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Newsletters
4/30/14 (under construction)
4/23/14
4/16/14
Previous newsletters

Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 4/23/14:

Ginseng can treat, prevent influenza, RSV, researcher finds - Science Daily, 4/21/14 - "respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... After infection with influenza A virus, mice that were orally administered ginseng over a long time showed multiple immune modifying effects, such as stimulated antiviral production of proteins important in immune response and fewer inflammatory cells in their bronchial walls ... Korean red ginseng extract improved the survival of human lung epithelial cells against RSV infection and inhibited the virus from replicating, or multiplying, in the body. In addition, treatment with Korean red ginseng extract suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory genes and the formation of chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, which play a role in virus-induced epithelial damage in RSV ... Also, mice that were orally administered Korean red ginseng extract had lower viral levels after infection with RSV" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.

Top 3 Foods for a Longer Life - ABC News, 4/21/14 - "resveratrol increases the activity of specific genes called sirtuins that protect against diseases of aging by revving up the mitochondria, the little batteries inside our cells ... mice fed the bacterial strain Bifidobacterium animalis lactis lived longer and were healthier than mice that did not receive the probiotic ... people who consume 650 mg a day of polyphenols live longer than those who get less then that" - See Resveratrol products at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

In Prostate Hyperplasia, Combo Pill Slows Progress - Medscape, 4/18/14 - "All men received lifestyle advice about caffeine and alcohol avoidance, fluid management, and bladder retraining. They were then randomized to watchful waiting (n = 373) or to daily treatment for 2 years with a single capsule containing the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor dutasteride 0.5 mg plus the alpha blocker tamsulosin 0.4 mg (n = 369) ... At the end of the study, the rate of clinical progression of benign prostate hyperplasia was 43.1% lower in the treatment group than in the watchful waiting group (18% vs 29%; P < .001) ... Similarly, improvements in hyperplasia symptoms and related quality of life were significantly greater the treatment group"

Internet use may cut retirees' depression - Science Daily, 4/18/14 - "Internet users had an average predicted probability of depression of .07, whereas that probability for nonusers was .105. Based on the difference, Internet use led to a 33 percent reduction in the probability of depression ... Number of people in the household partially mediates this relationship, with the reduction in depression largest for people living alone ... This provides some evidence that the mechanism linking Internet use to depression is the remediation of social isolation and loneliness. Encouraging older adults to use the Internet may help decrease isolation, loneliness, and depression"

Student Jumps to Death at Denver Hotel After Eating Too Much Pot - CNS News, 4/17/14 - "Levy Thamba Pongi, 19, consumed more than one cookie purchased by a friend — even though a store clerk told the friend to cut each cookie into six pieces and to eat just one piece at a time ... Pongi began shaking, screaming and throwing things around a hotel room before he jumped over a fourth-floor railing into the hotel lobby March 11. An autopsy report listed marijuana intoxication as a "significant contributing factor" in the death ... when Pongi felt nothing after about 30 minutes, he ate an entire cookie ... The marijuana concentration in Pongi's blood was 7.2 nanograms of active THC per milliliter of blood. Colorado law says juries can assume someone is driving while impaired if their blood contains more than 5 nanograms per milliliter"

High Protein Intake Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Incidence - Medscape, 4/17/14 - "The current analysis included 10,901 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a subcohort of 15,352 participants, including 736 diabetes cases, with a mean follow-up of 12 years ... used food frequency questionnaires to determine participants' eating habits ... overall, high total protein intake was associated with a 13% higher incidence of diabetes for every 10-g increment ... protein of animal origin is largely responsible for the association — not plant protein"

Younger Skin Through Exercise - NYTimes.com, 4/16/14 - "The scientists biopsied skin samples from each volunteer and examined them microscopically. When compared strictly by age, the skin samples overall aligned with what would be expected. Older volunteers generally had thicker outer layers of skin and significantly thinner inner layers ... But those results shifted noticeably when the researchers further subdivided their samples by exercise habits. They found that after age 40, the men and women who exercised frequently had markedly thinner, healthier stratum corneums and thicker dermis layers in their skin. Their skin was much closer in composition to that of the 20- and 30-year-olds than to that of others of their age, even if they were past age 65 ... the researchers next set a group of sedentary volunteers to exercising ... I don’t want to over-hype the results, but, really, it was pretty remarkable to see ... Under a microscope, the volunteers’ skin “looked like that of a much younger person, and all that they had done differently was exercise"

Vitamin D deficiency, cognition appear to be linked in older adults - Science Daily, 4/16/14 - "The researchers looked at 2,777 well-functioning adults aged 70 to 79 whose cognitive function was measured at the study's onset and again four years later. Vitamin D levels were measured at the 12-month follow-up visit ... With just the baseline observational data, you can't conclude that low vitamin D causes cognitive decline. When we looked four years down the road, low vitamin D was associated with worse cognitive performance on one of the two cognitive tests used" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D deficiency contributes to poor mobility among severely obese people - Science Daily, 4/15/14 - "The cross-sectional study examined physical functioning and vitamin D levels in 252 severely obese people. Participants were timed as they walked 500 meters and climbed up and down a single step 50 times. They also provided estimates of their physical activity ... the group with the highest vitamin D levels had the fastest walking times and highest amount of self-reported physical activity. This group also had the lowest average BMI of the study participants ... Improving vitamin D status should improve quality of life and may decrease the risk of early death in people with severe obesity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Brain changes associated with casual marijuana use in young adults: More 'joints' equal more damage - Science Daily, 4/15/14 - "The team of scientists compared the size, shape, and density of the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala -- a brain region that plays a central role in emotion -- in 20 marijuana users and 20 non-users. Each marijuana user was asked to estimate their drug consumption over a three-month period, including the number of days they smoked and the amount of the drug consumed each day. The scientists found that the more the marijuana users reported consuming, the greater the abnormalities in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. The shape and density of both of these regions also differed between marijuana users and non-users ... This study raises a strong challenge to the idea that casual marijuana use isn't associated with bad consequences"

Abstracts from this week:

Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 15;6(4):1554-77 - "AA supplementation to the diabetic rats restored these responses to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, AA markedly upregulated the basal expression of GLUT1 in endothelial cells of nondiabetic and diabetic cortex, which did not affect total AA levels in the cortex. These results suggest that daily intake of AA attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via the improvement of augmented oxidative stress in the brain. AA supplementation may protect endothelial function against the exacerbated ischemic oxidative injury in the diabetic state and improve AA transport through SVCT2 in the cortex" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.

Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users - J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16;34(16):5529-38 - "Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures ... Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization" - [Video]

Associations Between Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplement Use and Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation - J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Apr 16 - "high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ... urinary prostaglandin E2-metabolite (PGE-M) ... High users (14 or more pills/week) of chondroitin had 36% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.04; p for trend=.03) and 27% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.5-0.98; p for trend=.07) than nonusers. Compared with nonusers, high users of glucosamine had 28% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.47-1.08; p for trend=.09) and 24% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97; p for trend=0.10)" - See chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com and glucosamine products at Amazon.com.

Associations between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of metachronous colorectal adenoma - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Apr 16 - "No relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and overall odds for metachronous lesions was observed, with ORs (95 % CIs) of 0.80 (0.60-1.07) and 0.81 (0.60-1.10) for participants in the second and third tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.17). However, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of proximal metachronous adenoma, with an OR (95 % CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98) for individuals in the highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.04). While there was no relationship overall between 1,25(OH)2D and metachronous distal lesions, there was a significantly reduced odds for women, but not men, in the highest 1,25(OH)2D tertile compared with the lowest (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.27-1.03; p-trend = 0.05; p-interaction = 0.08). The observed differences in associations with proximal and distal adenomas could indicate that delivery and activity of vitamin D metabolites in different anatomic sites in the colorectum varies, particularly by gender" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Taurine attenuates amyloid β 1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activating of SIRT1 in SK-N-SH cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 12 - "Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) ... Taurine, a naturally occurring β-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties ... Our results suggest that taurine prevents Aβ1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of SIRT1. This study implies that taurine is a prospective additive for AD patients" - See taurine at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 11;6(4):1501-18 - "A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27) ... Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Coll Nutr. 2014 Apr;33(2):163-75 - "A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify RCTs that investigated WP (concentrate, isolate, or hydrolystate) and body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, lean body mass (LBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and waist circumference ... Body weight (WGMD: -4.20 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.67, -0.73) and body fat (WGMD: -3.74 kg, 95% CI, -5.98, -1.50) were significantly decreased from baseline in the WPR within-group analyses ... Results from the subgroup analyses indicated a statistically significant increase in LBM (WGMD: 2.24 kg, 95% CI, 0.66, 3.81) among studies that included a resistance exercise component along with WP provision" - Note: 4.20 kg is 9.3 pounds.  See whey protein at Amazon.com.

Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar 31 - "Six studies comprising a total of 247 subjects were included in our meta-analysis. The overall outcome of the meta-analysis indicates that resveratrol consumption can not significantly reduce SBP and DBP. Subgroup analyses indicated that higher-dose of resveratrol consumption (≥150 mg/d) significantly reduces SBP of -11.90 mmHg (95% CI: -20.99, -2.81 mmHg, P = 0.01), whereas lower dose of resveratrol did not show a significant lowering effect on SBP" - Note:  A 12 point reduction in systolic is more than you’d get from prescription medication plus the systolic is what most have a problem with.  150 mg per day isn’t that big a dose.  I take 500 mg per day.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.comReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count is what I take.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

In-depth, hands-on review of Linksys WRT1900AC Wi-Fi router - PC World, 4/16/14 - "If speed is your most important consideration when shopping for a router, the WRT1900AC is the router to buy. If features are more important, and you’re willing to give up a little speed to get them, consider the Asus RT-AC68U or Netgear’s R7000 Nighthawk. The WRT1900AC isn't the most feature-laden router you can buy, but it is the fastest" - See Linksys WRT1900AC Wireless AC Dual Band Router AC1900 PreOrder (Latest Model). [CNET]

Health Focus (Aromatization/Gynecomastia):

Prescription aromatase inhibitors:

The Really Important Stuff:

  • Anastrozole (Arimidex) - anabolic-androgenic-steroids.com - "Anastrozole (Arimidex) is the aromatase inhibitor of choice ...With moderate doses of testosterone 0.5 mg/day is usually sufficient and in some cases may be too much" - Femara (letrozole) may not have been available at the time this article was written.
  • Chrysin: Is It An Effective Aromatase Inhibitor? - vrp.com - "Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any effective natural inhibitor of aromatase"
  • Aromatase Inhibition Offers Little Benefit, Possible Harm to Men With Lo... - Medscape, 12/22/09 - "The inescapable conclusion from these data is that the 50% increase in testosterone levels was trumped by the much more modest 20% reduction in estradiol levels, leading to negative skeletal effects of anastrozole therapy in aging men" - Note:  I'm not sure that thought this though thoroughly.  Mortally in men is best when estrogen is around 25pg/mL.  I suspect that most have higher estrogen than that.  See:

    • High, Low Estradiol Levels and Mortality in Men With Systolic HF - Medscape, 5/19/09 - "Both low and high serum levels of estradiol, compared with mid-range levels, are significantly and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality in men with chronic systolic heart failure"
      Serum Estradiol Concentration Quintiles as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Men (With Quintile 3 as the Reference Group)
      Parameter Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
      Estradiol concentration (pg/mL) <12.903 12.90–21.79 21.80–30.11 30.12–37.39 >37.40
      3-y survival* (%) 44.6 65.8 82.4 79.0 63.6
      Quintile as mortality predictor,* HR (95% CI) vs quintile 3 4.17 (2.33–7.45) 2.15 (1.16–3.99) -- 1.22 (0.64–2.31) 2.33 (1.30–4.18)
      HR= hazard ratio
  • High, Low Estradiol Levels and Mortality in Men With Systolic HF - Medscape, 5/19/09 - "Both low and high serum levels of estradiol, compared with mid-range levels, are significantly and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality in men with chronic systolic heart failure" - Note:  See my aromatization page for ways to reduce it.  I take a quarter tablet of letrozole every day.  See letrozole at OffshoreRX.com.
    Serum Estradiol Concentration Quintiles as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Men (With Quintile 3 as the Reference Group)
    Parameter Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
    Estradiol concentration (pg/mL) <12.903 12.90–21.79 21.80–30.11 30.12–37.39 >37.40
    3-y survival* (%) 44.6 65.8 82.4 79.0 63.6
    Quintile as mortality predictor,* HR (95% CI) vs quintile 3 4.17 (2.33–7.45) 2.15 (1.16–3.99) -- 1.22 (0.64–2.31) 2.33 (1.30–4.18)
    HR= hazard ratio
  • Letrozole once a week normalizes serum testosterone in obesity-related male hypogonadism - Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 May;158(5):741-7 - "Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is frequently observed in severely obese men, probably as a result of increased estradiol (E(2)) production and E(2)-mediated negative feedback on pituitary LH secretion. Aromatase inhibitors can reverse this process ... treated with 2.5 mg letrozole once a week for 6 months ... Six weeks of treatment reduced total E(2) from 123+/-11 to 58+/-7 pmol/l (P<0.001, mean+/-s.e.m.), and increased serum LH from 4.4+/-0.6 to 11.1+/-1.5 U/l (P<0.001). Total testosterone rose from 5.9+/-0.5 to 19.6+/-1.4 nmol/l (P<0.001), and free testosterone from 163+/-13 to 604+/-50 pmol/l (P<0.001). Total testosterone rose to within the normal range in all subjects, whereas free testosterone rose to supraphysiological levels in 7 out of 12 men ... Letrozole 2.5 mg once a week produced a sustained normalization of serum total testosterone in obese men with IHH. However, free testosterone frequently rose to supraphysiological levels. Therefore, a starting dose <2.5 mg once a week is recommended" - I've been taking a quarter table a day but it sounds like that's way to much an a quarter tablet every other day might be best which comes to 2.5 mg every 8 days.  People complain about the hassle to get doctors to prescribe testosterone.  It sounds like letrozole will give you the same or better numbers without the hassle.  Plus testosterone replacement increases estrogen but letrozole has the advantage of decreasing it.  See my aromatization page.
  • Long-term Consequences of the Aromatase Inhibitors - Medscape, 11/16/05 - "The "short-term toxicities," such as vasomotor symptoms, venothromboemboli, and gynecologic complications, favor the use of AIs. However, long-term bone loss, altered lipid profiles, and possible compromise in sexual functioning appear to be adversely affected by the AIs"
  • Letrozole normalizes serum testosterone in severely obese men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):211-5 - "Six weeks of treatment decreased serum estradiol from 120 +/- 20 to 70 +/- 9 pmol/l (p = 0.006). None of the subjects developed an estradiol level of less than 40 pmol/l. LH increased from 4.5 +/- 0.8 to 14.8 +/- 2.3 U/l (p < 0.001). Total testosterone rose from 7.5 +/- 1.0 to 23.8 +/- 3.0 nmol/l (p < 0.001) without a concomitant change in sex hormone-binding globulin level. Those treated with Letrozole 17.5 mg per week had an excessive LH response" - Note:  A half tablet per day would be 8.75 mg/week.  I believe 40 pmol/l of estradiol is 11.54 pg/mL and the normal value for men is 10 to 52 pg/mL (Quest says 10 to 50).  The way I read that, testosterone tripled.  I take a half tablet a day of Femara (letrozole).  See Femara at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Can Broccoli Prevent Lupus? - WebMD, 11/6/03 - "I3C is believed to act as an anti-estrogen ... I3C-fed mice had far fewer kidney problems than the mice whose diets were not supplemented, and researchers say this is the reason that they lived much longer. Kidney disease is one of the main, life-threatening complications of lupus" - See iHerb I3C products.
  • Why Testosterone Levels Decline  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "Clinical studies using testosterone injections, creams, or patches have often failed to provide a long-lasting, libido-enhancing effect in aging men (98). We now know why. The testosterone can be converted to estrogen. The estrogen is then taken up by testosterone receptor sites in cells throughout the body. When an estrogen molecule occupies a testosterone receptor site on a cell membrane, it blocks the ability of serum testosterone to induce a healthy hormonal signal. It does not matter how much serum free testosterone is available if excess estrogen is competing for the same cellular receptor sites"
  • Correcting A Hormone Imbalance  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "If all of the above fail to increase free testosterone and lower excess estradiol, then ask your doctor to prescribe the potent aromatase inhibiting drug Arimidex (anastrozole) in the very low dose of one-half (0.5 mg) mg, twice a week"
  • Androgel prescribing information - androgel.com - "Serum estradiol (E2) concentrations increased significantly within 30 days of starting treatment with AndroGel® 5 or 10 G/day and remained elevated throughout the treatment period but remained within the normal range for eugonadal men" - Yeah, but what if you are taking DHEA and what about testosterone/estrogen ratios.   See:
    • Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]"
  • Estrogen: The Unrecognized Male Hormone - IAS
  • Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Some men on testosterone drug replacement therapy develop dangerously high estrogen levels. Estrogen can be suppressed by taking an aromatase-inhibiting drug like Arimidex (0.5 mg twice a week) or using a supplement like Super Mira Forte (six capsules daily)" - See Arimidex at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]" - That's a 40% increase in the bad estrogen!  On top of that, if you are taking testosterone, that increases estrogen also.
  • Aromatase Inhibition Corrects Endocrinopathy In Infertile Men - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/01 - "investigators found that men with severe infertility had significantly lower testosterone (328 versus 543 ng/dl) and significantly higher oestradiol (58.4 versus 43.5 ng/l) than the fertile controls. As a result, the infertile men had much lower testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios ... These abnormalities were corrected in the 45 men who received testolactone and their testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios rose into the normal range"
  • Evidence of a Treatable Endocrinopathy in Infertile Men - J. of Urology, 3/01 - "We identified an endocrinopathy in men with severe male factor infertility that is characterized by a decreased serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio. This ratio can be corrected by aromatase inhibition, resulting in a significant improvement in semen parameters in oligospermic patients"
  • Replenish Testosterone Naturally - Life Extension Magazine, 1/00 - "Through a variety of mechanisms, aging men suffer from the dual effects of having too little testosterone and excess estrogen. The result is a testosterone/ estrogen imbalance that can severely inhibit sexual desire and performance ... Too much estrogen plays havoc with a man's sex life by binding to testosterone receptor sites and may contribute to the over-production of SHBG. SHBG binds free testosterone in a way that makes it unavailable to receptor sites in the brain, nerves and genitals."
  • Estrogen suppression in males: metabolic effects - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1836-8 - "First, a dose-response study of 12 males (mean age, 16.1 +/- 0.3 yr) was conducted, and blood withdrawn at baseline and after 10 days of oral Arimidex given as two different doses (either 0.5 or 1 mg) in random order with a 14-day washout in between. A sensitive estradiol (E2) assay showed an approximately 50% decrease in E2 concentrations with either of the two doses ... There was a 58% increase in serum T"
  • Male Hormone Modulation Therapy  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "One cause of hormone imbalance in men is that their testosterone is increasingly converted to estrogen. One report showed that estrogen levels of the average 54-year-old man are higher than those of the average 59-year-old woman . . . . High levels of estrogen have been implicated as a cause of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)"
  • Arimidex - Rxlist.com - "ARIMIDEX 1 mg, reduced estradiol by approximately 70% within 24 hours and by approximately 80% after 14 days of daily dosing"

News & Research:

  • Middle-Aged Men Can Blame Estrogen, Too - NYTimes.com, 9/11/13 - "Estrogen, the female sex hormone, turns out to play a much bigger role in men’s bodies than previously thought, and falling levels contribute to their expanding waistlines just as they do in women’s" - [WebMD] [Abstract] - Note:  Here's the study they cite but something isn't making sense.  It says "the percentage of body fat increased in groups receiving placebo or 1.25 g or 2.5 g of testosterone daily without anastrozole".  Anastrozole increases testosterone and decreases estrogen yet they're saying that body fat increased without the anastrozole implying that body fat decreased with the anastrozole (more testosterone, less estrogen).  See my aromatization page.  Personally I feel that this study is doing to way too many things that affect the endocrine system that makes the outcome suspect.  It's disturbing how the media is taking off with it like it's written in stone.  For example, how do they know that suppressing all those hormones at the beginning then artificially replacing some didn't also alter others such as insulin, cortisol, the thyroid hormones, etc. which might affect fat?  Blaming it on estrogen seems like a long shot.
    • Gonadal Steroids and Body Composition, Strength, and Sexual Function in Men - NEJM, 9/10/12 - "We provided 198 healthy men 20 to 50 years of age with goserelin acetate (to suppress endogenous testosterone and estradiol) and randomly assigned them to receive a placebo gel or 1.25 g, 2.5 g, 5 g, or 10 g of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. Another 202 healthy men received goserelin acetate, placebo gel or testosterone gel, and anastrozole (to suppress the conversion of testosterone to estradiol) ... The percentage of body fat increased in groups receiving placebo or 1.25 g or 2.5 g of testosterone daily without anastrozole (mean testosterone level, 44+/-13 ng per deciliter, 191+/-78 ng per deciliter, and 337+/-173 ng per deciliter, respectively). Lean mass and thigh-muscle area decreased in men receiving placebo and in those receiving 1.25 g of testosterone daily without anastrozole ... The amount of testosterone required to maintain lean mass, fat mass, strength, and sexual function varied widely in men. Androgen deficiency accounted for decreases in lean mass, muscle size, and strength; estrogen deficiency primarily accounted for increases in body fat; and both contributed to the decline in sexual function"
  • Obesity may influence heart function through sex hormones - Science Daily, 4/27/13 - "suggests effects on heart function in healthy men with artificially raised estrogen levels and artificially lowered testosterone levels to mimic an obese state ... Estradiol, an estrogen, is primarily known as a female hormone but it also circulates at very low levels in men. Testosterone is converted to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase, the activity of which might be increased in obesity leading to raised estradiol and reduced testosterone ... The men with obesity-related changes in sex hormones exhibited altered heart function ... We found that after increasing the estrogen levels and decreasing the testosterone levels in men for one week the deformation of the left heart chamber was significantly altered"
  • The Inhibitory Effects of the Standardized Extracts of Ginkgo biloba on Aromatase Activity in JEG-3 Human Choriocarcinoma Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Jan 21 - "There are many endocrine adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients that are categorized according to their mechanisms. Among them, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) that block the synthesis of estrogens have proven superiority compared with tamoxifen and have replaced it as a first-line hormonal therapy. However, AIs also have limitations due to their side effects - increased rate of bone loss and musculoskeletal complaints ... The extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which contain phytochemicals from the tree, had biphasic effects for estrogens and osteoporosis-inhibiting activities in our previous experiments. In this study, we explored the possibility of EGb as an AI and their mechanisms. Aromatase activities were inhibited by EGb both in JEG-3 cells and in recombinant CYP19 microsomes ... From these results, we concluded that EGb could act as an AI at both the enzyme and transcriptional levels" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Age Trends in Estradiol and Estrone Levels Measured Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Community-Dwelling Men of the Framingham Heart Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Oct 25 - "Estrone was positively associated with smoking, BMI, and testosterone, and total and free estradiol with diabetes, BMI, testosterone, and comorbid conditions; additionally, free estradiol was associated negatively with smoking ... Men in the highest quintile of estrone levels had significantly higher age and BMI, and a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than others, whereas those in the highest quintile of estradiol had higher BMI than others ... Total estrone and estradiol levels in men, measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealed significant age-related increases that were only partially accounted for by cross-sectional differences in BMI, diabetes status, and other comorbidities and health behaviors"
  • Higher endogenous estrogen levels in 70-year-old women and men: an endogenous response to counteract developing atherosclerosis? - Menopause. 2012 Sep 17 - "Low androgen levels, high aromatase enzyme activity (estrone [E1]/androstenedione and estradiol [E2]/testosterone), high E2/E1 ratio, and high estrogen levels (E1, E2, estriol, and E2/sex hormone-binding globulin) were consistently associated (often significantly) with a more unhealthy artery wall (thick intima, thin media, and high IMT ratio) in both sexes. Consistently strong associations were found between the aromatase index E2/testosterone and intima, media, and the IMT ratio. For IMT ratio, in both men (rs = 0.52) and women (rs = 0.58), P was <0.001 for both and remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors and the Framingham risk score (both P < 0.01)" - Note:  I'm not a doctor but it seems like taking a quarter tablet of letrozole every second or third day as I'm doing would control this.  See letrozole at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Reducing the side effects of treatment for prostate cancer - Science Daily, 8/24/12 - "tamoxifen reduced the risk of both gynecomastia and breast pain at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment compared to men who received no treatment. Overall, treatment with tamoxifen was more successful in reducing breast symptoms than treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (anastrazole) or radiotherapy" - Note:  They left out Femara (letrozole).
  • Drugs for hair loss and benign prostatic hyperplasia may result in loss of libido, erectile dysfunction in men - Science Daily, 1/11/11 - "5a-reductase inhibitors (5a-RIs), while improving urinary symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and possible hair loss prevention, produces significant adverse effects in some individuals including loss of libido, erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction and potential depression" - Note:  That goes back and forth.  One study claimed that finasteride improved sex after after six months of taking it.  Regarding gynaecomastia, if you're taking low dose letrozole to increase testosterone and to prevent aromatization it many also help prevent gynaecomastia.
  • Sex Hormones and the Risk of Incident Prostate Cancer - Urology. 2010 May 6 - "Serum testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were assayed at baseline ... the mean age was 73 years. Higher serum estrone was strongly related to an increased risk of prostate cancer: compared with men in the lower quartile, the risk of prostate cancer among those in the highest 3 quartiles (>24.9 pg/dL) was nearly 4-fold higher (adjusted heart rate = 3.93, CI: 1.61-9.57). Other sex hormones were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer" - The following results for estrone are for women.   I didn't find any results for men but see the "For Aromatization (in males):" section on my letrozole page.
  • Aromatase Explains Why Testosterone Increases Breast Cancer Rate - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 May 12 - "All of this is consistent with the increase in breast cancer observed in postmenopausal women who had higher serum testosterone levels being due to the resulting increase in the local level of estradiol in the breast tissue"
  • Obesity Linked To Hormone Imbalance That Impacts Sexual Quality Of Life - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "In our study population, we found that lower testosterone levels and diminished ratings for sexual quality of life were correlated with increased BMI ... Subjects who lost weight through bariatric surgery experienced a reduction in estradiol levels, an increase in testosterone levels and an increase in ratings of sexual quality of life" - Another way to increase testosterone and decrease estradiol is with letrozole.  I take a quarter tablet every other day.
  • Short-term aromatase inhibition: effects on glucose metabolism and serum leptin levels in young and elderly men - Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Dec 2 - "Ten elderly and nine young healthy men were randomized to receive letrozole 2.5 mg daily or placebo for 28 days in a crossover design. Results: Both in young and elderly men, active treatment significantly increased serum testosterone (+128 and +99%, resp.) and decreased estradiol levels (-41 and -62%, resp.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels decreased in young men after active intervention (-7 and -37%, resp.) compared to placebo. Leptin levels fell markedly in both age groups (-24 and -25%, resp.), while adiponectin levels were not affected by the intervention. Lipid profile was slightly impaired in both groups, with increasing LDL-cholesterol levels (+14%) in the younger age group and 10% lower levels of ApoA1 in the elderly. A decline in IGF-1 levels (-15%) was observed in the younger age group. No changes in weight or BMI were observed in either young or old men" - Note:  I take a quarter tablet of letrozole every other day to prevent aromatization.  See letrozole at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Sex Hormones Link To Heart Risk - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "one of the sex hormones - estradiol - was associated positively with total cholesterol and negatively with HDL-cholesterol. Circulating concentrations of another sex hormone - estrone - showed strong positive associations with both total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol ... Thus, men with the highest concentrations of estrone and estradiol may have the highest level of cardiovascular risk as their levels of detrimental LDL-cholesterol are high whilst their cardio-protective HDL-cholesterol is low"
  • Letrozole suppresses plasma estradiol and estrone sulphate more completely than anastrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer - J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1671-6 - "Letrozole reduces plasma E2 and E1S levels to a significantly greater extent than anastrozole"
  • Male Breast Enlargement May Be Common - WebMD, 9/19/07 - "Underlying the condition is an imbalance of estrogen and testosterone. When estrogen levels get too high, the breasts can begin to grow"
  • The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression - Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug 29;:1-8 - "Biochanin A is an isoflavone isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense) ... Isoflavones resemble the structure of oestrogen, and display agonistic and antagonistic interactions with the oestrogen receptor. Overexposure of oestrogen is a major contributing factor in the development of breast cancer ... In the present study the effect of biochanin A on the gene regulation and enzyme activity of aromatase was investigated. By assaying MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19, biochanin A inhibited aromatase activity and hampered cell growth attributing to the enzyme activity" - See red clover at Amazon.com.
  • Elevated Serum Estradiol Ups Stroke Risks - Physician's Weekly, 5/7/07 - "High levels of serum estradiol may increase the risk of stroke in elderly men"
  • High Estrogen Levels Associated With Dementia In Older Men; No Association Observed With Testosterone - Science Daily, 7/24/06 - "Levels of bioavailable testosterone were not associated with risk of cognitive decline and incident dementia," they report. "In contrast, higher levels of bioavailable estradiol were associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease." For each standard deviation increase in estradiol level, the risk for the disease went up by 25 percent" - I take a quarter tablet of Femara to keep estrogen low. - Ben
  • Five Years on Anastrozole Can Promote Progression to Osteoporosis - Medscape, 6/12/06 - "Women taking anastrozole also had about a 40% increased risk of fractures while on the study ... At 5 years, women taking anastrozole lost 6.1% of BMD at the hip and 7.2% at the spine ... women with a normal BMD at baseline did not develop osteoporosis" - It's something to think about for men taking anastrozole for aromatization.
  • Shrinking Male Breasts? - Dr. Weil, 4/12/06
  • Declining Estradiol Levels More Predictive of Fracture Risk Than Low Testosterone in Aging Men - Doctor's Guide, 10/8/04 - "While low levels of free testosterone are a predictor of hip-bone loss, declines in estradiol levels play a stronger role than testosterone"
  • New-Onset Depression Linked to Tamoxifen - Doctor's Guide, 5/25/03 - "Results show a rate of new-onset depression of 17.82% in the tamoxifen group and 14.34% in the no-tamoxifen group" - It seems like the same might be true for men taking tamoxifen to prevent aromatization.
  • Several Options Available for Androgen Replacement Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/03 - "Side effects of exogenous androgen therapies are mood changes, polycythemia, gynecomastia, exacerbation of sleep apnea, and in some patients, acne"
  • I have read that Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) actually increases the activity of aromatase enzyme and that DIM does not - Life Extension Magazine, 3/01 - "In one study, men received I3C for one week; a profile of 13 estrogens was measured. The results were that I3C significantly increased the urinary excretion of C-2 estrogens. The urinary concentrations of nearly all other estrogen metabolites, including levels of estradiol, estrone, estriol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone, were lower after I3C treatment [J Natl Cancer Inst 1997 May 21;89(10):718-23]. On the other hand, studies have shown that DIM can actually induce aromatase activity with a two-fold increase [Toxicol Sci 2001 May;61(1):40-8]" - The following are the two references for that statement:
  • Estrogen - the Unrecognized Male Hormone - Rick Cohen, MD
  • The Cruciferous Choice: DIM or I3C? - Michael A. Zeligs, M.D. - "It is well documented that estrogen accumulates in the prostate gland starting at age 50 (42) and that estrogen is associated with the degree of prostate enlargement ... Using DIM in men avoids accelerating testosterone metabolism, especially regarding unwanted conversion of testosterone into estrogen. In the safety study reported (11), I3C and not DIM increased activity of "aromatase" (CYP19), the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone into estrogen"
  • Aromatase Inhibition Corrects Endocrinopathy In Infertile Men - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/01 - "investigators found that men with severe infertility had significantly lower testosterone (328 versus 543 ng/dl) and significantly higher oestradiol (58.4 versus 43.5 ng/l) than the fertile controls. As a result, the infertile men had much lower testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios ... These abnormalities were corrected in the 45 men who received testolactone and their testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios rose into the normal range"
  • Evidence of a Treatable Endocrinopathy in Infertile Men - J. of Urology, 3/01 - "We identified an endocrinopathy in men with severe male factor infertility that is characterized by a decreased serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio. This ratio can be corrected by aromatase inhibition, resulting in a significant improvement in semen parameters in oligospermic patients"
  • Femara (Letrozole) Significantly More Effective Than Tamoxifen In Treating Advanced Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/00
  • Diagnosis and Management of Male Breast Enlargement in Patients With HIV/AIDS - Medscape, 12/00
  • Aromasin Now Available In US For Advanced Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 1/24/00
  • Should Aging Men Take Testosterone Drugs?  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99
  • Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids - Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Jun;22(3):309-12 - "Over 50% of the flavonoids significantly inhibited aromatase activity, with greatest activity being demonstrated with apigenin (IC50: 0.9 microg/mL), chrysin (IC50: 1.1 microg/mL), and hesperetin (IC50: 1.0 microg/mL)"
  • I3C/DIM - Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis Foundation
  • Flavonoid inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity in human preadipocytes - J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 Sep;46(3):381-8 - "Chrysin, the most potent of the naturally-occurring flavonoids, was similar in potency and effectiveness to AG, a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor used clinically in cases of estrogen-dependent carcinoma."
  • Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones - Science. 1984 Sep 7;225(4666):1032-4
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