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Home > Health Conditions > Syndrome X

Syndrome X/Metabolic Syndrome/Insulin Resistance

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  • Remission of Pre-Diabetes to Normal Glucose Tolerance in Obese Adults With High Protein Versus High Carbohydrate Diet - Medscape, 1/14/17 - "After 6 months on the HP diet, 100% of the subjects had remission of their pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance, whereas only 33.3% of subjects on the HC diet had remission of their pre-diabetes. The HP diet group exhibited significant improvement in (1) insulin sensitivity (p=0.001), (2) cardiovascular risk factors (p=0.04), (3) inflammatory cytokines (p=0.001), (4) oxidative stress (p=0.001), (5) increased percent lean body mass (p=0.001) compared with the HC diet at 6 months"
  • Vitamin D improves gut flora and metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 12/21/16 - "a high fat diet affects the balance between good and bad bacteria in the gut. This induces modest fatty liver and slightly raises blood sugar levels in mice. Remarkably, an insufficient supply of vitamin D aggravates the imbalance in gut flora, contributing to full-scale fatty liver and metabolic syndrome ... Vitamin D deficiency decreases the production of defensins, which are anti-microbial molecules essential to maintain healthy gut flora" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Supplementation with Curcumin on Serum Adipokine Concentrations: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Nutrition, Mar 2016 - "randomly assigned to curcumin (n=59; 1000 mg/day) or placebo (n=58) for 8 weeks ... Eight-week supplementation with curcumin was associated with a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels (p<0.001), and a reduction in serum leptin concentrations (p<0.001). Serum leptin:adiponectin ratio was also improved by curcumin (p<0.001). These beneficial effects of curcumin remained significant after adjustment for changes in serum lipids and glucose concentrations, and baseline differences in BMI and serum levels of glucose and HbA1c as potential confounders of treatment response. Meta-analysis suggested that curcumin supplementation can increase adiponectin levels by 76.78% (95% CI: 6.14, 147.42; p=0.0330), and reduce leptin by 26.49%" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Everyday mindfulness linked to healthy glucose levels - Science Daily, 2/23/16 - "Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), a 15-item questionnaire to assess dispositional mindfulness on a 1 to 7 scale ... people with high MAAS scores of 6 or 7 were 35 percent more likely to have healthy glucose levels under 100 milligrams per deciliter than people with low MAAS scores below 4"
  • The Combination of Resveratrol and Quercetin Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats by Modifying the Serum Fatty Acid Composition and by Upregulating SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 Expression in White Adipose Tissue - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:474032 - "Resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC) modify energy metabolism and reduce cardiovascular risk factors included in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). These natural compounds upregulate and activate sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases ... In MetS rats body mass, central adiposity, insulin, triglycerides, non-HDL-C, leptin, adiponectin, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were increased, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and HDL-C were decreased. SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 were downregulated, while PPAR-γ was increased. RSV + QRC administration improved the serum health parameters modified by MetS and upregulate SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 expression in white abdominal tissue in MetS animals" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com and quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Very-low-fat diets may be associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in the adult population - Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct 16 - "odds ratios (OR) ... Surprisingly, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the ≤15% fat intake group (OR = 1.277), accompanied by lower daily energy intake compared to the reference group (≥25% fat intake). Higher daily fat intake was associated with significantly lower ORs for four components of metabolic syndrome, except diabetes mellitus, using continuous variable analysis, whereas only three serum components (serum HDL, serum triglyceride, and blood pressure) exhibited significantly higher ORs in the lowest tertile of dietary fat intake (≤15%) compared with the reference group (≥25% fat-intake tertile) ... Subjects in the low-fat group (≤15%) had much lower daily energy intake, by 500 kcal, compared with subjects who consumed high-fat diets (≥25%)"
  • Dairy Consumption Lowers Systemic Inflammation and Liver Enzymes in Typically Low-Dairy Consumers with Clinical Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Nov 23:1-7 - "This was a randomized study in which participants consumed low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz 1% milk, 6 oz nonfat yogurt, 4 oz 2% cheese) or a carbohydrate-based control (CNT) (1.5 oz granola bar and 12 oz 100% juice) for 6 weeks ... Participants had lower concentrations of both hepatic alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.005) after the LFD period. No significant changes in any of the plasma inflammatory compounds were found when all data were analyzed together. In contrast, expression of IL-1b and IL-6 were reduced by 46% and 63%, respectively, compared to the control period ... We conclude that three dairy servings per day improved both liver function and systemic inflammation in subjects with MetS" - See my Greek yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.
  • Magnesium status and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Nutrition, 2015 Oct 22 - "higher consumption of Mg is associated with lower risk of MetS (OR=0. 73, CI: 0.62, 0.86, P<0.001); we also could find a significant but heterogeneous association between serum Mg and MetS (Mean difference (MD): -0.19" - [Nutra USA] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Oct;63(10):1991-2000 - "Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations"
  • Dairy consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2015 Oct 3 - "In the meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risk of incidence of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. the lowest category of dairy consumption was 0.85 (95% CI 0.73-0.98), and for a 1-serving/day increment of dairy consumption, the pooled relative risk was 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95). In the meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, the pooled relative risk of prevalence of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. the lowest category of dairy consumption was 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.86)"
  • Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 19 - "dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry determinations ... median follow-up of 3.2 y ... the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61, 0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31"
  • Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 11:1-12 - "Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) ... We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (<197 mg/d) quartile of Mg and MetSyn (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·86). Women who met the RDA for both Mg (310-320 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d) had the greatest reduced odds of MetSyn (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·76). In men, meeting the RDA for Mg (400-420 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d), individually or in combination, was not associated with MetSyn; however, men with intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥386 mg/d) and Ca (≥1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycaemic status in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial - Diabetes Metab. 2015 Jun;41(3):202-7 - "At baseline, there were no significant statistical differences in terms of anthropometric and biochemical variables between individuals in the supplement and placebo groups. At the end of follow-up, fasting (86.9±7.9 and 98.3±4.6mg/dL, respectively; P=0.004) and post-load glucose (124.7±33.4 and 136.7±23.9mg/dL, respectively; P=0.03) levels, HOMA-IR indices (2.85±1.0 and 4.1±2.7, respectively; P=0.04) and triglycerides (166.4±90.6 and 227.0±89.7, respectively; P=0.009) were significantly decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol (45.6±10.9 and 46.8±9.2mg/dL, respectively; P=0.04) and serum magnesium (1.96±0.27 and 1.60±0.26mg/dL, respectively; P=0.005) levels were significantly increased" - [Nutra USA] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Berberine attenuates vascular remodeling and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome - Biol Pharm Bull. 2015;38(6):862-8 - "metabolic syndrome (MS) ... our data show that berberine improves vascular inflammation and remodeling in the MS condition, and this is correlated with the ability of berberine to inhibit p38 MAPK activation, ATF-2 phosphorylation, and MMP-2 expression" - See berberine at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Consumption, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2015 Mar 24;7(4):2085-2100 - "Nine independent cross-sectional samples (seven cross-sectional studies) and three independent prospective cohorts (two prospective cohort studies) were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis ... The pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.58, 0.87), comparing the highest to the lowest category of fish consumption, and 0.94 (0.90, 0.98) for one serving/week increment. Consistent results were found for LCω3PUFA intake" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan 7 - "Supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improved serum SOD activities (p < 0.001) and reduced MDA (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) concentrations compared with placebo. Quantitative data synthesis revealed a significant effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in reducing circulating CRP concentrations (weighed mean difference: -2.20 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.96, -0.44; p = 0.01). This effect was robust in sensitivity analysis" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and piperine extract at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol induces cell apoptosis in adipocytes via AMPK activation - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jan 17 - "Our findings clarified the apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms of resveratrol in adipocytes, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity and related metabolic symptoms" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response meta-analysis and meta-regression - Nutrients. 2014 Dec 22 - "Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I2 = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Dec 2 - "We found higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations associated with lower prevalence of MetS (Odds Ratio (OR); 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.61; 0.49, 0.77 for adequate levels (≥75nmol/l) versus deficiency (<50nmol/l) . Additionally, in analysis of the individual components, the ORs for adequate versus deficient vitamin D levels were: 0.66 (95%CI 0.53,0.83) for elevated WC, 0.67 (95%CI 0.52,0.86) for reduced HDL-C, 0.69 (95%CI 0.54,0.88) for elevated triglycerides, 0.80 (95%CI 0.65,0.99) for elevated fasting glucose ... Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the elderly are associated with lower prevalence of MetS and, in particular, with more beneficial HDL-C, TG, WC and serum glucose" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Healthy gut microbiota can prevent metabolic syndrome, researchers say - Science Daily, 11/24/14 - "These results suggest that developing a means to promote a more healthy microbiota can treat or prevent metabolic disease ... They confirm the concept that altered microbiota can promote low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome and advance the underlying mechanism ... A person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop heart disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Nov;31(11):1301-9 - "reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE ... A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 27:1-8 - "Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews ... We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95 % CI 0.20, 0.47) for α-carotene, 0.23 (95 % CI 0.15, 0.36) for β-carotene, 0.44 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95 % CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95 % CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95 % CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Total testosterone is the most valuable indicator of metabolic syndrome among various testosterone values in middle-aged Japanese men - Endocr J. 2014 Oct 23 - "TT and SHBG were significantly lower in men with MetS than in men without MetS. All testosterone values gradually decreased as the number of MetS components increased"
  • Resveratrol boosts spinal bone density in men with metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 10/16/14 - "The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial assessed bone mineral density and signs of bone formation and resorption in 66 middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome. For a 16-week period, the men took either a 500-miligram dose of resveratrol, a 75-miligram dose of the compound or a placebo twice a day ... Men who took the higher dose of resveratrol had a 2.6 percent increase in lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density compared to men who had taken the placebo. The high resveratrol group also had a 16 percent increase in levels of the bone formation marker bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) compared to the control group" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice - Benef Microbes. 2014 Dec 1;5(4):437-45 - "Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05)" - [Nutra USA] - See Bifidobacterium animalis products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Jun 26 - "A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Br J Nutr. 2014 May 22:1-8 - "placebo-controlled pilot study on thirty-eight subjects with the metabolic syndrome; they were supplemented with either synbiotic capsules containing 200 million of seven strains of friendly bacteria plus fructo-oligosaccharide or placebo capsules twice a day for 28 weeks ... After 28 weeks of treatment, the levels of fasting blood sugar and insulin resistance improved significantly in the G1 group" - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and fructo-oligosaccharide at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 2 - "a strategic literature search of PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March 2014) for randomized controlled trials ... Resveratrol consumption significantly reduced fasting glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin resistance (measured by using the homeostatic model assessment) levels in participants with diabetes. No significant effect of resveratrol on glycemic measures of nondiabetic participants was found in the meta-analysis" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 19 - "Individuals in the highest tertile of fish intake were 65% less likely to have the metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.88) ... high fish intake was inversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01-0.85), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.19-0.89) and elevated blood pressure (odds ratio: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.89)" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of metabolic syndrome: an ancillary analysis in the Diabetes Prevention Program - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 22 - "Using baseline data from the placebo and lifestyle intervention arms of the Diabetes Prevention Program (N=2000), multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome ... After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of 25OHD had lower odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.45-0.84), smaller waist circumference, higher high-density lipoprotein and lower fasting plasma glucose compared with participants in the lowest tertile of 25OHD. Higher plasma 25OHD concentration was associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower insulin secretion. After multivariate adjustment, there was a nonsignificant lower risk of metabolic syndrome in the highest tertile of 25OHD (hazard ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.48-1.32) compared with the lowest tertile" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Freeze-Dried Strawberry Supplementation on Metabolic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial - Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 Dec 6;63(3):256-264 - "To our knowledge there has been no study investigating the impact of freeze-dried strawberry (FDS) supplementation on metabolic biomarkers of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) ... Thirty-six subjects with T2D (23 females; mean body mass index 27.90 ± 3.7; mean age 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group consumed 2 cups of FDS beverage (50 g of FDS is equivalent to 500 g of fresh strawberries) or macronutrient matched placebo powder with strawberry flavor daily for 6 weeks in a randomized double-blind controlled trial ... FDS supplementation significantly decreased C-reactive protein levels as a biomarker of inflammation (2.5 vs. 2.04 mg/l, p < 0.05) and lipid peroxidation in the form of MDA (3.36 vs. 2.7 nmol/ml, p < 0.05) at 6 weeks compared to the baseline. Moreover, supplementation led to a decreasing trend in HbA1c (-5.7%, p < 0.05) and significant increase in total antioxidant status in the FDS group (1.44 vs. 1.26 mmol/l, p < 0.01) compared to the placebo group" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of prospective studies - Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 14 - "searched the Pubmed and Embase databases up to May 2013 ... compared with nondrinker, very light drinker was associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome [pooled relative risk (RR) 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.99, fixed-effect model] while heavy drinker was associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (pooled RR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.34-2.52, fixed-effect model)"
  • Health Benefits of Wild Blueberries Abound - Science Daily, 11/6/13 - "regular long-term wild blueberry diets may help improve or prevent pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes ... According to the study, wild blueberry consumption (2 cups per day, human equivalent) for 8 weeks was shown to regulate and improve the balance between relaxing and constricting factors in the vascular wall, improving blood flow and blood pressure regulation of obese Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome ... Our recent findings reported elsewhere, documented that wild blueberries reduce chronic inflammation and improve the abnormal lipid profile and gene expression associated with the MetS" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.  Also Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com contains blueberry extract
  • Insulin resistance indices are inversely associated with vitamin D binding protein concentrations - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 29 - "vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) ... Subjects were 47, post menarchal, female adolescents, mean age 15.8 +/- 1.4 years ... Our data suggest that, VDBP concentrations are regulated by total 25(OH)D levels to maintain adequate concentrations of bioavailable 25(OH)D. VDBP concentrations are inversely associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism, and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans - Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct 2 - "In 2,582 community-dwelling participants 26-81 yrs old at baseline, magnesium intake and risk of incident "metabolic impairment," defined as impaired fasting glucose (≥5.6-<7.0 mmol/L), impaired glucose tolerance (2-hr postload glucose ≥7.8-<11.1 mmol/L), IR, or hyperinsulinemia (≥90th percentile of HOMA-IR or fasting insulin, respectively), was estimated among those with normal baseline status, and risk of incident diabetes was estimated among those with baseline metabolic impairment ... compared to those with the lowest magnesium intake, those with the highest intake had 37% lower risk of incident metabolic impairment (P trend=0.02), while in those with baseline metabolic impairment, higher intake was associated with 32% lower risk of incident diabetes (P trend=0.05). In the combined population, the risk in those with the highest intake was 53% (P trend=0.0004) of those with the lowest intake" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind, 90 Veggie Caps.
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake Improves Insulin Resistance among Non-Diabetic Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome Participating in a Dietary Trial - Nutrients. 2013 Sep 27;5(10):3910-9 - "The dietary intervention study examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months ... After multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). Further, the likelihood of elevated HOMA-IR (>3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin resistance" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind, 90 Veggie Caps.
  • Benefits of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome: The fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Sep;230(1):80-5 - "7542 adults (≥20 years of age) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009), which is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. Data were obtained from standardized questionnaires as well as physical and laboratory examination reports ... subjects in the highest quartile of potassium intake had 39% lower odds for metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.89; p for trend: 0.013). This association was consistent for both sexes. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, potassium intake was inversely related to abdominal obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in multivariate analysis" - See potassium chelate products at iHerb.
  • Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Aug 12 - "It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation triggers enhanced recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue. Depending on their phenotype, macrophages can be designated either as pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages ... Our findings indicate that taurine treatment attenuates the infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and modulates the phenotype of macrophages, which suggest that taurine is a valuable food constituent with a potential to attenuate chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and improve obesity-related insulin resistance" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Serum potassium level is associated with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study - Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "Evidence has suggested that low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in many metabolic disorders ... cross-sectional study in 10,341 participants aged 40 years or older ... The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 51.7% in participants with hypokalemia and 37.7% in those with normokalemia. With the reduction of serum potassium quartiles, participants were tended to have higher level of triglycerides and uric acid, lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), larger waist circumference and more severe insulin resistance. Serum potassium level significantly decreased with the increasing number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared with subjects in the highest quartile of serum potassium level, multivariate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent metabolic syndrome in the lowest quartile was 1.48" - See potassium chelate products at iHerb.
  • Genistein and endothelial function in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome - Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Jul 10 - "metabolic syndrome (MS) ... Twenty postmenopausal women with MS, according to modified NCEP-ATP III criteria were randomly assigned to receive placebo or genistein (54 mg/day) for 6 months, along with a Mediterranean-style diet. Postmenopausal women without MS (n = 15), served as controls ... After 6 months of treatment, FMD at 50s and peak FMD significantly increased in genistein recipients compared with placebo. Moreover, genistein significantly decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine and visfatin compared with placebo, while blood adiponectin levels were increased. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side-adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipid ameliorates insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in diet-induced-obese mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Jul 23;12(1):109 - "Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 7) were fed one of the following 4 diets for a period of 4 weeks: 1) a modified AIN-96G diet with 5% corn oil (control diet); 2) a high fat (20%, wt/wt) and high fructose (20%, wt/wt) diet (HF diet); 3) the HF diet containing 1% SOY-PL (SOY-PL diet); 4) the HF diet containing 1% EPA-PL (EPA-PL diet) ... According to our study, EPA-PL supplementation was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, and alleviating insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis by modulating the secretion of adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines, suppression of SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and enhancement of fatty acid beta-oxidation. These results demonstrate that EPA-PL is a novel beneficial food component for the prevention and improvement of metabolic disorders" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun 26 - "Seventeen trials comprising a total of 1133 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. Green tea consumption significantly reduced the fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) concentrations by -0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.15, -0.03 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and -0.30% (95% CI: -0.37, -0.22%; P < 0.01), respectively. Further stratified analyses from high Jadad score studies showed that green tea significantly reduced fasting insulin concentrations (-1.16 μIU/mL; 95%CI: -1.91, -0.40 μIU/mL; P = 0.03)" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Getting enough sleep could help prevent type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 5/18/13 - "studied 19 non-diabetic men, with an average age of 28.6 years, who for six months or longer (average, 5.1 years) self-reported inadequate sleep during the workweek. On average, the men received only 6.2 hours of sleep each work night. But they regularly caught up on their sleep on the weekends, sleeping an extra 37.4 percent, or 2.3 hours, per night ... When the men slept 10 hours a night on each of three nights of catch-up sleep, their insulin sensitivity was much better than when they had persistent sleep restriction, the scientists found. Their insulin resistance test score also improved (decreased) with sleep extension"
  • Grape intake may protect against metabolic syndrome-related organ damage - Science Daily, 4/22/13 - "Natural components found in grapes, known as polyphenols, are thought to be responsible for these beneficial effects ... The grapes -- a blend of red, green and black varieties -- were provided as a freeze-dried grape powder and integrated into the animals' diets for 90 days ... three months of a grape-enriched diet significantly reduced inflammatory markers throughout the body, but most significantly in the liver and in abdominal fat tissue. Consuming grapes also reduced liver, kidney and abdominal fat weight, compared with those consuming the control diet ... Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together -- increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist or low HDL (the good cholesterol) and increased blood triglycerides" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Monounsaturated Fats Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risk - Science Daily, 3/29/13 - "121 participants at risk for metabolic syndrome received a daily smoothie containing 40 grams (1.42 ounces) of one of five oils as part of a weight maintenance, heart-healthy, 2000-calorie per day diet ... those who consumed canola or high-oleic canola oils on a daily basis for four weeks lowered their belly fat by 1.6 percent compared to those who consumed a flax/safflower oil blend. Abdominal fat was unchanged by the other two oils, which included a corn/safflower oil blend and high-oleic canola oil enriched with an algal source of the omega-3 DHA. Both the flax/safflower and corn/safflower oil blends were low in monounsaturated fat"
  • Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "The objective was to determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/d and whether subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with improved markers of insulin sensitivity and resistance and reduced inflammation ... fasting insulin (-6.5 compared with +1.2 μU/mL for placebo; P = 0.026), HOMA-IR (-1.363 compared with +0.27 for placebo; P = 0.033)" - Note:  The fasting insulin was 7.7 lower (difference between -6.5 and +1.2).  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Decreased Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Are Associated With Increased Risk of Progression to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 7 - "In a historical prospective cohort study of subjects from the Clalit Health Services database, which includes information on nearly 4 million people, diabetes-free subjects aged 40-70 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) measurements available were followed up for 2 years to assess the development of IFG and diabetes in five 25-OHD subgroups: ≥25, 25.1-37.5, 37.6-50, 50.1-75, and >75 nmol/L ... The odds of transitioning from normoglycemia to IFG, from normoglycemia to diabetes, and from IFG to diabetes in subjects with a 25-OHD level ≤25 nmol/L were greater than those of subjects with a 25-OHD level >75 nmol/L [odds ratio 1.13 (95% CI 1.03-1.24), 1.77 (1.11-2.83), and 1.43 (1.16-1.76), respectively] ... Vitamin D deficiency appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of IFG and diabetes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pycnogenol® Supplementation Improves Health Risk Factors in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome - Phytother Res. 2013 Jan 28 - "In the 6-month study Pycnogenol® supplementation 150 mg/day decreased waist circumference, TG levels, blood pressure and increased the HDL cholesterol levels in subjects. Pycnogenol lowered fasting glucose from baseline 123 +/- 8.6 mg/dl to 106.4 +/- 5.3 after 3 months and to 105.3 +/- 2.5 at the end of the study (p < 0.05 vs controls). Men's waist circumference decreased with Pycnogenol from 106.2 +/- 2.2 cm [41.8 inches] to 98.8 +/- 2.3 cm [38.9 inces] and to 98.3 +/- 2.1 after 3 and 6 months. Women's waist decreased from 90.9 +/- 1.6 cm to 84.6 +/- 2.1 cm and to 83.6 +/- 2.2 cm after 3 and 6 months. Both genders waist circumference reduction was significant as compared to controls at both time points. In addition, plasma free radicals decrease in the Pycnogenol group was more effective than in the control group (-34.6%; p < 0.05)" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Metabolic Syndrome in 40s Linked to TV, Exercise at Age 16 - Medscape, 1/25/13 - "TV viewing habits and leisure-time physical activity at age 16 years were assessed by self-administered questionnaires in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. The presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was ascertained in 888 participants (82% of the baseline sample) using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria ... Those who reported "watching several [TV] shows a day" at 16 were twice as likely to have the metabolic syndrome at age 43 than those who said they watched "1 show/week" or less (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.14). Similarly, those who noted leisure-time physical activity "several times per month" were more likely to have metabolic syndrome later in life than those who reported "daily" leisure-time physical activity in their teens (OR, 2.31) ... TV viewing at age 16 years was linked to central obesity, low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension at age 43 years. Low leisure-time physical activity in the teen years was associated with central obesity and raised triglycerides later in life"
  • Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 23 - "Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes ... After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Grape Polyphenols Prevent Fructose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 28 - "grape polyphenols (PPs) ... Thirty-eight healthy overweight/obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (18 men and 20 women) were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial between a grape PP (2 g/day) and a placebo (PCB) group. Subjects were investigated at baseline and after 8 and 9 weeks of supplementation, the last 6 days of which they all received 3 g/kg fat-free mass/day of fructose ... In the PCB group, fructose induced 1) a 20% decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.05) and an 11% decrease in glucose infusion rate (P < 0.05) as evaluated during a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, 2) an increase in systemic (urinary F2-isoprostanes) and muscle (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and protein carbonylation) oxidative stress (P < 0.05), and 3) a downregulation of mitochondrial genes and decreased mitochondrial respiration (P < 0.05). All the deleterious effects of fructose were fully blunted by grape PP supplementation ...A natural mixture of grape PPs at nutritional doses efficiently prevents fructose-induced oxidative stress and IR. The current interest in grape PP ingredients and products by the global food and nutrition industries could well make them a stepping-stone of preventive nutrition" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity - Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 7:1-9 - "Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records ... In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0.52 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity - Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 7:1-9 - "Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records ... In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0.52 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 15:1-9 - "These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis) consumption on the components of metabolic syndrome in elderly - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(9):738-42 - "The consumption of green tea was effective in inducing weight loss, reducing BMI and waist circumference in the elderly with MS" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Metabolic Diseases and Pro- and Prebiotics - Medscape, 11/7/12 - "Recent findings that support the idea of the involvement of intestinal bacteria in the development of obesity and diabetes include: 1) the resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice,[64] 2) antibiotic-induced reduction of plasma LPS levels in obese mice fed a high-fat diet,[65] and 3) delayed onset and development of type 1 diabetes by use of antibiotics in a diabetes-prone rat model ... The control of intestinal microbial composition by use of probiotics and prebiotics is likely to impact the development of metabolic diseases through modulation of immune responses/inflammation and metabolism. Supplementation of probiotics and prebiotics may delay and/or reverse the progression of metabolic diseases" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of DHEA-S on Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Women: Abstract and Introduction - Medscape, 10/12/12 - "Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate replacement produced weight loss in the obese women studied. Moreover, waist circumference, glucose and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, among other metabolic syndrome parameters, improved in the postmenopausal group, who showed a significant reduction in the total metabolic syndrome score (P < 0.05). In contrast, in premenopausal women, the effect of DHEA-S was limited to obesity parameters, and no effect was observed on metabolic syndrome components. No significant changes were evident in the placebo group" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary phylloquinone intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "Limited evidence from human and animal studies has suggested that vitamin K has a potentially beneficial role in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance ... Cross-sectional associations were tested in 1925 men and women in the Prevention with the Mediterranean Diet trial ... Dietary intake was collected during each annual visit by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and phylloquinone intake was estimated by using the USDA database ... Dietary phylloquinone at baseline was significantly lower in subjects who developed type 2 diabetes during the study. After adjustment for potential confounders, risk of incident diabetes was 17% lower for each additional intake of 100 μg phylloquinone/d. Moreover, subjects who increased their dietary intake of vitamin K during the follow-up had a 51% reduced risk of incident diabetes compared with subjects who decreased or did not change the amount of phylloquinone intake" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome - Metabolism. 2012 Sep 26 - "In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks ... Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05)"
  • Treatment of Metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial - Nutr J. 2012 Sep 17;11(1):72 - "During the treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis" - Note:  160 pounds is 72.5 kilograms which would be 87 grams of protein per day.
  • Curry Compound May Lower Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 7/31/12 - "All of the people in the study had been diagnosed with prediabetes. But according to the findings, none of the participants who took capsules of curcumin for nine months developed type 2 diabetes. By contrast, 16.4% of those who received a placebo did develop type 2 diabetes during the study period" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance is associated with low T(3)/T(4) ratio in pre diabetic euthyroid pakistani subjects - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Jul 11 - "Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are associated with low T(3)/T(4) ratio in pre-diabetic euthyroid Pakistani subjects" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study ... The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • "Metabolic syndrome" in the brain: Deficiency in omega-3-fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signaling and cognition - J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2 - "high-dietary fructose consumption leads to increase in insulin resistance index, insulin and triglyceride levels, which characterize MetS. Rats fed on an n-3 deficient diet showed memory deficits in Barnes Maze, which were further exacerbated by fructose intake. In turn, n-3 deficient diet and fructose interventions disrupted insulin receptor signaling in hippocampus as evidenced by a decrease in phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its downstream effector Akt. We found that high fructose consumption with n-3 deficient diet disrupts membrane homeostasis as evidenced by an increase in the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids and levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Disturbances in brain energy metabolism due to n-3 deficiency and fructose treatments were evidenced by a significant decrease in AMPK phosphorylation and its upstream modulator LKB1 as well as a decrease in Sir2 levels. The decrease in phosphorylation of CREB, synapsin I and synaptophysin (SYP) levels by n-3 deficiency and fructose shows the impact of metabolic dysfunction on synaptic plasticity. All parameters of metabolic dysfunction related to the fructose treatment were ameliorated by the presence of dietary n-3 fatty acid. Results showed that dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency elevates the vulnerability to metabolic dysfunction and impaired cognitive functions by modulating insulin receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Increased Risk of the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome at Five Years: Results from a National, Population-Based Prospective Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 22 - "metabolic syndrome (MetS) ... waist circumference (WC) ... Compared with those in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (≥34 ng/ml), MetS risk was significantly higher in people with 25(OH)D in the first (<18 ng/ml) and second (18-23 ng/ml) quintiles; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.41 (1.02-1.95) and 1.74 (1.28-2.37), respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with 5-yr WC (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.01), fasting glucose (P < 0.01), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P < 0.001) but not with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.29), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.70), or blood pressure (P = 0.46).Conclusions:In Australian adults, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with increased MetS risk and higher WC, serum triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance at 5 yr" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Intakes of Zinc and Heme Iron from Red Meat, but Not from Other Sources, Are Associated with Greater Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease - J Nutr. 2012 Jan 18 - "Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010 ... Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD"
  • Variations on cardiovascular risk factors in metabolic syndrome after consume of a citrus-based juice - Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 22 - "After six months of citrus-based juice consuming, there is significant differences at 95% confidence in oxidized LDL, C-Reactive Protein, and Homocysteine in Metabolic Syndrome patients who consume citrus-based juice" - Note:  Sytrinol may be a way to get the active ingredients without the sugar and calories.  See Sytrinol products at iHerb.
  • Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High Fat Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Oct 28 - "Many studies have documented that ginseng has antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanism of the effects has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) and investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic and antiobesity effects in obese insulin resistant animal models. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a control group (group I) fed a normal diet, another group (group II) fed only high fat diet (HFD) and a third group (group III) fed HFD with KRG (200 mg/kg, oral) for 18 weeks ... A significant weight reduction, especially fat mass reduction, was observed in the KRG treated group. Increased insulin sensitivity was found in the KRG treated group. We observed increased insulin signalling, increased phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1, Akt, and membranous GLUT4 in muscle by Western blotting assay. In conclusion, KRG may have antidiabetic and antiobesity effects due to partly increased insulin sensitivity by increased adipokine and partly enhanced insulin signalling" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber and Nutrient Density Are Inversely Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in US Adolescents - J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov;111(11):1688-95 - "The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.4% (n=138). There was a graded inverse association between the fiber index and MetS (P<0.001) with a threefold difference between the lowest and highest quintiles (9.2% vs 3.1%). Each quintile increase in the fiber index was associated with a 20% decrease in MetS (adjusted odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.68-1.00; P0.043). Neither the saturated fat index (P=0.87) nor the cholesterol index (P=0.22) was significantly associated with MetS ... Higher intakes of dietary fiber, but not low intakes of saturated fat or cholesterol are related to the MetS in adolescents. These findings suggest that to reduce the risks for MetS in adolescents, it is more important to emphasize a paradigm that promotes the inclusion of fiber-rich, nutrient-dense, plant-based foods vs what foods to restrict or exclude as is commonly done when the focus is on total fat, cholesterol, or saturated fat intake"
  • Effects of Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on a Newly Developed High-fat/Western-style Diet-induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Sep 20 - "EGCG treatment significantly reduced body weight gain associated with increased fecal lipids, and decreased blood glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to the HFW group. Fatty liver incidence, liver damage and liver triglyceride levels were also decreased by EGCG treatment. Moreover, EGCG treatment attenuated insulin resistance and levels of plasma cholesterol, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukin-6 (IL-6), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Our results demonstrate that the HFW diet produces more severe symptoms of metabolic syndrome than the HF diet and EGCG treatment can alleviate these symptoms and body fat accumulation. The beneficial effects of EGCG are associated with decreased lipid absorption and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fructose and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults - Medscape, 9/28/11 - "in our study the association between dietary fructose and metabolic syndrome and its components was observed only in the third and fourth quartiles of fructose intakes, approximately over 8 and 12% of energy intake (> 50 g/d); while dietary intake of fructose from natural sources including fruits and vegetables, even in the fourth quartile of fructose intakes was only 5% of energy, approximately 30 g/d. Thus, the increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its components may be attributed to increase fructose intake from industrialized foods"
  • Early research shows dietary supplement may lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 9/22/11 - "a naturally produced amino acid-like molecule called GABA was given orally to mice that were obese, insulin resistant and in the early stages of Type 2 diabetes. Researchers found that GABA suppressed the inflammatory immune responses that are involved in the development of this condition ... GABA helped prevent disease progression and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, even after onset of Type 2 diabetes in mice" - See GABA at Amazon.com.
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • n-3 PUFA prevent metabolic disturbances associated with obesity and improve endothelial function in golden Syrian hamsters fed with a high-fat diet - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 16:1-11 - "In conclusion, n-3 PUFA prevent some metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet and improve endothelial function in hamsters" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • The oslo health study: cheese intake was negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Jun;30(3):182-90 - "frequency of cheese intake (FCI) ... In young (30 years), middle-aged (40 and 45 years), seniors (59-60), and old (75-76 years) subjects, there was an inverse association between FCI and MetSRisk (p ≤ 0.005, except in old men). Using regression, we found a consistent negative association (p < 0.001) between FCI and MetSRisk, SumRisk, single MetS components, and the complete MetS, prevailing after controlling for sex, age, time since last meal, intake of fruit/berries, fruit juice, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, leisure time physical activity, years at school, and birthplace. FCI was also negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.02), except in old women"
  • Powerful antioxidant resveratrol prevents metabolic syndrome in lab tests, study finds - Science Daily, 9/2/11 - "administering resveratrol to the young offspring of lab rats after weaning actually prevented the development of a metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and higher deposits of abdominal fat" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Inverse association between fruit, legume, and cereal fiber and the risk of metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Aug 17 - "Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of MetS between highest and lowest quartiles was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.39-0.74; P for trend <0.05) for total dietary fiber, 0.60 (0.43-0.84; P for trend <0.05) for soluble fiber, and 0.51 (0.35-0.72; P for trend <0.05) for insoluble fiber. Among sources of dietary fiber, fruit fiber (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.37-0.72), cereal fiber (0.74; 0.57-0.97), and legume fiber (0.73; 0.53-0.99) were inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors. Intake of vegetable fiber and nut fiber were unrelated to the risk of MetS ... Total dietary fiber, soluble- and insoluble fiber, fruit fiber, cereal fiber and legume fiber were associated with a protective effect for the presence of MetS among this Tehranian population"
  • A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA reduces the risk of the metabolic syndrome - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 12 - "Clinical intervention study: the patients (n=337) were randomly assigned to one of four diets for 12 weeks each: two high fat diets, one rich in saturated fat (HSFA) and the other rich in monounsaturated fat (HMUFA), and two low fat diets, one high in complex carbohydrates (LFHCC) supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n-3) and the other LFHCC diet with placebo (LFHCC) ... An enlarged waist circumference (≥88cm for women and ≥102cm for men) was present among 95% of the participants, 88% had elevated blood pressure (>130/85mm Hg or antihypertensive drugs), 77% had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55mmol/L), 51% were hypertriacylglycerolemic (≥1.7mmol/L), and 72% had low HDL cholesterol (<1.0mmol/L for men, and <1.3mmol/L for women). The prevalence of enlarged waist circumference, hypertension and hypertriacylglycerolemia were reduced after the LFHCC n-3 diet (p<0.05). Thus the prevalence of MetS fell by 20.5% after LFHCC n-3 diet compared with the HSFA (10.6%), HMUFA (12%) diet or LFHCC (10.4%) diets (p<0.028)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com
  • Tufts-Harvard study builds vitamin D's anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 8/9/11 - "The study included 92 people with an average age of 57 and an average BMI of 32 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (2000 IU per day) or calcium carbonate (800 mg per day). Participants received either the vitamin D with or without calcium or calcium alone for 16 weeks ... At the end of the study, a measure of the function of beta-cells was improved in the people receiving vitamin D, with the so-called disposition index (a measure of beta cell function in the pancreas that includes measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity) improved by about 26 percent, compared with a decline of about 14 percent in the no-vitamin D group" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Increased muscle mass may lower risk of pre-diabetes: Study shows building muscle can lower person's risk of insulin resistance - Science Daily, 7/28/11 - "the greater an individual's total muscle mass, the lower the person's risk of having insulin resistance, the major precursor of type 2 diabetes"
  • Low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with total adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension in Caucasian children and adolescents - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 13 - "Higher 25(OH)D3 was significantly associated with a reduced presence of MetS. Obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, IR, and MetS were all associated with an increased odds of having low 25(OH)D3 levels, after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for SD score (SDS)-BMI, elevated blood pressure and MetS remained significantly associated with low vitamin D status. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for those in the lowest (< 17 ng/mL) compared with the highest tertile (> 27 ng/mL) of 25(OH)D3 for hypertension was 1.72 (1.02-2.92), and for MetS it was 2.30 (1.20-4.40). A similar pattern of association among 25(OH)D3, high blood pressure and MetS was observed when models were adjusted for waist circumference. No correlation was found between 25(OH)D3 concentrations and either FMD or cIMT. Conclusions: Low 25(OH)D3 levels in Caucasian children are inversely related to total adiposity, MetS and hypertension" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin A Decreases Pre-receptor Amplification of Glucocorticoids in Obesity: Study on the Effect of Vitamin A on 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Activity in Liver and Visceral Fat of WNIN/Ob Obese Rats - Nutr J. 2011 Jun 23;10(1):70 - "11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11beta-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129mg/kg diet) on 11beta-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats ... Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks ... Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11beta-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha(C/EBPalpha), the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11beta-HSD1, decreased in liver by vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha), a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11beta-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes" - Note:  See my 11beta-HSD1 page.  11beta-HSD1 goes hand in hand with cortisol.
  • Effect of functional yogurt NY-YP901 in improving the trait of metabolic syndrome - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 22 - "This study was aimed to assess the beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome of functional yogurt NY-YP901 (Namyang Dairy Product Co. Ltd and Nutra R&BT Inc., Seoul, Korea) supplemented with mixture of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis and extra-ingredients containing Bifidobacterium breve (CBG-C2), Enterococcus faecalis FK-23, fibersol-2 and so on ... In the treatment group consuming NY-YP901, statistically significant beneficial changes were observed in body weight (treatment group vs control group=-0.24+/-1.50 vs +0.64+/-1.39 kg, P<0.05), BMI (-0.10+/-0.58 vs +0.24+/-0.50 kg/m(2), P<0.05 ) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (-7.71+/-14.14 vs -0.43+/-15.32 mg/dl, P<0.05) after 8 weeks. The change in other parameters was not different between the treatment and the control groups.Conclusions:The functional yogurt NY-YP901 reduced LDL-cholesterol, body weight and BMI in the subjects at a 300-ml consumption daily for 8 weeks. From these findings, regular intake of functional yogurt NY-YP901 may be consequently related to improve metabolic syndrome" - So how does that compare as far as active culture to what you actually be able to buy in a local store in the U.S.:
    • Activia Ingredients - livestrong.com - "Activia has Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacteria lactis, also known as Bifidobacteria regularis"
  • Dietary leucine may fight pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome: Study shows improvements in animals with amino acid in diet - Science Daily, 6/22/11 - "mice who had been on a high-fat diet and who also received twice the usual intake of leucine, an amino acid found in protein, showed reductions in their prediabetic conditions with lower blood sugars and less fat in their livers, two of the collection of medical problems associated with insulin resistance that make up what is known as metabolic syndrome ... Their glucose tolerance tests improved ... Their bodies responded to insulin better than they would have before they got the leucine. It improved their ability to metabolize sugar and fats. It markedly improved their pre-diabetic condition. Their metabolic syndrome also improved" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population. FIN-D2D-study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jun 9 - "The mean age in men was 60.3+/-8.3 years and in women 59.8+/-8.5 years. The prevalence of MetS was 50.7 % in women and 55.8 % in men. The prevalence of MetS and its components, except HDL-cholesterol, increased in a linear trend with increasing serum calcium (p<0.001), even after adjustment for age, physical activity, alcohol, vitamin D intake, calcium intake and smoking. The threshold value for serum calcium for MetS was 2.50 mmol/L in this population. The association of MetS with total serum calcium was similar even after exlusion of patients treated with hypertensive drugs. The drug treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes increased in a similar pattern. Conclusions: Serum calcium level is associated with MetS and its components, except HDL-cholesterol"
  • Sodium intake in men and potassium intake in women determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese hypertensive patients: OMEGA Study - Hypertens Res. 2011 Jun 9 - "High sodium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0003) and DBP (P=0.0130). Low potassium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0057) and DBP (P=0.0005). Low soybean/fish intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0133). A significantly higher prevalence of MS was found in men in the highest quartile of sodium intake compared with the lower quartiles (P=0.0026) and in women in the lowest quartile of potassium intake compared with the higher quartiles (P=0.0038). A clear relation between dietary habits and blood pressure was found in Japanese hypertensive patients using a patient-administered questionnaire. Sodium and potassium intake affect MS prevalence. Dietary changes are warranted within hypertension treatment strategies"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and various cardiometabolic risk factors in US children and adolescents based on assay-adjusted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from NHANES 2001-2006 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "The likelihood of having MetSyn was significantly higher in the first tertile of serum 25(OH)D than in the third tertile of 25(OH)D (odds ratio: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.65; P < 0.01). Waist circumference (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (P = 0.001) were inversely related and HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001) was directly related with serum 25(OH)D. No association was observed between 25(OH)D and C-reactive protein (P = 0.18) ... On the basis of assay-adjusted data, serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors regardless of obesity. In children, given the negative outcomes associated with poor vitamin D status and MetSyn, consideration of vitamin D supplementation in reversing cardiometabolic risk factors appears to be warranted" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons. A population-based study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 May 20 - "Among the participants, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 37.0%. The mean 25OHD level was 53.3 nmol/l. 47.8% had 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. There was a significantly increased risk for the metabolic syndrome in the subjects with serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l, compared to subjects with levels over 50 nmol/l [odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.94]. After adjustment for confounders, age, sex, season, years of education, alcohol use, total activity, smoking and PTH the OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.68). The association between vitamin D deficiency and the metabolic syndrome was mainly determined by the components low HDL and (high) waist circumference" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 28;10(1):66 - "The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats ... Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vegetarians may be at lower risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "Vegetarians experience a 36 percent lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than non-vegetarians ... It indicates that lifestyle factors such as diet can be important in the prevention of metabolic syndrome ... On average, the vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were three years older than non-vegetarians. Despite their slightly older age, vegetarians had lower triglycerides, glucose levels, blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI). Semi-vegetarians also had a significantly lower BMI and waist circumference compared to those who ate meat more regularly"
  • Inverse association between serum phospholipid oleic acid and insulin resistance in subjects with primary dyslipidaemia - Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "oleic acid (OA) ... By adjusted logistic regression, including the proportions of other fatty acids known to relate to IR, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for IR were 0.75 (0.62-0.92) for 1% increase in OA and 0.84 (0.71-0.99) for 1% increase in linoleic acid. Other fatty acids were unrelated to IR. When using the alternate definition of IR, OA remained a significant predictor (0.80 [0.65-0.99]) ... Higher phospholipid proportions of OA relate to less IR, suggesting an added benefit of increasing olive oil intake within the Mediterranean diet" - Note: I saw olive oil mayonnaise advertised and I thought that would be a good way to increase the omega-9 (oleic acid) in my diet. When I read the label in the store, olive oil was the main ingredient however it had three omega-6 oils listed after that so I’m sure it had much more omega-6 than omega-9. Bottom line, I started making my own omega-9 mayo. See the recipe at http://allrecipes.com//HowTo/making-mayonnaise/Detail.aspx.
  • Serum Antioxidant Status Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults in Recent National Surveys - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "Serum antioxidants included retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids [α-carotene, β-carotene (cis+trans), β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, total lycopene], vitamin E, and vitamin C. MetS (NCEP ATP III) prevalence in U.S. adults was 32.0% among men and 29.5% among women. Adults with MetS had consistently lower serum carotenoid concentrations compared with those without MetS, even after controlling for total cholesterol and TG among other potential confounders. Vitamin E had no significant relationship with MetS in the full multiple logistic regression model, whereas retinol+retinyl esters were inversely related to MetS among men only. The latter were also inversely related to elevated CRP and positively associated with hyperuricemia. Vitamin C exhibited a similar pattern to serum carotenoids with an inverse linear association with MetS (binary), HOMA-IR, and hyperuricemia. Future intervention studies of dietary and lifestyle change must be conducted to assess the utility of modifying serum antioxidant concentrations, especially carotenoids, given their suboptimal levels among U.S. adults with MetS, for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and various cardiovascular endpoints" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium Intake, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes After 5 Years: Results from a national, population-based prospective study (The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study) - Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar 23 - "Those who developed diabetes had lower serum 25OHD (mean 58 vs. 65 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and calcium intake (mean 881 vs. 923 mg/day; P = 0.03) compared with those who remained free of diabetes. Each 25 nmol/L increment in serum 25OHD was associated with a 24% reduced risk of diabetes (odds ratio 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.92]) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, ethnicity, season, latitude, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, dietary magnesium, hypertension, serum triglycerides, and FPG. Dietary calcium intake was not associated with reduced diabetes risk. Only serum 25OHD was positively and independently associated with HOMA-S at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Higher serum 25OHD levels, but not higher dietary calcium, were associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes in Australian adult men and women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Supplementation of Grape Skin Extract Improves Glycemia and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a Western High Fat Diet - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 9 - "Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity, reduces oxidative stress and activates the Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic patients - Br J Nutr. 2011 Mar 9:1-7 - "After an initial general examination (including blood chemistry), nineteen patients enrolled in the 4-week-long double-blind study were randomly assigned into two groups: a resveratrol group receiving oral 2 × 5 mg resveratrol and a control group receiving placebo. Before and after the second and fourth weeks of the trial, insulin resistance/sensitivity, creatinine-normalised ortho-tyrosine level in urine samples (as a measure of oxidative stress), incretin levels and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt):protein kinase B (Akt) ratio in platelets were assessed and statistically analysed. After the fourth week, resveratrol significantly decreased insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) and urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion, while it increased the pAkt:Akt ratio in platelets. On the other hand, it had no effect on parameters that relate to β-cell function (i.e. homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function). The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in humans, which might be due to a resveratrol-induced decrease in oxidative stress that leads to a more efficient insulin signalling via the Akt pathway" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Associations Between Concentrations of Vitamin D and Concentrations of Insulin, Glucose, and HbA1c Among Adolescents in the United States - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 27 - "Adjusted concentrations of insulin were ~24% lower among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D ≥75 nmol/L than among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D <50 nmol/L (P = 0.003). Concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with concentrations of glucose only among Mexican American male subjects (P = 0.007)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Inverse association of serum carotenoids with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 6 - "A significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for metabolic syndrome was observed in the highest tertile of serum β-cryptoxanthin (OR:0.45; 95% CI:0.22-0.93 in men and 0.41; 0.17-0.93 in women) and β-carotene (OR:0.45; 95% CI:0.21-0.95 in men and 0.37; 0.15-0.83 in women) compared to the lowest tertiles, in both sexes, but no significant association was found in male smokers. In women, moreover, OR for metabolic syndrome in the highest tertile of serum zeaxanthin/lutein (OR:0.37; 95% CI:0.16-0.84) was significantly lower than in the lowest tertile. Serum levels of β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene were significantly decreased with an increasing number of metabolic syndrome components in both sexes" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Association Between Periodontitis and Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 7 - "clinical attachment loss (CAL) ... Participants in the top quintile category of CAL had higher prevalence odds of IFG (odds ratio [OR] 1.55 [95% CI 1.16-2.07]) and diabetes (4.77 [2.69-8.46]) after adjustment for related confounders, compared with those in the bottom quintile. The highest quintile of pocket depth was positively associated with IFG (1.39 [1.00-1.92]) and diabetes (1.63 [1.10-2.42]) compared with the lowest quintile. ORs for CAL increased from the lowest to the highest quintile (P value test for trend <0.01) for all outcomes. The ORs for pocket depth also tended to rise across quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Chronic periodontitis measured by CAL and pocket depth was positively associated in a linear relation with IFG and diabetes in U.S. adults"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Nov 18 - "Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some ISI compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile didn't show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimisation of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individuals - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 - "We observed that magnesium treatment significantly decreased fasting C-peptide concentrations (change: -0.4 ng/mL after magnesium treatment compared with +0.05 ng/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.004) and appeared to decrease fasting insulin concentrations (change: -2.2 μU/mL after magnesium treatment compared with 0.0 μU/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.25) ... Urine proteomic profiling showed significant differences in the expression amounts of several peptides and proteins after treatment" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin-D levels found in northern California residents with metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 11/30/10 - "compared with healthy controls, blood levels of vitamin D are significantly reduced in patients in the Sacramento area with metabolic syndrome ... In spite of our great sun exposure in Northern California, 30 percent of patients with metabolic syndrome have vitamin-D deficiency, and even many subjects in the control group had inadequate levels ... These factors indicate disturbances in the body's metabolism, conferring at least a five-fold increased risk of developing diabetes and doubling the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke ... it is possible that people with metabolic syndrome have higher than average needs for vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low-salt diet increases insulin resistance in healthy subjects - Metabolism. 2010 Oct 29 - "Low-salt (LS) diet activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, both of which can increase insulin resistance (IR) ... Low-salt diet was significantly associated with higher homeostasis model assessment index independent of age, sex, blood pressure, body mass index, serum sodium and potassium, serum angiotensin II, plasma renin activity, serum and urine aldosterone, and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine. Low-salt diet is associated with an increase in IR. The impact of our findings on the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease needs further investigation"
  • Eating mostly whole grains, few refined grains linked to lower body fat - Science Daily, 10/20/10 - "People who consume several servings of whole grains per day while limiting daily intake of refined grains appear to have less of a type of fat tissue thought to play a key role in triggering cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes ... Visceral Adipose Tissue ... VAT volume was approximately 10 % lower in adults who reported eating three or more daily servings of whole grains and who limited their intake of refined grains to less than one serving per day ... Visceral fat surrounds the intra-abdominal organs while subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin ... visceral fat is more closely tied to the development of metabolic syndrome ... participants who consumed, on average, three daily servings of whole grains but continued to eat many refined grains did not demonstrate lower VAT volume"
  • Association between red meat consumption and metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk: Cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up assessment - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 26 - "Subjects in the upper quartile of RM consumption were more likely to meet the criteria for the MetS at baseline (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; P-trend = 0.001) and after 1-year follow-up (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P-trend = 0.034) compared with those in the quartile of reference, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The longitudinal analyses showed that individuals in the fourth quartile of RM consumption had an increased risk of MetS (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P-trend = 0.009) or central obesity incidence (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 1.4-46.0; P-trend = 0.077) at the end of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile"
  • Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 14;9(1):116 - "The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group"
  • Quercetin is equally or more effective than resveratrol in attenuating tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct 13 - "These data suggest that quercetin is equally or more effective than trans-RSV in attenuating TNF-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol shows metabolic benefits for obese: Study - Nutra USA, 10/11/10 - "When human fat cells were exposed to IL-1B, the researchers noted increases in the secretion of pro-inflammatory compounds, including IL6, IL8, MCP-1. However, when the cells were simultaneously exposed to resveratrol, a 16 to 36 percent reduction in the expression of these cytokines was observed" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on adipokine expression and secretion in human adipose tissue explants - Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jun 8 - "This study is the first to show anti-inflammatory effects of RSV on adipokine expression and secretion in human adipose tissue in vitro through the SIRT1 pathway. Thus, RSV is hypothesized to possess beneficial effects and might improve the metabolic profile in human obesity" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity - Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 4 - "exercise training (ET) ... With ET, improvements in S(I) were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P<0.05, R(2)=0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of ET (P<0.05, R(2)=0.34). Conclusions: These observations support prior observations in animal models that ET promotes more efficient mitochondrial beta oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding ET and glycine metabolism"
  • Association between red meat consumption and metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk: Cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up assessment - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 26 - "Subjects in the upper quartile of RM consumption were more likely to meet the criteria for the MetS at baseline (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; P-trend = 0.001) and after 1-year follow-up (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P-trend = 0.034) compared with those in the quartile of reference, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The longitudinal analyses showed that individuals in the fourth quartile of RM consumption had an increased risk of MetS (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P-trend = 0.009) or central obesity incidence (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 1.4-46.0; P-trend = 0.077) at the end of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile"
  • Taurine prevents free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance in association with inhibiting JNK1 activation and improving insulin signaling in vivo - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Sep 18 - "intralipid plus heparin (IH) ... Taurine co-infusion with IH prevented the rise in 8-isoprostaglandin and MDA, inhibited the activation of JNK1, and improved insulin signaling and insulin resistance in liver. The present study has demonstrated that taurine, as an antioxidant, prevented hepatic oxidative stress and ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance. And this effect may be associated with the inhibition of JNK1 activation and the improvement of insulin signaling. This study suggests the therapeutic value of taurine in protecting from hepatic insulin resistance caused by elevated FFAs" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in korean type 2 diabetes patients - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):171-8 - "Our findings show that hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients. Dietary intake may be indirectly associated with adiponectin levels through factors such as BMI, waist circumference, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure. Therefore, our results suggest that manipulation of the level of adiponectin may prevent MetS and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM patients"
  • Blueberries show anti-diabetic potential: Study - Science Daily, 9/13/10 - "Obese, non-diabetic, and insulin-resistant participants who consumed a blueberry smoothie daily for six weeks experienced a 22 percent change in insulin sensitivity, compared to only 4.9 percent in the placebo group ... The United States Highbush Blueberry Council (USHBC) prepared the freeze-dried whole blueberry powder used in this study" - [Abstract] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol: a relevant pharmacological approach for the treatment of metabolic syndrome? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Sep 4 - "Through its regulatory action of both AMP kinase and the sirtuin sirtuin-1, resveratrol is a natural sirtuin activator that certainly will be the head of a new pharmacological family of drugs targeted on sirtuin-1 activity exacerbation in order to treat/protect from obesity and diabetes, and thus metabolic syndrome" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 31 - "During 20-year follow-up, 330 incident diabetic cases were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.86; P(trend)<0.01) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR; and serum magnesium levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome: a perspective, randomized, placebo-controlled study - Menopause. 2010 Aug 31 - "Myo-inositol plus diet improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA index, cholesterol, and triglyceride serum levels with highly significant differences, compared with the groups treated only with diet and placebo. In the group treated with myo-inositol, a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-11%), HOMA index (-75%), and serum triglycerides (-20%) and an improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22%) were shown ... CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with myo-inositol may be considered a reliable option in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women" - Note:  See raysahelian.com/inositol.html  and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol which claim myo-inositol and inositol are the same.  See myo inositol at Amazon.com.
  • Why fish oils work swimmingly against inflammation and diabetes - Science Daily, 9/2/10 - "Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified the molecular mechanism that makes omega-3 fatty acids so effective in reducing chronic inflammation and insulin resistance ... omega-3 fatty acids activate this macrophage receptor, resulting in broad anti-inflammatory effects and improved systemic insulin sensitivity ... It's just an incredibly potent effect ... omega-3 fatty acids switch on the receptor, killing the inflammatory response" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 19 - "Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 +/- 0.5 mg.kg FFM(-1).min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 +/- 0.4 mg.kg FFM(-1).min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Emodin, a natural product, selectively inhibits 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and ameliorates metabolic disorder in diet-induced obese mice - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;161(1):113-26 - "11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is an attractive therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, has been demonstrated to possess multiple biological activities ... Emodin is a potent and selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor with the IC(50) of 186 and 86 nM for human and mouse 11beta-HSD1, respectively. Single oral administration of emodin inhibited 11beta-HSD1 activity of liver and fat significantly in mice. Emodin reversed prednisone-induced insulin resistance in mice, whereas it did not affect dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance, which confirmed its inhibitory effect on 11beta-HSD1 in vivo. In DIO mice, oral administration of emodin improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, and lowered blood glucose and hepatic PEPCK, and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study demonstrated a new role for emodin as a potent and selective inhibitor of 11beta-HSD1 and its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in DIO mice. This highlights the potential value of analogues of emodin as a new class of compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes" - Note:  (11beta-HSD1) goes hand in hand with cortisol.  It seems like what came first, the chicken or the egg.  I googled emodin and didn't see any reliable places that sold it.  One article said that it was in some resveratrol products and that the emodin was what caused the stomach problems.
  • Adherence to an (n-3) Fatty Acid/Fish Intake Pattern Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among Puerto Rican Adults in the Greater Boston Area - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "The (n-3) fatty acid/fish factor was associated with a lower likelihood of metabolic syndrome (Q5 vs. Q1: odds ratio: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.86)"
  • Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug - "sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, energy and vitamin water drinks ... Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of T2DM, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1-2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing T2DM than those in the lowest quantile (none or < 1 serving/month) (RR:1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)). Among studies evaluating MetSyn, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.42)"
  • Interactions of dietary whole grain intake with fasting glucose- and insulin-related genetic loci in individuals of European descent: a meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 6 - "Greater whole grain food intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (beta [95% CI] per 1-serving greater whole grain intake: -0.009 mmol/L glucose [-0.013, -0.005], p <0.0001 and -0.011 pmol/L (ln) insulin [-0.015, -0.007], p =0.0003) ... Our results support the favorable association of whole grain intake with fasting glucose and insulin and suggest potential interaction between variation in GCKR and whole grain intake in influencing fasting insulin concentrations"
  • Reduction of Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5 and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) 100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0 +/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner" - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with Telomere Length in Middle-aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating Adiponectin - Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Aug - "Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging ... HOMA-IR was the most significant predictor for TL in males, explaining 35% of the variance (p = 0.01). In females, adiponectin, accounted for 28% of the variance in TL (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chromosomal TL among adult Arabs. Evidence of causal relations needs further investigation. The positive association of adiponectin to TL has clinical implications as to the possible protective effects of this hormone from accelerated aging" - Note:  HOMA-IR = (glucose x insulin)/405 for glucose in mass units (US units) mg/dL.  See my adiponectin page for ways to increase it.
  • Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome - J Nutr. 2010 Jul 21 - "Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2); age: 50.0 +/- 3.0 y (mean +/- SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, approximately 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (-6 and -4%, respectively) than in controls (-1.5 and -1.2%) (P < 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (-28 and -17%, respectively) than in the control group (-9 and -9%) (P < 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of Fish and n-3 Fatty Acids and Future Risk of Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jul;110(7):1018-1026 - "After controlling for potential cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate OR for metabolic syndrome was 0.43 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) for men who ate fish daily when compared with those eating fish less than once a week. Similarly, metabolic syndrome risk was halved for men in the top decile of n-3 fatty acid intake when compared with those in the bottom decile (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.99). In particular, fish intake was significantly associated with triglyceride level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among the metabolic syndrome components. For women, apparent associations were not observed between fish intake or n-3 fatty acid intake and metabolic syndrome risk. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study, high consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome among men, but not among women. Whether or not encouraging fish intake can help prevent the development of metabolic syndrome warrants further studies" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Supplementation Affects Body Weight, Lipids, and Lipid Peroxidation in Obese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):31-40 - "Green tea beverage consumption (4 cups/d) or extract supplementation (2 capsules/d) for 8 weeks significantly decreased body weight and BMI. Green tea beverage further lowered lipid peroxidation versus age- and gender-matched controls, suggesting the role of green tea flavonoids in improving features of metabolic syndrome in obese patients" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D linked to the metabolic syndrome in elderly people - Science Daily, 7/1/10 - "vitamin D inadequacy may be a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, a condition that affects one in four adults ... Because the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, an adequate vitamin D level in the body might be important in the prevention of these diseases ... The researchers found a 48 percent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Well-defined quantity of antioxidants in diet can improve insulin resistance, study finds - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "For groups C and D, the researchers prescribed a diet enriched in antioxidant, with a calculated intake, 800 to 1,000 milligrams a day, coming from fruits and vegetables, but group D also took metformin ... Despite similar weight loss in all the groups, only the two groups receiving the antioxidant diet (groups C and D) had a significant decrease in insulin resistance ... Group D had the best improvement in insulin resistance on some measures of insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test ... We think that a total antioxidant level of 800 to 1,000 milligrams a day is safe and probably not close to the maximum tolerable level"
  • Green tea extract decreases oxidative stress and improves insulin sensitivity in an animal model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat - J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28(4):355-61 - "These data suggest that green tea may be beneficial for people with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative stress, such as those with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Selenium protects men against diabetes, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/17/10 - "The role of selenium in diabetes has been controversial, with some studies suggesting that it raises diabetes risk and others finding that it is protective. Now, research published in BioMed Central's open access journal Nutrition and Metabolism, has shown that, for men, high plasma selenium concentrations are associated with a lower occurrence of dysglycemia ... for French elderly males, having plasma selenium concentrations in the top tertile of the population distribution (1.19-1.97 μmol/L) was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing dysglycemia over the following nine years ... The reason we observed a protective effect of selenium in men but not in women is not completely clear, but might be attributed to women being healthier at baseline, having better antioxidant status in general and possible differences in how men and women process selenium" - [Nutra USA] - See selenium at Amazon.com.
  • Insulin Resistance - Dr. Weil - "Supplements: ... Coenzyme Q10 ... Alpha-lipoic acid ... Magnesium ... Chromium"
  • Curcumin improves insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of rats - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar 12 - "Curcumin improves muscular insulin resistance by increasing oxidation of fatty acid and glucose, which is, at least in part, mediated through LKB1-AMPK pathway" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • High levels of vitamin D in older people can reduce heart disease and diabetes - Science Daily, 2/16/10 - "Researchers looked at 28 studies including 99,745 participants across a variety of ethnic groups including men and women. The studies revealed a significant association between high levels of vitamin D and a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (33% compared to low levels of vitamin D), type 2 diabetes (55% reduction) and metabolic syndrome (51% reduction)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • What You Eat After Working Out Matters - WebMD, 1/29/10 - "A new study shows that eating a low-carbohydrate meal after aerobic exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. Increased insulin sensitivity makes it easier for the body to take up sugar from the bloodstream and store it in muscles and other tissues where it can be used for fuel ... Impaired insulin sensitivity, or insulin resistance, increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease"
  • Dietary Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic Mice - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Blueberries or bilberries contain large amounts of anthocyanins, making them one of the richest sources of dietary anthocyanin ... bilberry extract (BBE) ... Dietary BBE significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity ... These findings provide a biochemical basis for the use of bilberry fruits and have important implications for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via activation of AMPK" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • High Fructose Intake Linked to Metabolic Syndrome, Kidney Disease - Science Daily, 1/14/10 - "men who were randomized to receive 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks without or without allopurinol ... Fructose intake was associated with an average increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7 and 5 mm Hg, respectively ... Mean fasting triglyceride levels rose by 0.62 mmol/L (p < 0.002), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels fell by 0.06 mmol/L ... the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased by 25% to 33%"
  • Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults - Ann Nutr Metab. 2010 Jan 4;56(1):74-79 - "Vinegar reduces postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy adults ... Two teaspoons of vinegar ( approximately 10 g) effectively reduced PPG, and this effect was most pronounced when vinegar was ingested during mealtime as compared to 5 h before the meal ... The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG by approximately 20% compared to placebo" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
  • Coffee, Tea May Stall Diabetes - WebMD, 12/14/09 - "researchers found each additional cup of coffee drunk per day was associated with a 7% lower risk of diabetes. People who drank three to four cups per day had about a 25% lower risk than those who drank two or fewer cups per day ... The study also showed that people who drank more than three to four cups of decaffeinated coffee per day had about a one-third lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who didn’t drink any ... Tea drinkers who drank more than three to four cups of tea per day had about a one-fifth lower risk of diabetes than those who didn’t drink tea" - [Science Daily] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplements show anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 10/27/09 - "At the end of the test period, women in the vitamin D group experienced “significant improvements” in both insulin sensitivity and resistance, said the researchers, which was also accompanied a decrease in fasting insulin levels, compared to placebo" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep 28:1-7 - "In conclusion, improving vitamin D status in insulin resistant women resulted in improved IR and sensitivity, but no change in insulin secretion. Optimal vitamin D concentrations for reducing IR were shown to be 80-119 nmol/l, providing further evidence for an increase in the recommended adequate levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low HDL Levels as the Most Common Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factor in Heart Failure - Int Heart J. 2009 Sep;50(5):571-80 - "The most prevalent parameters were low HDL-C (69%) and hypertension (69%) in all participants" -  Note:  The best way to raise HDL is with niacin.  The no flush form doesn't work and the slow release may cause liver damage.  People complain about the flush but I've been taking it for years and the longer you take it the less flush.  After a while, there is no flush at all but be sure to take it with food.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?tk=25&dpg=34 shows that with extended release niacin, HDL peaks out at 2,500 mg.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?q=effect+of+niacin&dpg=4 shows immediate release crystalline niacin compared to Niaspan.  The numbers are basically the same.  I don't see any point in the prescription other than that it might have less flushing when you first start taking it.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors Drive Significantly Higher Health Care Costs - Science Daily, 9/17/09 - "Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, high blood pressure, and elevated blood lipid levels, can increase a person's healthcare costs nearly 1.6-fold, or about $2,000 per year. For each additional risk factor those costs rise an average of 24%"
  • Nuisance Or Nutrient? Kudzu Shows Promise As A Dietary Supplement - Science Daily, 8/26/09 - "root extracts from kudzu show promise as a dietary supplement for a high-risk condition — the metabolic syndrome — that affects almost 50 million people in the United States alone ... people with metabolic syndrome have obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and problems with their body's ability to use insulin ... After two months of taking the extract, the rats had lower cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, and insulin levels that a control group not given the extract" - See kudzu products at iHerb.
  • Carnitine Supplements Reverse Glucose Intolerance In Animals - Science Daily, 8/17/09 - "After just eight weeks of supplementation with carnitine, the obese rats restored their cells' fuel- burning capacity (which was shut down by a lack of natural carnitine) and improved their glucose tolerance, a health outcome that indicates a lower risk of diabetes ... These results offer hope for a new therapeutic option for people with glucose intolerance, older people, people with kidney disease, and those with type 2 diabetes (what used to be called adult-onset diabetes) ... Carnitine is a natural compound known for helping fatty acids enter the mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, where fatty acids are "burned" to give cells energy for their various tasks. Carnitine also helps move excess fuel from cells into the circulating blood, which then redistributes this energy source to needier organs or to the kidneys for removal" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol prevents hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 7 - "Endothelial dysfunction secondary to persistent hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetic vascular disease ... These results provide new insight into the protective properties of resveratrol against endothelial dysfunction caused by high glucose, which is attributed to the AMPK mediated reduction of superoxide level" - Click here for a definition of endothelial dysfunction.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to metabolic syndrome - Nutra USA, 8/4/09 - "According to findings published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, the lowest levels of the sunshine vitamin were associated with a 31 per cent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, compared to only 10 per cent for people wit the highest average levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Metabolic syndrome and serum carotenoids: findings of a cross-sectional study in Queensland, Australia - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 27:1-10 - "Mean serum alpha-, beta-carotenes and the sum of the five carotenoid concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in persons with the metabolic syndrome ... alpha-, beta- and total carotenoids also decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased number of components of the metabolic syndrome ... Low concentrations of serum alpha-, beta-carotenes and the sum of five carotenoids appear to be associated with metabolic syndrome status" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity - Acta Cardiol. 2009 Jun;64(3):321-7 - "were given 1 gram of fish oil as a single capsule, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid daily for 6 months. Control subjects did not receive any supplementation over the same period. RESULTS: The study was completed by 47 subjects in the intervention group and 42 subjects in the control group. Treatment with omega 3 supplements was associated with a significant fall in body weight (P < 0.05), systolic blood pressures (P < 0.05), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05), and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglycerides (P < 0.05), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P < 0.01), and Hsp27 antibody titres (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: It appears that omega 3 improves the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, having effects on weight, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and markers of inflammation and autoimmunity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy - Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate (GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4 mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus-derived Flavonoid Prevents Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/14/09 - "Naringenin corrected the elevations in triglyceride and cholesterol, prevented the development of insulin resistance and completely normalized glucose metabolism. The researchers found it worked by genetically reprogramming the liver to burn up excess fat, rather than store it ... Furthermore, the marked obesity that develops in these mice was completely prevented by naringenin ... These studies show naringenin, through its insulin-like properties, corrects many of the metabolic disturbances linked to insulin resistance and represents a promising therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome" - See naringenin at Amazon.com.
  • Threshold for effects of vitamin D deficiency on glucose metabolism in obese female African American adolescents - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun 23 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in obese, AA female adolescents and may promote insulin resistance. Our data suggests that a 25(OH)D concentrations </=15 ng/mL may be the threshold by which vitamin D deficiency confers negative effects on insulin sensitivity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Older People Need More Sun, Expert Urges - Science Daily, 5/11/09 - "His team found a high correlation between low vitamin D levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. They found 94% of people in the study had a vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) deficiency or insufficiency. The results showed 42.3% of these people also had metabolic syndrome ... Vitamin D deficiency is becoming a condition that is causing a large burden of disease across the globe with particular deleterious impact among the elderly" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men - J Nutr. 2009 May;139(5):987-92 - "After adjustment for confounders, total carotenoid and lycopene intakes were inversely associated with presence of metabolic syndrome [relative risk (RR) quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.42 (0.20-0.87), P-trend 0.02; and 0.55 (0.28-1.11), P-trend 0.01, respectively]. For beta-carotene, a decreased risk was observed for each quartile of intake compared with the first [RR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.58 (0.33-1.02)]. Higher total carotenoid, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene intakes were associated with lower waist circumferences and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass. Higher lycopene intake was related to lower serum triglyceride concentrations" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Recipe for Diabetes: Too Much Protein, Fat - WebMD, 4/7/09 - "A high-fat diet may lead to insulin resistance, a major step on the path to type 2 diabetes. But cutting back on fat may not help those who continue to eat too much protein"
  • Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov 26 - "GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Consuming A Little Less Salt Could Mean Fewer Deaths - Science Daily, 3/11/09 - "Participants who slept on average less than six hours a night during the work week, when followed over six years, were 4.56 times more likely than those getting six to eight hours of sleep to convert from normal blood sugar levels to impaired fasting glucose"
  • Low Vitamin D Hurts Teenagers’ Hearts - WebMD, 3/11/09 - "Compared to the 25% of teens with the highest levels of vitamin D in their blood (more than 26 nanograms per milliliter), the 25% of teens with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 15 ng/mL) had: ... Fourfold greater risk of metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors for diabetes ... 2.54 times greater risk of high blood sugar ... 2.36 times greater risk of high blood pressure" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 - "Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3 fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):138-46 - "n-3 PUFA supplementation has clinical significance in the prevention and reversal of insulin resistance" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Markers of the Insulin Resistant Phenotype in Nondiabetic Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "Among adults without diabetes, vitamin D status was inversely associated with surrogate fasting measures of insulin resistance. These results suggest that vitamin D status may be an important determinant for type 2 diabetes mellitus" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Ferritin Levels Linked With Risk of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 12/22/08 - "Elevated circulating ferritin concentrations are independently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects ... Men and women had median ferritin concentrations of 155.7 ng/mL and 111.9 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to patients in the lowest ferritin quartile, those in the highest quartile had substantially higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome (2.80) and diabetes (3.26)" - Iron supplements has been controversial for years.  I started taking it again because my ferritin was 11.9.
  • Metabolic Syndrome? Nuts! - WebMD, 12/8/08 - "A group that was given personalized advice on the Mediterranean diet and about 2 tablespoons of mixed nuts (1/2 walnuts, 1/4 almonds, and 1/4 hazelnuts) each day ... A year later, nobody lost weight. And about the same number of people developed newly diagnosed metabolic syndrome in each group ... But among patients who already had metabolic syndrome, those in the nut group were 70% more likely to have reversal of metabolic syndrome than those in the control group"
  • Vitamin K Linked To Insulin Resistance In Older Men - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "Vitamin K slowed the development of insulin resistance in elderly men in a study of 355 non-diabetic men and women ages 60 to 80 who completed a three-year clinical trial at the Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Chronic Green Tea Consumption Decreases Body Mass, Induces Aromatase Expression, and Changes Proliferation and Apoptosis in Adult Male Rat Adipose Tissue - J Nutr. 2008 Nov;138(11):2156-2163 - "Green tea (GT) ... These results suggest new mechanisms for GT on body weight and highlight its potential benefit to prevent or treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice - J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1677-83 - "In mice fed a high-fat diet (60% energy as fat), supplementation with dietary EGCG treatment (3.2 g/kg diet) for 16 wk reduced body weight (BW) gain, percent body fat, and visceral fat weight (P < 0.05) compared with mice without EGCG treatment ... EGCG treatment attenuated insulin resistance, plasma cholesterol, and monocyte chemoattractant protein concentrations in high-fat-fed mice (P < 0.05). EGCG treatment also decreased liver weight, liver triglycerides, and plasma alanine aminotransferase concentrations in high-fat-fed mice (P < 0.05). Histological analyses of liver samples revealed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice treated with EGCG compared with high-fat diet-fed mice without EGCG treatment. In another experiment, 3-mo-old high-fat-induced obese mice receiving short-term EGCG treatment (3.2 g/kg diet, 4 wk) had decreased mesenteric fat weight and blood glucose compared with high-fat-fed control mice (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that long-term EGCG treatment attenuated the development of obesity, symptoms associated with the metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Short-term EGCG treatment appeared to reverse preexisting high-fat-induced metabolic pathologies in obese mice. These effects may be mediated by decreased lipid absorption, decreased inflammation, and other mechanisms" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin resistance in older men and women - Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug 12 - "The effect of 36-month vitamin K supplementation on HOMA-IR differed by sex (sex-by-treatment interaction: P = 0.02). HOMA-IR was statistically significantly lower at the 36-month visit among men in the supplement group vs. the men in the control group (P = 0.01) after adjustment for baseline HOMA-IR, BMI, and body weight change. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome measures between intervention groups in women ... Vitamin K supplementation for 36 months at doses attainable in the diet may reduce progression of insulin resistance in older men" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C-rich diet may slash diabetes risk - Nutra USA, 7/29/08 - "Increased blood levels of vitamin C may reduce the risk of developing diabetes by 62 per cent ... Correlating blood levels of vitamin C and diabetes, the researchers found that men and women with the highest blood levels (at least 1.10 and 1.29 mg/dL, respectively) had a 62 per cent reduction in their risk of developing type-2 diabetes, compared to men and women with the lowest blood levels (less than 0.56 and 0.77 mg/dL, respectively)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Regular Meals Reduce Risk Of Developing Metabolic Syndrome, Study Shows - Science Daily, 7/22/08 - "People who eat at irregular times run a greater risk of developing insulin resistance and what is known as metabolic syndrome"
  • Interval Training May Beat Mild Exercise at Taming Metabolic Syndrome - WebMD, 7/7/08 - "aerobic interval training -- in which people push their heart rate almost to its limits briefly, followed by a more moderate pace, several times during a workout -- may be even better at reining in metabolic syndrome"
  • Common Cooking Spice Found In Curry Shows Promise In Combating Diabetes And Obesity - Science Daily, 6/20/08 - "turmeric-treated mice were less susceptible to developing Type 2 diabetes, based on their blood glucose levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests. They also discovered that turmeric-fed obese mice showed significantly reduced inflammation in fat tissue and liver compared to controls. They speculate that curcumin, the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant ingredient in turmeric, lessens insulin resistance and prevents Type 2 diabetes in these mouse models by dampening the inflammatory response provoked by obesity" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a case-control study in Korea - Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb 28;:1-6 - "trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC) ... There were significant positive relationships between trans fatty acids and waist circumference, and between trans fatty acids and BMI. The results suggested that RBC trans fatty acids might be a predictor of increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, but n-3 fatty acids were not in this population"
  • Are there specific treatments for the metabolic syndrome? - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):8-11 - "Although there is no "all-inclusive" diet yet, it seems plausible that a Mediterranean-style diet has most of the desired attributes, including a lower content of refined carbohydrates, a high content of fiber, a moderate content of fat (mostly unsaturated), and a moderate-to-high content of vegetable proteins"
  • Renoprotective action of l-carnitine in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Dec 17 - "l-carnitine (CA) administration ... The benefits of CA in this model suggest the therapeutic use of CA to counter the kidney changes associated with metabolic syndrome" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Exercise Cuts Rate Of Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 12/17/07 - "a person can lower risk of MetS by walking just 30 minutes a day, six days per week ... Before exercising regularly, 41 percent of the participants met the criteria for MetS. At the end of the 8-month exercise program, only 27 percent did"
  • Antioxidants may stop fat cells formation, says study - Nutra USA, 11/12/07 - "These results suggest that o-coumaric acid and rutin targeted for adipocyte functions could be effective in improving the symptoms of metabolic syndrome" - [Abstract]
  • Effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8404-10 - "These results suggest that o-coumaric acid and rutin targeted for adipocyte functions could be effective in improving the symptoms of metabolic syndrome"
  • Intake of soluble fibers has a protective role for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19 - "The intake of soluble fibers, particularly from whole-grain foods and fruits, may have a protective role for the presence of MS in this selected sample of patients with type 2 DM"
  • Red Wine Compound May Curb Diabetes - WebMD, 10/2/07 - "Resveratrol curbs insulin resistance in mice ... According to our findings, people might need to drink about three liters of red wine each day to get sufficient resveratrol -- about 15 milligrams -- for its biological effects" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity - Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul 9 - "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients"
  • Drinking milk cuts diabetes risk - BBC News, 7/13/07 - "metabolic syndrome increased the risk of death by 50% ... men were 62% less likely to have the syndrome if they drank a pint or more of milk every day, and 56% less likely to have it if they regularly ate other dairy produce"
  • Preventing Progression From Impaired Glucose Tolerance to Diabetes - Medscape, 12/14/06 - "Every kilogram of weight lost resulted in a relative risk reduction of 16%, after adjusting for exercise and diet composition. A 5-kg weight loss resulted in a relative risk reduction of 58% ... These findings do not negate the role of exercise in weight loss; rather, they suggest that weight loss itself is the key factor, however one achieves it"
  • n-3 fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1499S-1504S - "Increased intakes or supplements of n-3 marine fatty acids may improve defects in insulin signaling and prevent alterations in glucose homeostasis and the further development of type 2 diabetes"
  • Metabolic Syndrome, The Twenty-First Century Epidemic - Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "little attention has been paid to the critical role of insulin resistance in the development of cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is the root cause of metabolic syndrome ... Nutritional supplements can help improve blood sugar control and metabolic health naturally, without danger or stress to your body. Particularly compelling are polyphenol-rich, water-soluble extracts of cinnamon and coffee, along with green tea extract, chromium, and banaba leaf-derived corosolic acid"
  • Calorie Restriction without Hunger! - Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "excess insulin functions as a death hormone that devastates virtually every cell and organ system in the body"
  • Need More Magnesium? - Dr. Weil, 6/29/06 - "a diet rich in magnesium appears to protect against metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that can lead to diabetes and heart disease"
  • Magnesium Lowers Heart, Diabetes Risks - WebMD, 3/27/06 - "people in the study who consumed the most magnesium had a 31% lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome, compared with people who ate the least"
  • Older Adults May Reduce Risk Of Metabolic Syndrome By Eating More Whole Grains - Science Daily, 2/6/06
  • Older Adults May Reduce Risk of Metabolic Syndrome by Eating More Whole Grains - Doctor's Guide, 2/6/06 - "as whole-grain intake increased, fasting blood sugar levels were lower in these subjects. Refined grain intake, on the other hand, was associated with higher fasting blood sugar levels ... people who consumed high amounts of refined grains had twice the risk of having metabolic syndrome than those people who consumed the fewest servings of refined grains"
  • Three-week Diet-Exercise Study Shows 50 Percent Reversal In Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 1/16/06 - "The study shows, contrary to common belief, that Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome can be reversed solely through lifestyle changes ... Participants did lose two to three pounds per week, but they were still obese after the 3-week study ... The daily diet was low fat (12-15% of calories), moderate protein (15-20% of calories), and high in unrefined carbohydrates (65-70% of calories) and fiber (more than 40 grams) ... Natural foods -- whole grains (five or more servings daily), vegetables (four or more servings), and fruits (three or more servings) -- were the main source of daily carbohydrates ... Aside from meat and dairy, the study participants could eat as much as they wanted"
  • Wholegrains ease metabolic syndrome in older people - Nutra USA, 1/12/06 - "Volunteers in the highest wholegrain intake group (3 servings per day) were statistically half as likely to develop MetS as those who consumed less than half a serving per day"
  • A New Strategy for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Nutraceutical strategy ... DHEA: 10-50 mg per day to start (men), 10-30 mg per day to start (women); assess effect via repeat blood test ... EPA/DHA: 2 capsules twice daily ... Lipoic acid: 150 mg once or twice daily ... Mixed bioflavonoids: 1400 mg twice daily ... Mixed tocopherols: 400 IU twice daily with mixed tocotrienols (75 mg twice daily) ... Vitamin A: 5000 IU per day, with mixed carotenoids (for example, lutein 5000 mcg, lycopene 3000 mcg, and zeaxanthin 360 mcg) daily ... Water-soluble cinnamon extract: 85 mg three times daily, 30 minutes before meals ... Barley extract: 2.5 grams three times daily with meals ... Pycnogenol: 200 mg daily ... Coffee extract standardized for 50% phenolic acids: 100 mg three times daily, 30 minutes before meals"
  • More Dairy, Less Metabolic Syndrome? - WebMD, 11/17/05 - "skim milk or other low-fat dairy products are the best route to go ... the group with the highest dairy consumption was 40% less likely to have metabolic syndrome, compared with the group of men with the lowest dairy consumption"
  • Low-carb Diet Better Than Low-fat Diet At Improving Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 11/16/05 - "the features of metabolic syndrome are precisely those that are improved by reducing carbohydrates in the diet"
  • Study Results Show Diachrome(R) Improves Poorly-Controlled Blood Sugar Levels for People on Antidiabetic Prescription Medications - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/05 - "Study participants taking Diachrome with one or more antidiabetic medications saw an average range of 0.7 - 1.9% point reduction in HbA1c levels. The study also showed that insulin resistance was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in those taking thiazolidinediones and Diachrome ... Diachrome is a nutritional supplement specifically formulated for people with diabetes. It contains 600 mcg of chromium as Chromax(R) chromium picolinate and 2 mg of biotin" - See iHerb chromium products and iHerb biotin products.
  • Vinegar may help dieters eat less - Nutra USA, 9/7/05 - "Both glucose and insulin responses were about 25 per cent lower at 90 minutes when the volunteers had consumed the highest level of vinegar compared to the reference meal ... This level of vinegar is equivalent to about two to three tablespoons"
  • Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun 2 - "Compared with the reference meal, the highest level of vinegar significantly lowered the blood glucose response at 30 and 45 min"
  • High Glycemic Index or High Carbohydrate Diet May Not Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 6/6/05 - "Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance ... intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
  • Magnesium Intake, C-Reactive Protein, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1438-1444 - "women in the highest quintile of magnesium intake had 27% lower risk of the metabolic syndrome ... compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake"
  • Does Replacing DHEA Improve Insulin Sensitivity? - Physician's Weekly, 5/16/05 - "DHEA replacement “significantly increased [sulfated ester of DHEA], bioavailable testosterone, and androstenedione and reduced sex hormone–binding globulin levels.” The DHEA group also had lower fasting plasma insulin and glucagon levels. “DHEA also [significantly] reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol,”" - See DHEA at Amazon.com
  • Magnesium Deficiency in Obese Children May Be Linked to Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 5/9/05 - "Magnesium deficiency in obese children is associated with the development of insulin resistance"
  • WARNING! Normal Blood Pressure May Be High Blood Pressure! - Life Extension Magazine, 5/05 - "To Solve Hypertension, Address Metabolic Syndrome"
  • Long or Short Sleep Time May Be Associated With Diabetes - Medscape, 4/26/05 - "Sleep duration of six hours or less or nine hours or more is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)"
  • Vinegar as a Sweet Solution? - Science News, 12/18/04 - "2 tablespoons of vinegar before a meal—perhaps, as part of a vinaigrette salad dressing—will dramatically reduce the spike in blood concentrations of insulin and glucose that come after a meal ... vinegar cut their blood-glucose rise in the first hour after a meal by about half ... a 2-pound weight loss, on average, over the 4 weeks in the vinegar group"
  • Exercise Away Risk of Early Death - WebMD, 12/29/04 - "After six months, 18% of exercisers and 15% of the comparison group no longer had metabolic syndrome. However, 8% of volunteers in the comparison group had developed the syndrome ... Older people can benefit greatly from exercise, especially to reduce their risk for developing metabolic syndrome"
  • Exercise May Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risks - WebMD, 11/15/04 - "physical fitness was associated with lower levels of an inflammation marker associated with heart disease, known as C-reactive protein"
  • Low-Fat, High-Fiber, Exercising Helpful for Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 10/22/04 - "The diet contained 12% to 15% fat calories and less than 30 grams of fiber daily ... As part of the exercise program, patients performed 45 to 60 minutes of aerobic activity daily. Strength training exercises were included in the workout about 3 times a week ... 58% of the patients in the study no longer met three or more of those criteria by the time the patients completed the study"
  • Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial - JAMA. 2004 Sep 22;292(12):1440-6 - "A Mediterranean-style diet might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular risk"
  • Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia -  Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;151(4):483-9 - "Folate and B12 treatment improved insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, along with decreasing homocysteine levels, in patients with the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that folic acid had several beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Be Effective in Reducing Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Symptoms - Doctor's Guide, 9/22/04 - "after 2 years, patients in the Mediterranean diet intervention group had significant decreases in body weight, blood pressure, levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and a significant increase in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... Serum concentrations of interleukins 6 (IL-6), 7 (IL-7), and 18 (IL-18) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly reduced in patients in the intervention group"
  • Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "With the introduction of a new highly viscous fiber blend trademarked under the name PGX™, it may now be possible to achieve the multiple documented benefits of fiber by swallowing only a few capsules before each meal. The longevity potential associated with reducing after-meal glucose and insulin blood levels, lowering total cholesterol and LDL, and losing some weight is enormous"
  • Solving Syndrome X - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 7/21/04 - "PGX lowers after meal blood sugar levels by approximately 20 to 40% and also lowers insulin secretion by approximately 40% producing a whole body insulin sensitivity index improvement of nearly 60%"
  • High-Fiber Cereal May Ward Off Diabetes - WebMD, 6/18/04 - "eating a high-fiber cereal lowered insulin production and reduced blood glucose levels in men with elevated insulin levels, a condition known as hyperinsulinemia"
  • Insulin Plays Central Role In Aging, Brown Scientists Discover - Science Daily, 6/4/04 - "insulin regulates its own production and that it directly regulates tissue aging. The principle: Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke"
  • Moderate Alcohol May Improve Diabetes - WebMD, 6/1/04 - "alcohol improves the body's resistance to insulin -- the hallmark of type 2 diabetes ... the evidence from large-population studies is fairly consistent and shows a reduction in risk of 30% to 40% associated with moderate drinking"
  • What makes people fat, why diets don't work, and what triggers appetite? - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 3/17/04 - "PGX™ lowers after meal blood sugar levels by approximately 20 to 40% and also lowers insulin secretion by approximately 40% producing a whole body insulin sensitivity index improvement of nearly 50% - a phenomenal accomplishment that is unequalled by any drug or natural health product.10 PGX™ is particularly well-suited for syndrome X" - See PGX at Amazon.com PGX products.
  • Eating Whole Grains Pays Off - WebMD, 2/19/04 - "greater consumption of whole-grain, cereal fiber, and diets with lower glycemic index were associated with better insulin sensitivity and were less likely to be affected by insulin resistant or the metabolic syndrome"
  • Wholegrain intake associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome - Nutra USA, 2/18/04 - "intakes of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and whole grains were inversely associated, whereas glycemic index and glycemic load were positively associated with insulin resistance"
  • Diet, lifestyle may lower colon cancer risk - MSNBC, 1/23/04 - "One prime suspect now is insulin resistance. In this condition, higher levels of insulin circulate because the body is less responsive to it. Insulin and related growth factors seem to change cell processes in ways that promote the development of cancer"
  • What You Don’t Know About Blood Sugar - Life Extension Magazine, 1/04 - "it now appears that optimal fasting blood glucose levels should probably be under 86 mg/dL ... Chromium supplements have been shown to reduce blood glucose significantly.70-74 The dose used in human studies ranges from 200 to 1000 mcg of elemental chromium a day, with best results occurring when 400 mcg or more of chromium is taken daily ... Nondiabetics using metformin may start off at 500 mg a day and gradually build up to 1000-1500 mg a day. The objective is not to take so much metformin as to induce a hypoglycemic state" - See iHerb chromium products.
  • Higher Whole-Grain Intake Associated With Increased Insulin Sensitivity - Medscape, 11/7/03 - "Given that insulin sensitivity is one of the main predictors of diabetes, our findings support previous reports on the protective effects of whole grains on the risk of developing diabetes in men and women by substantiating one of the underlying mechanisms"
  • Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):965-71 - "Higher intakes of whole grains were associated with increases in insulin sensitivity"
  • Exercise, Weight Loss Helps Patients with Syndrome X - Physician's Weekly, 10/6/03
  • The potential of metformin for diabetes prevention - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4):104-11 - "Treatment with metformin significantly reduced the incidence of diabetes in subjects with IGT and high-normal fasting plasma glucose in the DPP. Moreover, metformin was well tolerated, and health economic analyses suggest that metformin treatment is cost-effective in the US and Europe ... The results of the DPP identify metformin as an effective option for the prevention of diabetes in subjects with IGT and impaired fasting glucose"
  • Potential contribution of metformin to the management of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4):53-61 - "metformin has been shown to not only contribute to a better glycaemic control but also to induce some weight loss (especially in the visceral depot) which may contribute to the improvement of the features of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, metformin treatment may represent a relevant element of an integrated lifestyle modification-pharmacotherapy to prevent not only type 2 diabetes but also cardiovascular disease"
  • Metformin: drug of choice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications in high-risk subjects - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4):121-2 - "Metformin is unique in being not only as effective as any other oral antidiabetic therapy in controlling blood glucose, but also having an unparalleled clinical database relating to improved clinical outcomes in pre-diabetic subjects, and patients with established type 2 diabetes"
  • Do effects on blood pressure contribute to improved clinical outcomes with metformin? - Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4):62-70 - "Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle as its primary antihyperglycaemic mechanism of action, and intensive glycaemic management with metformin significantly reduced the risk of macrovascular diabetic complications in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study. The clinical outcome benefits in the metformin group included a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (- 41% vs + 14% with sulphonylurea or insulin treatment, p=0.032) ... metformin significantly improved endothelial function, a key regulator of vascular tone and blood pressure, in type 2 diabetic patients"
  • The Chromium Connection - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "The body requires certain nutrients to control glucose metabolism, especially chromium, zinc and vitamins B and C ... Diabetes is devastating because of its consequences. The condition often leads to hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, blindness, skin problems, nerve damage, kidney disorders and loss of limbs. Although it appears chromium picolinate may benefit your customers with type 2 diabetes, supplementation represents just one facet of treatment" - See iHerb chromium products.
  • Chromium Supplements Appear to Improve Glucose Sensitivity in Diabetics - Medscape, 8/29/03 - "We think that chromium picolinate can influence a person's diabetic treatment so that levels of insulin required may be reduced ... HbA1c levels decreased from 9.5% to 9% during a six-month period in patients receiving a higher dose of the supplement, a difference that was statistically significant ... The study also showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels and trends for improvement in triglycerides in both chromium picolinate groups as well as a reduction in blood pressure in all groups" - See iHerb chromium products.
  • Light Drinking Fights Metabolic Syndrome - WebMD, 9/5/03 - "men and women who drank one to two glasses of wine per day had a 16% lower risk of metabolic syndrome than those who abstained. But those who drank three to four glasses of wine per day had an 81% higher risk of metabolic syndrome, and drinking more than five glasses a day doubled that increase in risk"
  • DHEA May Fight Heart Disease, But How? - WebMD, 7/23/03 - "Endothelial dysfunction is known to contribute to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries ... men who received 25 mg per day of DHEA supplements for 12 weeks experienced significant improvement in endothelial function as well as insulin sensitivity compared with those who took a placebo" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Diabetes - WebMD, 6/16/03 - "There are two reasons blood sugar can be out of control in [people with diabetes] ... Your body's tissues are not responsive enough to insulin so they don't process it properly and/or you don't make enough insulin to begin with ... Ginseng, he said, appears to help the patients both to secrete more insulin and to process better the insulin they have" - See iHerb American ginseng products.
  • Green Tea Supplement May Delay Diabetes - WebMD, 4/16/03
  • A Derivative Of The Green Tea Leaf May Help With Metabolic Syndrome X, A Potentially Deadly Disorder - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "A new weapon might eventually be added to the arsenal: consumption of Tegreen, a tea polyphenols product containing in excess of 65 percent tea catechins, derived from the green tea leaf ... oral administration of Tegreen is capable of improving glucose and lipid metabolisms in an obese rat model induced by a high-calorie diet ... Tegreen intervention can significantly decrease visceral fat depot and increase the insulin's sensitivity, presumably touching one of the pathological root causes of this potentially deadly syndrome" - See iHerb green tea extracts.  My favorite is Jarrow green tea at iHerb.
  • Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial - Diabetes Care 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52 - "At the end of the study, subjects who received magnesium supplementation showed ... fasting glucose levels (8.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.3 +/- 2.1 mmol/l ... Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels" - See iHerb magnesium products.
  • Effects Of Alcohol, Lipids And Insulin In Non-Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 4/3/03 - "In men, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with decreased insulin levels as well as a decline in insulin resistance. However, these effects were not apparent among women ... In men, triglyceride levels and alcohol intake showed a J-shaped relationship. Moderate drinkers, who consumed between 10 and 29 g of alcohol daily, showed the lowest triglyceride levels"
  • Aerobic Exercise Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Affecting Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha - Doctor's Guide, 11/19/02
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomer May Worsen Insulin Resistance by Increasing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/02
  • Novel Method of Enhancing Anti-Fat Effects of CLA - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "CLA improves insulin sensitivity" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • The Benefits of Carnitine and DHEA for Fat Metabolism - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Carnitine is an amino acid that's critical for converting fatty acids into fuel. Because of this, it has the potential to help people lose weight ... A lack of DHEA may be one of the primary causes of insulin resistance"
  • Insulin Sensitivity Increases with Physical Exercise in Hypertensive Subjects - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/02
  • Do You Have Metabolic Syndrome? - WebMD, 1/15/02
  • The Prediabetic Epidemic - Nutrition Science News, 3/01

Other News:

  • Insulin resistance may lead to faster cognitive decline - Science Daily, 3/21/17 - "We know that insulin resistance can be prevented and treated by lifestyle changes and certain insulin-sensitizing drugs. Exercising, maintaining a balanced and healthy diet, and watching your weight will help you prevent insulin resistance and, as a result, protect your brain as you get older"
  • Metabolic syndrome linked to sexual dysfunction in older women - Science Daily, 7/12/16 - "women with metabolic syndrome reported low sexual satisfaction, decreased desire, and diminished sexual activity. Waist size, diabetes, and hypertension were additionally associated with decreased sexual activity and elevated triglycerides were linked to lower desire"
  • Pharmacodynamic Effects of Low-Dose Pioglitazone in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome without Diabetes Mellitus - Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Jan 29 - "Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral pioglitazone 7.5 mg daily or matching placebo for 8 weeks ... high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin ... Pioglitazone was associated with a significant increase in plasma HMW adiponectin level from baseline to week 8 compared with placebo (+47% vs -10%, p<0.001). Insulin sensitivity increased significantly from baseline to week 8 in the pioglitazone group (+88%, p=0.02) but not in the placebo group (+15%, p=0.14)" - Note:  I've been taking pioglitazone for years for anti-aging.
  • Insulin resistance increases risk for Alzheimer's disease, study finds - Science Daily, 7/27/15 - "examined brain scans in 150 late middle-aged adults, who were at risk for Alzheimer's disease, but showed no sign of memory loss. The scans detected if people with higher levels of insulin resistance used less blood sugar in areas of the brain most susceptible to Alzheimer's. When that happens, the brain has less energy to relay information and function ... If you don't have as much fuel, you're not going to be as adept at remembering something or doing something ... this is important with Alzheimer's disease, because over the course of the disease there is a progressive decrease in the amount of blood sugar used in certain brain regions. Those regions end up using less and less" - See metformin at IAS.
    • Diabetes medication reduces dementia risk: Analysis of health insurance data suggests preventive effect - Science Daily, 6/23/15 - "Treatment with pioglitazone showed a remarkable side benefit. It was able to significantly decrease the risk of dementia ... The longer the treatment, the lower the risk ... Risk reduction was most noticeable when the drug was administered for at least two years ... Metformin -- another frequently prescribed antidiabetic drug -- also lowered the risk of developing dementia. However, the effect was lower than that of pioglitazone" - See metformin at IAS.  Pioglitazone is harder to find.  I've been taking both in low dose for years for various anti-aging advantages.
  • Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison - Nutrients. 2015 May 13 - "In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Stabilizes but Still Affects 50% of Seniors - Medscape, 5/20/15 - "The newest figures indicate that the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome rose with age: 18.3% of 20- to 39-year-olds, 33% of 40- to 59-year-olds, and 46.7% of people aged 60 and older had metabolic syndrome"
  • A meta-analysis of the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on insulin sensitivity in hypertensive patients without diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Dec - "In patients showing no significant difference in blood pressure control, the comparison between ACEI and ARB showed that the former type of drug more effectively relieved IS in hypertensive patients without diabetes"
  • Prediabetes increases the risk of cancer by 15 percent, study of almost 900,000 people shows - Science  Daily, 9/8/14 - "after controlling for BMI, the presence of prediabetes remained associated with an increased risk of cancer of 22% ... In a site-specific cancer analysis, prediabetes was significantly associated with increased risks of cancer of the stomach/colorectum (relative risk, RR 1.55), liver (RR 2.01), pancreas (RR 1.19), breast (RR 1.19) and endometrium (RR 1.60) (all statistically significant), but not associated with cancer of the bronchus/lung, prostate, ovary, kidney or bladder ... several possible mechanisms could explain the results. First, chronic hyperglycaemia and its related conditions, such as chronic oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycated endproducts (that are made in conditions of excessively high blood sugar) may act as carcinogenic factors. Second, increased insulin resistance leads to increased insulin secretion, which can in turn allow cancer cells to grow and divide ... It should be noted that metformin -- one of several first line therapies available to treat type 2 diabetes -- is now considered as having some 'protective' anticancer properties. Notably, metformin mediates an approximately 30% reduction in the lifetime risk of cancer in diabetic patients. However, whether this is true in prediabetic individuals is not yet known" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults - Neurology. 2014 Apr 25 - "insulin resistance (IR) ... white matter (WM) microstructure ... Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: "high HOMA-IR" (≥2.5, n = 27) and "low HOMA-IR" (<2.5, n = 100) ... greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults"
  • Erectile dysfunction may be the first clinical sign of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in young men - Clin Res Cardiol. 2013 Sep;102(9):645-51 - "Patients with ED had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), high Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compared with controls ... ED may be the first clinical sign of endothelial dysfunction and a clinical marker of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Subclinical endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may be the underlying pathogenesis of ED in young patients without well-known etiology" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased prevalence of advanced colorectal polyps - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):22-5 - "An advanced polyp was detected in 14% of patients with MetS, compared to 5% of patients without MetS"
  • High Blood Sugar and Dementia: No Diabetes Needed - Medscape, 9/19/13 - "The group who did not have diabetes had an average blood sugar of about 100 mg/dL as opposed to the diabetics whose levels were in the 170s. There was a J-shaped relationship between blood sugar and dementia in the diabetics. People who had a blood sugar of 140 mg/dL on average had more dementia, but the rates of dementia then went down to essentially zero and then went up again as the blood sugar rose higher. The nondiabetics had more of a straight-line correlation from the lowest level to the highest level"
  • Insulin resistance and bone strength. Findings from the study of midlife in the United States - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Aug 26 - "717 participants in the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS II) ... higher levels of fasting insulin (but not of glucose) were independently associated with lower bone strength" - See my insulin and aging page.
  • People With Impaired Glucose Tolerance Can Show Cognitive Dysfunction -Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "she examined 31 previous studies regarding cognitive performance under various dietary conditions. She found that the impaired glucose tolerance group showed difficulties in 12 of 27 cognitive test outcomes, including word recognition, visual verbal learning test, visual spatial learning test, psychomotor test and Corsi block-tapping. The impaired glucose tolerance group was made up of all middle-aged women who appeared to be in general good health ... She pointed to a 2009 Japanese study of 129 people in their 80s, 55 of whom had impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. All the subjects in the study consumed more than 30 grams of dietary fiber per day and exercised two to four times per week over a two-year period. Within that timeframe, the 36 people with impaired glucose tolerance showed improvements in delayed recall and block design tests. The Type 2 diabetes group showed improvement in dementia, delayed recall and their mental state"
  • The Relationship Between Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the Number of Components of Metabolic Syndrome - Urology. 2013 Jul 10 - "A total of 1224 male police officers aged 50-59 years who had participated in a health examination were included ... the cases of LUTS/BPH were positively associated with the number of MetS components"
  • Beyond fasting plasma glucose: The association between coronary heart disease risk and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, nondiabetic adults - Metabolism. 2013 Jun 26 - "steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) ... the results demonstrated that the greater the 1) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration, 2) incremental plasma insulin response to meals, and 3) SSPG concentration, the more adverse the CHD risk profile ... In nondiabetic individuals, higher FPG concentrations, accentuated daylong incremental insulin responses to meals, and greater degrees of insulin resistance are each associated with worse CHD risk profile (higher blood pressures, higher triglycerides, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations)"
  • High sugar intake linked to low dopamine release in insulin resistant patients - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "For those who have the metabolic syndrome, a sugar drink resulted in a lower-than-normal release of the chemical dopamine in a major pleasure center of the brain. This chemical response may be indicative of a deficient reward system, which could potentially be setting the stage for insulin resistance ... Insulin resistance is a significant contributor to obesity and diabetes ... insulin resistance and its association with less dopamine release in a central brain reward region might promote overeating to compensate for this deficit"
  • Erectile dysfunction may be the first clinical sign of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in young men - Clin Res Cardiol. 2013 May 17 - "192 patients and 33 normal controls were enrolled. ED was evaluated by using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire ... Patients with ED had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), high Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compared with controls"
  • Metabolic Disorders Predict the Hardening of the Arterial Walls Already in Childhood - Science Daily, 4/25/13 - "Metabolic disorders, such as excess abdominal fat, raised blood pressure, higher levels of insulin, glucose and triglycerides and lower levels of the beneficial HDL cholesterol can be found in children as young as 6 to 8 years of age ... Arterial stiffness and reduced arterial dilation predict atherosclerosis, i..e. the hardening of the arteries, and resulting vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebral infarctions and lower extremity arterial disease. The newly published results are scientifically significant, as they suggest that metabolic disorders developing already in childhood could cause mild arterial stiffness, thus impairing vascular health"
  • Relationship Between Predictors of the Risk of Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Metabolic Syndrome in Men With Moderate to Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms - Urology. 2013 Apr 18 - "The percentage of participants with ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH, the percentage of participants with a total prostate volume of ≥31 cm3, and the percentage of participants with a postvoid residual urine volume of ≥39 mL increased significantly with the increase in the number of components of the MetS (P = .003, P = .001, and P = .007, respectively). After adjusting for age and serum testosterone levels, the MetS was shown to be significantly associated with the presence ≥1 predictor for the progression of BPH"
  • Assessing insulin resistance can inform about breast cancer risk - Science Daily, 4/4/13 - "When tissues become resistant to the action of insulin -- which occurs often in obese people -- a balancing mechanism further increases insulin production leading to a chronic hyperinsulinemia. Such high insulin levels can be detrimental to the body because insulin not only regulates glucose metabolism but has more functions such as stimulating cell proliferation and survival. Therefore the continuous activation of insulin pathways can contribute to cancer development by fuelling cancer cell growth. Consistently, by analyzing a cohort of 410 patients and 565 healthy women, the researchers found that 49% of patients were insulin resistant compared with 34% of controls indicating that insulin resistance can indeed increase the risk of developing breast cancer"
  • Both total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are independent risk factors of metabolic syndrome: results from Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in China - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013 Mar 6 - "Men with MetS had a lower level of TT, BT, FT or SHBG than those without MetS (all p < 0.001). Both TT and SHBG were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all age-adjusted p < 0.001). Men within the lowest quartile of TT (OR = 4.86, 95%CI = 2.72-8.68), BT (OR = 3.04, 95%CI = 1.81-5.10), FT (OR = 3.08, 95%CI = 1.81-5.27) or SHBG (OR = 4.28, 95%CI = 2.52-7.27) had a risk of MetS after adjusting for age, smoking, HOMA-IR and BMI. TT remained inversely associated with MetS after further adjusting for SHBG (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92-0.99), while SHBG remained inversely associated with MetS after further adjusting for TT (OR = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.97-1.00)"
  • Effect of the metabolic syndrome on male reproductive function: a case-controlled pilot study - Andrologia. 2012 Dec 28 - "This study aimed to investigate the effect of MetS on testosterone and progesterone, and semen parameters, in a case-controlled pilot study ... Participants were divided into the control group (n = 28) and the MetS group (n = 26). Differences were found between the groups for body mass index, WHR, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and glucose. The MetS group showed significant reductions in sperm concentration (P = 0.0026), total sperm count (P = 0.0034), total motility (P = 0.0291), sperm vitality (P = 0.002), MMP (P = 0.0039), free testosterone (P = 0.0093) and free progesterone (P = 0.0130), while values for DNA fragmentation increased (P = 0.0287). Results indicate that patients with MetS have compromised sperm parameters in the absence of leucocytospermia. A reduction in free progesterone suggests that steroidogenesis cascades may be compromised"
  • Association of apolipoprotein B and incidence of metabolic syndrome in Korean men: A 5-years' follow-up study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 12 - "Incidence of MetS increased according to quintiles of serum ApoB levels [quintile 1-5: 9.1%, 16.4%, 22.1%, 27.3%, 36.4%, respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. Even after adjusting for various covariates including non-HDL-cholesterol, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for MetS increased in proportion to the quintiles of serum ApoB levels, compared to quintile 1 [quintile 2-5: 1.64 (1.43-1.89), 1.98 (1.71-2.31), 2.32 (1.96-2.75) and 2.92 (2.37-3.60), respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. These associations were apparent still in the clinically relevant subgroup analyses" - Note:  Your goal should be to decrease the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio.  See my apolipoprotein B page for ways to decrease it.  Also the apolipoprotein A page. 
  • Pulse pressure and heart rate in patients with metabolic syndrome across Europe: insights from the GOOD survey - J Hum Hypertens. 2012 Dec 13 - "When compared with patients with no metabolic syndrome or diabetes, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher pulse pressure (59+/-14 vs 55+/-14 mm Hg) and heart rate (75.2+/-11.0 vs 72.5+/-10.0 beats per min) (P<0.001 for both), independent of the concomitant presence or absence of diabetes, despite a more prevalent use of β-blockers. In conclusion, in hypertensive outpatients the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased heart rate and pulse pressure, which may at least in part reflect increased arterial stiffness and increased sympathetic tone"
  • Increased arterial stiffness in subjects with impaired fasting glucose - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Nov 22 - "The study group consisted of 1043 subjects, including 683 subjects with NFG and 360 subjects with IFG (100≤fasting glucose <126mg/dL) ... Arterial stiffness was higher in the IFG group than in subjects with NFG even after adjustment for all confounding variables including hs-CRP and oxidative stress markers. In addition, fasting glucose and insulin were positively and independently associated with the ba-PWV in non-diabetic healthy adults"
  • Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Diabetes Care. 2012 Nov;35(11):2402-11 - "We analyzed 116 datasets from 43 articles, including 38,940 cases of cancer. In cohort studies in men, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with liver (relative risk 1.43, P < 0.0001), colorectal (1.25, P < 0.001), and bladder cancer (1.10, P = 0.013). In cohort studies in women, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with endometrial (1.61, P = 0.001), pancreatic (1.58, P < 0.0001), breast postmenopausal (1.56, P = 0.017), rectal (1.52, P = 0.005), and colorectal (1.34, P = 0.006) cancers. Associations with metabolic syndrome were stronger in women than in men for pancreatic (P = 0.01) and rectal (P = 0.01) cancers"
  • Metabolic factors may increase men's risk of dying from prostate cancer - Science Daily, 10/22/12 - "Umeå University in Sweden, and their colleagues analyzed information from 289,866 men enrolled in a study called the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project ... average follow-up time of 12 years ... Men in the highest categories of body mass index and blood pressure had a 36 percent and 62 percent increased risk of dying from prostate cancer, respectively. Also, when comparing a composite score of all metabolic factors, men with a high score were more likely to die from prostate cancer ... The study found no evidence for a link between high levels of metabolic factors and a man's risk of developing prostate cancer but revealed a link between these factors and his risk of dying from the disease"
  • Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle-Aged Adults - Diabetes Care. 2012 Oct 15 - "Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle-aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease-sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance ... higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance ... These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle-aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe"
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A Potential and Independent Risk Factor for Erectile Dysfunction in the Chinese Male Population - Urology. 2012 Oct 4 - "our results showed that subjects with MetS had a significantly greater risk of ED (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.72; P = .02), especially in middle-age (40-59 years) men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.71-3.47; P <.001). Of the MetS components, abnormal fasting blood glucose was the most significantly independent factor of MetS for ED (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55; P = .002)"
  • Impaired Fasting Glucose and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Men and Women: The Korean Heart Study - Diabetes Care. 2012 Sep 21 - "evaluated the relationship between IFG and CVD or IHD among Korean men and women ... IFG was categorized as grade 1 (fasting glucose 100-109 mg/dL) or grade 2 (110-125 mg/dL) ... Incidence rates of CVD (per 100,000 person-years) were 2,203 for diabetes. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were 1.17 (95% CI 1.13-1.20) for grade 1 IFG, 1.30 (1.24-1.35) for grade 2 IFG, and 1.81 (1.75-1.86) for diabetes"
  • Even in normal range, high blood sugar linked to brain shrinkage - Science Daily, 9/3/12 - "The study involved 249 people age 60 to 64 who had blood sugar in the normal range as defined by the World Health Organization. The participants had brain scans at the start of the study and again an average of four years later ... Those with higher fasting blood sugar levels within the normal range and below 6.1 mmol/l (or 110 mg/dL) were more likely to have a loss of brain volume in the areas of the hippocampus and the amygdala, areas that are involved in memory and cognitive skills, than those with lower blood sugar levels. A fasting blood sugar level of 10.0 mmol/l (180 mg/dL) or higher was defined as diabetes and a level of 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dL) was considered impaired, or prediabetes ... blood sugar on the high end of normal accounted for six to 10 percent of the brain shrinkage"
  • Hyperglycemia and Incidence of Frailty and Lower Extremity Mobility Limitations in Older Women - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Aug 10 - "Hyperglycemia is associated with the development of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations in older women. Future studies should identify mediators of these relationships"
  • Testosterone-replacement therapy improves symptoms of metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 6/25/12 - "investigators found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome dropped from 56 to 30 percent after 57 months of treatment with testosterone-replacement medication to regulate hormone levels. In addition, triglycerides, and levels of blood sugar and pressure significantly decreased, while the average waist circumference shrank by 11 centimeters ...Patients received 1,000 milligrams of a long-acting testosterone drug, called undecanoate, on the first day of the study, at week six, and then every three months"
  • Link between metabolic disorders and Alzheimer's disease examined - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "individuals with T2D have a nearly twofold higher risk of AD than nondiabetic individuals"
  • Insulin resistance: A significant risk factor of endometrial cancer - Gynecol Oncol. 2012 Mar 23 - "Risk factors of insulin resistance, such as the inflammatory mediators, adipokines adiponectin, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and excessive androgen are also risk factors of endometrial cancer. High levels of insulin induced by insulin resistance have been found to exert direct and indirect effects that contribute to the development of endometrial cancer. Insulin directly promotes cell proliferation and survival through the PI3K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways. Moreover, the network among insulin, estrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 also contributes to the development of endometrial cancer. Indirectly, insulin leads to changes in sex hormone levels, including increases in the levels of estrogen. Additionally, a small number of studies suggested that metformin, an insulin-sensitizing agent, has therapeutic potential for endometrial cancer" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Association of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis risk factors, sex hormones in ED in aboriginal Taiwanese - Int J Impot Res. 2012 Apr 12 - "International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire ... Using age-adjusted multivariate logistic regressive analysis, this study showed that aboriginal males with ED had a significantly higher prevalence of MS (OR=12.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 6.33-22.83, P<0.001). Among the MS components, abnormal fasting blood sugar was the most significantly independent factor for ED in aboriginal males (OR=8.94, 95% CI: 4.71-16.97, P<0.001). The presence of MS had a significant correlation with lower IIEF-5 scores, lower sexual desire scores, lower testosterone serum level (P<0.01) and abnormal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP). The results of this study support the idea that MS, low serum testosterone and HsCRP may predict ED in aboriginal Taiwanese males" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Brain insulin resistance contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 3/23/12 - "This is the first study to directly demonstrate that insulin resistance occurs in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease ... Our research clearly shows that the brain's ability to respond to insulin, which is important for normal brain function, is going offline at some point ... We believe that brain insulin resistance may be an important contributor to the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease ... The risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by 50 percent in people with diabetes ... insulin resistance of the brain occurs in Alzheimer's disease independent of whether someone has diabetes ... The investigators used samples of postmortem brain tissue from non-diabetics who had died with Alzheimer's disease, stimulated the tissue with insulin, and measured how much the insulin activated various proteins in the insulin-signaling pathways ... three insulin-sensitizing medicines are already approved by the FDA for treatment of diabetes. These drugs readily cross the blood-brain barrier and may have therapeutic potential to correct insulin resistance in Alzheimer's disease and MCI" - Note:  I suspected this for a long time.  It doesn't say what those three drugs are but I'm guessing metformin and Actos are two of them.  I don't have diabetes but I take low doses of both.  My doc says I'm crazy.  See metformin and pioglitazone (Actos) at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Do Glaucoma, Erectile Dysfunction Have a Common Cause? - Medscape, 2/7/12 - "Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) have a nearly 3-fold greater risk for also having open-angle glaucoma (OAG) than men with normal erectile function ... The study suggests that OAG and ED appear to have a common mechanism of endothelial dysfunction related to nitric oxide"
  • Impaired Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Elderly Men and Women - Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb 1 - "homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ... The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size (S1), and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively) ... These cross-sectional findings suggest that both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions improving insulin signaling may promote brain health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies"
  • Testosterone Replacement Improves Male Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 12/19/11 - "Testosterone replacement to normal levels in middle-aged and elderly hypogonadal men significantly improved all components of the metabolic syndrome at 24 months ... At the end of the 48-month study period, the average reduction in waist circumference was "quite substantial," at 8.0 cm ... In addition, body weight was reduced by 12.9 kg, from an average of 106.6 to 93.7 kg ... In terms of percent weight change, subjects lost around 5% of their initial weight after about 15 months, and about 10% after 3.5 to 4.0 years of treatment ... People who are on treatment for 1 year may gain 4.5 to 5.0 kg of lean mass and lose 5.0 to 6.0 kg of fat mass — but the overall effect on weight is moderate. These 4-year data were a surprise when we saw people lost 12.9 kg, and the 60-month data suggest this continues — we have not yet reached the plateau, the weight is still declining ... Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also significantly reduced (by 15.2 and 13.3 mm Hg, respectively), dropping from 155/94 to 140/80.8 mm Hg at 48 months ... There was a significant improvement in lipid profiles, with total serum cholesterol dropping from 297.7 to 194.5 mg/dL, triglycerides dropping from 290.4 to 194.2 mg/dL, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol dropping from 160.4 to 118.3 mg/dL ... There was also an initial significant decrease in levels of liver enzymes, with aspartate aminotransferase dropping from 43.9 to 22.0 U/L and alanine aminotransferase dropping from 46.6 to 22.8 U/L over the first 24 months, and then leveling off ... there was a "marked reduction" in C-reactive protein levels over the 4-year period, from 7.1 to 1.6 mg/L ... mean plasma glucose levels declined from 105.8 to 97.0 mg/dL over the 4-year period"
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, But Not Testosterone, Is Associated Prospectively and Independently With Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Men: The Framingham Heart Study - Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep 16 - "Cross-sectionally, testosterone and SHBG were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than free testosterone in the training sample. SHBG, but not testosterone or free testosterone, was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, smoking, BMI, and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]). These findings were confirmed in a validation sample. Longitudinally, SHBG at examination 7, but not testosterone or free testosterone, was associated with incident metabolic syndrome at examination 8 after adjusting for age, smoking, BMI, and HOMA-IR. Multivariable analyses suggested that age, BMI, and insulin sensitivity independently affect SHBG and testosterone levels and the risk of metabolic syndrome and its components"
  • Metabolic syndrome may cause kidney disease - Science Daily, 8/19/11 - "A patient is diagnosed with the syndrome when he or she exhibits three or more of the following characteristics: high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat in the waist/abdomen, low good cholesterol, and higher levels of fatty acids (the building blocks of fat) ... People with metabolic syndrome have a 55% increased risk of developing kidney problems, especially lower kidney function, indicative of kidney disease"
  • Prophylactic treatment with telmisartan induces tissue-specific gene modulation favoring normal glucose homeostasis in Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rats - Metabolism. 2011 Aug 4 - "Telmisartan blunted the development of hypertension, insulin resistance, and diabetes in prediabetic Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rats through pleiotropic activity, involving specific gene regulation of target organs" - See at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Liver Cancer Linked to Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) ... metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in individuals who developed HCC (37.1%) and ICC (29.7%) than in a comparison group (17.1%; P < .0001). Even after multiple logistic regression analyses, metabolic syndrome remained significantly associated with an increased risk for both HCC (odds ratio, 2.13; P < .0001) and ICC (odds ratio, 1.56; P < .0001)"
  • Metabolic syndrome increases risk of both major types of primary liver cancer - Science Daily, 7/21/11 - "metabolic syndrome was present in 37% of persons who subsequently developed HCC and 30% of persons who developed ICC, compared to 17% of persons who didn't develop either cancer. Analyses showed metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC (odds ratio=2.13) and ICC (odds ratio=1.56). Individual components of metabolic syndrome -- impaired fasting glucose level, dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and hypertension -- were more common among persons who developed either HCC or ICC patients than among persons who did not"
  • Influence of telmisartan on insulin response after glucose loading in obese patients with hypertension: ARB Trial of hypertension in obese patients with hyperinsulinemia assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (ATHLETE) - Adv Ther. 2011 Jul 6 - "In patients with hypertension and obesity showing insulin resistance, treatment with telmisartan significantly improved the hyperinsulin response to glucose loading. Telmisartan may therefore be beneficial in these patients" - See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Association Between Insulin Resistance and Lean Mass Loss and Fat Mass Gain in Older Men without Diabetes Mellitus - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jun 30 - "Greater lean mass loss and lower fat mass gain occurred in insulin-resistant men without diabetes mellitus than in insulin-sensitive men. Insulin resistance may accelerate age-related sarcopenia"
  • Serum ferritin levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women - Menopause. 2011 Jun 18 - "postmenopausal women with ferritin levels in the third tertile had an increased risk of having metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.04-2.81) compared with postmenopausal women with levels in the first quartile. No such association was detected in premenopausal women"
  • Impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jun 19 - "Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43). An indication of a slightly elevated breast cancer risk was also found in postmenopausal women with impaired glucose metabolism (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96-1.28). Diabetes (HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.96) and impaired glucose metabolism (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.85) were associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer"
  • Pioglitazone to Prevent Progression to Diabetes: Abstract and Introduction - Medscape,5/25/11 - "More placebo recipients (17%) than pioglitazone recipients (5%) progressed to diabetes. Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels rose by 0.2% in the placebo group and remained unchanged in the pioglitazone group" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • nsomnia linked to high insulin resistance in diabetics - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "Among the diabetics, poor sleepers had 23% higher blood glucose levels in the morning, and 48% higher blood insulin levels. Using these numbers to estimate a person's insulin resistance, the researchers found that poor sleepers with diabetes had 82% higher insulin resistance than normal sleepers with diabetes"
  • A longitudinal analysis on associations of adiponectin levels with metabolic syndrome and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Apr 8 - "In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, MetS components, LDL-cholesterol, CRP, insulin, leptin, smoking and family history of coronary disease, 1-unit increase in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with reduced odds (odds ratio [OR]=0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, P=0.04) of incident MetS. Of the MetS components, adiponectin levels were inversely associated with the incidence of hyperglycemia in multivariable analyses (OR=0.94 (0.90-0.99), P=0.04). When studying the adiponectin×MetS interaction on IMT, we observed a significant interaction when examining IMT in 2001 (r=-0.11 (MetS(-)) vs. r=-0.17 (MetS(+)), P for interaction 0.047) and IMT in 2007 (r=-0.12 (MetS(-)) vs. r=-0.21 (MetS(+)), P for interaction 0.005), suggesting the inverse association between adiponectin and IMT is stronger among those with MetS"
  • Metabolic syndrome may increase risk for liver cancer - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "metabolic syndrome, a constellation of conditions that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes, may also increase the risk of the two most common types of liver cancer ... The prognosis for liver cancer is only marginally better than the prognosis for pancreatic cancer, with a five-year survival of approximately 10 percent ... the persons with liver cancer were significantly more likely than cancer-free persons to have a prior history of metabolic syndrome: 37.1 percent of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had pre-existing metabolic syndrome, as did 29.7 percent of patients with intraheptic carcinoma; only 17.1 percent of the cancer-free adults had metabolic syndrome"
  • Drug prevents Type 2 diabetes in majority of high-risk individuals - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "A pill taken once a day in the morning prevented type 2 diabetes in more than 70 percent of individuals whose obesity, ethnicity and other markers put them at highest risk for the disease ... The team also noted a 31 percent decrease in the rate of thickening of the carotid artery, the major vessel that supplies blood to the brain ... The 72 percent reduction is the largest decrease in the conversion rate of pre-diabetes to diabetes that has ever been demonstrated by any intervention, be it diet, exercise or medication ... pioglitazone, which is marketed as Actos® ... It is the most efficacious method we have studied to date to delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes ... This particular medication does two things -- improves insulin resistance and improves beta cell function, which are the two core defects of diabetes" - Note:  Like I've said before, my doc says I'm crazy but I've been taking pioglitazone for anti-aging for some time.  Something that’s discerning is when someone asks why I look young and I mention various things and they disagree with it all of it.  Anyway see pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Insulin resistance: an independent risk factor for lung cancer? - Metabolism. 2011 Jan 18 - "As expected, smoking was associated with an approximately 10-fold increase in lung cancer risk in multiple logistic regression models. A positive association between HOMA-IR, treated as continuous variable, and lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.99, P = .002, model 1) was demonstrated, which persisted after adjustment for somatometric and lifestyle variables (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.00-5.55, P = .05, model 2). When serum adiponectin was also taken into account, the association seemed fairly robust (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.11-6.01, P = .03, model 3); on the contrary, when serum leptin was added, the association remained positive, but lost its statistical significance (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.78-3.98, P = .17, model 4). In the fully adjusted model, HOMA-IR was still positively, but only marginally, associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 0.88-4.65, P = .10, model 5). Insulin resistance may represent a meaningful risk factor for lung cancer"
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Dec 7;9(1):138 - "In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio of 0.74" - Note:  I'm not sure what I missed on that quote.  See http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=183 .  Ideally your LDL should be below 100.  In the average man, HDL cholesterol levels range from 40 to 50 mg/dL.  So assuming an LDL of 100, for LDL/HDL to be equal to .74 your HDL would have to be 135 which is nearly impossible.  The full article is at http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511x-9-138.pdf and says "The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of ≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio".
  • Insulin metabolism and the risk of Alzheimer disease: The Rotterdam Study - Neurology. 2010 Nov 30;75(22):1982-7 - "Diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but how it exerts its effect remains controversial ... Levels of insulin and insulin resistance were associated with a higher risk of AD within 3 years of baseline. After 3 years, the risk was no longer increased. Glucose was not associated with a higher risk of AD"
  • Loud snoring and insomnia symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome -Science Daily, 12/1/10
  • Metabolic syndrome in 25% of older people with intellectual disability - Fam Pract. 2010 Oct 11 - "intellectual disabilities (IDs) ... The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population with ID is significantly higher than that in the general Dutch population aged ≥50 years"
  • Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk - Science Daily, 10/11/10 - "Individuals in the top quarter of insulin resistance had a 45 percent greater risk of any type of vascular event. However, insulin resistance was not associated with heart attack or vascular death separately"
  • Metabolic Syndrome, Brain MRI, and Cognition - Diabetes Care. 2010 Sep 17 - "MetS exerts detrimental effects on memory and executive functioning in community-dwelling subjects without clinical strokes or dementia. Men are more affected than women, particularly if they have high inflammatory markers"
  • Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Mortality in the Elderly - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep 1 - "After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, and health status, a 50% increased risk for all-cause mortality was observed in participants with MetS at baseline compared with those without, with a hazard ratio of 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.92]. Elevated fasting blood glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were the major contributors to this association, acting synergistically on mortality risk. For coronary heart disease mortality and cancer mortality, the hazard ratios associated with MetS were 2.21 (95% CI = 1.07-4.55) and 1.49 (95% CI = 1.04-2.14), respectively. Conclusions: By showing that an elevated fasting blood glucose potentiates the excess mortality risk associated with lipid abnormality, our study supports the status of MetS as a risk factor for mortality in the elderly. Our findings emphasize the importance of MetS screening and managing dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in older persons in general practice"
  • Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes linked to plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/25/10 - "People with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes appear to be at an increased risk of developing plaques in the brain that are associated with Alzheimer's disease ... people who had abnormal results on three tests of blood sugar control had an increased risk of developing plaques. Plaques were found in 72 percent of people with insulin resistance and 62 percent of people with no indication of insulin resistance"
  • Hemoglobin A1c between 5.7 and 6.4% as a marker for identifying pre-diabetes, insulin sensitivity and secretion, and cardiovascular risk factors: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) - Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun 23 - "impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) ... impaired fasting glucose (IFG) ... A1C(5.7-6.4%) is less sensitive for detecting at-risk individuals than IFG and IGT, particularly among non-Hispanic whites. Single determinations of FPG and 2-h PG appear more precise correlates of insulin resistance and secretion than A1C and in general better for other metabolic disorders"
  • Fructose sugar makes maturing human fat cells fatter, less insulin-sensitive, study finds - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "high levels of fructose, which may result from eating a diet high in fructose, throughout childhood may lead to an increase in visceral [abdominal] obesity, which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk ... For both types of fat cells, maturation in fructose decreased the cells' insulin sensitivity, which is the ability to successfully take up glucose from the bloodstream into fat and muscles. Decreased insulin sensitivity is a characteristic of Type 2 diabetes"
  • Long sleep duration linked to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in older adults - Science Daily, 6/8/10 - "participants who reported a habitual daily sleep duration of eight hours or more including naps were 15 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome"
  • Metabolic cardiovascular disease risk factors and their clustering in subclinical hypothyroidism - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 May;72(5):689-95 - "There appears to be a significant increase in a cluster of metabolic CVD risk factors among people with subclinical hypothyroidism"
  • A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 May;72(5):696-701 - "Subjects with a TSH in the upper normal range (2.5-4.5 mU/l, n = 119) had a significantly higher BMI (30.47 +/- 0.57 vs. 28.74 +/- 0.18 kg/m(2), P = 0.001) and higher fasting triglycerides (1.583 +/- 0.082 vs. 1.422 +/- 0.024 mmol/l, P = 0.023), and their likeliness for fulfilling the ATP III criteria of the metabolic syndrome was 1.7-fold increased"
  • Serum free testosterone and metabolic syndrome in Japanese men - Endocr J. 2010 Apr 1 - "Among Japanese men who were mainly without diabetes, FT was associated with Mets independently of age, BMI, and WC. Mets and insulin resistance may decrease serum testosterone via induction of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and the reduction of testosterone may in turn cause further obesity and insulin resistance, consequently initiating a vicious cycle"
  • Association of Testosterone and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Men - Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr 5 - "men in the first quartile (lowest) (PR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.53-3.06) and second quartile of total testosterone (PR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.86-3.37) were more likely to have metabolic syndrome than men in the fourth quartile ... Similarly, men in the first quartile of SHBG (PR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.32-3.56) were more likely to have metabolic syndrome than men in the fourth quartile ... Low concentrations of total testosterone and SHBG were strongly associated with increased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Lifts Cognitive Aging Risk in Women - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/10 - "The rate of cognitive impairment was 7% among women who had metabolic syndrome, compared with 4% among those who did not have the syndrome"
  • Increased Cancer Risk Seen With Higher Blood Glucose Levels - Medscape, 1/28/10 - "in men, each 1 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) increment in blood glucose level was associated with a 5% increase in incident cancer risk and a 15% increase in fatal cancer risk ... In women, each 1 mmol/L increase in blood glucose level was associated with an 11% increase in incident cancer risk and a 21% increase in fatal cancer risk ... For men, there were glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal cancer of the liver, gallbladder, and respiratory tract; incident thyroid cancer and multiple myeloma; and fatal rectal and colon cancer .... For women, there were glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal pancreatic and stomach cancer; incident urinary bladder cancer and endometrial cancer; and fatal cervical and uterine corpus cancer. In women, there was also an inverse association of blood glucose with incident thyroid cancer risk ... For men and women combined, higher glucose increased the risk of death from oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers"
  • Calorie restriction: Scientists take important step toward 'fountain of youth' - Science Daily, 12/26/09 - "They found that the normal cells lived longer, and many of the precancerous cells died, when given less glucose. Gene activity was also measured under these same conditions. The reduced glucose caused normal cells to have a higher activity of the gene that dictates the level of telomerase, an enzyme that extends their lifespan and lower activity of a gene (p16) that slows their growth. Epigenetic effects (effects not due to gene mutations) were found to be a major cause in changing the activity of these genes as they reacted to decreased glucose levels" - See my Insulin and Aging page.  Insulin controls glucose levels.  Insulin resistance causes high glucose.
  • Hyperglycemia: New mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease described - Science Daily, 12/12/09 - "Hyperglycemia starts a complex chain of events that damages blood vessels and cause cardiovascular disease"
  • Many Americans Have Prediabetes and Should Be Considered for Metformin Therapy - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "Criteria for consideration of metformin included the presence of both IFG and IGT, with >/=1 additional diabetes risk factor: age <60 years, BMI >/=35 kg/m(2), family history of diabetes, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, or A1c >6.0% ... To the extent that our findings are representative of the U.S. population, approximately 1 in 12 adults has a combination of prediabetes and risk factors which may justify consideration of metformin treatment for diabetes prevention" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Metabolic Syndrome Linked To Liver Disease In Obese Teenaged Boys - Science Daily, 9/29/09
  • Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Colorectal Adenoma: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study - Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 15 - "insulin resistance was associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma"
  • New Sign of Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 9/16/09 - "People with the lowest SHBG levels have a tenfold higher risk of type 2 diabetes than those with the highest SHBG levels"
  • Insulin resistance and risk of incident hypertension among men - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2009 Sep;11(9):483-90 - "The insulin sensitivity index was 6% lower in the cases compared with the controls (P<.001). The multivariable odds ratio for hypertension comparing the lowest with highest quartile of insulin sensitivity index was 1.09 (0.71-1.65) among the entire sample. However, the association between the insulin sensitivity index and incident hypertension differed significantly by age (P interaction <.001). Among men younger than 60 years, the multivariable odds ratio for the lowest compared with highest quartile was 1.93 (1.01-3.71) but was 0.67 (0.37-1.24) among older men. Insulin resistance is independently associated with incident hypertension among younger men"
  • A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Sep 10 - "Subjects with a TSH in the upper normal range (2.5 to 4.5 mU/l, n = 119) had a significantly higher BMI (30.47 +/- 0.57 vs. 28.74 +/- 0.18 kg/m(2), p = 0.001) and higher fasting triglycerides (1.583 +/- 0.082 vs. 1.422 +/- 0.024 mmol/l, p = 0.023), and their likeliness for fulfilling the criteria of the MS was 1.7-fold increased"
  • Fat In The Liver -- Not The Belly -- May Be A Better Marker For Disease Risk - Science Daily, 8/25/09 - "Having too much liver fat is known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... when fat collects in the liver, people experience serious metabolic problems such as insulin resistance, which affects the body's ability to metabolize sugar. They also have increases in production of fat particles in the liver that are secreted into the bloodstream and increase the level of triglycerides"
  • Lower serum testosterone is independently associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic older men. The Health In Men Study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Aug 6 - "In older men, lower total testosterone is associated with insulin resistance independently of measures of central obesity. This association is seen with testosterone levels in the low to normal range. Further studies are needed to evaluate interventions which raise testosterone levels in men with reduced insulin sensitivity"
  • Stress Raises Belly Fat, Heart Risks - WebMD, 8/6/09 - "Even compared to other monkeys with the same body mass index and weight, CT scans showed that the stressed monkeys had a great deal more belly fat. And when the researchers looked at the animals' arteries, they found plaque clogging the arteries of the stressed monkeys ... it's not how much fat you have, but where it is located ... Over time, high cortisol levels cause belly fat to accumulate. It also makes individual fat cells get larger ... When you have lots more fat in visceral fat cells and all the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, each of these things promotes atherosclerosis"
  • Metabolic Factors May Play A Role In Risk For Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 6/30/09 - "The metabolic syndrome is characterized by elevated insulin levels, and in recent years scientists have proposed that insulin may contribute directly or indirectly to the development of breast cancer ... women who had the metabolic syndrome during the three to five years prior to breast cancer diagnosis had roughly a doubling of risk ... Findings also showed significant associations with elevated blood glucose levels, triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. For diastolic blood pressure, the result was stronger, with more than a two-fold increased risk (relative risk = 2.4). Generally, for both triglycerides and glucose the relative risk was about 1.7 for all breast cancer"
  • Testosterone Therapy Improves Metabolic Syndrome, Liver Steatosis in Hypogonadal Men - Doctor's Guide, 6/22/09 - "After receiving TU for 6 months, their body mass index, waist circumference, and low-density and high-density lipoprotein were improved ... Similarly, their serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased towards the end of the first year of treatment, and then remained stable for the duration of the study ... The mean tryglyceride levels after treatment with TU were 195 mg/dL, down from 312 mg/dL before treatment ... LDL levels decreased after treatment as well, from 164 to 134 mg/dL, whereas HDL levels increased from 36.5 to 54.6 mg/dL"
  • Antidiabetic effects of 11beta-HSD1 inhibition in a mouse model of combined diabetes, dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Jul;11(7):688-99 - "Importantly, 11beta-HSD1 inhibition leads to improved glucose metabolism and does not result in a worsening of atherosclerotic lesion area, yet retained antidiabetic potential in the face of multiple severe metabolic aberrations. This study reinforces the potential use of 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors in patients with the metabolic syndrome without negatively impacting atherosclerosis"
  • Insulin Changes Occur Years Before Diabetes - WebMD, 6/9/09 - "A steady trend in fasting glucose as early as 13 years prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, with fasting glucose levels rising rapidly three years before diagnosis"
  • Breastfeeding Cuts Metabolic Syndrome - WebMD, 6/8/09 - "Women who breastfeed their babies may be less likely to develop metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that makes heart disease and diabetes more likely"
  • Insulin resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification - Am Heart J. 2009 May;157(5):939-45 - "After controlling for these variables, higher fasting insulin levels independently predicted CAC progression"
  • Daily Diet Soda Consumption Linked to Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 2/11/09 - "Compared with participants who did not drink diet soda, those who drank diet soda at least daily had a 36% greater relative risk for incident MetSyn (HR, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 - 1.66) and a 67% greater relative risk for incident type 2 diabetes"
  • Treatment of white coat hypertension with metformin - Int Heart J. 2008 Nov;49(6):671-9 - "White coat hypertension (WCH) is most likely a disorder associated with metabolic syndrome ... Twenty-five cases (14.7%) stopped metformin therapy due to excessive anorexia. At the end of a 6-month period, there were highly significant differences between the two groups with respect to the prevalences of resolved WCH, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, overweight and obesity, and decreased fasting plasma glucose below 110 mg/dL ... Thus, the management of WCH should not focus solely on the regulation of blood pressure with antihypertensive medications, but rather on the prevention of future excess weight and various associated disorders, and metformin alone is an effective therapeutic option, most likely due to its powerful inhibitory effect on appetite"
  • Blood Pressure and Fasting Plasma Glucose rather than Metabolic Syndrome Predict Coronary Artery Calcium Progression: The Rancho Bernardo Study - Diabetes Care. 2008 Oct 13 - "In older adults without known heart disease, blood pressure levels and fasting plasma glucose were better independent determinants of CAC progression than MetS itself"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Ups Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/08 - "metabolic syndrome patients had a 75 percent higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to those without metabolic syndrome"
  • Pioglitazone effects on blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome - Nippon Rinsho. 2008 Aug;66(8):1591-5 - "Although blood pressure lowering effect of pioglitazone is small, several clinical trials and a meta-analysis indicated that it decreases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pioglitazone has favorable effects on important components of metabolic syndrome including blood pressure"
  • Expert Panel Makes Prediabetes Recommendations; Lifestyle Is No. 1 - WebMD, 7/23/08 - "In prediabetes, blood sugar levels are above normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes -- yet. But prediabetes isn't harmless; it makes diabetes (and its many complications) more likely. And it's a risk for your heart right now ... The bottom line: Prediabetes is an immediate risk and a shadow hanging over your future health. So get aggressive about dealing with it now. Don't wait until it gets worse"
  • Pioglitazone Cuts Risk of Progression to Diabetes - Clinical Psychiatry News, 7/08 - "People with impaired glucose tolerance were 81% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period if treated with pioglitazone ... Patients were randomized to treatment with placebo or 30 mg/day pioglitazone. If the drug was tolerated after 1 month, the dose could be increased up to 45 mg/day" - Note: Diabetes runs in my family.  I've been taking pioglitazone for several years for prevention.  See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Improves Coronary Microcirculation and Insulin Resistance among Essential Hypertensive Patients without Left Ventricular Hypertrophy - Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):615-22 - "Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) ... CFVR was improved in the telmisartan group (2.4+/-0.4 to 2.9+/-0.4; p<0.01), but there was no difference in the nifedipine group (2.5+/-0.3 to 2.5+/-0.3; n.s.). HOMA-IR was improved in the telmisartan group (3.1+/-1.1 to 1.6+/-0.7; p<0.01), but there was no difference in the nifedipine group (2.8+/-1.1 to 2.4+/-0.7; n.s.). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that antihypertensive therapy with telmisartan, but not nifedipine, has a beneficial effect on coronary microcirculation and insulin resistance among essential hypertensive patients"
  • Effect of irbesartan on erectile function in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome - Int J Impot Res. 2008 Jul 3 - "Erectile function increased significantly (P<0.0001) after 6 months of treatment with irbesartan, irrespective of dosage and independent of additional treatment with hydrochlorothiazide. Prevalence of ED declined to 63.7% from 78.5% at baseline, along with a significant increase in orgasmic function (P<0.001) and intercourse satisfaction (P<0.001). Treatment with irbesartan alone, as well as in combination with hydrochlorothiazide is associated with an improvement of sexual desire, frequency of sexual contacts and erectile function in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest a beneficial role of angiotensin receptor antagonists in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, and ED" - Note:  I've been suggesting telmisartan (an ARB) for some time as the first line treatment for hypertension.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRX.
  • Single Mechanism For Hypertension, Insulin Resistance And Immune Suppression - Science Daily, 6/30/08 - "spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) ... protein receptors on the surface of SHR cells become clipped off as the animals develop hypertension. They used a novel visualization technique to show that after several weeks of ingesting doxycycline in their drinking water, the SHR rats developed cells that again bristled with normal CD18 and insulin receptors. The animals' metabolic conditions simultaneously improved; blood pressure normalized and symptoms of immune suppression disappeared" - Note: I was taking Periostat (low dose doxycycline, 20 mg) for two reasons, the help prevent gum disease and to lower CRP.  Now I have a third reason.  See doxycycline at OffshoreRx1.com (you can use a pill cutter to quarter the pills).  See:
    • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
      • Blood Protein Predicts Stroke Risk - HealthDay, 6/23/03 - "whether the substance [CRP] is an independent risk factor for these episodes or merely a reflection of narrowed and crumbling arteries hasn't been entirely clear ... New research now suggests that the molecule, called C-reactive protein (CRP), is indeed its own oddsmaker ... The cholesterol-fighting drugs known as statins have been shown to lower CRP by about 25 percent or so, Stein says. However, it's not clear that that effect reduces cardiovascular trouble or increases survival"
  • Testosterone Gel Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Sexual Function in Hypogonadal Men With Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 6/20/08 - "Among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR improved from baseline in the testosterone-treated group compared with placebo at 6 months (testosterone: -0.62, placebo: +0.16; P = .049) and at 12 months (testosterone: -.58 ... Patients receiving testosterone also achieved more than a 5-point improvement over placebo-treated patients on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) at 6 months (P < .05) and more than 6 points over placebo-treated patients at 12 months"
  • Metabolic syndrome: Another nail in the coffin? - theheart.org, 5/21/08 - "In PROSPER, metabolic syndrome was not associated with an increased risk of CVD but was associated with a fourfold increased risk of diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose alone had a much higher risk, however, more than 18-fold. In BRHS, metabolic syndrome was associated with a modestly increased risk of CVD and a more than sevenfold increased risk of diabetes"
  • Insulin-Resistant Cardiomyopathy - Medscape, 1/15/08 - "Increasing evidence points to insulin resistance as a primary etiologic factor in the development of nonischemic heart failure (HF) ... Epidemiological evidence suggests more than simply a correlation between insulin resistance and HF, demonstrating that insulin resistance precedes HF rather than occurring as a consequence of it ... Medications that work primarily by improving insulin sensitivity (metformin, thiazolidinediones [TZDs]) might theoretically be the most attractive therapies" - See my web page on Insulin and Aging.
  • Elasticity Indices of Large and Small Arteries in Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese - Am J Hypertens. 2008 Jan 10 - "The metabolic syndrome is indeed a risk factor for reduced arterial elasticity"
  • Overcoming Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 1/10/08
  • Testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome - Curr Urol Rep. 2007 Nov;8(6):467-71 - "One third of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus are now recognized as testosterone deficient. Emerging evidence suggests that testosterone therapy may be able to reverse some aspects of metabolic syndrome"
  • Effect of the Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Irbesartan on Metabolic Parameters in Clinical Practice: the DO-IT Prospective Observational Study - Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2007 Nov 27;6(1):36 - "Six months of irbesartan therapy decreased systolic blood pressure by 14% (157.4+/-14.7 vs. 135.0+/-10.7 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure by 13% (92.9+/-9.2 vs. 80.8+/-6.8 mmHg). This was associated with a decrease in body weight (-2.3%), fasting glucose (-9.5%), HbA1c (-4.6%), LDL-cholesterol (-11%), triglycerides (-16%) and gamma-GT (-12%) and an increase in HDL-cholesterol (+5%)"
  • Effects of androgen deprivation on glycaemic control and on cardiovascular biochemical risk factors in men with advanced prostate cancer with diabetes - Aging Male. 2007 Dec;10(4):189-96 - "In men with insulin-dependent diabetes, androgen deprivation therapy may have negative effects on their glycaemic control and may aggravate the biochemical risk profile of cardiovascular disease to which diabetics are predisposed. These observations are in agreement with the emerging role of low levels of testosterone in metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance"
  • Testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome - Curr Urol Rep. 2007 Nov;8(6):467-71 - "One third of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus are now recognized as testosterone deficient. Emerging evidence suggests that testosterone therapy may be able to reverse some aspects of metabolic syndrome"
  • Women With High Or Increasing Blood Pressure Are Up To Three Times More Likely To Develop Diabetes - Science Daily, 10/9/07 - "women who have high blood pressure levels are three times more likely to develop diabetes than women with low blood pressure levels ... The authors suggest a possible mechanism for the relation between BP and diabetes may be endothelial dysfunction -- a dysfunction of the normal biochemical processes carried out by the layer of cells that line the inner surfaces of blood vessels. "It may be a precursor of both hypertension and diabetes," ... the progression of endothelial dysfunction may cause worsening of both BP and blood glucose. This is in line with the fact that both BP and blood glucose occur together as part of the metabolic syndrome"
  • Identification and Management of Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 10/3/07 - "Metabolic Risk Factor Goals and Recommendations ..."
  • Metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: the 100 versus 110 mg/dL threshold - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Oct;23(7):547-550 - "IFG110 was associated with higher risk of post-challenge glucose intolerance as compared with IFG100. As compared with IFG100, subjects with IFG110 have significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I. As compared with NFG, IFG110, but not IFG100, showed a significant association with increased levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell count (WBCC), and C-reactive protein (CRP)"
  • Is the metabolic syndrome a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction in sexually active women? - Int J Impot Res. 2007 Sep 20 - "In premenopausal women, the MS was an independent risk factor for impaired sexual desire (P=0.03) with an age-adjusted odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-7.3). In premenopausal female sexual life, the MS represents an independent role via its correlation to impaired desire"
  • Soda Consumption Linked To Metabolic Syndrome - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/07 - "Drinking at least one soda per day is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, compared with drinking less than one soft drink a day ... the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in those who drank one or more 12-ounce soft drinks per day was 48% higher than in those who drank fewer than one of these beverages daily"
  • Serum testosterone level and related metabolic factors in men over 70 years old - J Endocrinol Invest. 2007 Jun;30(6):451-8 - "total testosterone is lower in elderly men with metabolic syndrome"
  • Metabolic Syndrome: Don't Blame The Belly Fat - Science Daily, 7/19/07 - "insulin resistance in skeletal muscle leads to alterations in energy storage that set the stage for the metabolic syndrome"
  • Study Links Blood Sugar to Newborn Risks - Intelihealth, 6/25/07 - "The higher a pregnant woman's level of blood sugar, the greater the risk to her newborn -- whether the mother has diabetes or not"
  • Treating the metabolic syndrome - Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 May;5(3):491-506 - "appropriate treatment of MS components often requires pharmacologic intervention with insulin-sensitizing agents, such as metformin and thiazolidinediones, while statins and fibrates, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers are the first-line lipid-modifying or antihypertensive drugs"
  • Do low levels of circulating adiponectin represent a biomarker or just another risk factor for the metabolic syndrome? - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):246-58 - "The metabolic syndrome is currently defined by various combinations of insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. The tendency for these risk factors to appear simultaneously suggests a single aetiologic basis. A low level of circulating adiponectin is associated with the appearance of each metabolic syndrome risk factor ... An association between the metabolic syndrome and low adiponectin supports the view that the development of the metabolic syndrome may be triggered by a single underlying mechanism. Clinical studies in the future may show that a low level of circulating adiponectin is a primary biomarker for a specific cluster of metabolic syndrome risk factors rather than all the possible combinations of risk factors currently used to identify the metabolic syndrome"
  • Raised alanine transaminase and decreased adiponectin are features of the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):438-40 - "Mean ALT was significantly higher in patients with the MS and higher ALT was associated with lower adiponectin levels. As the number of features of MS increased, ALT increased and adiponectin decreased independent of glycaemic control"
  • Hyperglycemia Linked to Cancer Risk - Physician's Weekly, 5/7/07 - "Risk of cancer of the pancreas, endometrium, urinary tract, and of malignant melanoma was statistically significantly associated with high fasting glucose with [relative risk ratios] of 2.49, 1.86, 1.69, and 2.16, respectively"
  • Insulin resistance is associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with preexisting coronary artery disease - Am Heart J. 2007 Apr;153(4):559-65 - "Insulin resistance per se is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and new diabetes in patients with preexisting coronary artery disease"
  • Insulin resistance is associated with arterial stiffness independent of obesity in male adolescents - Hypertens Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):5-11 - "insulin resistance (IR) ... IR is a risk factor for the development of early atherosclerosis. Interventions that decrease IR in addition to weight reduction may be necessary to alter the early development of cardiovascular risk"
  • High Insulin Levels Impair Intestinal Metabolic Function - Science Daily, 4/24/07 - "excessive insulin appears to slow the removal of chylomicrons from the blood stream following a fatty meal. Chylomicrons transport dietary fat from the intestine to the rest of the body ... excessive insulin appears to alter the mechanics of blood vessel walls, allowing chylomicrons and cholesterol to build up in them, which, over time, creates blockages in the blood stream, leading to heart problems"
  • The effects of telmisartan and amlodipine on metabolic parameters and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic, hypertensive patients - J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2006 Dec;7(4):243-6 - "Group A: rosiglitazone (RSG) 4 mg + Telm 80 mg; Group B: RSG 4 mg + Aml 10 mg ... Lower values of glucose, HbA1C, HOMA index and higher adiponectin levels were observed in Group A compared to Group B ... insulin sensitivity may confer make Telm particularly suitable in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome"
  • Even 'High Normal' Glucose May Increase Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 3/7/07 - "even small increases in fasting glucose raised the risk of congestive heart failure in both diabetes patients and those whose blood sugar fell within the normal range"
  • High Blood Sugar Linked to Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/27/07 - "women with the highest blood sugar levels upon joining the study were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer before its end, compared with women with the lowest blood sugar levels"
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Erectile Dysfunction Among Urologic Patients: Metabolic Backgrounds of Erectile Dysfunction - Urology. 2007 Jan 30 - "waist circumference (WC) and triglyceride (TG) ... MS was strongly associated with ED. Fasting blood glucose levels, hypertension, and WC are the most significant risk factors predicting the risk of ED. A more pronounced increase in ED risk in the presence of abdominal obesity, together with altered TG and HDL cholesterol levels, may indicate a special metabolic background of ED regarding lipid metabolism"
  • Association between hormones and metabolic syndrome in older italian men - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Dec;54(12):1832-8 - "Total testosterone and SHBG are negatively and leptin is positively associated with MS in older men"
  • Calories Seen Outweighing Sugar as Diabetes Risk - Vital Choices Newsletter, 1/1/07 - "they found no link between consumption of sweetened beverages and the risk of developing diabetes ... men who drank four or more cups of coffee a day cut their risk of developing type-2 diabetes by more than 23 percent ... while a high sugar intake may not by itself cause diabetes, it can certainly be a major contributing factor to weight gain and obesity: factors that clearly do promote diabetes" - [Abstract / Abstract]
  • Effect of eucaloric high- and low-sucrose diets with identical macronutrient profile on insulin resistance and vascular risk: a randomized controlled trial - Diabetes. 2006 Dec;55(12):3566-72 - "In this study, a high-sucrose intake as part of an eucaloric, weight-maintaining diet had no detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, glycemic profiles, or measures of vascular compliance in healthy nondiabetic subjects"
  • Coffee and sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study - Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec 1;164(11):1075-84 - "They found an inverse association, after adjusting for potential confounders, between increased coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men (for > or =4 cups (> or =0.95 liter)/day compared with almost never: hazard ratio = 0.77, p(trend) = 0.02) with no significant association in women (hazard ratio = 0.89 ... Sweetened beverage consumption (men: hazard ratio = 1.03, p(trend) = 0.94; women: hazard ratio = 1.01, p(trend) = 0.58) showed no consistent association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus"
  • The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in 20 obese children and adolescents - Acta Paediatr. 2007 Jan;96(1):109-12 - "The high prevalence of insulin resistance we found in children with NAFLD confirms the suggestion that there may be an association between insulin resistance and NAFLD in obese children"
  • Metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction : Epidemiologic associations and pathogenetic links - Urologe A. 2006 Dec 12 - "There is abundant evidence for the association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and the traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and obesity, that make up the metabolic syndrome. Recent findings have demonstrated a linear relationship between the number of these risk factors and the prevalence of ED"
  • Hyperinsulinemia and cognitive decline in a middle-aged cohort - Diabetes Care. 2006 Dec;29(12):2688-93 - "word recall (DWR), digit symbol subtest (DSS), and first letter word fluency (WF) ... hyperinsulinemia based on fasting insulin and HOMA at baseline was associated with significantly lower baseline DWR, DSS, and WF scores and a greater decline over 6 years in DWR and WF ... Insulin resistance is a potentially modifiable midlife risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia"
  • Metabolic syndrome treatment strategies - Pharmacotherapy. 2006 Dec;26(12 Pt 2):222S-6S - "Lifestyle modification can be summarized as dietary changes, exercise, and smoking cessation. Drug therapy indicated for cardiometabolic risk reduction includes antihypertensives, insulin sensitizers, and cholesterol-lowering agents. In addition, two drugs-sibutramine and rimonabant-have been evaluated and produced promising outcomes in the overall management of high-risk patients with metabolic syndrome"
  • Cortisol-cause and cure for metabolic syndrome? - Diabet Med. 2006 Dec;23(12):1281-8 - "reducing cortisol action may provide a novel therapeutic approach in the metabolic syndrome. There is substantial evidence that circulating cortisol concentrations are higher in people with hypertension and glucose intolerance ... Promising preclinical data suggest that novel 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors will have a role in lowering intracellular cortisol levels as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome"
  • High Blood Sugar a Global Killer - WebMD, 11/9/06 - "Our results show that one in five deaths from heart disease and one in eight from stroke worldwide are attributable to higher-than-optimum blood [sugar] ... As an annual cause of death, it's right up there with smoking"
  • Resisting Insulin - USC Health Magazine, Fall '06 - "Insulin, according to a slew of new studies, may play a role in everything from cancer to hypertension to cardiovascular disease"
  • Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial - Lancet. 2006 Sep 23;368(9541):1096-105 - "306 (11.6%) individuals given rosiglitazone and 686 (26.0%) given placebo developed the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.35-0.46; p<0.0001); 1330 (50.5%) individuals in the rosiglitazone group and 798 (30.3%) in the placebo group became normoglycaemic ... Rosiglitazone at 8 mg daily for 3 years substantially reduces incident type 2 diabetes and increases the likelihood of regression to normoglycaemia in adults with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or both" - See rosiglitazone at SuperSaverMeds.com or XlPharmacy.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance: A possible contributor to left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction - Int J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 23 - "These results suggest that impaired glucose tolerance is a possible contributor to left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction"
  • Admission Blood Glucose Level and Mortality Among Hospitalized Nondiabetic Patients With Heart Failure - Arch Intern Med, 8/14/06 - "In-hospital mortality was twice as high in patients with admission blood glucose levels in the third tertile (7.2%) compared with the first (3%) and second (4%) tertiles ... each 18-mg/dL (1-mmol/L) increase in glucose level was associated with a 31% increased risk of in-hospital mortality"
  • Borderline Diabetes Linked to Development of Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/21/06 - "Patients who have borderline diabetes have a 77% increased risk of later developing Alzheimer's disease ... People who have severe high blood pressure in addition to borderline diabetes have a 6.27-fold risk of developing Alzheimer's disease ... Borderline diabetes was defined as a random plasma glucose level between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L"
  • Better Blood Sugar = Less Alzheimer's - WebMD, 7/17/06 - "there were almost 20% fewer new cases of Alzheimer's among people taking thiazolidinediones compared with people who took insulin. Similar results were found in a separate comparison between thiazolidinediones users and people starting Glucophage, another drug used to treat diabetes"
  • Prediabetes May Raise Risk for Alzheimer's - Intelihealth, 7/17/06 - "people who had prediabetes at the beginning of the study had a 70% increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's ... doctors tend to ignore the slightly high sugar levels until the levels reach the stage of full-blown diabetes"
  • Effect of Atorvastatin (10 mg/day) on Glucose Metabolism in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome - Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jul 1;98(1):66-9 - "in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects, 6 weeks of atorvastatin (10 mg/day) resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity"
  • Impaired Fasting Glucose Screening Could Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/14/06 - "people with impaired fasting glucose have higher rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors than people with normal fasting glucose ... They defined impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting blood sugar between 100 and 125 mg/dL"
  • Impaired {beta}-cell Function in Human Aging: Response to Nicotinic Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun 6 - "Human aging is associated with impaired beta-cell sensitivity to glucose and impaired beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance"
  • Growth hormone, insulin may be key to longevity - WorldHealth.net, 5/24/06 - "it is reasonable to suggest that treatment(s) causing an improvement in insulin sensitivity combined with modest reduction in insulin release would reduce risk of age-related disease and likely also delay aging"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Hurts Heart - WebMD, 5/22/06 - "men who had metabolic syndrome at the start of the study were 66% more likely to have heart failure by the end of the study"
  • Metformin and Lifestyle Intervention May Help Prevent Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 4/18/06 - "Participants were randomly assigned to standard treatment with placebo pill; metformin, 850 mg, twice daily; or intensive lifestyle management with placebo pill and followed up for a mean of 3.2 years ... Intensive lifestyle consisted of reduction of at least 7% of body weight, low-calorie and low-fat diet, and moderate physical activity at least 150 minutes weekly ... In those with prevalent MS at baseline ... At 3 years 18% of the placebo, 23% of the metformin, and 38% of the lifestyle intervention group no longer had the MS, with lifestyle intervention only showing a significant effect vs placebo"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Skyrocketing - WebMD, 3/14/06 - "The surge is driven mainly by the epidemic of obesity in the Western world"
  • Effects of aging on insulin resistance and fat accumulation - Nippon Rinsho. 2006 Jan;64(1):45-9 - "Alternation of fat distribution by aging may be related to age-related insulin resistance"
  • Insulin Levels and Resistance Linked to Risk of Pancreatic Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 12/16/05
  • Pancreatic Cancer Tied to Insulin Woes - WebMD, 12/13/05 - "Some of the men's blood samples showed higher levels of blood glucose, insulin resistance, and high insulin levels. Those men were more likely to later develop pancreatic cancer than those without insulin problems"
  • Diabetics Face Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/05 - "hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia promote the growth of colorectal cancer"
  • Oral Estradiol Therapy May Worsen Insulin Resistance in Obese Menopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 10/21/05 - "After 12 weeks, there was significant worsening of insulin resistance in women taking oral estradiol ... The researchers observed no significant changes in markers of insulin resistance in women receiving transdermal estradiol, except for a decrease in glucose to insulin ratio from 7.13 to 5.77"
  • New Statement Reaffirms Insulin Resistance Syndrome Definition - Doctor's Guide, 10/14/05 - "People with resistance to the actions of insulin have an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as well as polycystic ovary syndrome, fatty liver, and certain cancers"
  • Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in the Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 10/10/05 - "As observed in animal studies, insulin-sensitizing medications may play a potential role in the reduction of blood pressure. Metformin treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats decreased blood pressure by 34 mmHg but had no effect on the blood pressure of normotensive rats.[9] Pioglitazone prevents hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats,[10] and rosiglitazone prevents development of hypertension in insulin-resistant rats"
  • Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men - N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1454-62 - "A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter"
  • High Blood Sugar Levels a Risk Factor for Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 9/14/05 - "Lowering blood sugar levels could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in both diabetics and non-diabetics ... Non-diabetic persons with HbA1c levels of 6% or higher had almost a two-fold greater heart disease risk compared to persons with an HbA1c level below 4.6%"
  • Metabolic Syndrome: Growing Health Threat - WebMD, 9/12/05
  • Glycemic Control and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Persons With and Without Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1910-1916 - "In adults with diabetes, the relative risk (RR) of CHD was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.72) for the highest quintile of HbA1c level compared with the lowest after adjustment for CHD risk factors ... Elevated HbA1c level is an independent risk factor for CHD in persons with and without diabetes"
  • Androgens, Insulin Resistance and Vascular Disease in Men - Medscape, 9/8/05 - "Studies in healthy men have shown an inverse correlation between testosterone and insulin levels ... physiological testosterone replacement improves insulin sensitivity ... Insulin resistance also plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension ... hypotestosteronaemia is associated with insulin resistance in men. Testosterone treatment inhibits the hyperinsulinaemia and thus may delay the onset of diabetes mellitus in men or even improve glycaemic control"
  • Are you insulin resistant? - US News, 9/5/05 - "Endocrinologists suggests a diagnosis of resistance if a patient and doctor can put a checkmark next to at least two of these four measures: ... Triglycerides: greater than 150 mg/dL ... HDL cholesterol: less than 40 mg/dL in men or 50 mg/dL in women ... Blood pressure: greater than 130/85 mm Hg ... Blood glucose: 110-125 mg/dL after fasting and 140-200 mg/dL two hours"
  • The metabolic syndrome: A vascular perspective - Eur J Intern Med. 2005 Sep;16(5):314-20 - "Patients with MS have a three times greater risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, and a two to four times greater risk of dying from atherosclerotic coronary heart disease than those without MS ... First-line treatment for MS is therapeutic lifestyle intervention, including exercise and weight reduction. Medical intervention strategies using blood pressure-lowering medication, statins, fibrates and metformin seem the most appropriate to date. The effects of thiazolidinediones on cardiovascular endpoints have not been studied to a large extent in the setting of MS"
  • Metabolic Syndrome: a Misleading 'Diagnosis' - Doctor's Guide, 8/25/05
  • Blood Glucose: A Strong Risk Factor for Mortality - Medscape, 8/19/05 - "BG even in the normal range is a strong independent predictor of mortality in all subjects with CVD" - [Abstract]
  • Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome:: implications for testosterone therapy - J Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):827-34 - "Hypogonadism is likely a fundamental component of metabolic syndrome. Testosterone therapy may not only treat hypogonadism, but may also have tremendous potential to slow or halt the progression from metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes or cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on insulin regulation, lipid profile and blood pressure. Furthermore, the use of testosterone to treat metabolic syndrome may also lead to the prevention of urological complications commonly associated with these chronic disease states, such as neurogenic bladder and erectile dysfunction"
  • High Insulin Levels Increase Inflammatory Markers And Beta-amyloids, May Contribute To Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 8/12/05
  • Obesity Today, Alzheimer's Disease Tomorrow? - WebMD, 8/8/05 - "people with high insulin levels -- long before they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease"
  • Elevated Insulin Levels Appear to Increase Levels of Inflammatory Markers and Beta-Amyloid, Which May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/05 - "Moderately elevated levels of insulin increase the levels of inflammatory markers and beta-amyloid in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and these markers may contribute to Alzheimer's disease"
  • Statin use in the metabolic syndrome - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Feb;7(1):17-21 - "Because of the increased CVD risk associated with the metabolic syndrome and extensive clinical trial evidence documenting reduction of CVD risk with statin treatment, all patients with the metabolic syndrome should be evaluated as candidates for statin treatment as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reduce CVD risk"
  • Cardiovascular risk factors are really linked in the metabolic syndrome: This phenomenon suggests clustering rather than coincidence - Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 12 - "obesity and insulin resistance were suggested to be linked with metabolic syndrome more than hypertension or high triglyceride"
  • Normal Weight Doesn’t Reduce Risk of Metabolic Syndrome - Physician's Weekly, 7/25/05
  • Nutritional Epigenomics of Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 7/22/05
  • Insulin Resistance Associated With Increased Risk for Congestive Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 7/21/05 - "In this community-based sample of elderly men free of CHF and valvular disease at baseline, insulin resistance predicted CHF incidence independently of diabetes and other established risk factors for CHF"
  • Insulin Resistance and Risk of Congestive Heart Failure - JAMA. 2005 Jul 20;294(3):334-41 - "Insulin resistance predicted CHF incidence independently of established risk factors including diabetes"
  • Insulin Resistance in Cognitive Impairment: The InCHIANTI Study - Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1067-1072 - "insulin resistance might contribute to cognitive impairment"
  • Diabetic Retinopathy Occurs in Pre-Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/05 - "Diabetic retinopathy has been found in nearly 8 percent of pre-diabetic participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program ... can lead to vision loss"
  • Lowering Resistance To Insulin May Delay Or Prevent Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 6/12/05 - "Type 2 diabetes may be significantly delayed or prevented through medication that takes the load off of the body's delicate insulin-producing cells ... our initial findings for diabetes prevention with troglitazone apply not only to this class of drugs-thiazolidinediones-but to the general mechanisms of reducing stress on beta cells by treating insulin resistance" - Note:  Actos and Avandia are in the thiazolidinedione class.  Avandia is available at OffshoreRx1.com and SuperSaverMeds.com but check with your doctor first.
  • Metabolic Syndrome Found in Many Young Kids - WebMD, 6/2/05
  • The Metabolic Syndrome: a Cause of Sexual Dysfunction in Women - Medscape, 5/27/05 - "women with the metabolic syndrome reported significantly lower arousal, orgasm, and lubrication scores"
  • Extra Weight May Age You Faster - WebMD, 5/25/05 - "inflammation burns out white blood cells faster, and the effort of replacing them wears down the telomeres ... Insulin resistance and obesity are also associated with free radical damage"
  • Insulin Resistance Correlates With Rises in C-Reactive Protein - Doctor's Guide, 5/23/05 - "As C-reactive protein rises, so does insulin resistance ... Increased C-reactive protein levels may also predispose to accelerated or premature atherosclerotic disease ... Maybe someday we'll have therapy to lower C-reactive protein levels"
  • Valsartan Reduces Chance of Diabetes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/05 - "patients taking valsartan had a 23% lower risk of developing diabetes during the four or more years of the study. The two drugs had previously been shown to be roughly equivalent in reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke" - See valsartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Metabolic Effect of Telmisartan [Micardis] and Losartan [Cozaar] in Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome - Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2005 May 15;4(1):6 - "Telmisartan, but not losartan, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced free plasma glucose, free plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HbAic. Following treatment, plasma glucose and insulin were reduced during the oral glucose tolerance test by telmisartan, but not by losartan. Telmisartan also significantly reduced 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) compared with losartan"
  • Diabetes Medication Pioglitazone HCl May Significantly Improve Predictors of Cardiovascular Risk - Doctor's Guide, 5/10/05 - "the diabetes medication pioglitazone HCl reduced carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Patients taking pioglitazone also experienced significant reductions in insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (a marker for inflammation) and blood pressure, all of which contribute to the overall risk for cardiovascular disease" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Metformin and Lifestyle Intervention May Help Prevent Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 4/18/05 - "metformin therapy (850 mg twice daily) ... Compared with placebo, the lifestyle group had 41% lower incidence of the MS (P < .001), and the metformin group had 17% lower incidence" - See Metformin at IAS.
  • Hidden Fat Could Mean Heart Disease Risk - WebMD, 4/11/05 - "Even people of normal weight can have fat folded deep inside their belly, raising their risk of heart disease and diabetes from a condition called metabolic syndrome"
  • Growth Hormone Treatment Improves Symptoms Of Metabolic Disorder In Postmenopausal Women - Science Daily, 4/10/05 - "the GH treatment in postmenopausal women significantly reduced their intra-abdominal fat, increased thigh muscle area, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, and improved insulin sensitivity"
  • High Blood Sugar Raises Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/11/05 - "the men in the study with the highest fasting blood sugar levels (those greater than 140 mg/dl) were 29% more likely to die of cancer than men with the lowest levels (those less than 90 mg/dl). The difference among women with the highest and lowest blood sugar levels was 23%"
  • Weight, Fitness and Lifestyle Identified as Important Factors Contributing to Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 1/10/05 - "Fatness, fitness, and lifestyle are important determinants of the metabolic syndrome in young adults ... these associations were independent of each other and, therefore, represent separate potential targets for the prevention of metabolic syndrome"
  • Heavy, Lifetime Alcohol Users May Be Toasting Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 11/18/04 - "drinkers in the highest category of intensity have a 60 percent greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest category ... The highest quartile category of intensity represented females who consumed an average of four drinks per drinking day and males who consumed an average of six drinks per drinking day"
  • The metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and risk of cognitive decline - JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2237-42 - "These findings support the hypothesis that the metabolic syndrome contributes to cognitive impairment in elders, but primarily in those with high level of inflammation"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Can Reduce Mental Function - WebMD, 11/9/04 - "those with metabolic syndrome were 20% more likely to develop a decline in mental function compared with a group of elderly people without metabolic syndrome"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Cognitive Decline in Elderly Persons - Doctor's Guide, 11/9/04 - "persons with the metabolic syndrome (n = 1016) were 20 percent more likely to develop cognitive impairment ... Those with both metabolic syndrome and high inflammation (n = 348) were 66 percent more likely to have cognitive impairment than those without the metabolic syndrome"
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Before Surgery Prevents Post Operative Complications in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 10/26/04
  • Deep Belly Fat Predicts Risk of Serious Metabolic Syndrome - WebMD, 10/14/04 - "fat inside the body -- that which can't be seen or "pinched" -- is the strongest among a set of signs that predict metabolic syndrome, a set of signs known to increase heart disease risk"
  • Insulin Resistance in Teens Raises High Blood Pressure Risk as Adults - Doctor's Guide, 11/11/04 - "If insulin resistance in childhood is related to risk factors in adulthood, we ought to be thinking about this problem at an early age. By the time people are in their 20s and 30s, a lot of the risk is already set, and we are treating the disease instead of preventing it ... What we're showing is that insulin resistance has an effect on systolic blood pressure that is independent of fatness and obesity"
  • Can You Be Fat on the Inside? - WebMD, 10/6/04 - "normal-weight women may be headed for obesity-related health problems thanks to an unhealthy lifestyle -- an increasingly common problem known as metabolic syndrome"
  • Management of the metabolic syndrome - Minerva Endocrinol. 2004 Jun;29(2):31-45 - "such a polypill should ideally contain numerous molecules that all have shown a potential interest for the management of MetS such as metformin, acarbose, a thiazolidinedione, a statin, a fibrate, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, aspirin. The growing prevalence and high-risk nature of MetS highlights the need to identify individuals with this condition and to treat them with an aggressive multitargeted approach"
  • Death Risk Rises With Blood Sugar - WebMD, 9/20/04 - "As your blood sugar level goes up, so does your risk of death and heart disease - even if you don't have diabetes ... we should be concerned about blood glucose elevations even in people who do not have diabetes"
  • Insulin Resistance: Impact on Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 3/9/04
  • Components of Insulin Resistance Syndrome Should be Treated in the Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 3/9/04
  • Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension May Involve Insulin Resistance - Doctor's Guide, 2/20/04 - "insulin resistance may be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, possibly involving mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Nearly Doubles Stroke Risk - Doctor's Guide, 2/9/04
  • DASH Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity as Well as Hypertension - Medscape, 2/6/04 - "Based on the results of this study, including the DASH dietary pattern as a basic part of a hypocaloric dietary plan can lead to significant improvements of up to 50% in insulin sensitivity"
  • Metabolic syndrome x: an inflammatory condition? - Curr Hypertens Rep. 2004 Feb;6(1):66-73 - "This suggests that metabolic syndrome X is a low-grade, systemic, inflammatory condition. Hence, instituting anti-inflammatory measures might be beneficial in preventing or halting the progress of metabolic syndrome X in high-risk populations"
  • Blood Test Identifies Poor Dieters - Physician's Weekly, 1/26/04 - "patients with higher levels of leptin and insulin in their blood were less likely to consistently maintain weight loss programs"
  • Potential Use of Statins and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors to Treat Cardiac Syndrome X - Doctor's Guide, 1/20/04 - "A significant reduction in the number of chest pain episodes was observed with treatment, from 14 to 4.4 episodes after 6 months of therapy ... Exercise duration was 23.5% greater after atorvastatin plus ramipril treatment"
  • Insulin Resistance May Be an Important Factor in Nondipper Essential Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 12/5/03 - "This may suggest that insulin resistance plays an important role in the aetiology of nondipper essential hypertension"
  • Redefining Impaired Fasting Glucose - Physician's Weekly, 11/24/03 - "the cut point for IFG should be reduced to 100 mg/dl from the current 110 mg/dl"
  • Metabolic Markers May Help Identify Insulin Resistance in Overweight Individuals - Doctor's Guide, 11/24/03 - "the optimal cut-off values for identifying insulin resistance were 1.47 mmol/L for triglycerides, 1.8 in SI units for triglyceride-HDL ratio, and 109 pmol/L for insulin"
  • TG and TG-HDL Ratio Help Identify Insulin Resistance in Overweight Patients - Medscape, 11/20/03 - "The most useful metabolic markers for insulin-resistance, defined as being in the top tertile of steady-state plasma glucose concentrations, were plasma triglyceride concentration, ratio of triglyceride to HDL cholesterol concentrations, and insulin concentration"
  • 20% More Americans Now Have Prediabetes - WebMD, 10/27/03
  • Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion, and Abdominal Fat - Medscape, 10/23/03 - "Insulin resistance is associated with overall obesity and particularly abdominal obesity ... In normal individuals, as insulin sensitivity declines, the ß-cells of the pancreas compensate by secreting more insulin"
  • Insulin Resistance Theory Advanced - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/03 - "A new theory linking insulin resistance to depression and the development of Alzheimer's disease could allow clinicians to someday identify patients at risk for dementia and, perhaps, prevent it by treating the insulin dysregulation ... Neuroendocrine factors contributing to insulin resistance, like cortisol and serotonin, have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of both depression and Alzheimer's ... Patients with depression should be screened for insulin resistance at the outset and monitored for signs of its development. If signs develop, these patients might benefit from insulin-sensitizing drugs"
  • Antipsychotic-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Proves Costly - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/03
  • New Definition For Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Coronary Heart Disease And Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 8/11/03 - "C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly elevated in those with metabolic syndrome ... minor modifications of the current definition as achieved by adding CRP or lowering the glucose cut-off may enhance prediction of CHD and diabetes"
  • Glycaemic Control Important in Controlling Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Risk - Doctor's Guide, 8/14/03 - "insulin resistance in the pre-diabetic state is associated with the presence of additional cardiovascular risk factors and increased incidence of CVD ... chronic sub-clinical inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular events ... insulin-sensitising agents such as glitazones may be useful in decreasing sub-clinical inflammation, and statin therapy may lower both cholesterol and CRP"
  • Pre-Diabetics Have Higher Risk of Colon Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 8/11/03
  • Insulin Resistance May Be a Common Cause of Treatment-Resistant Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/03 - "They suggest that hyperinsulinaemia may increase blood pressure by several mechanisms, including stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing renal sodium re-absorption, activating the Na+/H+ countertransport, and enhancing vessel wall cell proliferation and reactivity"
  • Common Metabolic Syndrome Problems Considered High Risk for Diabetes, Heart Disease - WebMD, 7/14/03
  • Epilepsy Drug Topamax Targets Diabetes - WebMD, 6/16/03 - "In a small study, the antiepileptic drug Topamax lowered levels of total cholesterol, blood glucose, and diastolic blood pressure, all components of the "prediabetic syndrome,""
  • Schizophrenia Drugs Linked to Diabetes - WebMD, 6/3/03 - "close to 25% of them developed high blood sugar levels while taking Clozaril, the first of these newer schizophrenia medications -- called "atypical antipsychotics." ... people with schizophrenia have a four- to six-fold risk of diabetes compared with the general population ... One possible explanation: Those with schizophrenia typically have higher levels of cortisol, known as the "stress hormone," because the body releases it during times of agitation. And high cortisol levels can cause problems in the way blood sugar is metabolized" - See my cortisol page for possible ways to reduce it.
  • C-reactive protein is independently associated with fasting insulin in nondiabetic women - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003 Apr 1;23(4):650-5 - "increasing levels of CRP were associated with a stepwise gradient in odds for elevated fasting insulin among both lean and overweight women" - See my inflammation page for ways to reduce it.
  • Rosuvastatin Improves Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/03
  • Topiramate Shows Promise in Patients with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 4/2/03 - "Diabetic control (hemoglobin A1C levels) improved significantly during topiramate treatment, and the effect was dose-related ... Reductions in hemoglobin A1C did not seem to correlate with topiramate-induced weight loss ... The study also found that most patients lost weight during topiramate treatment. Eighteen to 40% of patients showed clinically significant weight loss, losing at least 5% of their baseline weight"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Strongly Linked to MI and Stroke - Medscape, 4/1/03 - "Patients with the constellation of five factors that constitute the metabolic syndrome — insulin resistance, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels — have more than double the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke"
  • Antipsychotics Raise Glucose, Cholesterol Levels In Schizophrenics - Doctor's Guide, 2/25/03 - "Clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol are associated with increased plasma glucose level, and clozapine and olanzapine with raised cholesterol"
  • Tumour Necrosis Factor Linked To Insulin Resistance - Doctor's Guide, 2/25/03 - "Increased concentrations of circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) are associated with peripheral insulin resistance and raised levels of glucose and insulin in patients prior to type 2 diabetes onset"
  • The Ethnic-Metabolic Divide - CBS News, 2/24/03 - "Affected people have at least three of the following symptoms: a waist measuring more than 40 inches for men and 35 inches for women; levels of triglycerides — fats in the blood — of at least 150 milligrams per deciliter; levels of high-density cholesterol — the "good cholesterol" — of less than 40 mgs in men and less than 50 mgs in women; blood pressure of at least 135 over 80; and blood sugar of at least 110 mgs per deciliter"
  • Insulin Resistance Culprit [ceramide] Identified? - Physician's Weekly, 2/10/03
  • High Blood Sugar Linked To Lost Memory - Intelihealth, 2/4/03 - "middle-aged and elderly people with high blood sugar actually had a smaller hippocampus"
  • Insulin Resistance Profoundly Effects Lipoprotein Size And Subclass Concentrations - Doctor's Guide, 1/30/03 - "Overall, more marked insulin resistance was associated with increases in the size and concentration of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as decreases in the sizes of both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The subgroups of insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant subjects without diabetes also showed the association"
  • CRP improves cardiovascular risk prediction in metabolic syndrome - American Hearth Association, 1/28/03
  • Bad Boy in the Blood: CRP - WebMD, 1/15/03 - "CRP doesn't just mark risk. It contributes to plaque formation in the blood-vessel wall. It promotes cholesterol uptake ... The most dazzling observation has been that in postmenopausal women, even those with low cholesterol levels, CRP identifies a three-fold increased risk for coronary artery disease ... When they added CRP to these cells, they saw dramatic effects. The cells began to secrete a substance called PAI-1. Increased PAI-1 secretion predicts formation of blood clots and heart disease. It also predicts diabetes and the pre-diabetes condition known as metabolic disorder ... You can lower your CRP levels by doing the same things you would do to lower your cholesterol levels: lose weight, eat fewer calories and a very low fat diet, take the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, and the natural form of vitamin E"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Increases Cardiovascular, Overall Mortality in Middle-Aged Men - Doctor's Guide, 12/4/02
  • Big gut, other factors can kill you - USA Today, 12/3/02 - "People with this syndrome have at least three of the following risk factors: high blood sugar; a waist circumference of greater than 40 inches for men or 35 inches for women; lower-than-average HDL cholesterol (the so-called good cholesterol); high triglycerides and high blood pressure ... men who had the syndrome at the study's start had a two to three times greater chance of dying of a heart attack or a stroke during the study than men who did not have this collection of risk factors ... People getting a checkup should ask their family doctor to look for metabolic syndrome"
  • Chronic Stress And Metabolic Syndrome Linked - Doctor's Guide, 11/27/02 - "While the 24-hour cortisol metabolite and normetanephrine (three-methoxynorepinephrine) outputs were higher among cases than controls, HRV and total power were lower among cases" - Makes sense.  Stress increases cortisol, cortisol causes high blood sugar.  Also see my stress page. - Ben
  • The Mystery of Syndrome X - NY Times, 9/23/02
  • Simvastatin Improves Cholesterol Profile more than Atorvastatin in the Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 9/4/02
  • Most Heart Attack Patients Have Undiagnosed Glucose Metabolism Abnormalities - Doctor's Guide, 9/3/02 - "Most patients who present at emergency cardiac care units with a heart attack have abnormal glucose metabolism, and most of those patients are diabetic -- the majority undiagnosed ... many patients may be reaching the hospital in urgent states of undiagnosed diabetes because of a lack of communication between endocrinologists -- who treat diabetics but may not be that familiar with cardiology -- and cardiologists -- who may not be as familiar with diabetes"
  • Insulin Resistance Tied to Low Testosterone in Men - Doctor's Guide, 6/24/02 - "Men who are insulin resistant are also more likely to have reduced testosterone secretions"
  • Will New Drugs Head Off Diabetes? - WebMD, 5/10/02 - ""We think of IGT [impaired glucose tolerance] and diabetes as parts of what we call the metabolic syndrome. This is something that affects one in four Americans -- and up to half of the U.S. population by age 60. What we have to target is high blood sugar, whether it is IGT or type 2 diabetes." ... One diabetes drug, Glucophage, has already been shown to help prevent type 2 diabetes in people with IGT. But that same study, published in the February 2002 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, showed that exercise was even better than Glucophage at preventing diabetes"
  • Syndrome X -- Again! -  HealthandAge, 2/15/02
  • Do You Have Metabolic Syndrome? - WebMD, 1/15/02
  • Insulin Resistance Syndrome: Management in Primary Care Practice - Medscape, 12/01
  • An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and retards aging in yeast - FASEB J. 2000 Nov;14(14):2135-7 - "this study raises the possibility that reduced glucose alters aging at the cellular level in mammals"
  • Adding Androgen To ERT Improves Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/98 - "Our findings showed that adding testosterone to their estrogen therapy positively affected the emotional well-being of postmenopausal women with Cardiac Syndrome X"
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