was significantly improved (C(1): 15.5+/-1.5 vs 12.8+/-3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) x 10), whereas no effects were found in the placebo group (C(1): 13.0+/-3.4 vs 13.4+/-3.8 ml mm Hg(-1) x 10), P=0.027, RM-ANOVA across the two groups"
  • Nutritional intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio increases adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 15 - "Dietary intervention was associated with significant reductions in TNF-alpha (baseline: 2.2 (s.d. 0.3), post-intervention: 1.5 (s.d. 0.3) pg/ml, P=0.01) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (baseline: 2.5 (s.d. 0.2), post-intervention: 2.3 (s.d. 0.1) mmol/l, P=0.03) and increased adiponectin (baseline: 6.5 (s.d. 0.7), post-intervention: 7.6 (s.d. 0.6) mug/ml, P=0.02). Fasting lipid oxidation was increased (baseline: 0.7 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 0.9 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.01), whereas glucose oxidation decreased in both fasting (baseline: 1.6 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 1.3 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.02) and hyperinsulinaemic conditions (baseline: 3.6 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 3.3 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.04). Insulin sensitivity was not affected by the intervention.  Conclusion: A decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio can be achieved with simple dietary counselling, resulting in multiple, potentially favourable effects on the metabolic and inflammatory profiles"
  • Inhibition Of Tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice by a Combination of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Fish Oil - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Aug 16 - "The effect of a combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with fish oil on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice fed a high-fat diet was investigated in the present study. The combined treatment of EGCG and fish oil for 9 weeks reduced the tumor number by 53% as compared to controls while neither agent alone had a significant effect. Apoptosis was significantly increased in all treatment groups"
  • Effect of n-3 fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in haemodialysis patients - Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Aug;12(4):331-6 - "There was a significant increase in EPA (P = 0.01) after treatment, and there was a significant decrease in inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-alpha, P = 0.0001) after supplementation in the tested group ... A dietary regime with fish oil could be used in dialysis patients to slow down the development of atherosclerosis and improve nutritional parameters"
  • Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - Nutr J. 2007 Jul 13;6(1):16 - "Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted dependent on the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA in the isolated plasma phospholipids at four weeks to reach a level normally found in the Japanese population ... A psychiatrist (blind to supplement compliance or dosage modifications) reported significant improvements in behavior (inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional/defiant behavior, and conduct disorder). There was also a significant correlation between the reduction in the AA:EPA ratio and global severity of illness scores"
  • Dietary Fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul 15;166(2):181-95 - "Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated with increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (highest vs. lowest quartile of intake: odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.80; p < 0.0005 for trend) and of eicosapentaenoic (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.75; p < 0.0005 for trend) and docosahexaenoic (odds ratio = 0.63"
  • Role of prescription omega-3 Fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia - Pharmacotherapy. 2007 May;27(5):715-28 - "In patients with triglyceride levels above 500 mg/dl, approximately 4 g/day of EPA and DHA reduces triglyceride levels 45% and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by more than 50%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Herb or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation on the arachidonic Acid:eicosapentaenoic Acid ratio - Pharmacotherapy. 2007 May;27(5):633-8 - "Triglyceride levels were not reduced in patients with CAD but were significantly decreased in healthy subjects (by 20% decrease with omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 g/day and by 32% decrease with 3 g/day)"
  • Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1142-7 - "Fish consumers had significantly (P = 0.01) less 5-y subsequent cognitive decline than did nonconsumers. A linear trend was observed for the relation between the intake of EPA+DHA and cognitive decline (P = 0.01). An average difference of approximately 380 mg/d in EPA+DHA intake was associated with a 1.1-point difference in cognitive decline"
  • Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study - Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 20 - "In this analysis, only 4 factors had a clear statistically significant association with overall incident prostate cancer: African-American race, positive family history, higher tomato sauce intake (inversely) and alpha-linolenic acid intake. In contrast, for fatal prostate cancer, recent smoking history, taller height, higher BMI, family history, and high intakes of total energy, calcium and alpha-linolenic acid were associated with a statistically significant increased risk. Higher vigorous physical activity level was associated with lower risk ... Only for high calcium intake was there a close correspondence for associations among high-grade cancer, advanced and fatal prostate cancer. Tomato sauce (inversely) and alpha-linolenic acid (positively) intakes were strong predictors of advanced cancer among those with low-grade cancers at diagnosis" - Note: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the omega-3 fatty acid found from plant sources such as flaxseed.  Omega-3 from fish sources (EPA and DHA)  has been found to be protective.  See:
  • Plasma n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1103-11 - "Promoting higher intakes of n-3 HUFAs in the diet of hypertensive and dyslipidemic persons may have substantial benefits in reducing their risk of cognitive decline in the area of verbal fluency"
  • Erythrocyte fatty acids and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Shanghai, China - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1090-7 - "Our results support a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on breast cancer risk" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Depressive Symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Inflammation in Older Adults - Psychosom Med. 2007 Mar 30 - "Diets with high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios may enhance the risk for both depression and inflammatory diseases"
  • Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:391-7 - "Experimental studies in animals have shown that diets lacking omega 3 PUFA lead to substantial disturbances in neural function, which in most circumstances can be restored by the inclusion of omega 3 PUFA in the diet ... It is clear from the literature that DHA is involved in a variety of processes in neural cells and that its role is far more complex than simply influencing cell membrane properties"
  • Effect of combination lipid-modifying therapy on the triglyceride lowering effect of fish oil - Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333(3):168-72 - "Fish oil effectively reduces plasma triglyceride levels when administered with concomitant lipid medications"
  • Expert opinion: omega-3 fatty acids and bleeding-cause for concern? - Am J Cardiol. 2007 Mar 19;99(6A):44C-46C - "the benefits of triglyceride lowering with omega-3 fatty acids more than outweigh any theoretical risks for increased bleeding"
  • n-3 Fatty acids are positively associated with peak bone mineral density and bone accrual in healthy men: the NO2 Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):803-7 - "The results showed that n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, are positively associated with bone mineral accrual and, thus, with peak BMD in young men"
  • A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain - Pain. 2007 Feb 28 - "The results suggest that omega-3 PUFAs are an attractive adjunctive treatment for joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and dysmenorrhea"
  • Evaluation of clinical safety and beneficial effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion (Lipoplus, MLF541): Data from a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial - Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan 25 - "from fish oil (Lipoplus) ... there was a significantly shorter length of hospital stay of approximately 21% ... the administration of Lipoplus in the postoperative period after major abdominal surgery is safe and results in a significantly shorter length of hospital stay"
  • Dietary Fatty acids correlate with prostate cancer biopsy grade and volume in jamaican men - J Urol. 2007 Jan;177(1):97-101 - "Omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate and Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit prostate cancer growth"
  • The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides - J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Dec;25(6):480-5 - "randomized to either 1000 mg of DHA or 1252 mg of DHA + EPA for eight weeks ... Triglycerides decreased by an average of 21.8% in the DHA group (p < 0.001) and 18.3% in the DHA + EPA group (p < 0.001). The difference between groups was not significant. A greater proportion of subjects in the DHA group achieved triglyceride goal (less than 150 mg/dL) compared to the DHA + EPA group (24.6% versus 10.2%, p < 0.05)"
  • {omega}-3 Fatty Acid Treatment in 174 Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: OmegAD Study: A Randomized Double-blind Trial - Arch Neurol. 2006 Oct;63(10):1402-8 - "Administration of omega-3 fatty acid in patients with mild to moderate AD did not delay the rate of cognitive decline according to the MMSE or the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale. However, positive effects were observed in a small group of patients with very mild AD (MMSE >27 points)"
  • Long-term Fatty Fish Consumption and Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence in Women - JAMA. 2006 Sep 20;296(11):1371-6 - "Compared with no consumption, the multivariate rate ratio (RR) was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.91) for women eating fatty fish once a week or more. Compared with women consistently reporting no fish consumption, the multivariate RR was 0.26 (95% CI, 0.10-0.67) for those women reporting consistent consumption of fatty fish at baseline"
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reduction of insulin sensitivity and time-dependent alteration from carbohydrate to fat oxidation - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep;84(3):540-50 - "Median intake in the intervention group was 17.6 mL fish oil/d (1.8 g 20:5n-3, 3.0 g 22:6n-3, and 5.9 g total n-3 fatty acids). The control group received 17.8 mL corn oil/d (8.5 g 18:2n-6) ... Glucose concentrations (home-monitored) were approximately 1 mmol/L higher in the fish oil group than in the corn oil group at the end of the intervention"
  • Effect of n-3 fatty acids on carotid atherosclerosis and haemostasis in patients with combined hyperlipoproteinemia: A double-blind pilot study in primary prevention - Ann Med. 2006 Sep;38(5):367-375 - "Results show a favourable effectiveness of n-3 PUFA on IMT progression and T-IMC that deserves to be confirmed in larger studies. Despite the small sample size, the beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on platelet function, triglycerides and HDL-C is clearly highlighted"
  • n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S - "At doses >3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements"
  • n-3 fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1499S-1504S - "Increased intakes or supplements of n-3 marine fatty acids may improve defects in insulin signaling and prevent alterations in glucose homeostasis and the further development of type 2 diabetes"
  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S - "n-3 PUFAs are potentially potent antiinflammatory agents. As such, they may be of therapeutic use in a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory settings. Evidence of their clinical efficacy is reasonably strong in some settings (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis) but is weak in others (e.g., in inflammatory bowel diseases and asthma)"
  • n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1526S-1535S - "The evidence base supports a dietary recommendation of approximately 500 mg/d of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. For treatment of existing cardiovascular disease, 1 g/d is recommended ... A dietary strategy for achieving the 500-mg/d recommendation is to consume 2 fish meals per week (preferably fatty fish). Foods enriched with EPA and DHA or fish oil supplements are a suitable alternate to achieve recommended intakes and may be necessary to achieve intakes of 1 g/d"
  • Dietary Fatty acids and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy - Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):981-6 - "A 40% reduction of incident early ARM was associated with fish consumption at least once a week (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.58 [0.37-0.90]), whereas fish consumption at least 3 times per week could reduce the incidence of late ARM (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.25 [0.06-1.00]). We found no association between incident ARM and butter, margarine, or nut consumption"
  • Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids of marine origin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations are associated in a population with a diet rich in marine products - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):223-9 - "Greater intake of n-3 PUFAs derived from marine products, as measured with a self-administered questionnaire, was independently related to a lower prevalence of high CRP concentrations in this older Japanese population with a diet rich in marine products. Our findings suggest that even very high intakes of n-3 PUFAs may lower serum CRP concentrations"
  • n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not {alpha}-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review  - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):5-17 - "increased consumption of n-3 FAs from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not of alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac and sudden death, and possibly stroke. The evidence for the benefits of fish oil is stronger in secondary- than in primary-prevention settings. Adverse effects appear to be minor"
  • Fish Oils Produce Anti-inflammatory Effects and Improve Body Weight in Severe Heart Failure - J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006 Jul;25(7):834-8. Epub 2006 May 24 - "Fish oils decrease TNF-alpha production in heart failure and improve body weight. Fish oil therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach in late-stage heart failure characterized by cardiac cachexia"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: their beneficial role in cardiovascular health - Can Fam Physician. 2006 Jun;52:734-40 - "There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders - Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;18(2):155-72 - "Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: opportunities for intervention - Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;18(2):107-18 - "Ensuring optimal intakes of omega-3 fatty acids during early development and adulthood shows considerable promise in preventing aggression and hostility"
  • Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study - Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):1098-100 - "Analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of omega-3 on symptoms using the CDRS, CDI, and CGI ... Omega-3 fatty acids may have therapeutic benefits in childhood depression"
  • Prolonged n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr 15;23(8):1143-51 - "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA improves biochemical, ultrasonographic and haemodynamic features of liver steatosis. Our study supports the efficacy of n-3 PUFA as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of NAFLD"
  • omega-3 Fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain - Surg Neurol. 2006 Apr;65(4):326-31 - "were asked to take a total of 1200 mg per day of omega-3 EFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and decosahexaenoic acid) found in fish oil supplements ... Our results mirror other controlled studies that compared ibuprofen and omega-3 EFAs demonstrating equivalent effect in reducing arthritic pain. omega-3 EFA fish oil supplements appear to be a safer alternative to NSAIDs for treatment of nonsurgical neck or back pain in this selective group"
  • The Mediterranean-style diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):118-23 - "Supplementation with very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (about 1 g per day) in patients following a Mediterranean type of diet was shown to decrease the risk of cardiac death by 30% and of sudden cardiac death by 45% in the GISSI trial"
  • Omega 3 fatty acids: biological activity and effects on human health - Panminerva Med. 2005 Dec;47(4):245-257 - "As PUFAs are precursors of prostaglandins and leucotriens, which are involved in phlogosis and immune response, a diet rich in fish oil reduces the production of PGE2 involved in many phlogosis events. Moreover, an increase in the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake leads to a reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1, 2, 6 and tumor necrosis factor); so, it is important to use w-3 in chronic inflammatory diseases, as the rheumatoid arthritis. It seems that w-3 could prevent the onset of hormone-dependent tumours (i.e. breast and prostatic cancer); in vitro observations, in fact, have shown that the PG of the series 2, derived from w-6, have a carcinogenic action; instead, the anticancer effect of w-3 could derive from their effect in antagonizing the formation of such PG; it can be useful, therefore, to increase the dietary w-3/w-6 ratio"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome - Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr 13 - "Fish oil had the most favorable effects on survival, infection rates, and length of stay when administered in doses between 0.1 and 0.2 g.kg.day. Lower antibiotic demand by 26% was observed when doses of 0.15-0.2 g.kg.day were infused as compared with doses of <0.05 g.kg.day ... Administration of omega-3 fatty acid may reduce mortality, antibiotic use, and length of hospital stay in different diseases"
  • Fish oil in the critically ill: from experimental to clinical data - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Mar;9(2):140-8 - "N-3 lipids exhibit strong immunologic properties. They offer the possibility to counterbalance the negative effects of conventional n-6 fatty acids"
  • The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiovascular risk factors in humans - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Mar;9(2):95-104 - "Clinical trials and experimental studies have shown that omega3 fatty acids have many other potentially important antiatherogenic and antithrombotic effects. Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure and heart rate, improve dyslipidaemia, reduce inflammation, and improve vascular and platelet function. These favourable effects have until recently been primarily attributed to the omega3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, which is present in large amounts in fish oil. Controlled studies in humans now demonstrate that docosahexaenoic acid, although often present in lower quantities, has equally important anti-arrhythmic, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherogenic effects"
  • Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources - Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb;65(1):42-50 - "An important question is whether dietary intake of the precursor n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLNA), can provide sufficient amounts of tissue EPA and DHA by conversion through the n-3 PUFA elongation-desaturation pathway ... in adult men conversion to EPA is limited (approximately 8%) and conversion to DHA is extremely low (<0.1%). In women fractional conversion to DHA appears to be greater (9%), which may partly be a result of a lower rate of utilisation of alphaLNA for beta-oxidation in women"
  • Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma - Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):39-49 - "fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.0 g of docohexaenoic acid ... Our data suggest that fish oil supplementation may represent a potentially beneficial nonpharmacologic intervention for asthmatic subjects with EIB"
  • Intake of Fish and n3 Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Japanese. The Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I - Circulation. 2006 Jan 9 - "Compared with a modest fish intake of once a week or approximately 20 g/d, a higher intake was associated with substantially reduced risk of coronary heart disease, primarily nonfatal cardiac events, among middle-aged persons"
  • Do eicosapentaenoic acid supplements attenuate age-related increases in arterial stiffness in patients with dyslipidemia?: A preliminary study - Hypertens Res. 2005 Aug;28(8):651-5 - "this preliminary study suggested that eicosapentaenoic acid supplements attenuate age-related increases in arterial stiffness in patients with dyslipidemia"
  • Usefulness of omega-3 Fatty acids and the prevention of coronary heart disease - Am J Cardiol. 2005 Dec 1;96(11):1521-9 - "the evidence suggests a role for fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) or fish in secondary prevention because recent clinical trial data have demonstrated a significant reduction in total mortality, coronary heart disease death, and sudden death. The data on ALA have been limited by studies of smaller sample size and limited quality"
  • Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Invest. 2005 Nov;35(11):691-9 - "The mood profile was improved after Omega-3 with increased vigour and reduced anger, anxiety and depression states ... Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing"
  • Effect of Very High-fat Diets on Body Weight, Lipoproteins, and Glycemic Status in the Obese - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Nov;7(6):412-20 - "In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients"
  • Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence - Diabet Med. 2005 Nov;22(11):1465-75 - "Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA protects against the development of depression. There is also some evidence that a low intake of omega-3 is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are less conclusive ... consumption of omega-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular complications"
  • Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 82, No. 4, 887-893, October 2005 - "These results suggest that a higher dietary intake of n–3 FAs is associated with a decreased incidence of DES in women"
  • Fish Consumption and Cognitive Decline With Age in a Large Community Study - Arch Neurol. 2005;62 - "Compared with a decline rate in score of –0.100 SU/y among persons who consumed fish less than weekly, the rate was 10% slower (–0.090 SU/y) among persons who consumed 1 fish meal per week and 13% slower (–0.088 SU/y) among persons who consumed 2 or more fish meals per week"
  • Extending the Cardiovascular Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Sep;7(5):375-380 - "The cardiovascular benefits of omega (n)-3 fatty acids (FA) become clearer with each passing year ... Studies in women with coronary heart disease now suggest that plaque progression may be slowed by increased intakes of oily fish, even in women with diabetes. The relative importance of the n-6 FA linoleic acid (LA), the short-chain n-3 FA alpha linolenic acid (ALA), and the long-chain n-3 FAs EPA and DHA is becoming clearer. If intakes of the latter are adequate (perhaps over 250 mg/d), then there appears to be little need to consume more ALA or less LA"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study - Nutr J. 2005 Feb 9;4(1):6 - "Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day), add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability"
  • Are omega-3 fatty acids the most important nutritional modulators of coronary heart disease risk? - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):447-52 - "The strength of the n-3 story has now led to a proposal that blood levels of EPA plus DHA be considered a new, modifiable, and clinically relevant risk factor for death from CHD"
  • Women and Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004 Oct;59(10):722-730 - "because elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, especially in women; and because omega-3 FA have powerful effects on triglycerides, women in particular gain from an increased intake of these fatty acids. This is especially important in women receiving hormone therapy, which can increase triglyceride levels. The quality of the omega-3 FA preparation is important. It should have an appropriate antioxidant content not to induce lipid peroxidation, and its content of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) should be well below the established safe limit"
  • Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):626-32 - "Consumption of fish is associated with a significantly reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in women with coronary artery disease" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • The Clinical Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Omega-3 Fish Oils and/or Copper in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - J Rheumatol. 2004 Aug;31(8):1551-6 - "There was a significant decline in SLAM-R score from 6.12 to 4.69 (p < 0.05) in those subjects taking fish oil compared to placebo"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids - Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jul 1;70(1):133-40 - "Approximately 1 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardioprotection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2 to 4 g per day) and to reduce morning stiffness and the number of tender joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (at least 3 g per day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids"
  • The role of fish oil/omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of IgA nephropathy - Semin Nephrol. 2004 May;24(3):225-43 - "treatment for 2 years with a daily dose of 1.8 g of EPA and 1.2 g of DHA slowed the progression of renal disease in high-risk patients"
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid-rich essential fatty acid supplementation in chronic fatigue syndrome associated with symptom remission and structural brain changes - Int J Clin Pract. 2004 Mar;58(3):297-9 - "The EPA-rich essential fatty acid supplementation led to a marked clinical improvement in her symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, starting within 6-8 weeks"
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism in men and women: nutritional and biological implications - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004 Mar;7(2):137-144 - "Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid is limited in men and further transformation to docosahexaenoic acid is very low" - Note:  Alpha-linolenic acid is the form of omega-3 in flaxseed.  Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are omega-3's in fish oil.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004 Mar;7(2):131-136 - "Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but not alpha-linolenic acid, prevent sudden death and other cardiovascular catastrophies, and have therefore been recently incorporated into the pertinent guidelines of European and American cardiologic societies"
  • Benefits of fish oil supplementation for hemodialysis patients - J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Sep;103(9):1174-7 - "One study indicated that pruritus symptoms improved with fish oil supplementation, but not with supplementation with two other oils. In a study designed to determine whether fish oils could prevent vascular access graft thrombosis, graft patency rates were approximately 76% in the fish oil and approximately 15% in the placebo group (P>.03). In a pilot study, subjects given fish oil required 16% less erythropoietin and experienced a 3.6% increase in serum albumin levels"
  • Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Jun;29(3):289-295 - "In control conditions, mental stress significantly increased heart rate, mean blood pressure, and energy expenditure. It increased plasma epinephrine from 60.9 +/- 6.2 to 89.3 +/- 16.1 pg/ml (p<0.05), plasma cortisol from 291 +/- 32 to 372 +/- 37 micromol/l ... After 3 weeks of a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids, the stimulation by mental stress of plasma epinephrine, cortisol, energy expenditure, and plasma non esterified fatty acids concentrations, were all significantly blunted ... Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids inhibits the adrenal activation elicited by a mental stress" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Severity of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Elite Athletes - Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug 6 - "These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes and this may be attributed to their anti-inflammatory properties"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Aug;13(4):267-71 - "In this study, we conducted an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comparing omega-3 PUFAs (9.6 g/day) with placebo, on the top of the usual treatment, in 28 patients with major depressive disorder. Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • Supplementation with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (vitamins E and C) improves the outcome of schizophrenia - Schizophr Res. 2003 Aug 1;62(3):195-204 - "We report the supplementation with a mixture of EPA/DHA (180:120 mg) and antioxidants (vitamin E/C, 400 IU:500 mg) orally morning and evening to schizophrenic patients (N=33) for 4 months ... there was significant reduction in psychopathology based on reduction in individual total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), general psychopathology-PANSS and increase in Henrich's Quality of Life (QOL) Scale" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • Habitual Dietary Intake of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids in Relation to Inflammatory Markers Among US Men and Women - Circulation. 2003 Jun 23 - "These results suggest that n-6 fatty acids do not inhibit the antiinflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids and that the combination of both types of fatty acids is associated with the lowest levels of inflammation. The inhibition of inflammatory cytokines may be one possible mechanism for the observed beneficial effects of these fatty acids on chronic inflammatory-related diseases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):65-71 - "High proportions of n-3 fatty acids in serum lipids are associated with a substantially reduced risk of death"
  • Not all fish products prevent heart disease - J Fam Pract. 2003 Jun;52(6):438-41 - "For patients aged >65 years, modest consumption of tuna and other broiled/baked fish is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease and fatal arrhythmias. The same is not true of fried fish or fish burgers"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases - Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Mar;116(3):453-8 - "omega-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain omega-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. omega-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet activation markers and cell adhesion molecules in hyperlipidemic patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus - J Diabetes Complications 2003 May;17(3):153-159 - "After treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the levels of CD62P, CD63, annexin V, PDMPs, and MDMPs, sE-selectin, and oxidized LDL antibody were reduced significantly. Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels were also decreased. Anti-Ox LDL antibodies and MDMPs were correlated positively with platelet CD62P (plt-CD62P) levels. These findings suggest that in hyperlipidemic patients with Type 2 diabetes, EPA may prevent complications caused by oxidized LDL, E-selectin, and activated platelets or monocytes" - See Mega Twin EPA at Vitacosticon or iHerb.
  • n -3 Fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans - Clin Nutr 2003 Apr;22(2):175-82 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercially available skimmed milk supplemented with n -3 PUFA, oleic acid, and vitamins E, B(6), and folic acid (Puleva Omega3((R))) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease ... Thirty volunteers were given 500 ml/day of semi-skimmed milk for 4 weeks and then 500 ml/day of the n -3 enriched milk for 8 further weeks ... The consumption of n -3 enriched milk produced a significant decrease in plasma concentration of total and LDL cholesterol accompanied by a reduction in plasma levels of homocysteine" - 500 ml is 2.1 cups.  Oleic acid is an omega-9.
  • Essential fatty acids and the brain - Can J Psychiatry 2003 Apr;48(3):195-203 - "The ratio of membrane omega-3 to omega-6 PUFAs can be modulated by dietary intake. This ratio influences neurotransmission and prostaglandin formation, processes that are vital in the maintenance of normal brain function"
  • Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes - Am. J. of Clinical Nutr., 4/03 - "studied the relation between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and cognitive decline in free-living volunteers ... Higher proportions of both stearic acid (saturated, 18:0) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were associated with greater risk of cognitive decline ... Conversely, a higher proportion of total n-3 fatty acids was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline"
  • Randomized controlled trial of the effect of n–3 fatty acid supplementation on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 and chylomicron remnants in men with visceral obesity1 - AJCN, 2/03 - "randomly assigned to receive either fish oil capsules (4 g/d, consisting of 45% eicosapentaenoic acid and 39% docosahexaenoic acid as ethyl esters) or matching placebo ... Fish oil supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) lowered plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (-18%) and VLDL apo B (-20%) and the hepatic secretion of VLDL apo B (-29%) compared with placebo" - Doing the math, 45% of 4 grams equals 1,800 mg of EPA,  39% of 4 grams equals 1,560 mg of DHA.  Three Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com plus three Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com (the two strongest formulas I know) would be 2,100 mg EPA and 1,570 mg DHA.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Treatment of Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study -  American Journal of Psychiatry, 1/03 - "The results of this study suggest that E-EPA may be a safe and effective form of monotherapy for women with moderately severe borderline personality disorder"
  • Long-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid improves exercise-induced vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease - Hypertens Res 2002 Nov;25(6):823-9
  • Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 May;56(5):407-12 - "A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the cohort found that the omega3 fatty acid patient group had a significantly longer period of remission than the placebo group (P = .002; Mantel-Cox). In addition, for nearly every other outcome measure, the omega3 fatty acid group performed better than the placebo group."
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