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Home > Anti-aging Research > Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Clinical trial supports CLA’s weight management in obese Chinese - Nutra USA, 2/17/12 - "Twelve weeks of supplementation produced an average 0.7 kg decrease in body weight and an average decrease in total body fat of 0.6 kg ... milk supplemented with CLA (3.4 g/d for 12 wk) ... used the Tonalin branded ingredient from BASF" - [Abstract] - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol may be useful tool for reducing body fat - Science Daily, 3/4/11 - "This thesis shows, on the one hand, the results obtained after treatment with CLA in hamsters subjected to energy restriction and, on the other, the effect of resveratrol on accumulated fat and lipolytic activity in cell cultures of adipocytes of murinae and humans. The results obtained show that CLA does not foment weight or body fat loss, induced by an energy restriction diet. Neither does it induce greater lipolysis, nor improvement in serum parameters, in glucose homeostasis or insulin function to any greater extent than with the slimming diet itself. On the contrary, resveratrol reduces the accumulation of triglycerides, in part by activation of lipolysis, in both the adipocytes of mice and of humans ... For all these reasons, it can be concluded that, while CLA may not be a molecule useful in treating obesity, when resveratrol is included in hypocaloric diet, it could well be a useful tool for reducing body fat" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - "engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). When this engineered bacterial strain was fed to mice, the researchers found that the composition of the mice's fat tissue was significantly altered ... One type, called t10, c12 CLA, has been shown to be associated with decreased body fat in humans and other animals. t10, c12 CLA also has the ability to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells and induce their death. However, this type of CLA is only produced by certain types of bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes -- a skin bacterium that can cause acne ... In this study, an enzyme-encoding gene from P. acnes was transferred to the Lactobacillus strain allowing it to produce t10, c12 CLA ... CLA has already been shown to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that often accompanies obesity. Therefore, increasing levels of CLA in the liver by ingestion of a probiotic strain is of therapeutic relevance ... The same group of researchers previously found that microbially produced CLA was able to reduce the viability of colon cancer cells by 92%"
  • Got fish? Nutrition studies explore health benefits - Science Daily, 10/8/10 - "DHA protected the animals against two harmful side effects of CLA: CLA-induced insulin resistance and CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease. In contrast, EPA offered only partial protection against CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and provided no protection against insulin resistance" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • CLA may protect against elderly muscle loss - Nutra USA, 7/24/09 - "Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevented age-related muscle loss in mice ... After six months the researchers note that both the trans-10 cis-12 and CLA-mix showed “significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to corn oil and cis-9 trans-11 CLA groups” ... Both groups also exhibited increased cellular energy production (ATP), as well as higher levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the muscles, compared to the corn oil and cis-9 trans-11 CLA groups"
  • Two Dietary Oils, Two Sets Of Benefits For Older Women With Diabetes - Science Daily, 7/15/09 - "In the study, 16 weeks of supplementation with safflower oil reduced fat in the trunk area, lowered blood sugar and increased muscle tissue in the women participants ... Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for the same length of time, on the other hand, reduced total body fat and lowered the women’s body mass index (BMI), a common health measure of weight relative to height"
  • Dietary trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Early Glomerular Enlargement and Elevated Renal Cyclooxygenase-2 Levels in Young Obese fa/fa Zucker Rats - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) slows the progression of disease in models of chronic kidney disease ... To examine specific isomer effects, study 2 used the same model with the following diets: 0.4% (g/g) cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) CLA; 0.4% trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA; a combination of these 2 isomers (0.4% each); or CTL diets with no CLA. In study 1, fa/fa rats given the CLA mixture had 11% smaller kidney weights and 28% smaller glomeruli, and feed intake and body weight did not differ from the CTL rats. In study 2, diet also did not affect body weights, but fa/fa rats given a diet containing t10,c12 CLA had 7% lower kidney weights, 20% smaller glomeruli, and 39% lower COX-2 protein levels than CTL rats. In conclusion, dietary t10,c12 CLA reduces the enlargement of glomeruli in young obesity-associated nephropathy and is associated with lower protein levels of renal COX-2"
  • Organic Free Grazing Cows Are Cream Of The Crop - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "organic farmers who let their cows graze as nature intended are producing better quality milk ... During the summer months, one of the beneficial fats in particular – conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA9 – was found to be 60% higher"
  • Obese children may benefit from CLA: study - Nutra USA, 2/29/08 - "when these results were compared to those from the placebo tests, CLA improved fat loss at a rate of 0.024 kg per gram of CLA per week" - [Abstract] - Note:  0.024 kg = 0.1 lbs so the normal 3 gram dose would be 0.3 pounds per week. It might not sound like much but 0.3 x 52 = 15.6 pounds per year.
  • Creatine In Addition To Exercise Enhances Strength In Older Adults - Science Daily, 10/2/07 - "The exercise training resulted in improvements of functional ability and strength in all participants, but those taking the CrM and CLA showed even greater gains in muscle endurance, an increase in fat-free mass and a decrease in the percentage of body fat"
  • CLA isomers show promise against colon cancer - study - Nutra USA, 9/24/07 - "We have demonstrated that diets containing 0.1 per cent c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo" - [Abstract] - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Get the diet scoop: 6 promising supplements, 6 to avoid - CNN, 2/16/07 - "promising ... Caffeine ... EGCG ... Chromium ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) ... 5-HTP ... L-dopa or L-tyrosine"
  • Weight-loss Supplement Shows Good And Bad Traits - Science Daily, 2/1/07 - "Mice fed a CLA-supplemented diet lost weight very fast, but also accumulated excessive amounts of fat in their livers – a common side effect of rapid weight loss. Excessive fat accumulation in the liver is linked to insulin resistance, a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes"
  • CLA continues to offer possibilities for bone health - Nutra USA, 10/2/06 - "After 10 weeks of either diet, it was found that the CLA-fed mice had higher bone mineral density (BMD) in specific bone regions than corn oil (CO)-fed mice. This increased BMD was tied to a reduced activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) ... the CLA-fed mice also had significantly lower fat mass and increased muscle mass, compared to CO-fed mice"
  • CLA could cut 'weight creep' during holidays, ageing - Nutra USA, 8.22/06 - "the subjects taking CLA safely reduced their body fat mass by one kilogram (2.2 lbs) and their body weight by 0.6 kg (1.3 lbs). In comparison, those in the placebo group gained 0.7 kg (1.5 lbs) of body fat mass and 1.1 kg (2.4 lbs) of body weight during the months that are especially problematic for overweight people ... the majority of studies that have reported positive results have all been performed with Tonalin CLA… which has a very high concentration of the bioactive isomers cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12"
  • Compound In Dairy Products Targets Diabetes - Science Daily, 8/4/06 - "Researchers first became interested in CLA when it was shown to inhibit a variety of cancers such as breast, skin and colon in mice, and further research showed effects on circulating cholesterol and inflammation ... he used CLA on mice prone to adult onset (Type-2) diabetes. Results indicated that the mice had an improvement in insulin action, and a decrease in circulating glucose" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon CLA products.
  • CLA Weight Loss Debate Continues - WebMD, 5/22/06 - "for six months ... Three months into the study, the CLA group had lost an extra 1.5 pounds of body fat, compared to the placebo group ... At the study’s end, the CLA group lost 5.6% more body fat mass than those taking the placebo. The CLA group also lost about 3.3 pounds more than the placebo group"
  • CLA’s body-shaping action clarified in new trial - Nutra USA, 5/10/06 - "at the end of the six months the effect on fat mass was seen to be around 2kg compared to the placebo ... Lean body mass was seen to increase by an average of 0.4kg in the CLA group"
  • Pine Nut Oil Boosts Appetite Suppressors Up To 60 Percent For 4 Hours - Science Daily, 4/4/06 - "CLA differentially reduces fat mass in men and women in just 3 months ... After six months, there was an average fat mass loss of 2 kilos corresponding to about 6% fat loss. At the same time, "overall body weight loss was 'only' 1.5 kilos because there was a gain in muscle mass,""
  • CLA Doesn't Keep Pounds Off - WebMD, 3/10/06 - "there were no significant differences in body weight or body fat regain between the two groups. Both groups gained an average of about 9 pounds in body weight and more than 4 pounds in body fat during the study"
  • A Fatty Acid Found In Milk May Help Control Inflammatory Diseases - Science Daily, 11/8/05 - "CLA, which is synthesized by microbial fermentation in the rumen of dairy cows, exists naturally in a number of structural forms. Cook's team determined that one of the variants inhibits the COX-2 protein"
  • How CLA fights inflammatory disease - Nutra USA, 10/19/05 - "one of the CLA isomers is a natural regulator of the COX-2 protein"
  • CLA, full-fat dairy linked to lower bowel cancer risk - foodnavigator-usa.com, 10/10/05
  • CLA’s success rests on science - ffnmag.com, 6/05 - "Tonalin is heavily researched and backed by clinical science, whereas most of the competition is backed by marketing dollars, not research ... CLA has been on the market since 1996 and continues to grow steadily, as we market responsibly based on clinical research"
  • Weight Loss and Other Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Life Extension Magazine, 6/05 - "Researchers concluded that a dose of 3.4 grams results in significant body-fat loss compared to placebo, but that greater amounts of CLA do not result in greater fat loss"
  • Supplement Shows Promise for Body Fat Loss - WebMD, 4/1/05 - "The group that had already been taking CLA lost no more weight or body fat, but they maintained the body fat losses seen in the previous year. People who began taking the supplement during year two of the study lost an average of 3.5 pounds and also saw reductions in overall body fat"
  • Anti-Cancer Cows? - CBS 2 Chicago, 1/31/05 - "Studies in cell lines and animal models have shown CLA to be effective at preventing the formation of tumors ... research has also shown CLA can destroy cancerous cells ... the fatty acid may be effective in stopping breast cancer tumors"
  • Gold Cognis Innovation Award for Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Products for a Balanced Nutrition - NPI Center, 1/12/05 - "In 2002 an agreement with Natural ASA (Norway) was signed, which grants Cognis an exclusive license for intellectual property and the trademark Tonalin®. If CLA products are to succeed, a high level of isomeric purity is essential, and thanks to an ongoing research program ... A recent study found that CLA helps to reduce body fat mass in overweight but otherwise healthy adults by as much as nine percent, and helps to maintain lean muscle, resulting in an improved muscle-to-fat ratio"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Often Has Mixed Effects in Type 2 DM - Medscape, 10/1/04 - "received CLA (3.0 g/day; 50:50 blend of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA) or placebo for eight weeks ... CLA supplementation increased fasting glucose concentrations by 6.3% ... total HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 8%"
  • Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "Life Extension recommends that people seeking to lose weight consume the following supplements: ... Chromium polynicotinate 600-1000 mcg daily ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) 3000-4000 mg daily ... PGX™ highly viscous fiber blend 1000-3000 mg 5-10 minutes before each meal with 8-16 ounces of water ... Consider asking your doctor to prescribe 500 mg two to three times daily of the insulin-normalizing drug metformin"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Reduces Body Fat Mass - Medscape, 5/28/04 - "Body weight (-1.1 +/- 3.7 kg for the FFA and -1.8 +/- 3.4 kg for the triacylglycerol group) and BMI (-0.4 +/- 1.2 kg/m2 for the FFA and -0.6 +/-1.2 kg/m2 for the triacylglycerol group) decreased significantly in the two CLA groups at month 12 compared with the placebo group which had no change" - Note:  1.1 kg is 2.4 pounds.
  • CLA: The New Miracle Weight Loss Pill? - WebMD, 5/24/04 - "Both CLA groups lost weight -- about 4 pounds; the placebo group stayed the same ... The CLA syrup group had a 9% body fat loss; the CLA pill group had 7% loss; the placebo group had no body fat loss ... The increased lipoprotein levels may be a byproduct of fat loss, says Gaullier. "The body does show inflammation caused by the process of eliminating fat. We think this is what is happening, but we don't know for certain.""
  • CLA combined with cellulite therapy shows dramatic improvement - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03 - "60 women were assigned to three groups; one, taking an herbal anti-cellulite pill alone, and two other groups taking the herbal pill plus 400 mg and 800 mg of CLA, respectively ... of the women taking the combination treatment with the highest dosage of CLA, eleven showed improvement in cellulite, two displaying "marked improvement." The average loss in thigh circumference was nearly one inch"
  • Got Milk - WebMD, 9/27/02 - "She explains that conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA, is the key to the cow's role in cancer prevention. CLA is a minor fatty acid found in milk and milk products and beef"
  • Novel Method of Enhancing Anti-Fat Effects of CLA - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "The results of this study demonstrate that dietary CLA decreases excess fat accumulation by reducing the capacity of adipocytes to store fat. When guarana is added to CLA, there is an additional effect of reduction in adipocyte number, as well as a decrease in adipocyte size. The impact of this finding in preventing obesity is profound ... CLA improves insulin sensitivity ... CLA is not just for fat-loss. Studies show it may help protect against many diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer ... CLA is also able to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer. CLA, as the article went on to say, can be considered a powerful prostate cancer preventative, as well as a partial treatment"
  • Weight Loss, Slimming, and Diabetes-Management Supplements (Chromium, CLA, and Pyruvate) review - ConsumerLab.com, 4/3/02 - "ConsumerLab.com purchased a total of 18 supplements: 7 CLA products, 7 chromium products, 2 pyruvate products, and 2 combination products (one with pyruvate and chromium and the other containing chromium, Garcinia cambogia, CLA, L-carnitine and other ingredients)"
  • Drink To Breast Health - Intelihealth, 10/9/01 - "Possible anti-cancer factors found in milk include calcium, vitamin D and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). A recent Finnish study found that women with breast cancer had significantly lower levels of CLA in their diets and blood, compared with women without breast cancer. CLA has been shown to block the local growth and spread of breast cancer in animal studies"
  • Controlling Diabetes the Natural Way - Life Extension Magazine, 12/00 - "While studies to date have shown CLA to be effective preventive therapy for cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases, the latest findings presented at the 220th national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS), August 2000, suggest a role for the compound in both glucose control and weight loss."
  • CLA and Cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 4/00 - "Conjugated Linoleic Acid's (CLA) powerful anti-cancer effects are in the news again! In the Journal of Nutrition (1999 December), a paper was published showing significant cancer preventing properties when CLA was added to the diet."
  • Nutritional supplement (CLA) may support attempts at weight loss - CNN, 8/21/00 - "A popular dietary supplement appears to help people to lose weight and keep it off, as well as control adult-onset diabetes, according to findings presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society."
  • Studies of CLA Have Promising Results - WebMD, 8/20/00 - "But it is important to look for credible brands of CLA, cautions Pariza, whose team used a 'high grade' version that was more than 90% pure: "There's a lot of junk out there.""

Abstracts:

  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Trans-10, Cis-12 and Cis-9, Trans-11 Prevent Collagen-Induced Arthritis in a Direct Comparison - Lipids. 2018 Sep 27 - "DBA/1 mice were fed a semipurified diet containing 6% corn oil (CO), 5.5% CO and 0.5% CLAt10c12, or 5.5% CO and 0.5% CLAc9t11 (n = 27 per diet) starting three weeks before CA primary immunization. Effects on disease incidence and severity, anticollagen antibodies, plasma and paw cytokines, and hepatic fatty acids were measured. Arthritis incidence was reduced by a minimum of 34% in mice fed either CLA isomer compared to those fed CO diet (p = 0.06). In mice that did develop arthritis (n = 9-12 mice per treatment), CLAt10c12 reduced arthritic severity to a greater extent than CLAc9t11 and CO (p = 0.03). CLA isomer treatment attenuated the increased hepatic arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) observed with arthritis at one-week postonset (p = 0.03), while no differences in anticollagen antibodies or cytokines were observed between dietary treatments" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-c9t11 Prevents Collagen-Induced Arthritis, Whereas Conjugated Linoleic Acid-t10c12 Increases Arthritic Severity - Lipids. 2017 Mar 15 - "CLAt10c12 had no effect on arthritis incidence but increased arthritic severity (42%, P = 0.02); however, CLAc9t11 decreased arthritis incidence 39% compared to CO fed mice (P = 0.01), but had no effect on disease severity. CLAt10c12-induced increase in anti-collagen type II IgG antibodies may be a mechanism by which this isomer increased arthritic severity, and CLAc9t11-induced increase in Th2 paw cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10, P ≤ 0.04) may explain how CLAc9t11 reduced the arthritis incidence. While both isomers are well known to reduce inflammation in arthritic mice, these new data suggest isomer differences when fed prior to autoimmune disease"
  • CLA Supplementation and Aerobic Exercise Lower Blood Triacylglycerol, but Have No Effect on Peak Oxygen Uptake or Cardiorespiratory Fatigue Thresholds - Lipids. 2014 Jul 18 - "were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group ... Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid specifically increases tissue α-tocopherol mediated by PPARγ inhibition in mice - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 May 19:1-7 - "The increase in liver vitamin E status in CLA-fed mice is mainly due to the effect of PPARγ inhibition" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice by Modulating Both Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoblastogenesis - Lipids. 2013 Dec 13 - "Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality ... Eight-week old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containing 0.5 % safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5 % CLA for 24 weeks ... In conclusion, CLA may prevent postmenopausal bone loss not only by inhibiting excessive bone resorption due to estrogen deficiency but also by stimulating new bone formation. CLA might be a potential alternative therapy against osteoporotic bone loss"
  • Dietary trans-10,cis-12 CLA Reduces Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis in a Dose-Dependent Manner - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "Mice were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5% t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased linearly overall [16-65% (P < 0.001) and 0.5-12% (P < 0.001), respectively] as dietary t10c12-CLA increased (P < 0.001, R2 < 0.81). Increasing dietary t10c12-CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days 21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25% t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of treatment; however, an arthritis-induced elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R2 = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α"
  • Cross-sectional study of conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "The cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was associated with a lower risk of diabetes. In comparison with the first quintile, the PR (95% CI) for the fifth quintile was 0.48 (0.31, 0.76) (P-trend = 0.0005) in the basic and 0.46 (0.29, 0.72) (P-trend = 0.0002) in the multivariable model. Additional adjustment for other fatty acids in adipose tissue including trans-9 16:1, which is a fatty acid that was previously associated with diabetes, did not modify the results ... The observed inverse association between the cis-9, trans-11 CLA in adipose tissue and diabetes risk is consistent with the hypothesis that CLA may be involved in insulin regulation"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid modulates immune responses in patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's disease - Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr 19 - "Thirteen patients with mild to moderately active CD were enrolled in an open-label study of CLA (6 g/d orally) for 12 weeks ... CD activity index (CDAI) ... Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) ... CLA significantly suppressed the ability of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets to produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 and lymphoproliferation at week 12. There was a statistically significant drop in CDAI from 245 to 187 (P = 0.013) and increase in IBDQ from 141 to 165 (P = 0.017) on week 12"
  • Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on blood pressure, adipocyte size and function - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 23:1-9 - "Consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to modulate cytokine release from adipocytes and positively influence blood pressure in younger rats, but its physiological actions in older models with established hypertension and isomer-specific effects on adipocyte size remain to be determined. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CLA isomers on adipocyte size in relation to blood pressure and adipokine production by hypertrophic adipocytes in older fa/fa Zucker rats with established hypertension. fa/fa Zucker rats were fed with cis(c)9, trans(t)11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA isomers for 8 weeks and compared with lean and obese rats fed with the control diet. Blood pressure and adipocyte size were subsequently measured. Collagenase-isolated adipocytes were size-separated and angiotensinogen and adiponectin protein levels quantified by Western blotting. The t10, c12-CLA group had reduced blood pressure, fewer large adipocytes and increased serum adiponectin. Angiotensinogen was present at higher levels in the large adipocytes, whereas the converse was observed for adiponectin. The beneficial effects of the t10, c12-CLA isomer on blood pressure and adipocyte size in vivo may be due to its ability to reduce the number of large adipocytes, which alters the levels of vasoactive molecules secreted from adipose tissue"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid isomers may diminish human macrophages adhesion to endothelial surface - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Jul 1 - "Both CLA isomers decreased expression of VLA-4 and Mac-1 on macrophages compared with control cells (cultured with bovine serum albumine (BSA) or oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins). cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the endothelium surface. Strong tendency to reduce of adhesion of macrophages to HUVEC in the cells cultured with CLA isomers was observed. The potential role of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the reduction of adhesion of macrophages to the HUVEC - one of the important steps in the inflammatory process, can be considerate. These mechanisms may contribute to the potent anti-atherosclerotic effects of CLA in vivo"
  • The effect of conjugated linoleic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Jan 27 - "Our study suggests that short-term high intakes of cis-9,trans-11 CLA do not affect BP in healthy volunteers"
  • Influence of diet enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Nov 2;9(1):126 - "Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark) given intragastrically) and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene) ... Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil) and delayed the cancer induction"
  • Individual Isomers of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduce Inflammation Associated with Established Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1 Mice - J Nutr. 2010 Jun 23 - "corn oil (CO) ... Dietary c9t11- and combined-CLA similarly decreased the arthritic score (29%, P = 0.036, P = 0.049, respectively, when normalized to initial score) and paw thickness (0.11 mm, P = 0.027, P = 0.035, respectively) compared with CO. Dietary t10c12-CLA reduced the arthritic score (41%, P = 0.007 when normalized) and paw thickness (0.12 mm, P = 0.013) relative to CO. Reduced interleukin-1beta on d 7 and 21 for all CLA treatments (n = 3) relative to CO suggested that antiinflammatory effects of CLA isomers might work by common mechanisms of known pathways involved in chronic inflammation. In conclusion, dietary CLA reduced inflammation associated with CIA, and both c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA exhibited antiinflammatory effects"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPAR{gamma} - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood ... Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism"
  • The 10t,12c isomer of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits fatty acid synthase expression and enzyme activity in human breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells - Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(1):116-21 - "We first confirmed and extended the results of others showing that the inhibitory action of CLA on proliferation is dependent on the cell type as well as the structure of the isomer, the 10,12 isomer being a more potent inhibitor than the 9,11 isomer in the concentration range 25-100 microM. By Western analysis, we showed that 10,12 CLA downregulated FAS expression in all of the cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but the 9,11 isomer had no effect. Both isomers inhibited FAS enzyme activity, but 10,12 CLA was again more potent than the 9,11 isomer. Our results suggest that downregulation of FAS by 10,12 CLA, but not by the 9,11 isomer, as well as inhibition of FAS enzyme activity by both isomers, may contribute to growth inhibition of cancer cells but only at relatively high concentrations" - Note:  I wish they would state brand names instead of leaving the reader with trying to figure which brand correlates with which isomers.
  • Liver Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of Insulin-Deficient Mice Is Altered by trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid - J Nutr. 2009 Aug 19 - "Feeding mice the trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and liver steatosis. It has been hypothesized that CLA-induced liver steatosis is the result of increased hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by high insulin levels. We studied the effects of a 12-d t10c12CLA treatment (1 g/100 g diet) on liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice. STZ mice were characterized by insulin deficiency, hypertriglyceridemia, and depletion of liver triglyceride and glycogen. Remarkably, feeding t10c12CLA to diabetic mice (STZ-CLA) normalized these variables. Reconstitution of fat stores in the livers of STZ-CLA mice was associated with lower fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates and greater malonyl-CoA concentration than in STZ mice. FA translocase and VLDL receptor mRNA levels were greater in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, suggesting that t10c12CLA increased liver lipid uptake. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels and AMP kinase phosphorylation were lower in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, indicating that t10c12CLA may reduce glucogenic activity and promote glycogenesis in diabetic mice. Because glycemia and glucokinase expression were not modified by t10c12CLA treatment, we postulated that glycogen accumulation is likely not the result of an effect of t10c12CLA on plasma glucose utilization, but rather is due to the contribution of lactate, the concentration of which was higher in muscle of STZ-CLA mice. The results demonstrate that t10c12CLA stimulates liver lipid accumulation in the absence of insulin and, thus, suggest that t10c12CLA can improve liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in type I diabetic mice"
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acids on functional properties of vascular cells - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22:1-18 - "Based on these studies, it can be concluded that CLA exert several beneficial actions in cells of the vascular wall through the activation of nuclear PPAR. These actions of CLA, which may, at least partially, explain the inhibition of atherogenesis by dietary CLA, include modulation of vasoactive mediator release from endothelial cells, inhibition of inflammatory and fibrotic processes in activated smooth muscle cells, abrogation of inflammatory responses in activated macrophages, and reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells"
  • Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 17 - "Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2009 Jun 3 - "Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass (FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9,trans11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA) (CLA-mix); 2) cis9, trans11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA); or 3) control (olive oil) ... The CLA-mix group had less total FM (4%) and lower-body FM (7%) than the control (P = 0.02 and < 0.001, respectively). Post hoc analyses showed that serum insulin concentrations were greater in the CLA-mix group (34%) than the control group (P = 0.02) in the highest waist circumference tertile only ... In conclusion, a 50:50 mixture of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA isomers resulted in less total and lower-body FM in postmenopausal women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile" - As with all CLA studies, I wish they would state brand names instead of leaving it to the reader to figure out which mixture corresponds to which brand name.  I've seen studies where some isomers increase insulin sensitivity while others have the opposite effect.
  • Dietary Supplementation of L-Arginine and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Retroperitoneal Fat Mass and Increases Lean Body Mass in Rats - J Nutr. 2009 May 13 - "We conclude that CLA and arginine modulated adipose tissue metabolism by separate, but not additive, effects. Also, CLA and arginine may have depressed muscle protein turnover" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com and L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Apr 21 - "using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups ... may be a novel dietary supplement that will prevent sarcopenia by maintaining redox balance during aging"
  • Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol content and the leptin mRNA level in adipose tissue in obese Zucker fa/fa rats - Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar 19:1-13 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been reported to reduce body weight and beneficially affect glucose metabolism in animals, but the results are inconsistent and seem to depend on animal model and type of CLA isomer. In the present study, feeding male Zucker fa/fa rats diets supplemented with 1 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 10 d reduced the liver TAG content without improving the overall adiposity, and enhanced hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation ... The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with trans-10, cis-12-CLA may increase the catabolism of lipids in liver and adipose tissue. Moreover, we provide new data suggesting that trans-10, cis-12-CLA modulates the expression of resistin and adiponectin inversely in adipose tissue. Hence, the present results suggest that trans-10, cis-12-CLA may have some beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and adiposity but possibly reduces insulin sensitivity"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Enhances Antihypertensive Effect of Ramipril in Chinese Patients With Obesity-Related Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2009 Mar 19 - "Participants were randomized to a daily dose of 4.5 g/day CLA (nine 0.5-g capsules; a 50:50 isomer blend of c 9,t 11 and t 10,c 12 CLA) with 37.5 mg/day ramipril (group 1) or placebo with 37.5 mg/day ramipril (group 2) for 8 weeks ... Treatment with CLA significantly enhanced the reduction effect of ramipril on systolic BP and diastolic BP (P < 0.05). It also increased plasma adiponectin concentration (P < 0.05) and decreased plasma concentrations of leptin and angiotensinogen (P < 0.05); however, significant change was not observed in ACE activity"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Inhibits Expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and Fatty Acid Synthase Genes and Impairs the Growth of Human Breast Cancer and Liposarcoma Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(1):114-22 - "We conclude that as in bovine mammary and mouse adipose cells, CLA suppresses S14 and FAS gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells. Rescue from the antiproliferative effect of CLA by palmitic acid indicates that reduced tumor lipogenesis is a major mechanism for the anticancer effects of CLA"
  • Flaxseed oil prevents trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced insulin resistance in mice - Br J Nutr. 2008 Aug 19:1-8 - "The present results suggest that some adverse effects of CLA may be due to n-3 PUFA deficiency and that these can be corrected by a concomitant increase in the intake of alpha-linolenic acid, 18 : 3n-3" - Note:  There are different isomers of CLA, some improve and some worsen insulin resistance.  The most popular brand of CLA is Tonalin.  That's what I take but I haven't been able to figure out if that's one that improves or worsens insulin resistance.
  • Cis-9,trans-11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Airway Inflammation via a PPAR{gamma}-Related Mechanism in Mice - J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1336-42 - "C9,t11-CLA feeding resulted in significantly reduced IgE production and allergen-induced in vivo airway hyperresponsiveness ... These findings demonstrate that dietary c9,t11-CLA can reduce allergic airway inflammation, most likely via a PPARgamma-related mechanism and by reducing eicosanoid precursors. They give new insights into the fatty acid-mediated mechanism of immunomodulation and may represent a step toward an attractive novel strategy in the dietary prevention and treatment of allergic asthma" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • A Mixture of trans, trans Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells with Reciprocal Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 21 - "These findings suggest that incorporation of t, t CLA in the membrane induces a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis that can enhance the antiproliferative effect of t, t CLA in MCF-7 cells"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat accretion and lipogenic gene expression in neonatal pigs fed low- or high-fat formulas - J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):449-54 - "CLA reduced body fat accretion regardless of dietary fat content ... Adipose tissue expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha and lipoprotein lipase were significantly reduced by CLA treatment"
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2006 Mar 23;5:7 - "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone ... a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied ... although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: Is there a role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid? - Lipids Health Dis. 2007 May 3;6:14 - "Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreases adipocyte size and favorably modifies adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant rats - Metabolism. 2007 Dec;56(12):1601-11 - "Dietary CLA, compared with the control diet, reduced circulating leptin and elevated fasting serum adiponectin concentrations in fa/fa rats ... CLA reduced adipocyte size and favorably modified adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in fa/fa Zucker rats"
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo - J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Oct;18(10):650-7 - "diets containing 0.1% c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo. However, in vitro, only c9,t11 but not t10,c12 inhibited colon cancer cell migration and MMP-9 activity" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the 6-mo change in fat oxidation during sleep - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):797-804 - "Mixed isomer CLA supplementation, but not placebo, positively altered fat oxidation and energy expenditure during sleep"
  • Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components - Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 11;:1-8 - "Subjects were randomised to a daily intake of 500 ml milk supplemented with 3 g CLA (using a mixture of the bioactive isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, marketed as Tonalin(R), Naturlinea; Central Lechera Asturiana) or placebo for 12 weeks ... The supplementation of milk with 3 g CLA over 12 weeks results in a significant reduction of fat mass in overweight but not in obese subjects. CLA supplementation was not associated with any adverse effects or biological changes"
  • Conjugated linoleic Acid alters matrix metalloproteinases of metastatic mouse mammary tumor cells - J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1423-9 - "Suppression of MMP activity, therefore, may be 1 pathway through which CLA reduces tumor invasion and spread"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Adipose Depots without Reduction of Stearoyl Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 Gene Expression - Ann Nutr Metab. 2007 May 29;51(2):126-133 - "the levels of both epididymal and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in the CLA-supplemented groups"
  • Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese - Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):550-60 - "randomised into two groups supplemented with either 3 x 4 g/d CLA or placebo for 6 months. CLA significantly decreased BFM at month 3 (Delta=- 0 x 9 %, P=0 x 016) and at month 6 (Delta=- 3 x 4 %, P=0 x 043) compared with placebo. The reduction in fat mass was located mostly in the legs (Delta=- 0 x 8 kg, P<0 x 001), and in women (Delta=-1 x 3 kg, P=0 x 046) with BMI >30 kg/m2 (Delta=-1 x 9 kg, P=0 x 011), compared with placebo. The waist-hip ratio decreased significantly (P=0 x 043) compared with placebo. LBM increased (Delta=+0 x 5 kg, P=0 x 049) within the CLA group ... Adverse events did not differ between the groups"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):606-12 - "A 3.4-g daily CLA supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or fat mass regain in a healthy obese population"
  • High-fat dairy food and conjugated linoleic acid intakes in relation to colorectal cancer incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):894-900 - "For CLA, the multivariate rate ratio of colorectal cancer in a comparison of the 2 extreme quartiles of intake was 0.71 ... These prospective data suggest that high intakes of high-fat dairy foods and CLA may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer"
  • Effect of CLA supplementation on immune function in young healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan 12 - "CLA supplementation also decreased the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta (P<0.05), but increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 ... This is the first study to show that CLA, a fatty acid naturally found in dairy and meat products, can beneficially affect immune function in healthy human volunteers"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):887-95 - "3.0 g/d; 50:50 blend of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA ... CLA supplementation significantly increased fasting glucose concentrations (6.3%; P < 0.05) and reduced insulin sensitivity ... Total HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 8%"
  • Conjugated linoleic Acid in humans: regulation of adiposity and insulin sensitivity - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3041-6 - "It has been clearly demonstrated that specific CLA isomers or a crude mixture of CLA isomers prevent the development of obesity in certain rodent and pig models. This has been attributed mainly to trans-10, cis-12 CLA, both in vivo and in vitro. However, CLA's ability to modulate human obesity remains controversial because data from clinical trials using mixed isomers are conflicting. In support of some studies in humans, our group demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 CLA prevents triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary cultures of differentiating human preadipocytes. In contrast, cis-9, trans-11 CLA increases TG content"
  • The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects - Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jul;27(7):840-7 - "As a consequence of an increased regain of fat-free mass by CLA, resting metabolic rate was increased by CLA (LD 12.0+/-11.4%, HD 13.7+/-14.4%) compared to placebo ... In conclusion, the regain of fat-free mass was favorably, dose-independently affected by a 13-week consumption of 1.8 or 3.6 g CLA/day and consequently increased the resting metabolic rate. However, it did not result in improved body weight maintenance after weight loss"
  • Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men - Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 Apr;57(4):595-603 - "Seventy-one healthy males aged 31-69 y received one of the following treatments: (1) mixture of 50% c9,t11 CLA and 50% t10,c12 CLA isomers (CLA 50:50); (2) mixture of 80% c9,t11 CLA and 20% t10,c12 CLA isomers (CLA 80:20); and (3) sunflower oil fatty acids (reference) ... Almost twice as many subjects reached protective antibody levels to hepatitis B when consuming CLA50:50 fatty acids (15/24, 62%) compared with subjects consuming the reference substance (7/21, 33%, P=0.075). In subjects consuming CLA 80:20 glycerides this was 8/22 (36%)"
  • The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, t10c12-CLA, is inversely associated with changes in body weight and serum leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus - J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):257S-260S
  • Inhibition of carcinogenesis by conjugated linoleic acid: potential mechanisms of action - J Nutr 2002 Oct;132(10):2995-8
  • Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy exercising humans - J Int Med Res 2001 Sep-Oct;29(5):392-6 - "Participants took either placebo (hydrogel) or CLA 0.6 mg, three times daily, as two capsules during meals, for 12 weeks. Body fat, measured using near infrared light, was significantly reduced in the CLA group during the study, but not in the placebo group"
  • Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans--metabolic effects - Lipids 2001 Aug;36(8):773-81 - "Fifty-three healthy men and women, aged 23-63 yr, were randomly assigned to supplementation with CLA (4.2 g/d) or the same amount of olive oil during 12 wk in a double-blind fashion. The proportion of body fat decreased (-3.8%, P< 0.001) in the CLA-treated group, with a significant difference from the control group (P = 0.050)."
  • Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in SCID mice - Anticancer Res. 1998 May-Jun;18(3A):1429-34 - "Mice fed the CLA-supplemented diet displayed not only smaller local tumors than the regular diet-fed group, but also a drastic reduction in lung metastases"
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse - Am J Physiol. 1998 Sep;275(3 Pt 2):R667-72 - "These findings demonstrate that CLA reduces body fat by several mechanisms, including a reduced energy intake, increased metabolic rate, and a shift in the nocturnal fuel mix."
  • Dietary conjugated linoleic acid normalizes impaired glucose tolerance in the Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa rat - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Mar 27;244(3):678-82 - "CLA effects on glucose tolerance and glucose homeostasis indicate that dietary CLA may prove to be an important therapy for the prevention and treatment of NIDDM."
  • Review of the effects of trans fatty acids, oleic acid, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acid on mammary carcinogenesis in animals - Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Dec;66(6 Suppl):1523S-1529S - "Conjugated linoleic acid is unique in the sense that concentrations < or = 1% are sufficient for producing significant cancer protection and that this effect seems to be independent of the other fatty acids."
  • Morphological and biochemical status of the mammary gland as influenced by conjugated linoleic acid: implication for a reduction in mammary cancer risk - Cancer Res. 1997 Nov 15;57(22):5067-72 - "The observation is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to CLA during the time of mammary gland maturation may modify the developmental potential of a subset of target cells that are normally susceptible to carcinogen-induced transformation."
  • Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in mice - Lipids. 1997 Aug;32(8):853-8 - "Mice fed CLA-supplemented diet exhibited 57% and 60% lower body fat and 5% and 14% increased lean body mass relative to controls (P < 0.05)."
  • The growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid on MCF-7 cells is related to estrogen response system - Cancer Lett. 1997 Jun 24;116(2):121-30 - "These results demonstrate that CLA may inhibit MCF-7 cell growth by interfering with the hormone regulated mitogenic pathway. We are reporting for the first time the involvement of CLA, a dietary factor, in the regulation of hormone mediated mitogenic pathways in ER positive breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro."
  • Retention of conjugated linoleic acid in the mammary gland is associated with tumor inhibition during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis - Carcinogenesis. 1997 Apr;18(4):755-9 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to have significant activity in inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis."

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I went to the library and ordered the full article of the Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse - Medline, 9/98 study .  It only costs a dollar to get it.  The study was impressive so I though maybe they used a ridiculous amount of CLA.  I found that part in the article and the amount they used in the study was 2.46 mg CLA/kcal of diet.  To translate that to human terms, assuming that the average person consumes 2000 calories a day (it's really kilocalories but few know that), 2000 x 2.46 mg = 4920 mg.  Tonalin sells CLA in 1000 mg size so that is only four per day.

In the study, they had four groups of mice.  One group was fed a low fat diet.  Another group was fed a low fat diet plus CLA.  Another group was fed a high fat diet, and the last group was fed a high fat diet plus CLA.  At the end of six weeks, the high fat CLA group weighed about 10% less than the high fat group without the CLA and the low fat CLA group weighed about 10% less than the low fat group without CLA.  The weight curve for the high fat group with CLA and the low fat group without CLA were almost identical.  See graph:

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In the first human clinical trials of Tonalin brand conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), participants weighing an average of 156 pounds, reduced their body fat from 21.3 percent to 17 percent.  The average body fat of the placebo increased from 22.0 to 22.4.  The CLA group lost and average of 2.2 pounds over 90 days (156.6 to 154.4 pounds average).   The placebo group gained an average of 0.5 pounds after 90 days (158.9 to 159.4 pounds average).  The amount used was two 500 mg capsules three times a day.  Each Tonalin capsule contained 0.3 grams of pure CLA.

Other than the decrease in body fat, the 2.2 pound loss of the CLA group over 90 days might not sound significant, however, in the study of the prescription drug Xenical, the Xenical group only lost 7 pounds more than the placebo group after two years.  That is only 3 1/2 pounds a year or 0.88 pounds average after 90 days.  Plus, that was a larger percentage weight loss.  The average weight in the CLA study was about 157 pounds.  The average weight in the Xenical study was about 220 pounds.

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Study results can be obtained from PharmaNutrients at 918 Sherwood Dr, Lake Bluff IL 60044. Telephone: (800) 221-4463; Fax: (847) 234-5545.

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