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Insulin and Aging
Freedom from Disease: The Breakthrough Approach to Preventing Cancer,
Heart Disease, Alzheimer's, and Depression by Controlling Insulin by
Peter Morgan Kash (Author), Jay Lombard (Author)
- Insulin Plays Central Role In Aging, Brown Scientists Discover - Science
Daily, 6/4/04 -
"insulin regulates its own production and that it
directly regulates tissue aging. The principle: Keep insulin levels low and
cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as
cancer, dementia and stroke" - [Abstract]
- Riverside Professor Receives First Age-Reversal Prize - Science Daily,
"According to Spindler's research, the fewer
calories an animal consumes - provided malnutrition is avoided - the slower
an animal ages and the lower the death rate from cancer, heart disease and
diabetes" - Some theorize that calorie restriction slows aging
because it keeps insulin level low (there are other ways that may keep
insulin low such as
Key to a long life -- less insulin in the brain - Reuters, 7/19/07 -
"people who live to be 100 or more often have
reduced insulin levels and their cells show better insulin sensitivity ...
New diabetes drugs that increase insulin sensitivity may help"
Insulin and Aging - Brown University -
"Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger,
staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia
- Resisting Insulin - USC Health Magazine Cover Story, Fall '06 -
"Insulin, according to a slew of new studies,
may play a role in everything from cancer to hypertension to
Growth hormone, insulin may be key to longevity - WorldHealth.net,
5/24/06 - "it is reasonable to suggest that
treatment(s) causing an improvement in insulin sensitivity combined with
modest reduction in insulin release would reduce risk of age-related
disease and likely also delay aging"
Insulin plays central role in aging, explains benefits of calorie
reduction - Nutra USA, 6/3/04 -
"if insulin levels remain low, cells are
stronger and can ward off infection and age-related diseases such as
cancer, dementia and stroke"
- Insulin and
Aging - drlam.com - "there are 3 consistent
blood metabolic indicators of all centenarians that are relatively
consistent: low sugar, low triglyceride, and low insulin. All three are
relatively low for age. Among these three variables, insulin is the
common denominator. The level of insulin sensitivity of the cell is one
of the most important markers of lifespan"
Does Insulin Regulate the Variability in Life Span? -
ezinearticles.com - "But they still have
something in common: a low sugar level in their blood, relatively for
Fish Oil and Carb Restriction on the Anti-Aging Front A review of The
Anti-Aging Zone - Life Extension Magazine, 3/00 -
"individuals with low blood sugar and low
insulin have been found to be healthiest and to live the longest ...
Insulin is a potent accelerator of aging for many reasons ... That's why
Sears calls elevated insulin "your worst aging nightmare"
Calorie Restriction without Hunger!
- Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 -
"excess insulin functions as a death hormone
that devastates virtually every cell and organ system in the body"
An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and
retards aging in yeast - FASEB J. 2000 Nov;14(14):2135-7 -
"this study raises the possibility that reduced
glucose alters aging at the cellular level in mammals"
and aging How you can help your patients - Chiropractic Economics -
"Bottom line: A major focus of any anti-aging
program is to keep insulin levels in a low normal range"
Anti-Aging Techniques: Find Out Which Ones Work and Which Ones Don't
- Mercola.com, 5/19/04 - "I suspect the majority
of the benefits from calorie restriction are related to its influence on
insulin, as reducing calories also reduces insulin, the major accelerant
New Clue Into How Diet And Exercise Enhance Longevity - Science
Daily, 7/19/07 - "Diet, exercise and lower
weight keep your peripheral tissues sensitive to insulin. That reduces
the amount and duration of insulin secretion needed to keep your glucose
under control when you eat. Therefore, the brain is exposed to less
insulin. Since insulin turns on Irs2 in the brain, that means lower Irs2
activity, which we've linked to longer lifespan in the mouse"
high insulin make you fat? Mouse study says yes - Science Daily, 12/4/12 -
"When we eat too much, obesity may develop as a result
of chronically high insulin levels, not the other way around ... The new study
helps to solve this chicken-or-the-egg dilemma by showing that animals with
persistently lower insulin stay trim even as they indulge themselves on a
high-fat, all-you-can-eat buffet ... the researchers produced mice that varied
only in their fasting blood insulin levels. When presented with high-fat food,
those with one copy and lower fasting insulin were completely protected from
obesity even without any loss of appetite. They also enjoyed lower levels of
inflammation and less fat in their livers, too ... the researchers produced mice
that varied only in their fasting blood insulin levels. When presented with
high-fat food, those with one copy and lower fasting insulin were completely
protected from obesity even without any loss of appetite. They also enjoyed
lower levels of inflammation and less fat in their livers, too"
- Metformin and reduced risk
of hepatocellular carcinoma in diabetic patients: a meta-analysis - Scand J
Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 9 - "Medline and Embase
databases were searched to identify the relevant studies between January 1966
and December 2011 ... the overall prevalence of HCC was 3.40% (562/16,549) in DM
patients. The overall analysis showed a significantly reduced risk of HCC in
metformin users versus nonusers in diabetic patients (relative risk (RR) 0.24,
95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.46, p < 0.001)" - See
metformin at IAS.
Diabetes Drug Metformin May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 12/3/12 -
"The study is just one of dozens under way worldwide
examining the drug -- which costs just pennies a pill -- as a treatment for
breast, colon, prostate, pancreatic, and ovarian cancers ... After five years,
67% of women who took metformin had not died from ovarian cancer, compared to
47% of women without diabetes who did not take the drug ... The survival
difference in the two groups was striking ... Every way we looked at this, the
metformin group always did better ... If metformin really does fight cancer, it
may do so by lowering circulating insulin levels in the blood" - [Science
Daily] - See
metformin at IAS.
between diabetes, Alzheimer's found - Science Daily, 5/4/15 -
"elevated glucose in the blood can rapidly increase
levels of amyloid beta, a key component of brain plaques in Alzheimer's
patients. The buildup of plaques is thought to be an early driver of the complex
set of changes that Alzheimer's causes in the brain"
Insulin resistance may lead to faster cognitive decline - Science Daily,
3/21/17 - "We know that insulin resistance can be
prevented and treated by lifestyle changes and certain insulin-sensitizing
drugs. Exercising, maintaining a balanced and healthy diet, and watching
your weight will help you prevent insulin resistance and, as a result,
protect your brain as you get older"
Sugar's 'tipping point' link to Alzheimer's disease revealed - Science
Daily, 2/23/17 - "Excess sugar is well known to be
bad for us when it comes to diabetes and obesity, but this potential link
with Alzheimer's disease is yet another reason that we should be controlling
our sugar intake in our diets"
Insulin resistance increases risk for Alzheimer's disease, study finds -
Science Daily, 7/27/15 - "examined brain scans in
150 late middle-aged adults, who were at risk for Alzheimer's disease, but
showed no sign of memory loss. The scans detected if people with higher
levels of insulin resistance used less blood sugar in areas of the brain
most susceptible to Alzheimer's. When that happens, the brain has less
energy to relay information and function ... If you don't have as much fuel,
you're not going to be as adept at remembering something or doing something
... this is important with Alzheimer's disease, because over the course of
the disease there is a progressive decrease in the amount of blood sugar
used in certain brain regions. Those regions end up using less and less"
metformin at IAS.
medication reduces dementia risk: Analysis of health insurance data suggests
preventive effect - Science Daily, 6/23/15 -
"Treatment with pioglitazone showed a remarkable side benefit. It was able to
significantly decrease the risk of dementia ... The longer the treatment, the
lower the risk ... Risk reduction was most noticeable when the drug was
administered for at least two years ... Metformin -- another frequently
prescribed antidiabetic drug -- also lowered the risk of developing dementia.
However, the effect was lower than that of pioglitazone" - See
metformin at IAS. Pioglitazone is harder to find. I've been
taking both in low dose for years for various anti-aging advantages.
hemoglobin A1c levels within the non-diabetic range are associated with the
risk of all cancers - Int J Cancer. 2015 Nov 6 -
"Compared to individuals without known diabetes and HbA1c levels of
5.0-5.4%, the HRs for all cancers were 1.27 (95% confidence interval,
1.07-1.52); 1.01 (0.90-1.14); 1.28 (1.09-1.49); and 1.43 (1.14-1.80) for
individuals without known diabetes and HbA1c levels <5.0%, 5.5-5.9%,
6.0-6.4%, and ≥6.5%, respectively, and 1.22 (1.02-1.47) for individuals with
known diabetes. The lowest HbA1c group had the highest risk of liver cancer,
and HbA1c levels were linearly associated with the risk of all cancers after
excluding liver cancer ... our findings corroborate the notion that glycemic
control in individuals with high HbA1c levels may be important not only to
prevent diabetes but also to prevent cancer"
executive functions in persons with type-2 diabetes, a meta-analysis -
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 May 10 - "The meta-analysis
revealed a detrimental effect of T2DM on cognitive sub domains namely episodic
memory and cognitive flexibility. There was a trend for the logical memory,
phonemic fluency and processing speed to be affected. The analysis indicates
that T2DM is a detrimental factor on certain cognitive sub-domains, rendering
the person vulnerable to subsequent dementia"
Prediabetes increases the risk of cancer by 15 percent, study of almost 900,000
people shows - Science Daily, 9/8/14 - "after
controlling for BMI, the presence of prediabetes remained associated with an
increased risk of cancer of 22% ... In a site-specific cancer analysis,
prediabetes was significantly associated with increased risks of cancer of the
stomach/colorectum (relative risk, RR 1.55), liver (RR 2.01), pancreas (RR
1.19), breast (RR 1.19) and endometrium (RR 1.60) (all statistically
significant), but not associated with cancer of the bronchus/lung, prostate,
ovary, kidney or bladder ... several possible mechanisms could explain the
results. First, chronic hyperglycaemia and its related conditions, such as
chronic oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycated endproducts
(that are made in conditions of excessively high blood sugar) may act as
carcinogenic factors. Second, increased insulin resistance leads to increased
insulin secretion, which can in turn allow cancer cells to grow and divide ...
It should be noted that metformin -- one of several first line therapies
available to treat type 2 diabetes -- is now considered as having some
'protective' anticancer properties. Notably, metformin mediates an approximately
30% reduction in the lifetime risk of cancer in diabetic patients. However,
whether this is true in prediabetic individuals is not yet known" - See
metformin at IAS.
in midlife linked to significant cognitive decline 20 years later - Science
Daily, 12/1/14 - "diabetes appears to age the mind
roughly five years faster beyond the normal effects of aging. For example, on
average, a 60-year-old with diabetes experiences cognitive decline on par with a
healthy 65-year-old aging normally ... to have a healthy brain when you're 70,
you need to eat right and exercise when you're 50 ... There is a substantial
cognitive decline associated with diabetes, pre-diabetes and poor glucose
control in people with diabetes" - Note: It raises the question
whether the lower the better for HBA1C or whether there's a U-curve.
- Can Diabetes Lead to Liver
Cancer? - Medscape, 7/26/13 - "We found that the
prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in the population with HCC (39%)
compared with the chronic liver disease group (10.3%). Definitively, patients
with diabetes had an increased risk for developing HCC, independent of any other
liver disease. Even if they had hepatitis C infection, hepatitis B infection, or
alcohol excess, diabetes still increased the risk for developing HCC"
- High Blood Sugar and
Dementia: No Diabetes Needed - Medscape, 9/19/13 - "The group who did not have diabetes had an average blood sugar of about 100
mg/dL as opposed to the diabetics whose levels were in the 170s. There was a
J-shaped relationship between blood sugar and dementia in the diabetics. People
who had a blood sugar of 140 mg/dL on average had more dementia, but the rates
of dementia then went down to essentially zero and then went up again as the
blood sugar rose higher. The nondiabetics had more of a straight-line
correlation from the lowest level to the highest level"
Rates Higher in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes - WebMD, 12/16/14 -
"It's not likely that insulin is the driving force
behind the cancers ... Instead, they suggest that high blood sugar, which
doctors call hyperglycemia, may be a contributing factor" - Note:
I wouldn't take that as written in stone. It's like what came first, the
chicken or the egg?
duration, severity associated with brain atrophy - Science Daily, 4/29/14 -
"used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the association between
severity and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and brain structure in 614
patients (mean age 62 years) at four participating centers ... longer duration
of diabetes was associated with brain volume loss, particularly in the gray
matter ... Diabetes duration correlated primarily with brain atrophy ... for
every 10 years of diabetes duration, the brain of a patient with diabetes looks
approximately two years older than that of a non-diabetic person, in terms of
gray matter volume"
insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older
adults - Neurology. 2014 Apr 25 - "insulin
resistance (IR) ... white matter (WM) microstructure ... Participants were
divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: "high HOMA-IR" (≥2.5, n = 27) and
"low HOMA-IR" (<2.5, n = 100) ... greater IR is associated with alterations in
WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes
to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults"
increases risk of developing and dying from breast and colon cancer -
Science Daily, 9/27/13 - "analyzed results from 20
trials that had taken place between 2007 and 2012, involving more than 1.9
million patients with breast or colon cancer, with or without diabetes ...
patients with diabetes had a 23% increased risk of developing breast cancer and
a 38% increased risk of dying from the disease compared to non-diabetic
patients. Diabetic patients had a 26% increased risk of developing colon cancer
and a 30% increased risk of dying from it compared to non-diabetic patients"
Between Predictors of the Risk of Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic
Hyperplasia and Metabolic Syndrome in Men With Moderate to Severe Lower Urinary
Tract Symptoms - Urology. 2013 Apr 18 - "The
percentage of participants with ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH, the
percentage of participants with a total prostate volume of ≥31 cm3, and the
percentage of participants with a postvoid residual urine volume of ≥39 mL
increased significantly with the increase in the number of components of the
MetS (P = .003, P = .001, and P = .007, respectively). After adjusting for age
and serum testosterone levels, the MetS was shown to be significantly associated
with the presence ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH"
Step away from that soda: Sugary drinks raise cancer risk for women, study finds
- NBC News.com, 11/22/13 - "endometrial cancer ... Women
who drank the most sweet soft drinks had a 78 percent increased risk of the
cancer, researchers found. But other sweet treats, such as baked goods, didn’t
have an effect. Nor did natural fruit juice, even though it’s full of naturally
occurring sugars ... It has to do with how insulin, which controls how the body
uses sugar, affects other hormones such as estrogen"
Blood Sugar Makes Alzheimer’s Plaque More Toxic to the Brain - Science
Daily, 10/29/13 - "While neuronal involvement is a major
factor in Alzheimer's development, recent evidence indicates damaged cerebral
blood vessels compromised by high blood sugar play a role. Even though the links
among Type 2 diabetes, brain blood vessels and Alzheimer's progression are
unclear, hyperglycemia appears to play a role ... Researchers studied cell
cultures taken from the lining of cerebral blood vessels, one from normal rats
and another from mice with uncontrolled chronic diabetes. They exposed the cells
to beta amyloid and different levels of glucose and later measured their
viability. Cells exposed to high glucose or beta amyloid alone showed no changes
in viability. However, when exposed to hyperglycemic conditions and beta
amyloid, viability decreased by 40 percent"
therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: An updated meta-analysis of
epidemiological studies - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Oct 25 -
"compared with non-insulin or metformin treatment,
insulin treatment was associated with an increase of 37% in the risk of
colorectal neoplasm among patients with type 2 diabetes"
- High Glucose Linked to
Poorer Memory, Even Without Diabetes - Medscape, 10/23/13 -
"lowering blood glucose levels, possibly even to
relatively low levels, might help preserve cognition ... Strategies that help
lower blood glucose levels include a healthy Mediterranean-type diet and regular
physical activity ... cross-sectional study included 141 healthy persons (mean
age, 63.1 years) ... lower performance on 3 memory tasks (delayed recall,
learning ability, and consolidation) was associated with higher levels of both
the long-term marker of glucose control (HbA1c) and the short-term glucose
marker ... For insulin, there was a "general trend going in the same direction"
but correlations were less clear, and without the same direct relationship ...
How low is it safe to go in terms of blood glucose levels? ... If you're used to
low blood sugar levels, you can go quite low ... The idea is that the lower the
A1c the better your brain function" - [Science
intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab
Care. 2013 May 7 - "Epidemiological studies, clinical
trials, and animal studies continue to point to excess dietary carbohydrate, and
especially fructose, in contributing to the risk factors for NAFLD"
blood sugar levels linked to increased wound complications after surgery -
Science Daily, 10/2/13 - "The risk of serious wound
complications is more than three times higher for patients who have high blood
glucose before and after surgery, and in those with poor long-term diabetes
control ... For example, wound dehiscence occurred in about 44 percent of
patients who had high glucose levels before surgery, compared to 19 percent of
those without preoperative hyperglycemia ... Patients with wide swings in blood
glucose levels -- variation of more than 200 points -- were about four times
more likely to undergo repeat surgery"
of sugary foods and drinks and risk of endometrial cancer - Cancer Causes
Control. 2013 May 9 - "Women in the highest quartile of
added sugar intake had significantly increased endometrial cancer risk (OR =
1.84, 95 % CI 1.16-2.92). Among women with waist-to-hip ratio ≥0.85, risk was
significantly higher for the highest versus lowest tertile of added sugar
intakes (OR = 2.50, 95 % CI 1.38-4.52). The association with added sugar also
became stronger when analyses were restricted to never users of hormone
replacement therapy (OR = 2.03; 95 % CI 1.27-3.26, for highest versus lowest
With Impaired Glucose Tolerance Can Show Cognitive Dysfunction -Science
Daily, 7/16/13 - "she examined 31 previous studies
regarding cognitive performance under various dietary conditions. She found that
the impaired glucose tolerance group showed difficulties in 12 of 27 cognitive
test outcomes, including word recognition, visual verbal learning test, visual
spatial learning test, psychomotor test and Corsi block-tapping. The impaired
glucose tolerance group was made up of all middle-aged women who appeared to be
in general good health ... She pointed to a 2009 Japanese study of 129 people in
their 80s, 55 of whom had impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. All the
subjects in the study consumed more than 30 grams of dietary fiber per day and
exercised two to four times per week over a two-year period. Within that
timeframe, the 36 people with impaired glucose tolerance showed improvements in
delayed recall and block design tests. The Type 2 diabetes group showed
improvement in dementia, delayed recall and their mental state"
Cancer Cells' Sugar Craving Is Target for New Type of Treatment - Science
Daily, 7/31/13 - "A key feature of cancer cells is they
gorge on sugar from the blood, greedily processing it as a fuel supply which
triggers CtBPs to bind together, forming pairs known as dimers that enable cells
to grow and multiply out of control"
Assessing insulin resistance can inform about breast cancer risk - Science
Daily, 4/4/13 - "When tissues become resistant to the
action of insulin -- which occurs often in obese people -- a balancing mechanism
further increases insulin production leading to a chronic hyperinsulinemia. Such
high insulin levels can be detrimental to the body because insulin not only
regulates glucose metabolism but has more functions such as stimulating cell
proliferation and survival. Therefore the continuous activation of insulin
pathways can contribute to cancer development by fuelling cancer cell growth.
Consistently, by analyzing a cohort of 410 patients and 565 healthy women, the
researchers found that 49% of patients were insulin resistant compared with 34%
of controls indicating that insulin resistance can indeed increase the risk of
developing breast cancer"
arterial stiffness in subjects with impaired fasting glucose - J Diabetes
Complications. 2012 Nov 22 - "The study group consisted
of 1043 subjects, including 683 subjects with NFG and 360 subjects with IFG
(100≤fasting glucose <126mg/dL) ... Arterial stiffness was higher in the IFG
group than in subjects with NFG even after adjustment for all confounding
variables including hs-CRP and oxidative stress markers. In addition, fasting
glucose and insulin were positively and independently associated with the ba-PWV
in non-diabetic healthy adults"
resistance and bone strength. Findings from the study of midlife in the United
States - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Aug 26 - "717
participants in the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States Study
(MIDUS II) ... higher levels of fasting insulin (but not of glucose) were
independently associated with lower bone strength"
Diabetes drug improves memory, study suggests - Science Daily, 11/21/12
- "treatment with the anti-insulin-resistance drug
rosiglitazone enhanced learning and memory as well as normalized insulin
resistance. The scientists believe that the drug produced the response by
reducing the negative influence of Alzheimer's on the behavior of a key
brain-signaling molecule" - Note: Rosiglitazone is the one that they
say increases the risk of heart disease. Pioglitazone is in the same class
of drugs but they claim that increases the chances of bladder cancer.
Personally I don't have diabetes but I take low dose metformin and
pioglitazone. See pioglitazone at
- Metabolic Syndrome and
Risk of Cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Diabetes Care.
2012 Nov;35(11):2402-11 - "We analyzed 116 datasets
from 43 articles, including 38,940 cases of cancer. In cohort studies in
men, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with liver (relative
risk 1.43, P < 0.0001), colorectal (1.25, P < 0.001), and bladder cancer
(1.10, P = 0.013). In cohort studies in women, the presence of metabolic
syndrome was associated with endometrial (1.61, P = 0.001), pancreatic
(1.58, P < 0.0001), breast postmenopausal (1.56, P = 0.017), rectal (1.52, P
= 0.005), and colorectal (1.34, P = 0.006) cancers. Associations with
metabolic syndrome were stronger in women than in men for pancreatic (P =
0.01) and rectal (P = 0.01) cancers"
Dementia risk tied to blood sugar level, even with no diabetes - Science
Daily, 8/7/13 - "more than 2,000 Group Health
patients age 65 and older in the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study ... in
people without diabetes, risk for dementia was 18 percent higher for people
with an average glucose level of 115 milligrams per deciliter compared to
those with an average glucose level of 100 mg/dl. And in people with
diabetes, whose blood sugar levels are generally higher, dementia risk was
40 percent higher for people with an average glucose level of 190 mg/dl
compared to those with an average glucose level of 160 mg/dl ... The most
interesting finding was that every incrementally higher glucose level was
associated with a higher risk of dementia in people who did not have
diabetes" - [Abstract]
Starchy, high carbohydrate diet associated with recurrence of colon cancer
- Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "Recent studies have
shown that colorectal cancer survivors whose diet and activity patterns lead
to excess amounts of insulin in the blood have a higher risk of cancer
recurrence and death from the disease. High insulin levels can be produced
by eating too many starchy and sugar-laden foods ... They found that
participants with the highest dietary levels of glycemic load and
carbohydrate intake had an 80 percent increased risk of colon cancer
recurrence or death compared with those who had the lowest levels ... we
theorize that factors including a high glycemic load may stimulate the
body's production of insulin"
Your Skin - ABC News, 11/30/10 - It's a video.
Metabolic Syndrome: Don't Blame The Belly Fat - Science Daily, 7/19/07 -
"insulin resistance in skeletal muscle leads to
alterations in energy storage that set the stage for the metabolic syndrome"
Even in normal range, high blood sugar linked to brain shrinkage -
Science Daily, 9/3/12 - "The study involved 249
people age 60 to 64 who had blood sugar in the normal range as defined by
the World Health Organization. The participants had brain scans at the start
of the study and again an average of four years later ... Those with higher
fasting blood sugar levels within the normal range and below 6.1 mmol/l (or
110 mg/dL) were more likely to have a loss of brain volume in the areas of
the hippocampus and the amygdala, areas that are involved in memory and
cognitive skills, than those with lower blood sugar levels. A fasting blood
sugar level of 10.0 mmol/l (180 mg/dL) or higher was defined as diabetes and
a level of 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dL) was considered impaired, or prediabetes
... blood sugar on the high end of normal accounted for six to 10 percent of
the brain shrinkage"
fasting plasma glucose: The association between coronary heart disease risk
and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and insulin resistance in
healthy, nondiabetic adults - Metabolism. 2013 Jun 26 -
"steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) ... the results
demonstrated that the greater the 1) fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
concentration, 2) incremental plasma insulin response to meals, and 3) SSPG
concentration, the more adverse the CHD risk profile ... In nondiabetic
individuals, higher FPG concentrations, accentuated daylong incremental
insulin responses to meals, and greater degrees of insulin resistance are
each associated with worse CHD risk profile (higher blood pressures, higher
triglycerides, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol
blood sugar levels in older women linked to colorectal cancer - Science
Daily, 11/29/11 - "The Einstein study involved women
who were enrolled in the National Institutes of Health''''s landmark
Women''''s Health Initiative study ... By the end of the 12-year period, 81
of the women had developed colorectal cancer. The researchers found that
elevated baseline glucose levels were associated with increased colorectal
cancer risk -- and that women in the highest third of baseline glucose
levels were nearly twice as likely to have developed colorectal cancer as
women in the lowest third of blood glucose levels ... obesity''''s impact on
this cancer may be due to elevated glucose levels, or to some factor
associated with elevated glucose levels"
prevents Type 2 diabetes in majority of high-risk individuals - Science
Daily, 3/23/11 - "A pill taken once a day in the
morning prevented type 2 diabetes in more than 70 percent of individuals
whose obesity, ethnicity and other markers put them at highest risk for the
disease ... The team also noted a 31 percent decrease in the rate of
thickening of the carotid artery, the major vessel that supplies blood to
the brain ... The 72 percent reduction is the largest decrease in the
conversion rate of pre-diabetes to diabetes that has ever been demonstrated
by any intervention, be it diet, exercise or medication ...
pioglitazone, which is
marketed as Actos® ... It is the most efficacious method we have studied to
date to delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes ... This particular
medication does two things -- improves insulin resistance and improves beta
cell function, which are the two core defects of diabetes"
2 diabetes linked to increased blood cancer risk - Science Daily, 6/5/12
"Patients with type 2 diabetes have a 20 percent
increased risk of developing blood cancers, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma,
leukemia and myeloma ... the study did not identify a cause for any of these
- High Blood Sugar Raises Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/11/05 -
"the men in the study with the highest fasting blood
sugar levels (those greater than 140 mg/dl) were 29% more likely to die of
cancer than men with the lowest levels (those less than 90 mg/dl). The
difference among women with the highest and lowest blood sugar levels was
Chardonnay grape seed
procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity
in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers
- Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov 26 - "GSE prevented in
part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%,
respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese
controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac
production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This
is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to
reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including
adipokine secretion and oxidative stress" - See
grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a
Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010
Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore
was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a
novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added
to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood
glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching
significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5
and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose
with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM])
100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the
GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0
+/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6,
respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly
effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner"
PGX at Amazon.com.
Eating lots of carbs, sugar may raise risk of cognitive impairment -
Science Daily, 10/16/12 - "People 70 and older who
eat food high in carbohydrates have nearly four times the risk of developing
mild cognitive impairment, and the danger also rises with a diet heavy in
sugar, Mayo Clinic researchers have found. Those who consume a lot of
protein and fat relative to carbohydrates are less likely to become
cognitively impaired ... Researchers tracked 1,230 people ages 70 to 89 who
provided information on what they ate during the previous year ... A high
carbohydrate intake could be bad for you because carbohydrates impact your
glucose and insulin metabolism"
Association of glycated hemoglobin with carotid intimal medial thickness in
Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance - J Diabetes Complications.
2012 Jul 11 - "To assess the association of glycated
hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in
Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) ... The study group
included 1383 NGT subjects, of whom 760 (54.9%) were women. The mean CIMT
value in the 1st quartile of HbA1c (<5.2%) was 0.65 and it increased
significantly to 0.73 in the last quartile of HbA1c (>5.8) (p<0.001).
Regression analysis showed that HbA1c had a strong association with CIMT
after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic
blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HOMA-IR and smoking (ß
- 0.046, p=0.047) ... Even among subjects with NGT, there is a significant
increase in CIMT with increasing levels of HbA1c, showing the value of using
HbA1c for diagnosis of glucose intolerance"
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance is associated with low T(3)/T(4)
ratio in pre diabetic euthyroid pakistani subjects - J Diabetes
Complications. 2012 Jul 11 - "Hyperinsulinemia and
insulin resistance are associated with low T(3)/T(4) ratio in pre-diabetic
euthyroid Pakistani subjects" - See
T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with Telomere Length in
Middle-aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating Adiponectin - Eur J
Endocrinol. 2010 Aug - "Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in
the development of insulin resistance, which
in turn may lead to accelerated aging ... HOMA-IR was the most significant
predictor for TL in males, explaining 35% of
the variance (p = 0.01). In females, adiponectin,
accounted for 28% of the variance in TL (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and
insulin resistance are associated with chromosomal TL among adult Arabs.
Evidence of causal relations needs further investigation. The positive
association of adiponectin to TL has clinical implications as to the
possible protective effects of this hormone from accelerated aging" -
Note: HOMA-IR = (glucose x insulin)/405 for glucose in mass units (US
units) mg/dL. See my adiponectin page for
ways to increase it.
glucose metabolism and diabetes and the risk of breast, endometrial, and
ovarian cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jun 19 -
"Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of
postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43). An indication of
a slightly elevated breast cancer risk was also found in postmenopausal
women with impaired glucose metabolism (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96-1.28).
Diabetes (HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.96) and impaired glucose metabolism (HR =
1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.85) were associated with an increased risk of
Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in
Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Elderly Men and Women
- Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb 1 - "homeostasis model
assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ... The HOMA-IR was negatively
correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size (S1), and temporal lobe
gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production
(Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively) ... These cross-sectional findings
suggest that both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions improving insulin
signaling may promote brain health in late life but must be confirmed in patient
Diabetes linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, study suggests
- Science Daily, 11/8/11 - "in older patients with
diabetes, two adhesion molecules -- sVCAM and sICAM -- cause inflammation in
the brain, triggering a series of events that affect blood vessels and,
eventually, cause brain tissue to atrophy. Importantly, they found that the
gray matter in the brain's frontal and temporal regions -- responsible for
such critical functions as decision-making, language, verbal memory and
complex tasks -- is the area most affected by these events ... at the age of
65, the average person's brain shrinks about one percent a year, but in a
diabetic patient, brain volume can be lowered by as much as 15 percent ...
Diabetes develops when glucose builds up in the blood instead of entering
the body's cells to be used as energy. Known as hyperglycemia, this
condition often goes hand-in-hand with inflammation ... Once chronic
inflammation sets in, blood vessels constrict, blood flow is reduced, and
brain tissue is damaged"
Fasting Glucose and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Men and Women:
The Korean Heart Study - Diabetes Care. 2012 Sep 21 -
"evaluated the relationship between IFG and CVD or
IHD among Korean men and women ... IFG was categorized as grade 1 (fasting
glucose 100-109 mg/dL) or grade 2 (110-125 mg/dL) ... Incidence rates of CVD
(per 100,000 person-years) were 2,203 for diabetes. Age-adjusted hazard
ratios (HRs) for CVD were 1.17 (95% CI 1.13-1.20) for grade 1 IFG, 1.30
(1.24-1.35) for grade 2 IFG, and 1.81 (1.75-1.86) for diabetes"
metabolism and the risk of Alzheimer disease: The Rotterdam Study -
Neurology. 2010 Nov 30;75(22):1982-7 - "Diabetes
mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease
(AD), but how it exerts its effect remains controversial ... Levels of
insulin and insulin resistance were associated with a higher risk of AD
within 3 years of baseline. After 3 years, the risk was no longer increased.
Glucose was not associated with a higher risk of AD"
Avoiding or controlling diabetes may reduce cancer risk and mortality -
Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "Previous epidemiologic
studies have shown an association between diabetes and an increased risk for
cancers including colorectal, liver and pancreas ... As for mortality,
diabetes was associated with an 11 percent increased risk in women and a 17
percent increased risk in men ... diabetes was associated with a significant
increase in risk for colon, rectal and liver cancers among men and women. In
men, diabetes was associated with an increased risk for pancreatic and
bladder cancers; in women, it was associated with an increased risk for
stomach, anal and endometrial cancers. No association was found between
diabetes and lung, skin or other cancers"
Metabolic Syndrome: A Potential and Independent Risk Factor for Erectile
Dysfunction in the Chinese Male Population - Urology. 2012 Oct 4 -
"our results showed that subjects with MetS had a
significantly greater risk of ED (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.72; P = .02),
especially in middle-age (40-59 years) men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.71-3.47; P
<.001). Of the MetS components, abnormal fasting blood glucose was the most
significantly independent factor of MetS for ED (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55;
P = .002)"
Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets may reduce both tumor growth rates and
cancer risk - Science Daily, 6/14/11 - "The
first diet, a typical Western diet, contained about 55 percent carbohydrate,
23 percent protein and 22 percent fat. The second, which is somewhat like a
South Beach diet but higher in protein, contained 15 percent carbohydrate,
58 percent protein and 26 percent fat. They found that the tumor cells grew
consistently slower on the second diet ... As well, mice genetically
predisposed to breast cancer were put on these two diets and almost half of
them on the Western diet developed breast cancer within their first year of
life while none on the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet did.
Interestingly, only one on the Western diet reached a normal life span
(approximately 2 years), with 70 percent of them dying from cancer while
only 30 percent of those on the low-carbohydrate diet developed cancer and
more than half these mice reached or exceeded their normal life span ...
tumor cells, unlike normal cells, need significantly more glucose to grow
and thrive. Restricting carbohydrate intake can significantly limit blood
glucose and insulin, a hormone that has been shown in many independent
studies to promote tumor growth in both humans and mice"
association between serum phospholipid oleic acid and insulin resistance in
subjects with primary dyslipidaemia - Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 -
"oleic acid (OA) ... By adjusted logistic
regression, including the proportions of other fatty acids known to relate
to IR, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for IR were 0.75
(0.62-0.92) for 1% increase in OA and 0.84 (0.71-0.99) for 1% increase in
linoleic acid. Other fatty acids were unrelated to IR. When using the
alternate definition of IR, OA remained a significant predictor (0.80
[0.65-0.99]) ... Higher phospholipid proportions of OA relate to less IR,
suggesting an added benefit of increasing olive oil intake within the
Mediterranean diet" - Note: I saw olive oil mayonnaise advertised and
I thought that would be a good way to increase the omega-9 in my diet. When
I read the label in the store, olive oil was the main ingredient however it
had three omega-6 oils listed after that so I’m sure it had much more
omega-6 than omega-9. Bottom line, I started making my own omega-9 mayo. See
the recipe at
Metabolic syndrome may increase risk for liver cancer - Science Daily,
4/3/11 - "metabolic syndrome, a constellation of
conditions that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes, may also
increase the risk of the two most common types of liver cancer ... The
prognosis for liver cancer is only marginally better than the prognosis for
pancreatic cancer, with a five-year survival of approximately 10 percent ...
the persons with liver cancer were significantly more likely than
cancer-free persons to have a prior history of metabolic syndrome: 37.1
percent of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had pre-existing metabolic
syndrome, as did 29.7 percent of patients with intraheptic carcinoma; only
17.1 percent of the cancer-free adults had metabolic syndrome"
A1c Levels: Is Lower
Always Better? - Medscape, 4/23/10 - "A1c values
in the lowest decile (median, 6.4%) were associated with an increased risk
for mortality for all patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence
interval [CI], 1.40-1.64). This finding was stronger in the INS cohort (HR,
1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-1.22) than in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.30; 95% CI,
1.07-1.58). Only the 10th decile (median, 10.4%) was also associated with
increased mortality risk in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.55-2.42);
but in the INS cohort, deciles 2 (median, 6.95%; HR,1.45; 95% CI,
1.17-1.80), 3 (median, 7.3%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.67), 9 (median, 9.4%;
HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.77), and 10 (median, 10.6%; HR, 1.80; 95% CI,
1.49-2.17) were all associated with greater risk. The combined model yielded
results similar to the INS cohort, and the inclusion of a variable for
membership in the INS cohort was significantly associated with increased
mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.39-1.59). The adjusted risk for progression
to large-vessel disease had the same general U-shaped association as for
all-cause mortality, and insulin treatment was associated with an increased
risk for a first large-vessel disease event"
Metformin and incident breast cancer among diabetic women: a
population-based case-control study in Denmark - Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov 30 - "Metformin users were
less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.61, 0.99)
than non-metformin users. Adjusting for diabetes complications, clinically
diagnosed obesity, and important predictors of breast cancer did not
substantially alter the association (OR=0.81; 95%CI=0.63, 0.96). CONCLUSION:
Our results suggest that metformin may protect against breast cancer in type
2 diabetic peri- or postmenopausal women. Impact: This study supports the
growing evidence of a role for metformin in breast cancer chemoprevention"
Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes linked to plaques associated with
Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/25/10 -
"People with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes appear to be at an
increased risk of developing plaques in the brain that are associated with
Alzheimer's disease ... people who had abnormal results on three tests of
blood sugar control had an increased risk of developing plaques. Plaques
were found in 72 percent of people with insulin resistance and 62 percent of
people with no indication of insulin resistance" - [Abstract]
Metformin Might Prevent
Colorectal, Lung Cancers - Medscape, 9/3/10 - "The chance observation that diabetes patients taking metformin have a 40%
reduced risk for cancer triggered intense research interest in this old
off-patent drug ... After about 10% of the mouse lifespan — about 12 weeks —
with the highest dose in the drinking water, we found a 33% reduction in
tumor multiplicity and a 34% reduction in tumor size in the mice. In mice
that did not get metformin, 100% got tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumors
... metformin might prevent tumors by reducing levels of insulin and IGF-1"
metformin at IAS.
Experts explore emerging evidence linking diabetes and cancer - Science
Daily, 6/16/10 - "Possible mechanisms for a direct
link between diabetes and cancer include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia,
Increased Cancer Risk
Seen With Higher Blood Glucose Levels - Medscape, 1/28/10 -
"in men, each 1 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) increment in blood
glucose level was associated with a 5% increase in incident cancer risk and
a 15% increase in fatal cancer risk ... In women, each 1 mmol/L increase in
blood glucose level was associated with an 11% increase in incident cancer
risk and a 21% increase in fatal cancer risk ... For men, there were
glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal cancer of the
liver, gallbladder, and respiratory tract; incident thyroid cancer and
multiple myeloma; and fatal rectal and colon cancer .... For women, there
were glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal pancreatic
and stomach cancer; incident urinary bladder cancer and endometrial cancer;
and fatal cervical and uterine corpus cancer. In women, there was also an
inverse association of blood glucose with incident thyroid cancer risk ...
For men and women combined, higher glucose increased the risk of death from
oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers"
Dietary patterns may be linked to increased colorectal cancer risk in women
- Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "High red meat intake,
fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains
and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated
with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood ... C-peptide is a marker of
insulin secretion that can be measured in a person's blood. High levels of
insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major
characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of
C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth ... Colon
cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin ...
women who most often consumed high amounts of red meat, fish and
sugar-sweetened beverages and low amounts of high-fat dairy, coffee and
whole grains had a 35 percent increased risk for colorectal cancer"
Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk - Science Daily,
10/11/10 - "Individuals in the top quarter of
insulin resistance had a 45 percent greater risk of any type of vascular
event. However, insulin resistance was not associated with heart attack or
vascular death separately"
Insulin used to treat diabetes may be linked to increased cancer risk,
review suggests - Science Daily, 3/2/10 - "Research suggests that metformin, which is used to treat some patients with
diabetes, may provide a protective effect, while insulin and/or certain
insulin analogues may promote tumour growth ... Diabetic patients were 30
per cent more likely to develop colorectal cancer ... Women with diabetes
had a 20 per cent greater risk of developing breast cancer ... People with
diabetes had an 82 per cent higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer"
- Note: I think it's like what came first the chicken or the egg. I don't
believe they know whether it's the insulin or the high blood sugar. This
seems to support that it's the high insulin.
attenuates prostatic enlargement in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats by
altering lipid distribution and hyperinsulinemia - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug
19 - "Increased incidence of benign prostatic
hyperplasia among insulin-resistant individuals suggest a role for
hyperinsulinemia in prostatic enlargement ... High fat diet led to the
accumulation of fat in non-adipose tissues, insulin resistance, compensatory
hyperinsulinemia and prostatic enlargement in rats. Pioglitazone treatment
altered fat distribution, improved insulin-sensitivity and normalized lipid and
insulin level in rats on the high-fat diet. The improved metabolic parameters
led to decreased cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis in the prostate
gland. High-fat diet feeding and pioglitazone treatment did not change plasma
testosterone levels. However, significant prostatic atrophy was observed in
castrated, rats irrespective of dietary intervention" - See pioglitazone
Some doctors think I'm crazy but pioglitazone is one of the drugs I take for
Pioglitazone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensive
patients with impaired glucose tolerance in part through a decrease in
oxidative stress - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jan 4 - "Pioglitazone improved endothelial function in hypertensive patients with
IGT through an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability by, in part, a
decrease in oxidative stress" - See pioglitazone at
OffshoreRx1.com. Pioglitazone is one that I take to
help prevent diabetes and for anti-aging.
Discovering Pathways of Sarcopenia in Older Adults: A Role for Insulin
Resistance on Mitochondria Dysfunction - J Nutr Health Aging.
2011;15(10):890-895 - "there is a strong evidence
for muscle loss due to insulin resistance as well as mitochondrial
dysfunction over aging. Considering that epidemiological studies have
underlined that insulin resistance may have a specific role on skeletal
muscle fibre atrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction has also been extensively
shown to have a pivotal role on muscle loss in older persons, a combined
pathway may not be ruled out. Considering that there is growing evidence for
an insulin-related pathway on mitochondrial signaling, we hypothesize that a
high degree of insulin resistance will be associated with the development of
sarcopenia through specific alterations on mitochondrial functioning"
Diabetes treatment may also provide protection against endometrial cancer
- Science Daily, 4/5/11 - "Recent research has found
that metformin has anti-cancer properties, e.g., in breast cancer ...
samples from PCOS women who had completed the 6 month course of metformin
the rate of spread of endometrial cancer cells was around 25% lower than in
the serum samples from PCOS women who had not started that treatment"
metformin at IAS.
Scientists find molecular trigger that helps prevent aging and disease -
Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "diabetes reduces
activation of CBP, leading Dr. Mobbs to conclude that a high-calorie diet
that leads to diabetes would have the opposite effect of dietary restriction
and would accelerate aging"
Glycemic Load Is a Predictor of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Older Adults
- J Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Participants in the highest
quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest
quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend
= 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident
hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary,
a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher
intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a
potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related
Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased
Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy -
Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate
(GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4
mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher
GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and
progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total
and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends.
Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher
GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients.
Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin
resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects
at increased cardiovascular risk" - See
acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
Metabolic Factors May Play A Role In Risk For Breast Cancer - Science
Daily, 6/30/09 - "The metabolic syndrome is
characterized by elevated insulin levels, and in recent years scientists
have proposed that insulin may contribute directly or indirectly to the
development of breast cancer ... women who had the metabolic syndrome during
the three to five years prior to breast cancer diagnosis had roughly a
doubling of risk ... Findings also showed significant associations with
elevated blood glucose levels, triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure.
For diastolic blood pressure, the result was stronger, with more than a
two-fold increased risk (relative risk = 2.4). Generally, for both
triglycerides and glucose the relative risk was about 1.7 for all breast
and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2009 Sep
1 - "After adjustment for potential confounders,
coffee and tea consumption were both inversely associated with type 2
diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.95) for 4.1-6.0 cups of
coffee per day (p for trend = 0.033) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.86) for >5.0
cups of tea per day (p for trend = 0.002). Total daily consumption of at
least three cups of coffee and/or tea reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by
Click here of a
10/5/09 news clip (I put it on YouTube) that claims that
metformin may provide the same anti-aging
benefits as calorie restriction (you won't need to look like a POW).
Metformin is another one I take for anti-aging.
Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin
Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic Mice
- J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Blueberries or bilberries
contain large amounts of anthocyanins, making them one of the richest
sources of dietary anthocyanin ... bilberry extract (BBE) ... Dietary BBE
significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin
sensitivity ... These findings provide a biochemical basis for the use of
bilberry fruits and have important implications for the prevention and
treatment of type 2 diabetes via activation of AMPK" - See
bilberry at Amazon.com.
Calorie restriction: Scientists take important step toward 'fountain of
youth' - Science Daily, 12/26/09 - "They found
that the normal cells lived longer, and many of the precancerous cells died,
when given less glucose. Gene activity was also measured under these same
conditions. The reduced glucose caused normal cells to have a higher
activity of the gene that dictates the level of telomerase, an enzyme that
extends their lifespan and lower activity of a gene (p16) that slows their
growth. Epigenetic effects (effects not due to gene mutations) were found to
be a major cause in changing the activity of these genes as they reacted to
decreased glucose levels" - Insulin controls glucose levels. Insulin
resistance causes high glucose.
- Pioglitazone Prevents Conversion to Diabetes Among Insulin-Resistant
Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/11/08 - "Patients
with impaired glucose tolerance treated with pioglitazone were able to stave
off conversion to type 2 diabetes by 81% when compared with individuals who
Hyperglycemia: New mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease described
- Science Daily, 12/12/09 - "Hyperglycemia starts a
complex chain of events that damages blood vessels and cause cardiovascular
Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily,
8/23/09 - "when subjects in the second through
fourth quartiles of serum insulin concentration were compared with those in
the first or lowest quartile, higher insulin levels within the normal range
were associated with statistically significantly increased risk of prostate
cancer. Risk was not associated with serum glucose concentration"
Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 -
"Doctors have known for decades that foods like
white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a
high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ...
Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic
index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of
foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction
in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be
traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the
riskiest of the risk factors,""
Prehypertension is associated with insulin resistance - QJM. 2009 Aug 7
- "All subjects received a 75-g oral glucose
tolerance test (OGTT) for the measurements of IR. RESULTS: The
prehypertensive subjects were more obese and had higher levels of fasting
triglycerides and 2-h insulin than the normotensives. The subjects with
prehypertension were more insulin resistant than the counterparts, indicated
by lower insulin sensitivity index, ISI(0,120), values. While there was no
difference between the two groups in insulin response of OGTT after
adjustments for confounders, the prehypertension group maintained
significant between-group differences in glucose response even when the
incremental insulin levels were added to covariates for adjustments.
DISCUSSION: Our data show that prehypertension is associated with IR. The
subjects with prehypertension have clinical characteristics of the IR
syndrome. It seems that the prehypertension group cannot handle oral glucose
challenge as well as the normotension, probably a consequence of IR in
Diabetes Drug Fights Breast Cancer - WebMD, 9/14/09 -
"And in mice carrying human breast cancers, metformin
made standard chemotherapy vastly more effective. Mice treated with the
combination remain cancer-free for four months, unlike mice treated with either
drug alone ... A lot of data shows lower cancer risk -- not just breast cancer
-- in people taking metformin for diabetes ... This drug at low doses can be
considered a very good candidate for cancer prevention before a person has any
cancer at all" - Note: I've been taking metformin for years for
metformin at IAS.
Americans Have Prediabetes and Should Be Considered for Metformin Therapy
- Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "Criteria for
consideration of metformin included the presence of both IFG and IGT, with
>/=1 additional diabetes risk factor: age <60 years, BMI >/=35 kg/m(2),
family history of diabetes, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-cholesterol,
hypertension, or A1c >6.0% ... To the extent that our findings are
representative of the U.S. population, approximately 1 in 12 adults has a
combination of prediabetes and risk factors which may justify consideration
of metformin treatment for diabetes prevention" - See
metformin at IAS.
Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults
- Ann Nutr Metab. 2010 Jan 4;56(1):74-79 - "Vinegar
reduces postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy adults ... Two teaspoons of
vinegar ( approximately 10 g) effectively reduced PPG, and this effect was
most pronounced when vinegar was ingested during mealtime as compared to 5 h
before the meal ... The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when
small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex
carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG by approximately
20% compared to placebo" - See
apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com
- 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar. 4.5 tablets
equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acids - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab
Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):138-46 - "n-3 PUFA
supplementation has clinical significance in the prevention and reversal of
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Conversion From Impaired Glucose Tolerance to Diabetes - Medscape,
6/8/08 - "There was a weight gain of 3.9 kg in the
pioglitazone group vs about 0.8 kg in the placebo group ... Over a mean
follow-up of 2.6 years, pioglitazone markedly decreased, by 81%, the
conversion rate of IGT to type 2 diabetes. IGT individuals who had the worst
level of beta cell function and who were the most insulin resistant were the
individuals who were most likely to develop type 2 diabetes, whether they
were in the pioglitazone group...or the placebo group. Pioglitazone was
quite safe and quite efficacious"
fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young
iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 -
"Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin
sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol
significantly increased with the oily fish diet"
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
associated with intima media thickness in individuals with normal glucose
tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "normal
glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) ... 1h-glucose and HbA1c were significantly correlated to carotid IMT in individuals with
NGT, while fasting and 2h-glucose were not informative. Only HbA1c was
associated with IMT independent of other confounders, while 1h-glucose was
not informative ... HbA1c was the most informative glycemic marker with
respect to IMT in individuals with NGT"
drink consumption may markedly increase risk of pancreatic cancer -
Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "Consuming two or more soft
drinks per week increased the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by nearly
twofold compared to individuals who did not consume soft drinks"
Diabetes Drug Shows Promise In Fighting Lethal Cancer Complication -
Science Daily, 9/24/09 - "in an animal study, a
diabetes drug that promotes insulin sensitivity slowed the progression of
muscle wasting and fat loss, the main consequences of a syndrome called
cachexia ... Research suggests that cachexia is responsible for between
one-fifth and one-third of all cancer deaths ... These data provide evidence
that in mice with colon cancer tumors, insulin resistance may be involved in
the development of cachexia rather than occur as a result of cachexia ...
Within eight days, the mice with cancer receiving the rosiglitazone showed
more sensitivity to insulin than did the mice with tumors that received no
medication. The insulin sensitivity of the medicated mice matched that of
mice without tumors ... In addition to stopping fat and muscle loss, the
rosiglitazone also dramatically reduced two biological markers present when
proteins break down, particularly in muscles, and a third marker that
indicates cells are eating their own amino acids in an attempt to survive"
- Note: I don't know why they did this study with rosiglitazone. That's
the one that may be connected to heart disease. Pioglitazone is the same
class of drug and is not connected to heart disease.
Low Vitamin D Hurts Teenagers’ Hearts - WebMD, 3/11/09 -
"Compared to the 25% of teens with the highest
levels of vitamin D in their blood (more than 26 nanograms per milliliter),
the 25% of teens with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 15 ng/mL) had:
... Fourfold greater risk of metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk
factors for diabetes ... 2.54 times greater risk of high blood sugar ...
2.36 times greater risk of high blood pressure" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests
- Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the
first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3
fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as
hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people"
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Insulin Level Is An Independent Risk Factor For Breast Cancer - Science
Daily, 12/31/08 - "women with the highest insulin
levels had nearly a 1.5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer than
the women with the lowest insulin levels. Further, the investigators
separately analyzed women who were not using hormone therapy and found that,
in these women, those individuals with the highest insulin levels had a
2.4-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared to those with
the lowest levels, even after accounting for multiple other breast cancer
risk factors, including estrogen levels"
Metabolic Syndrome Ups Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/08 -
"metabolic syndrome patients had a 75 percent higher
risk of colorectal cancer compared to those without metabolic syndrome"
Statin Drugs May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD, 7/14/09 -
"people who took statin drugs were 58% less likely
to develop dementia than those who did not ... So what is going on? A risk
factor for dementia is high insulin; one theory is that statins may lower
the high insulin levels in the brain. Statins have also been shown to reduce
levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation that has been
linked to the pathology that can lead to dementia"
Hearing Loss Is Twice As Common In People With Diabetes Compared To Those
WIthout The Disease - Science Daily, 6/18/08 - "Adults with pre-diabetes, whose blood glucose is higher than normal but not
high enough for a diabetes diagnosis, had a 30 percent higher rate of
hearing loss compared to those with normal blood sugar tested after an
overnight fast ... Diabetes may lead to hearing loss by damaging the nerves
and blood vessels of the inner ear" - That might be another good
reason to take
pioglitazone if you have
Consuming A Little Less Salt Could Mean Fewer Deaths - Science Daily,
3/11/09 - "Participants who slept on average less
than six hours a night during the work week, when followed over six years,
were 4.56 times more likely than those getting six to eight hours of sleep
to convert from normal blood sugar levels to impaired fasting glucose"
Carbohydrate Restriction May Slow Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily,
5/26/09 - "The researchers believe that insulin and
insulin-like growth factor contribute to the growth and proliferation of
prostate cancer, and that a diet devoid of carbohydrates lowers serum
insulin levels in the bodies of the mice, thereby slowing tumor growth"
Gout Drug May Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 9/23/09 -
"A new study suggests a direct link between a
high-sugar diet and high blood pressure"
So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily,
3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in
animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar
itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense
its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was
decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan
was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the
decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to
consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging
effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the
levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
Carnitine Supplements Reverse Glucose Intolerance In Animals - Science
Daily, 8/17/09 - "After just eight weeks of
supplementation with carnitine, the obese rats restored their cells' fuel-
burning capacity (which was shut down by a lack of natural carnitine) and
improved their glucose tolerance, a health outcome that indicates a lower
risk of diabetes ... These results offer hope for a new therapeutic option
for people with glucose intolerance, older people, people with kidney
disease, and those with type 2 diabetes (what used to be called adult-onset
diabetes) ... Carnitine is a natural compound known for helping fatty acids
enter the mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, where fatty acids are
"burned" to give cells energy for their various tasks. Carnitine also helps
move excess fuel from cells into the circulating blood, which then
redistributes this energy source to needier organs or to the kidneys for
removal" - See
l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery
calcification - Am Heart J. 2009 May;157(5):939-45 -
"After controlling for these variables, higher
fasting insulin levels independently predicted CAC progression"
Diabetes May Raise Cancer Risk - WebMD, 9/25/06 -
"Total cancer risk was found to be 27% higher for men with diabetes than for
men without the disease ... It has been suggested that excess insulin in
people with type 2 diabetes may promote the growth of pancreatic and liver
cancers ... Preventing diabetes can certainly lower your cardiovascular
risk, and it appears that the same is true for certain cancers"
HbA1c Tied to Cardiovascular Risks in Patients With Symptomatic HF -
Medscape, 8/28/08 - "Over a median follow-up period
of almost 3 years, the researchers found that for each 1% rise in HbA1c, the
risk of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and overall
mortality rose by about 25%. Moreover, this was true in subjects with and
without a history of diabetes and whether or not ejection fraction was
reduced or preserved"
Insulin May Protect Mind, Memory - WebMD, 2/2/09 -
"lower insulin levels were enhanced by adding
Avandia, which increases the body's sensitivity to insulin. Study authors
say the discovery that diabetes drugs shield nerve junctions in the brain
from memory loss offers new hope for fighting the disease" - Note:
Avandia is the one with increased heart disease. I've been taking Actos
(pioglitazone) for prevention. See pioglitazone at
Recipe for Diabetes: Too Much Protein, Fat - WebMD, 4/7/09 -
"A high-fat diet may lead to insulin resistance, a
major step on the path to type 2 diabetes. But cutting back on fat may not
help those who continue to eat too much protein"
Higher Blood Sugar Levels Linked to Lower Brain Function in Diabetics -
Doctor's Guide, 2/11/09 - "The ongoing Memory in
Diabetes (MIND) study, a sub-study of the Action to Control Cardiovascular
Risk in Diabetes Trial (ACCORD), found a statistically significant inverse
relationship between A1C levels over a period of 2 to 3 months and subjects'
scores on four cognitive tests ... This study adds to the growing evidence
that poorer blood glucose control is strongly associated with poorer memory
function and that these associations can be detected well before a person
develops severe memory loss"
Bread Consumption Linked To Higher Risk Of Most Common Kidney Cancer -
Science Daily, 10/20/06 - "The association between
elevated cereal intake (bread, pasta and rice) "may be due to the high
glycemic index of these foods"
Blood Sugar Linked To Normal Cognitive Aging - Science Daily, 12/30/08 -
"Beyond the obvious conclusion that preventing
late-life disease would benefit the aging hippocampus, our findings suggest
that maintaining blood sugar levels, even in the absence of diabetes, could
help maintain aspects of cognitive health. More specifically, our findings
predict that any intervention that causes a decrease in blood glucose should
increase dentate gyrus function and would therefore be cognitively
beneficial" - [WebMD]
Linked To Cognitive Deterioration - Science Daily, 3/5/09 -
"people with diabetes were 1.5 more likely to experience
cognitive decline, and 1.6 more likely to suffer from dementia than people
without diabetes ... suggests that higher-than-average levels of blood glucose
(blood sugar) may have a role in this relationship ... in people with type 2
diabetes, higher levels of haemoglobin A1C (a measure
of average blood glucose) are significantly associated with poorer performance
on three cognitive tasks which require memory, speed and ability to manage
multiple tasks at the same time. A higher A1C level was also associated with a
lower score on a test of global cognitive function ... lowering A1C levels could
slow the accelerated rate of cognitive decline experienced by people with
Investigation on the relationship between diabetes mellitus type 2 and
cognitive impairment - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Oct 8 -
"Subjects with diabetes (n=60) had lower MMSE score
than those without diabetes (P<.01). Diabetes was also associated with
increased odds of cognitive decline as determined by MMSE scores (odds
ratio=1.9; CI=95%, 1.01-3.6). A significant correlation between duration of
disease and cognitive dysfunction was observed, P=0.001 ... Diabetes
mellitus is associated with lower levels of cognitive function"
Pressure and Fasting Plasma Glucose rather than Metabolic Syndrome Predict
Coronary Artery Calcium Progression: The Rancho Bernardo Study -
Diabetes Care. 2008 Oct 13 - "In older adults
without known heart disease, blood pressure levels and fasting plasma
glucose were better independent determinants of CAC progression than MetS
Insulin Trouble Tied to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/9/08 -
"the men took fasting glucose tests to show how well
their body used insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar ... Men who had
a weaker insulin response to that test were 31% more likely to be diagnosed
with Alzheimer's disease later in life"
Vitamin K Linked To Insulin Resistance In Older Men - Science Daily,
11/26/08 - "Vitamin K slowed the development of
insulin resistance in elderly men in a study of 355 non-diabetic men and
women ages 60 to 80 who completed a three-year clinical trial at the Jean
Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University" -
vitamin K at Amazon.com.
Pioglitazone Cuts Risk of Progression to Diabetes - Clinical Psychiatry
News, 7/08 - "People with impaired glucose tolerance
were 81% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period if
treated with pioglitazone ... Patients were randomized to treatment with
placebo or 30 mg/day pioglitazone. If the drug was tolerated after 1 month,
the dose could be increased up to 45 mg/day" - Note: Diabetes runs in
my family. I've been taking pioglitazone for several years for prevention.
See pioglitazone at
Cardiomyopathy - Medscape, 1/15/08 - "Increasing
evidence points to insulin resistance as a primary etiologic factor in the
development of nonischemic heart failure (HF) ... Epidemiological evidence
suggests more than simply a correlation between insulin resistance and HF,
demonstrating that insulin resistance precedes HF rather than occurring as a
consequence of it ... Medications that work primarily by improving insulin
sensitivity (metformin, thiazolidinediones [TZDs]) might theoretically be
the most attractive therapies"
ER Stress in the Liver: Direct Monitoring of in vivo ER Stress Using ER
Stress-activated Indicator Transgenic Mice - Endocr J. 2009 Sep 29 -
"8 weeks of pioglitazone treatment reduced the
accumulation of fat droplets in the liver and attenuated the development of
insulin resistance. In the liver of the ERAI transgenic mice, ERAI
fluorescence activity was clearly reduced as early as after 4 weeks of
pioglitazone treatment, preceding the improvement of insulin resistance. In
addition, after the pioglitazone treatment, serum free fatty acid and
triglyceride levels were decreased, and serum adiponectin levels were
increased. These data indicate that pioglitazone treatment suppresses ER
stress in the liver which may explain, at least in part, the pharmacological
effects of pioglitazone to reduce insulin resistance" - See
pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
Getting Diabetes Before 65 More Than Doubles Risk For Alzheimer's Disease
- WebMD, 1/28/09 - "getting diabetes before the age
of 65 corresponds to a 125 percent increased risk for Alzheimer's disease"
25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Markers of the Insulin Resistant
Phenotype in Nondiabetic Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 -
"Among adults without diabetes, vitamin D status was
inversely associated with surrogate fasting measures of insulin resistance.
These results suggest that vitamin D status may be an important determinant
for type 2 diabetes mellitus" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Diets With High
Glycemic Index May Raise Cataract Risk - Medscape, 11/30/07 -
"Glycemic load, a food's glycemic index multiplied
by the total available carbohydrate content, was used to gauge both
carbohydrate quantity and quality ... each standard deviation increase in
dietary glycemic index was associated with a 19% increase in the risk of
cortical cataract. Subjects in the highest glycemic index quartile were 77%
more likely to develop cataract than those in the lowest quartile"
Most People Who Have Prediabetes Don’t Know It - WebMD, 11/6/08 -
"Though only 4% of participants reported having
prediabetes, researchers believe that 26% of adults have it, a figure based
on laboratory test results in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition
Blood Pressure Response To Daily Stress Provides Clues For Better
Hypertension Treatment - Science Daily, 8/14/08 -
"America’s current obesity and type 2 diabetes
epidemic also has them looking at insulin, glucose and cholesterol levels
and whether fat exacerbates all the factors they are following, which they
believe it does"
Prevention of Type 2 diabetes: fact or fiction? - Expert Opin
Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;8(18):3147-58 - "Both studies
have shown that intensive lifestyle intervention could reduce the
progression of IGT to diabetes by 58%. Furthermore, four currently-available
drugs have been established as being effective in preventing diabetes in
subjects with prediabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Program revealed that
metformin 850 mg b.i.d. reduced the risk of diabetes by 31%. The STOP-NIDDM
(Study To Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) trial (n = 1429)
showed that acarbose 100 mg t.i.d. with meals decreased the incidence of
diabetes by 36% when the diagnosis was based on 2 oral glucose tolerance
tests. The XENDOS (Xenical in the Prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects)
study examined the use of orlistat, an antiobesity drug, as an adjunct to an
intensive lifestyle modification program in obese non-diabetic subjects.
Orlistat treatment resulted in a 37% decline in the development of diabetes.
More recently, the DREAM (Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and
Rosiglitazone Medication) study (n = 5269) demonstrated that rosiglitazone
at 8 mg once/day in subjects with prediabetes (IGT and/or impaired fasting
glucose) was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes by 60%. It can be
concluded that Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle
modifications and/or pharmacologic interventions. This is a fact"
Obesity and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Colorectal Adenoma: A
Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study - Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 15 -
"insulin resistance was associated with the presence
of colorectal adenoma"
Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/27/07 -
"A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white
rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in
mice ... Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called
hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with
Testosterone Gel Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Sexual Function in
Hypogonadal Men With Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide,
6/20/08 - "Among patients with type 2 diabetes with
or without metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR
improved from baseline in the testosterone-treated group compared with
placebo at 6 months (testosterone: -0.62, placebo: +0.16; P = .049) and at
12 months (testosterone: -.58"
Pioglitazone Improves Cardiac Function and Alters Myocardial Substrate
Metabolism Without Affecting Cardiac Triglyceride Accumulation and
High-Energy Phosphate Metabolism in Patients With Well-Controlled Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus - Circulation. 2009 Apr 6 - "were assigned to pioglitazone (30 mg/d) or metformin (2000 mg/d) and
matching placebo for 24 weeks ... No patient developed heart failure. Both
therapies similarly improved glycemic control, whole-body insulin
sensitivity, and blood pressure. Pioglitazone versus metformin improved the
early peak flow rate (P=0.047) and left ventricular compliance. Pioglitazone
versus metformin increased myocardial glucose uptake (P<0.001), but
pioglitazone-related diastolic improvement was not associated with changes
in myocardial substrate metabolism. Metformin did not affect myocardial
function but decreased cardiac work relative to pioglitazone (P=0.006), a
change that was paralleled by a reduced myocardial glucose uptake and fatty
acid oxidation. Neither treatment affected cardiac high-energy phosphate
metabolism or triglyceride content. Only pioglitazone reduced hepatic
triglyceride content" - I still take pioglitazone even though I don't
have diabetes because I feel that higher glucose levels are a major cause of
aging. There doesn't seem to be any evidence that it has the heart rises
that rosiglitazone has. See Pioglitazone at
prevents endothelial dysfunction in the prediabetic stage of OLETF rats by
reducing vascular NADPH oxidase activity and expression -
Atherosclerosis. 2009 Feb 3 - "studies have
indicated that regular intake of green tea reduces the risk of
cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether catechin prevents
endothelial dysfunction and hyperglycemia in the prediabetic stage of a type
2 diabetic (T2D) rat ... Catechin significantly reduced blood pressure
(OLETF vs. Catechin-OLETF; 138+/-16mmHg vs. 126+/-16mmHg, p=0.013), fasting
sugar (129+/-11mg/dL vs. 118+/-9mg/dL, p=0.02) and the insulin level
(2.13+/-1.29ng/mL vs. 0.53+/-0.27ng/mL, p=0.004). In the aorta of
Catechin-OLETF at 25 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxations were
significantly improved and NADPH oxidase activity in aortic rings was
markedly decreased compared with those of OLETF. Catechin reduced vascular
reactive oxygen species formation in the aorta and suppressed the expression
of p22phox and p47phox NADPH oxidase subunits" - See
green tea extract at Amazon.com.
Whole Grains Shrink Belly Fat? - Dr. Weil, 3/31/08 -
"the whole grains may have helped by stabilizing the
dieters' blood sugar, which in turn may have had a beneficial effect on CRP
Limiting Refined Carbohydrates May Stall AMD Progression - Science
Daily, 10/8/07 - "Our data showed those people in
the high-glycemic-index group were at greater risk of AMD progression,
especially those already in the late stages ... Participants who consumed
the most refined carbohydrates were 17 percent more likely to develop
blinding AMD than the group that consumed the least"
- Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion, and Abdominal Fat - Medscape,
"Insulin resistance is
associated with overall obesity and particularly abdominal obesity ... In
normal individuals, as insulin sensitivity declines, the ß-cells of the
pancreas compensate by secreting more insulin"
The impact of antidiabetic therapies on cardiovascular disease - Curr
Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Feb;7(1):50-7 - "hyperinsulinemia is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease"
Mechanism For Hypertension, Insulin Resistance And Immune Suppression -
Science Daily, 6/30/08 - "spontaneously hypertensive rat
(SHR) ... protein receptors on the surface of SHR cells become clipped off as
the animals develop hypertension. They used a novel visualization technique to
show that after several weeks of ingesting
doxycycline in their drinking
water, the SHR rats developed cells that again bristled with normal CD18 and
insulin receptors. The animals' metabolic conditions simultaneously improved;
blood pressure normalized and symptoms of immune suppression disappeared"
- Note: I was taking Periostat (low dose doxycycline, 20 mg) for two reasons,
the help prevent gum disease and to lower CRP. Now I have a third reason.
doxycycline at OffshoreRx1.com
(you can use a pill cutter to quarter the pills). See:
Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart
Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 -
"At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose
doxycyline significantly reduced
levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug
was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a
50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting,
since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of
inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP
itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of
Blood Protein Predicts Stroke Risk - HealthDay, 6/23/03 -
"whether the substance [CRP] is an
independent risk factor for these episodes or merely a reflection of
narrowed and crumbling arteries hasn't been entirely clear ... New
research now suggests that the molecule, called
C-reactive protein (CRP), is
indeed its own oddsmaker ... The cholesterol-fighting drugs known as
statins have been shown to lower CRP by about 25 percent or so,
Stein says. However, it's not clear that that effect reduces
cardiovascular trouble or increases survival"
Prediabetes May Raise Heart Deaths - WebMD, 6/18/07 -
"Adults with prediabetes may be more than twice as
likely to die of heart disease as people without blood sugar (glucose)
Metformin May Delay Onset of Diabetes in At-Risk Subjects - Medscape,
3/24/08 - "Metformin treatment, compared with
placebo or no treatment, reduced body mass index by 5.3%, fasting glucose by
4.5%, fasting insulin by 14.4%, and calculated insulin resistance by 22.6%
... Metformin treatment also reduced triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by
5.3% and 5.6%, respectively, and increased HDL cholesterol by 5.0% ... The
incidence of new-onset diabetes was reduced by 40% (odds ratio, 0.6), with
an absolute risk reduction of 6%, during a mean trial duration of 1.8 years"
- I don't have diabetes yet still take 1,000 mg of metformin per day. I
still feel high blood sugar and advanced glycation end products are major
causes of aging. See
metformin at OffshoreRx1.com.
Vitamin C-rich diet may slash diabetes risk - Nutra USA, 7/29/08 -
"Increased blood levels of vitamin C may reduce the
risk of developing diabetes by 62 per cent ... Correlating blood levels of
vitamin C and diabetes, the researchers found that men and women with the
highest blood levels (at least 1.10 and 1.29 mg/dL, respectively) had a 62
per cent reduction in their risk of developing type-2 diabetes, compared to
men and women with the lowest blood levels (less than 0.56 and 0.77 mg/dL,
respectively)" - See
vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an
Italian prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):1160-1166 - "The relative risk (RR) of
breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57
(95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P
for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not
associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from
high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status
and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was
confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and
who had normal BMI (ie, <25)"
Insulin resistance is associated with arterial stiffness independent of
obesity in male adolescents - Hypertens Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):5-11 -
"insulin resistance (IR) ... IR is a risk factor for
the development of early atherosclerosis. Interventions that decrease IR in
addition to weight reduction may be necessary to alter the early development
of cardiovascular risk"
Type 2 Diabetes
Is Linked to Increased Risk for Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily,
3/28/08 - "individuals who developed type 2 diabetes
had an 83% increased risk for PD compared with the general population ...
insulin may play a role in regulation of brain dopanergic activity"
Insulin Resistance May Be an Important Factor in Nondipper Essential
Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 12/5/03 - "This
may suggest that
insulin resistance plays an important role in
the aetiology of nondipper
Elevated Insulin, Glucose Raise Risk of Polyp Recurrence - Medscape,
12/10/07 - "patients with elevated insulin or
glucose at the time of adenoma removal are at increased risk for recurrent
adenoma ... Levels of glucose that produced the increased risk in this study
were actually not very high, 99 mg/dL, which is right at the border of what
we would describe as impaired fasting glucose ... the odds ratio for a
recurrent polyp with advanced histology or large size was 2.43 at a fasting
glucose level above 99 mg/dL ... These results "fit with the theory that
insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia promote the
development of colorectal neoplasia,""
High-normal fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic range is associated with
increased coronary artery calcium burden in asymptomatic men -
Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jun 30 - "coronary artery
calcium (CAC) ... The prevalence of CAC was significantly higher among men
with high-normal FBG (4th quartile: 94-125mg/dl) versus normal FBG group
(lower three quartiles: 66-93mg/dl) (62% versus 35%, p<0.0001). In age
adjusted analyses the odds ratio (OR) for any CAC among men with high-normal
FBG versus normal FBG was 2.19"
Insulin Resistance May Be a Common Cause of Treatment-Resistant Hypertension
- Doctor's Guide, 8/7/03 - "They suggest that
hyperinsulinaemia may increase blood pressure
by several mechanisms, including stimulating the sympathetic nervous system,
increasing renal sodium re-absorption, activating the Na+/H+
countertransport, and enhancing vessel wall cell proliferation and
Diabetes May Increase Woman's Risk of Colorectal Cancer -
oncologystat.com, 12/7/07 - "There was about a 50%
increased risk of colorectal cancer in women with diabetes ... The
researchers hypothesized that the elevated levels of insulin typically seen
in people with type 2 diabetes may play a central role. Insulin stimulates
the growth of normal colonic and carcinoma cells"
Research: Refined Grains Expand Girths - Intelihealth, 6/21/04 -
"three years they were tracked ... At the end, the
white bread group had three times the fiber group's gain at the gut ...
abdominal fat cells may be more sensitive to insulin's effects than other
fat cells in the body"
Sugar and Alzheimer's: Are They Linked? - WebMD, 12/7/07 -
"The brains of the sugar-fed mice had about twice as
many plaque deposits as the mice fed regular water" - [Science
Red Wine Compound May Curb Diabetes - WebMD, 10/2/07 -
"Resveratrol curbs insulin resistance in mice ...
According to our findings, people might need to drink about three liters of
red wine each day to get sufficient resveratrol -- about 15 milligrams --
for its biological effects" - See
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Redefining Impaired Fasting Glucose - Physician's Weekly, 11/24/03 -
"the cut point for IFG should be reduced to 100
mg/dl from the current 110 mg/dl"
What You Don’t Know About Blood Sugar - Life Extension Magazine, 1/04 -
"it now appears that optimal fasting blood glucose
levels should probably be under 86 mg/dL ... Chromium supplements have been shown to reduce
blood glucose significantly.70-74 The dose used in human studies ranges from
200 to 1000 mcg of elemental chromium a day, with best results occurring
when 400 mcg or more of chromium is taken daily ... Nondiabetics using
metformin may start off at 500 mg a day and
gradually build up to 1000-1500 mg a day. The objective is not to take so
much metformin as to induce a hypoglycemic state" - See
Metformin: The Most Effective Life Extension Drug is Also a Safe, Effective
Weight Loss Drug - IAS Bulletin -
"Metformin is also one of the most promising
anti-aging, life extending drugs available"
Supplemental Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Appear to Decrease Blood Glucose
and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetics: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide,
6/17/05 - "Our most important finding is that
chromium picolinate and biotin help to decrease hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]
values in poorly controlled diabetics ... 600 mcg chromium picolinate and
biotin 2 mg/per day" - See
Biotin products at iHerb
Chromium products at
- Supplement May Lower Diabetes Heart Risks
- WebMD, 5/10/04 - "Diachrome contains chromium,
in the form of chromium picolinate, and biotin, which is thought to
improve insulin's action to improve blood sugars ... After 30 days ...
Average fasting blood glucose dropped by 26.2 mg/dL"
- Can a Mix
of Chromium and Biotin Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar? - WebMD,
10/15/01 - "when chromium and biotin are present
together, they have more of a response than what would be expected by
adding their effects separately. "As soon as you put those two together,
you get a much greater increase in glucose metabolism,""
Research Affirms the Benefits of Combination of Chromium Picolinate and
Biotin for Improving Blood Sugar in People with Type 2 Diabetes -
Doctor's Guide, 12/20/06 - "The 30-day study
examined 36 overweight or obese poorly controlled patients with type 2
diabetes taking Diachrome who were already receiving oral anti-diabetic
drug(s). The results also showed a significantly greater reduction in
the total area under the curve for glucose (AUCg) during the oral
glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the treatment group (mean change
-9.7%) compared with the placebo group (mean change +5.1%)"
Hair Loss Naturally - WebMD - "Daly says he
routinely recommends up to 3 mg of biotin daily for his hair loss
patients, while Lessman developed a healthy hair, skin, and nails
product containing 2 mg of biotin per daily dosage, which he believes is
the minimum for healthy hair"
Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients
with type II diabetes mellitus - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar 02 -
"fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ... FPG in the
L-carnitine group decreased significantly from 143+/-35 to 130+/-33 mg/dl
(P=0.03) ... after 12 weeks of treatment" - See
l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
Metabolic Markers May Help Identify Insulin Resistance in Overweight
Individuals - Doctor's Guide, 11/24/03 -
"the optimal cut-off values for identifying insulin
resistance were 1.47 mmol/L for triglycerides, 1.8 in SI units for
triglyceride-HDL ratio, and 109 pmol/L for insulin"
Low-glycemic-index plan is better than low-fat or low-carb diets, study says
- HealthDay, 8/26/04 - "After two to four months, the researchers found
that the rats given the high-glycemic-index diet had 71 percent more body
fat and 8 percent less lean muscle mass, compared with rats on the
low-glycemic-index diet ... the high-glycemic-index group had significantly
higher blood sugar and insulin levels and higher triglyceride levels"
Death Risk Rises
With Blood Sugar - WebMD, 9/20/04 -
"As your blood sugar level goes up, so does your
risk of death and heart disease - even if you don't have diabetes ... every
1% increase in HbA1c ups the risk of death -- from all causes -- by 24% for
men and 28% for women ... These are important studies because they show we
should be concerned about blood glucose elevations even in people who do not
Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk - Ann Oncol. 2007
Oct 19 - "Compared with the lowest tertile, the ORs
in subsequent tertiles were 1.68 and 1.73 for GI, and 1.76 and 2.17 for GL.
The OR for highest tertile of GI compared with lowest one was 1.70 for
papillary and 1.57 for follicular thyroid cancer. The ORs for GL were 2.17
for papillary and 3.33 for follicular thyroid cancer ... Our study shows
that high dietary levels of GI and GL are associated with thyroid cancer
Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have Positive Effect On Muscle Mass, Study Shows
- Science Daily, 5/9/07 - "In mammals, the ability
to use nutrients from food and convert them into muscle proteins decreases
with age. Though the exact cause of this phenomenon is still unclear,
insulin resistance of aging muscle cells has been suggested as a possible
answer ... omega-3 fatty acids are known to improve glucose metabolism in
people and animals showing insulin resistance ... After five weeks, animals
with the marine omega-3 diet showed increased sensitivity to insulin which,
in turn, improved protein metabolism" - See
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
Prediabetes May Raise Risk for Alzheimer's - Intelihealth, 7/17/06 -
"people who had prediabetes at the beginning of the
study had a 70% increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's
... doctors tend to ignore the slightly high sugar levels until the levels
reach the stage of full-blown diabetes"
High Blood Sugar Linked To Lost Memory - Intelihealth, 2/4/03 -
"middle-aged and elderly people with high blood sugar actually had a smaller
Insulin Levels Impair Intestinal Metabolic Function - Science Daily,
4/24/07 - "excessive insulin appears to slow the
removal of chylomicrons from the blood stream following a fatty meal.
Chylomicrons transport dietary fat from the intestine to the rest of the
body ... excessive insulin appears to alter the mechanics of blood vessel
walls, allowing chylomicrons and cholesterol to build up in them, which,
over time, creates blockages in the blood stream, leading to heart problems"
Chronically High Blood Sugar Linked To Risk Of Cognitive Impairment -
Science Daily, 8/9/06 - "Women with a glycosylated
hemoglobin of seven percent or higher at baseline were four times more
likely to develop MCI or dementia than women who tested at less than seven
Hydroxycitric Acid Slows Glucose Uptake, Cuts Insulin Peaks/Valleys A La
South Beach Diet - Science Daily, 5/23/05 -
"sugar that is normally absorbed rather quickly --
within about 20 minutes -- took over 2 hours after HCA ingestion. This delay
is good because it reduces the high peaks of glucose, which otherwise would
require the body to produce a lot of insulin to deal with the 'meal.' ... we
don't know how this will translate into humans ... Fast sugar is worse for
you; slower is better" - See
products at iHerb.
Supplementation With Chromium Picolinate Improves Glycemic Control,
Attenuates Weight Gain - Doctor's Guide, 8/9/06 -
"Blood sugar levels of study participants taking
chromium picolinate in combination with the antidiabetic medication dropped
significantly compared to the group taking the medication plus placebo ...
Study participants taking chromium picolinate also experienced significantly
lower abdominal body fat accumulation than the group taking medication and
placebo, and experienced less overall weight gain" - See
Syndrome X - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 7/21/04 -
"PGX lowers after meal blood sugar levels by
approximately 20 to 40% and also lowers insulin secretion by approximately
40% producing a whole body insulin sensitivity index improvement of nearly
60%" - See
Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 -
"With the introduction of a new highly viscous fiber
blend trademarked under the name PGX™, it may now be possible to achieve the
multiple documented benefits of fiber by swallowing only a few capsules
before each meal. The longevity potential associated with reducing
after-meal glucose and insulin blood levels, lowering total cholesterol and
LDL, and losing some weight is enormous"
Cross-link Breakers and Inhibitors - International Anti-Aging Systems -
"metformin has a dual effect. It lowers blood
glucose, (a well-known and established activity) plus, as new research is
revealing, it is an effective inhibitor of cross-linking" - See
metformin at IAS.
Effects of metformin on the body composition in subjects with risk factors
for type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Mar;7(2):189-92 -
"In the metformin group, there was a decrease in fat
weight from 25.9 +/- 9.4 to 20.8 +/- 9.2 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in lean
weight from 57.05 +/- 13.6 to 61.9 +/- 16.5 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in
basal metabolism from 1735 +/- 413 to 1878 +/- 505 calories/day, p < 0.05
and an increase in body water" - See
metformin at IAS. Note: That's a 19.7% decrease in fat
(25.9-20.8)/25.9 = 19.7%, a 8.5% increase in lean weight (61.9-57.05)/57.05
= 8.5% and a 8.2% increase in basal metabolism (1878-1735)/1735 = 8.2%. -
Adherence to Preventive Medications: Predictors and outcomes in the Diabetes
Prevention Program - Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):1997-2002 -
"There was a 38.2% risk reduction for developing
diabetes for those adherent to metformin
compared with those adherent to placebo" - See metformin at
Anti-aging Systems (Glucophage).
Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and
vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship
between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia - Eur J Endocrinol.
2004 Oct;151(4):483-9 - "diet plus folic acid (5
mg/day) plus vitamin B12 (500 mg/day) ... A significant decrement was
observed for insulin levels (19.9+/-1.7 vs 14.8+/-1.6 mU/ml"
- Extra Weight May Age You Faster - WebMD, 5/25/05 -
"inflammation burns out white blood cells faster,
and the effort of replacing them wears down the telomeres ... Insulin
resistance and obesity are also associated with free radical damage"
Insulin Resistance in Teens Raises High Blood Pressure Risk as Adults -
Doctor's Guide, 11/11/04 -
"What we're showing is that insulin resistance has
an effect on systolic blood pressure that is independent of fatness and
Impaired Fasting Glucose Screening Could Prevent Cardiovascular Disease:
Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/14/06 -
"people with impaired fasting glucose have higher
rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors than people with normal fasting
glucose ... They defined impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting blood
sugar between 100 and 125 mg/dL"
Metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting
glucose: the 100 versus 110 mg/dL threshold - Diabetes Metab Res Rev.
2007 Oct;23(7):547-550 - "IFG110 was associated with
higher risk of post-challenge glucose intolerance as compared with IFG100.
As compared with IFG100, subjects with IFG110 have significantly lower
levels of circulating IGF-I. As compared with NFG, IFG110, but not IFG100,
showed a significant association with increased levels of inflammatory
markers including white blood cell count (WBCC), and C-reactive protein
Exercise in Itself Improves Blood Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes -
Doctor's Guide, 7/24/06 - "exercise helps regulate
blood glucose (sugar) levels, increases the body's sensitivity to insulin,
and decreases blood lipids (fats) while also helping to burn body fat ...
Participants who exercised had an overall decrease of 0.6% of A1c levels.
While that may not sound like much, it represents a 30% improvement towards
the goal of attaining an A1c of 7%, and a 20% improvement towards a normal
A1c of 6%"
High-Sugar Foods May Affect Eyesight - WebMD, 7/13/07 -
"People with the diets highest on the glycemic index
were the most likely to have advanced AMD in at least one eye"
Exercise Lowers Insulin In Breast Cancer Survivors - Science Daily,
6/4/07 - "Studies have found an association between
relatively high levels of insulin -- often seen in obese and sedentary
people -- and an increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and breast
New Trial Shows Chromium Picolinate Reduces Weight Gain Associated with
Diabetes Medication - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/05 -
"The study participants who took 1,000 mcg of
Chromax(R) chromium picolinate in combination with the antidiabetic
medication experienced significantly lower body fat accumulation (0.12%)
than the group taking medication and placebo (1.1%), particularly in the
abdomen area ... chromium picolinate taken in
combination with antidiabetic medication significantly improved both insulin
sensitivity ... " - See
- Some blood pressure medications may help to decrease
insulin resistance. See the
First Line Treatment for
Hypertension for why I feel that telmisartan may be the best choice for
Metabolic Effect of Telmisartan [Micardis] and Losartan [Cozaar] in
Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome - Cardiovasc Diabetol.
2005 May 15;4(1):6 - "Telmisartan, but not
losartan, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced free plasma glucose, free
plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and
HbAic. Following treatment, plasma glucose and insulin were reduced
during the oral glucose tolerance test by telmisartan, but not by
losartan. Telmisartan also significantly reduced 24-hour mean systolic
blood pressure (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05)
compared with losartan" - Note: Both telmisartan and losartan are
ARBs. See telmisartan at
Valsartan Reduces Chance of Diabetes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients
- Doctor's Guide, 5/19/05 - "patients taking
valsartan had a 23% lower
risk of developing diabetes during the four or more years of the study.
The two drugs had previously been shown to be roughly equivalent in
reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke" - See valsartan at
- Pioglitazone Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients With Diabetes - Medscape,
5/20/05 - "an average change of 2mm Hg will alter
the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 17% and ischaemic heart disease
by 10% ... Improving insulin sensitivity is associated with a decrease in
Sugar intake may hurt liver - Scientific America, 11/1/06 -
"fatty liver disease was more common in the group
given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called
fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose
consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be
Drug May Treat Fatty Liver - WebMD, 11/30/06 -
"during the study, the
Actos patients cut
their liver fat by 54%; the placebo group had no change in liver fat ...
Actos patients also showed a bigger drop in liver inflammation and a
greater improvement in insulin response than the placebo group"
Obesity and Fatty Liver disease - MedicineNet.com -
"Doctors also are using medications to treat non
alcoholic fatty liver disease. For example, insulin-sensitizing agents,
such as the thiazolidinediones,
(Avandia), and metformin (Glucophage) not
only help to control blood glucose in patients with diabetes, but they
also improve enzyme levels in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver
- See pioglitazone or rosiglitazone at
- Avandia Positively
Impacts On Factors Linked With Insulin Resistance - Doctor's Guide,
9/18/00 - "Increased deposits of fat around the
internal organs and in the liver are commonly associated with insulin
resistance and are found in many type 2 diabetes patients ... Avandia
helps prevent accumulation of fat around the internal organs and
significantly reduces hepatic fat"
glycemic diet may help stay slim - MSNBC, 10/27/06 -
"normal-weight women who ate a diet with a
relatively high glycemic index gained more weight, more fat, and more
padding around the middle over a six-year period than women who ate a low
glycemic index diet"
Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: the road map to
cardiovascular diseases - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006
Nov-Dec;22(6):423-36 - "Much evidence supports the
presence of insulin resistance as the fundamental pathophysiologic
disturbance responsible for the cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular
disorders, known collectively as the metabolic syndrome"
Lowering Resistance To Insulin May Delay Or Prevent Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes
- Science Daily, 6/12/05 - "Type 2 diabetes may be
significantly delayed or prevented through medication that takes the load
off of the body's delicate insulin-producing cells ... our initial findings
for diabetes prevention with troglitazone apply not only to this class of
drugs-thiazolidinediones-but to the general mechanisms of reducing stress on
beta cells by treating insulin resistance" - Note:
Avandia are in the
Trial of Coenzyme Q10 in Isolated Systolic Hypertension - Medscape,
South Med J 94(11):1112-1117, 2001 - "The mechanisms
underlying essential hypertension remain uncertain. A causal role for
insulin resistance has been suggested, and high levels of plasma insulin
have frequently been found in patients with high blood pressure"
Insulin resistance in essential hypertension - N Engl J Med. 1987 Aug
6;317(6):350-7 - "essential hypertension is an
Relations of glycemic index and glycemic load with plasma oxidative stress
markers - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):70-6 - "Chronic consumption of high-GI foods may lead to chronically high oxidative
stress. A low-GI diet, not a low-carbohydrate diet, appears to be beneficial
in reducing oxidative stress"
Lifestyle Modification, Metformin Effective Prevention for Type 2 Diabetes
- Doctor's Guide, 7/31/03 -
diabetes was 58% lower ... in the lifestyle
intervention group and 31% lower ... in the metformin group than in the
Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes
- Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the
most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than
those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had
a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no
association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
- Clearing up
the confusion over carbs - MSNBC, 6/3/05 -
"the women who ate low
GI foods lost more than twice as much body fat
as women eating mainly high GI foods"
Low-Glycemic Load Diet Facilitates Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with
High Insulin Secretion - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/05 -
"The regulation of body weight is, at least in part,
influenced by how much insulin a person secretes in response to a load of
glucose, as well as by how sensitive that person is to insulin's
Pre-diabetes a Costly Condition for Patients - HealthDay, 6/11/05 -
"In 2003, the cut-off point for pre-diabetes was
lowered to 100 mg/dL from 110 mg/dL ... patients with normal blood glucose
levels had annual costs of $3,799 versus $4,580 for those at the new cut-off
point for pre-diabetes, and $4,960 for those at the old cut-off point"
Insulin Resistance Associated With Increased Risk for Congestive Heart
Failure - Doctor's Guide, 7/21/05 -
"In this community-based sample of elderly men free
of CHF and valvular disease at baseline, insulin resistance predicted CHF
incidence independently of diabetes and other established risk factors for
Metabolic syndrome - CNN -
"Doctors believe that the underlying cause of this
cluster of risk factors is resistance to insulin ... Doctors use
thiazolidinediones and metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) to
decrease insulin resistance in people with diabetes. These medications may
help improve insulin metabolism in people with metabolic syndrome" -
See Glucophage at SuperSaverMeds.com or
Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome:: implications for testosterone therapy
- J Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):827-34 - "Hypogonadism
is likely a fundamental component of metabolic
syndrome. Testosterone therapy may not only treat hypogonadism, but may
also have tremendous potential to slow or halt the progression from
metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes or cardiovascular disease via
beneficial effects on insulin regulation, lipid profile and blood pressure.
Furthermore, the use of testosterone to treat metabolic syndrome may also
lead to the prevention of urological complications commonly associated with
these chronic disease states, such as neurogenic bladder and
Roundworm's Telomeres Help Scientists To Tease Apart Different Types Of
Aging - Science Daily, 8/8/05 - "telomeres alone
do not dictate aging and lifespan ... For successful aging you have to
control both, aging in your dividing cells, which hinges on telomere
maintenance, but also aging in your non-dividing cells. We thought that
telomeres might play a role in the later but that's clearly not the case ...
What is probably playing a role in the other half of aging is the insulin
signaling pathway, proper mitochondrial function and dietary restriction"
Strategies to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 8/8/05 -
"Low glycemic load, high fiber diet which contains
adequate amounts of mono-unsaturated and omega-3 fats and lean protein can
improve satiety and dietary thermo-genesis (basal metabolic rate) and
decrease insulin resistance ... Nutrients that have also been associated
with worsening insulin sensitivity include trans-fats and saturated fats ...
Exercise improves insulin sensitivity and lowers glucose levels both acutely
and for up to 48 h after physical activity ... metformin reduced the risk of
diabetes by 31% ... Valsartan reduced the incidence of new-onset diabetes by
23% ... Traditional beta-blockers worsen insulin sensitivity and increase
the risk of developing new diabetes"
Elevated Insulin Levels Appear to Increase Levels of Inflammatory Markers
and Beta-Amyloid, Which May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's
Guide, 8/8/05 - "Moderately elevated levels of
insulin increase the levels of inflammatory markers and beta-amyloid in
plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and these markers may contribute to
Today, Alzheimer's Disease Tomorrow? - WebMD, 8/8/05 -
"people with high insulin levels -- long before
they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease"
Effect of Atorvastatin (10 mg/day) on Glucose Metabolism in Patients With
the Metabolic Syndrome - Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jul 1;98(1):66-9 -
"in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects, 6 weeks of atorvastatin (10
mg/day) resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity"
Cause Of Diabetes-related Erectile Dysfunction Is Clarified By Johns Hopkins
Researchers - Science Daily, 8/11/05 -
"one particular simple sugar, present in increased
levels in diabetics, interferes with the chain of events needed to achieve
and maintain erection and can lead to permanent penile impairment over time"
The Metabolic Syndrome: a Cause of Sexual Dysfunction in Women -
Medscape, 5/27/05 - "women with the
metabolic syndrome reported significantly
lower arousal, orgasm, and lubrication scores"
Blood Glucose: A Strong Risk Factor for Mortality - Medscape, 8/19/05 -
"BG even in the normal range is a strong independent
predictor of mortality in all subjects with CVD" - [Abstract]
Vinegar may help dieters eat less - Nutra USA, 9/7/05 -
"Both glucose and insulin responses were about 25
per cent lower at 90 minutes when the volunteers had consumed the highest
level of vinegar compared to the reference meal
... This level of vinegar is equivalent to about two to three tablespoons"
products at iHerb (1 - 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar. 4.5
tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations).
Androgens, Insulin Resistance and Vascular Disease in Men - Medscape,
9/8/05 - "Studies in healthy men have shown an
inverse correlation between testosterone and insulin levels ...
physiological testosterone replacement improves insulin sensitivity ...
Insulin resistance also plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis
and hypertension ... hypotestosteronaemia is associated with insulin
resistance in men. Testosterone treatment inhibits the hyperinsulinaemia and
thus may delay the onset of diabetes mellitus in men or even improve
Glycemic Control and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Persons With and Without
Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Arch Intern
Med. 2005;165:1910-1916 - "In adults with diabetes,
the relative risk (RR) of CHD was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI],
1.50-3.72) for the highest quintile of HbA1c level
compared with the lowest after adjustment for CHD risk factors ... Elevated
HbA1c level is an independent risk factor for CHD in persons with and
High Blood Sugar Levels a Risk Factor for Heart Disease
- Doctor's Guide, 9/14/05 - "Lowering blood sugar
levels could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in both diabetics and
non-diabetics ... Non-diabetic persons with HbA1c levels of 6% or higher had
almost a two-fold greater heart disease risk compared to persons with an
HbA1c level below 4.6%"
Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men -
N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1454-62 - "A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family
history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking
status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased
risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg
per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose
levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter"
- Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in the Metabolic Syndrome -
Medscape, 10/10/05 - "As observed in animal studies,
insulin-sensitizing medications may play a potential role in the reduction
of blood pressure. Metformin treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats
decreased blood pressure by 34 mmHg but had no effect on the blood pressure
of normotensive rats. Pioglitazone prevents hypertension in the Dahl
salt-sensitive rats, and rosiglitazone prevents development of
hypertension in insulin-resistant rats"
Pancreatic Cancer Tied to Insulin Woes - WebMD, 12/13/05 -
"Some of the men's blood samples showed higher
levels of blood glucose, insulin resistance, and high insulin levels. Those
men were more likely to later develop pancreatic cancer than those without
Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and ovarian cancer risk: a prospective
cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10):1076-81 -
"Glyacemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) .. GI
and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were not associated with ovarian
cancer risk in the total cohort. GL was positively associated with a 72%
increase in risk of ovarian cancer"
Relation of increased hemoglobin a(1c) levels to severity of peripheral
arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2007
May 15;99(10):1468-9 - "the higher the hemoglobin
A(1c) levels in patients with diabetes with PAD, the higher the prevalence
of severe PAD"
Diabetics Face Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide,
11/2/05 - "hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia
promote the growth of colorectal cancer"
- Blood sugar 'boosts cancer risk' - BBC, 3/21/07 -
"women in the top 25% range of blood sugar readings
after fasting had a 26% higher chance of developing cancer than those in the
bottom quarter ... it is possible to reduce your blood sugar levels by
eating a healthy balanced diet with lots of fruit and vegetables and
maintaining a healthy weight ... 40% of cancer cases can be prevented by
this type of healthy lifestyle"
- Study links
diabetes to cancer risk - MSNBC, 1/11/05 -
"diabetes can raise the risk of developing and dying
from several types of cancer, including digestive-tract tumors"
Hyperglycemia Linked to Cancer Risk - Physician's Weekly, 5/7/07 -
"Risk of cancer of the pancreas, endometrium,
urinary tract, and of malignant melanoma was statistically significantly
associated with high fasting glucose with [relative risk ratios] of 2.49,
1.86, 1.69, and 2.16, respectively"
High-Glycemic Foods Linked to Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/3/04 -
"the future risk of colorectal cancers is nearly
three times higher in women who eat the most high glycemic-load foods
compared with those who eat lesser amounts"
- Link Shown
Between Insulin Resistance, Colon And Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide,
6/12/97 - "Results showed that nearly 27 percent of
the women who died from colon cancer had insulin resistance, compared to 3
percent of the controls"
hormones can affect breast cancer risk - MSNBC, 9/9/05 -
"Research also consistently links high levels of the
hormone insulin and insulin-like growth factors with increased rates of
breast cancer, at least after menopause"
Hormone Replacement Linked To Insulin Resistance, Regardless Of Adiposity
- Doctor's Guide, 1/24/02 -
"postmenopausal women taking oral estrogen, with or
without progesterone, show a greater degree of insulin resistance than those
not taking HRT, even allowing for total and abdominal adiposity"
Calories Seen Outweighing Sugar as Diabetes Risk - Vital Choices
Newsletter, 1/1/07 - "they found no link between
consumption of sweetened beverages and the risk of developing diabetes ...
men who drank four or more cups of coffee a day cut their risk of developing
type-2 diabetes by more than 23 percent ... while a high sugar intake may
not by itself cause diabetes, it can certainly be a major contributing
factor to weight gain and obesity: factors that clearly do promote diabetes"
- See my syndrome X and
diabetes page for other ways to reduce
at drugstore.com and
books on glycemic index at Amazon.com.
QualityCounts.com Anti-aging Newsletter
Netvibes basic (free)