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Home > Anti-aging Research > Grape Seed Extract

Procyanidolic Oligomers/Grape Seed Extract/Pine Bark/Pycnogenol

Note:  Some say that grape seed extract is the same as Pycnogenol((R)) without the patent markup.  I have moved the information on resveratrol to http://qualitycounts.com/fpresveratrol.htm.

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Blueberries, citrus fruits, red wine associated with reduced erectile dysfunction - Science Daily, 1/13/16 - "Of all the different flavonoids, Anthocyanins (found in blueberries, cherries, blackberries, radishes and blackcurrant), flavanones and flavones (found in citrus fruits) were found to offer the greatest benefits in preventing the condition ... It is already known that increased exercise can improve erectile function, but this research shows that eating a flavonoid-rich diet is as good for erectile function as briskly walking for up to five hours a week"
  • Pine Bark Extract Found Effective To Naturally Improve Varicose And Spider Vein - prnewswire.com, 10/8/14 - "This study confirms the findings of prior studies that have shown Pycnogenol® effective in strengthening capillary walls making them more resistant against pressure which consequently lowers the release of fluids into tissues. Pycnogenol® has been shown to exert a direct effect on the vein wall. It increases vein tonicity by improving vein resistance and vein elasticity. The extract reduces acute venous swelling and improves venous insufficiency" - [Abstract] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Grape skin extract may soon be answer to treating diabetes - Science Daily, 5/9/14 - "grape skin extract (GSE) exerts a novel inhibitory activity on hyperglycemia and could be developed and used to aid in diabetes management ... It is hopeful that our research may eventually lead to the successful development of a safe, targeted nutritional intervention to support diabetes prevention and treatment" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed promise in fight against bowel cancer - Science Daily, 2/14/14 - "Our research also showed that in laboratory studies grape seed taken orally significantly reduced inflammation and tissue damage caused by chemotherapy in the small intestine, and had no harmful effects on non-cancerous cells. Unlike chemotherapy, grape seed appears to selectively act on cancer cells and leave healthy cells almost unaffected ... The research showed grape seed extract: ... showed no side effects on the healthy intestine at concentrations of up to 1000mg/kg; ... significantly decreased intestinal damage compared to the chemotherapy control; ... decreased chemotherapy-induced inflammation by up to 55% ... increased growth-inhibitory effects of chemotherapy on colon cancer cells in culture by 26%"
  • Ingredients in Chocolate, Tea, Berries Could Guard Against Diabetes - Science Daily, 1/20/14 - "Researchers studied almost 2,000 healthy women volunteers from TwinsUK who had completed a food questionnaire designed to estimate total dietary flavonoid intake as well as intakes from six flavonoid subclasses ... those who consumed plenty of anthocyanins and flavones had lower insulin resistance. High insulin resistance is associated with Type 2 diabetes, so what we are seeing is that people who eat foods rich in these two compounds -- such as berries, herbs, red grapes, wine- are less likely to develop the disease ... We also found that those who ate the most anthocyanins were least likely to suffer chronic inflammation -- which is associated with many of today's most pressing health concerns including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer ... those who consumed the most flavone compounds had improved levels of a protein (adiponectin) which helps regulate a number of metabolic processes including glucose levels" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • High Dietary Intake of Polyphenols Are Associated With Longevity - Science Daily, 10/9/13 - "the first to evaluate the total dietary polyphenol intake by using a nutritional biomarker and not only a food frequency questionnaire ... Polyphenols have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, etc. effects ... based on a 12-year follow-up of a population sample composed by 807 men and women aged 65 or over from Greve and Bagno (Tuscany, Italy) ... the research proves that overall mortality was reduced by 30% in participants who had rich-polyphenol diets (>650 mg/day) in comparison with the participants who had low-polyphenol intakes (<500 mg/day)"
  • Mechanism for how grapes reduce heart failure associated with hypertension identified - Science Daily, 5/2/13 - "Grapes are a known natural source of antioxidants and other polyphenols ... grapes exert beneficial effects in the heart: influencing gene activities and metabolic pathways that improve the levels of glutathione, the most abundant cellular antioxidant in the heart"
  • Grape intake may protect against metabolic syndrome-related organ damage - Science Daily, 4/22/13 - "Natural components found in grapes, known as polyphenols, are thought to be responsible for these beneficial effects ... The grapes -- a blend of red, green and black varieties -- were provided as a freeze-dried grape powder and integrated into the animals' diets for 90 days ... three months of a grape-enriched diet significantly reduced inflammatory markers throughout the body, but most significantly in the liver and in abdominal fat tissue. Consuming grapes also reduced liver, kidney and abdominal fat weight, compared with those consuming the control diet ... Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together -- increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist or low HDL (the good cholesterol) and increased blood triglycerides"
  • Grape seed and skin extract: A weapon in the fight against kidney disease caused by high-fat diets - Science Daily, 2/28/13 - "Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is known to contain powerful antioxidants ... Rats were fed a high-fat diet that induced a low-grade reno-lipotoxicity, that is, kidney damage associated with lipids. This was characterized by elevations in plasma urea and protein in the urine. The researchers found increased deposits of triglycerides (TG) (especially saturated fatty acids), increased signs of oxidative stress and depleted copper levels in the kidneys. There was also histological evidence of disturbance in the kidney structure. When the animals received GSSE at 500 mg/kg bw (which corresponds to 35g/day for a 70 kg human adult) along with the high-fat diet there was a partial reversal of the TG deposition as well as the histological damage. The authors suggest polyphenols including resveratrol are likely the components in GSSE responsible for the positive effects. Furthermore the GSSE prevented the oxidative stress and copper depletion"
  • As colorectal cancer gets more aggressive, treatment with grape seed extract is even more effective, study shows - Science Daily, 1/16/13 - "the more GSE inhibits their growth and survival. On the other end of the disease spectrum, GSE leaves healthy cells alone entirely ... We've known for quite a while that the bioactive compounds in grape seed extract selectively target many types of cancer cells. This study shows that many of the same mutations that allow colorectal cancer cells to metastasize and survive traditional therapies make them especially sensitive to treatment with GSE ... 60 percent of patients diagnosed have already reached the advanced stage of the disease" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract bollixes norovirus - Science Daily, 11/8/12 - "Norovirus causes more than half of all food-born illnesses in the United States ... A recent study found that grape seed extract could reduce the infectivity of Norovirus surrogates (Norovirus surrogates are viruses that share pathological and/or biological features with human norovirus) ... grape seed extract does so by denaturing the capsid protein, which is the coat of the virus, thereby disabling the virus"
  • Effects of Pycnogenol on Endothelial Function in Stable CAD - Medscape, 8/2/12 - "Recent studies suggested a blood pressure-lowering effect of Pycnogenol. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study involving 11 patients, supplementation with Pycnogenol 200 mg q.d. significantly reduced systolic blood pressure of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension from 139.9 +/- 3.3 to 132.7 +/- 4.18 mmHg (P < 0.05) after 8 weeks of therapy, while diastolic blood pressure remained stable (93.8 +/- 1.23 vs. 92 +/- 1.7 mmHg, P = NS) ... This study demonstrates for the first time an improvement of endothelial function after 8-week treatment with Pycnogenol at a dose of 200 mg q.d. in patients with stable CAD. Pycnogenol significantly reduced oxidative stress as assessed by plasma levels of 8-isoprostanes, but left ADMA and SDMA as well as plasma ET-1 levels unaffected"
  • Biosynthetic grape-derived compound prevents progression of Alzheimer’s disease in animal model - Science Daily, 5/1/12 - "Polyphenols, which occur naturally in grapes, fruits, and vegetables, have been shown to prevent the cognitive decline associated with AD in a mouse model, but the molecules are very complex and are extensively metabolized in the body. This is the first study to determine which specific subfraction of these molecules penetrates the animal brain, and demonstrate that a drug compound similar to polyphenols can exert similar bioactivities ... Dr. Pasinetti's team analyzed the structure of this polyphenol by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and recreated it biosynthetically in the laboratory. Dr. Pasinetti and his collaborators discovered that the synthetic polyphenol generated in the laboratory also promoted plasticity and benefits in learning and memory functions in the brains of the mice" - Note:  Sounds like a way to get rich off a patent when the original natural version is probably better in the first place.
  • Evidence for a Protective Effect of Polyphenols-containing Foods on Cardiovascular Health - Medscape, 4/5/12 - "There is supportive clinical evidence for the beneficial effects of some flavonoids-rich foods or supplements on multiple endpoints of cardiovascular risk, the more convincing being reduction in BP and improvement in endothelial function ... In addition to their identified beneficial impact on BP and endothelial function, flavonoid-rich dietary sources might also favourably modulate arterial stiffness" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Potential method to control obesity: Red wine, fruit compound could help block fat cell formation - Science Daily, 4/4/12 - "A compound found in red wine, grapes and other fruits, and similar in structure to resveratrol, is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity ... the compound piceatannol blocks an immature fat cell's ability to develop and grow ... piceatannol binds to insulin receptors of immature fat cells in the first stage of adipogenesis, blocking insulin's ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation. Piceatannol essentially blocks the pathways necessary for immature fat cells to mature and grow"
  • Pine bark extract may ease menopause symptoms: Study - Nutra USA, 3/8/12 - "A daily dose of the branded ingredient Pycnogenol for eight weeks was associated with improvements in signs and symptoms menopause including hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, irregular periods, loss of libido and vaginal dryness" - [Abstract]
  • Grape seed extract kills head and neck cancer cells, leaves healthy cells unharmed - Science Daily, 1/27/12 - "Nearly 12,000 people will die of head and neck cancer in the United States this year and worldwide cases will exceed half a million ... grape seed extract both damages cancer cells' DNA (via increased reactive oxygen species) and stops the pathways that allow repair (as seen by decreased levels of the DNA repair molecules Brca1 and Rad51 and DNA repair foci) ... we saw absolutely no toxicity to the mice ... the grape seed extract killed the cancer cells but not the healthy cells"
  • Study unlocks Pycnogenol’s skin health mechanism - Nutra USA, 1/26/12 - "Daily supplements of an extract from French maritime pine bark may boost skin elasticity by 25% and skin hydration by 8% ... the pine bark extract was also associated with a 3% reduction in skin wrinkles" - [Abstract]
  • Pine bark extract shows brain health benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 12/7/11 - "Pycnogenol statistically performed better than controls in a wide series of cognitive performance tests consciously selected evaluating sustained attention, episodic memory, spatial working memory, mental flexibility and planning ... The Italian researchers recruited 108 Italian university students aged between 18 and 27, and randomly assigned them to receive either a daily 100 mg dose of Pycnogenol or placebo for eight weeks ... Results showed that student in the Pycnogenol group showed improvements in attention, memory and mood, while levels of anxiety decreased by 17%"
  • Natural chemical found in grapes may protect against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 7/16/11 - "grape seed polyphenols -- a natural antioxidant -- may help prevent the development or delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease ... This is the first study to evaluate the ability of grape-derived polyphenols to prevent the generation of a specific form of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, a substance in the brain long known to cause the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer disease ... administered grape seed polyphenolic extracts to mice genetically determined to develop memory deficits and Aβ neurotoxins similar to those found in Alzheimer's disease. They found that the brain content of the Aβ*56, a specific form of Aβ previously implicated in the promotion of Alzheimer's disease memory loss, was substantially reduced after treatment"
  • Pine bark extract plus CoQ10 shows benefits for heart failure patients - Nutra USA, 6/23/11 - "12 weeks of daily supplementation with 350 milligrams of CoQ10 (Kaneka) and 105 milligrams of the branded pine bark extract Pycnogenol ... recruited 53 heart failure patients aged between 54 and 68 were randomly assigned to receive either the PycnoQ10 supplement or placebo for 12 weeks ... systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased following the CoQ10-pine bark combination, from 139.2 to 133.2 mmHg and 82.3 to 77.3 mmHg, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 140.3 to 139.5 mmHg and 83.4 to 81.2 mmHg, respectively, in the placebo group ... In addition to increases in the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the researchers also reported improvements in heart rate were also observed in the PycnoQ10 supplement group from 78.4 to 74.2 beats per minute, compared with a decrease from 79.1 to 78.4 in the placebo group" - [Abstract] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Young rats given polyphenols show less endothelial function deterioration with aging - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "The endothelium is the inner lining of our blood vessels and normal functions of endothelial cells include enabling coagulation, platelet adhesion and immune function. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with reduced anticoagulant properties and the inability of arteries and arterioles to dilate fully ... The gradual decrease in endothelial function over time is a key factor in the development of diseases associated with ageing, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Many epidemiologic studies suggest protection against CVD from moderate intake of alcoholic beverages, especially those rich in antioxidants, such as red wine, which is high in polyphenols (RWPs) ... RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved ageing-related decline in physical exercise. Thus, intake of RWPs protects against ageing-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance ... RWPs intake had also a physiological beneficial effect since it improved the physical exercise capacity of old rats"
  • Polyphenols may reduce risk of gout: Study - Nutra USA, 12/13/10 - "Gout is a painful form of arthritis caused by disturbances in uric acid metabolism, when an overload of uric acid leads to the formation of urate crystals in bodily tissues, especially the joints – leading to recurring attacks of joint inflammation ... Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance can lead to increased uric acid re-absorption in the kidneys, which in turn can lead to a rise in serum uric acid concentration ... these results suggest that Oligonol lowers serum uric acid through inhibition of xanthine oxidase, and may be effective for prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia and/or gout" - See oligonol at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract may relieve tinnitus symptoms: Study - Nutra USA, 10/14/10 - "Impaired blood flow to the ear is a common cause for tinnitus, a disturbing and very debilitating condition that can considerably impact overall health and quality of life ... both doses of Pycnogenol improved blood systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities from 14.3 and 4.22 cm/sec in the 100 mg per day group to 21.2 and 8.23 cm/sec, and from 13.2 and 3.2 cm/sec in the 150 mg per day group to 24.3 and 12.5 cm/sec, respectively ... In addition, the researchers used a Subjective Tinnitus Scale (STS) to evaluate the symptoms of tinnitus. Results showed a decrease from an average of 8.8 in the pine bark groups to 5.2 and 3.3 in the low and high dose groups, respectively"
  • Polyphenol antioxidants inhibit iron absorption - Science Daily, 8/23/10 - "eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount of iron the body absorbs, which can increase the risk of developing an iron deficiency ... People already at risk for iron deficiency increase that risk if they consume high amounts of grape seed extract or EGCG" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract may ease hayfever symptoms: Study - Nutra USA, 6/25/10
  • Bilberry-pine bark mix shows eye health benefits - Nutra USA, 5/24/10 - "One group received daily Mirtogenol supplements (40 mg Pycnogenol, 80 mg Mirtoselect), one group received Latanoprost eye drops, and the third group received a combination of both ... After 24 weeks of intervention, the researchers noted a reduction of blood pressure in the eye from an average of 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg in the Mirtogenol group, from 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg in the Latanoprost group, and from 38.0 to 23.0 mmHg in the combined group. Normal eye pressure is reported to range from 10 to 21 mmHg"
  • Grapes reduce risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, animal study shows - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "After three months, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet had lower blood pressure, better heart function, and reduced indicators of inflammation in the heart and the blood than rats who received no grape powder. Rats also had lower triglycerides and improved glucose tolerance"
  • Pine bark extract may benefit blood pressure-related kidney health - Nutra USA, 3/5/10 - "55 hypertensive patients to participate in the randomized, controlled study. Subjects were assigned to receive Ramipril [an ACE inhibitor] (10 mg per day), and 29 of these people were randomly selected to also receive Pycnogenol (150 mg per day) ... After six months in the Ramipril-only group the albumin levels decreased by 26 per cent to 64 mg per 24-hour period, while additional Pycnogenol produced levels that averaged 39 mg per 24-hour period, equivalent to a 57 per cent decrease ... Statistically significant decreases in patients’ blood pressure were also observed, with systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropping by more than 30 and 8 per cent, respectively in the Ramipril-only group, and by a further 3 to 6 per cent in the combination group ... Diastolic and systolic blood flow improved by 8 and 12 per cent, in the combination group" - [Abstract]
  • OPCs come out tops for heart health beverages - Nutra USA, 2/5/10 - "Cranberry juice rich in antioxidant procyanidins is effective at boosting the health of blood vessels ... oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) had “by far the most potent effects” on the function of the endothelium (the cells lining blood vessels)" - [Abstract] - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract may boost diabetic eye health - Nutra USA, 12/3/09 - "At the end of the study, 75 per cent of participants in the Pycnogenol group subjectively perceived improvements in their visual acuity. Tests showed a significant improvement in visual acuity from 14/20 to 17/20 after two months of Pycnogenol supplementations. No improvements were recorded in the placebo group" -  [Abstract]
  • Antioxidant OPCs may boost memory: Animal study - Nutra USA, 10/16/09 - "The results showed that OPC-consuming animals had “improved spatial and object recognition impairment”" - [Abstract] - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • How To Boost Value Of Alzheimer's-fighting Compounds - Science Daily, 9/7/09 - "Connie Weaver, Purdue's head of foods and nutrition; and Elsa Janle, a Purdue associate professor of foods and nutrition, found that the amount of polyphenols from grapeseed extract that can reach a rat's brain is as much as 200 percent higher on the 10th consecutive day of feeding as compared to the first. Many previous experiments, in which absorption was measured after single or sporadic doses, often found very little, if any, of the bioactive polyphenols reaching brain tissues. However, more chronic exposure appears to improve absorption ... This shows that reasonable and chronic consumption of these products may be the way to go, rather than single, high doses"
  • Chemicals Found In Fruit And Vegetables Offer Dementia Hope - Science Daily, 7/19/09 - "a new concept is emerging that suggests flavonoids do not act simply as antioxidants but exert their biological effects through other mechanisms. A small number of recent studies carried out in models of Alzheimer’s disease have found that oral administration of green tea flavonoids or grape flavonoids reduces brain pathology and, in some cases, improves cognition. Dr Williams and colleagues have focused their own cellular studies on a flavonoid called epicatechin, which is abundant in a number of foodstuffs, including cocoa ... epicatechin protects brain cells from damage but through a mechanism unrelated to its antioxidant activity and shown in laboratory tests that it can also reduce some aspects of Alzheimer’s disease pathology" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Benefit Of Grapes May Be More Than Skin Deep: Lower Blood Pressure, Reduced Heart Damage - Science Daily, 4/22/09 - "After 18 weeks, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet powder had lower blood pressure, better heart function, and fewer signs of heart muscle damage than the rats that ate the same salty diet but didn't receive grapes ... Rats that received the blood pressure medicine, hydrazine, along with a salty diet also had lower blood pressure, but their hearts were not protected from damage as they were in the grape-fed group"
  • Grape polyphenols may protect against obesity: Study - Nutra USA, 3/18/09 - "animals fed a high-fat diet but supplemented with the grape seed extract had adiponectin levels 61 per cent higher than animals only fed the high fat diet. Adiponectin is a protein hormone linked to various metabolic processes, and levels are inversely related to body fat levels" - [Abstract] - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Grape Extracts May Be Effective Against Harmful Gut Bacteria - Science Daily, 3/4/09 - "H. pylori is the bacterial agent most commonly associated with peptic ulcers, gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer ... The antibacterial effects of extracts from red, white, black and muscadine grapes as well as the pure compounds resveratrol, ellagic acid, and myricetin were tested for anti-H. pylori activity using agar dilution, laser scanning microscopy and cell proliferation. Following 24 hour treatment, results showed that muscadine grape skin extract had the highest anti-H. pylori effect, followed by muscadine grape synergy and seed extract. Additionally, two of the three compounds, resveratrol and ellagic acid, also inhibited H. pylori" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Grape-seed Extract Kills Laboratory Leukemia Cells, Proving Value Of Natural Compounds - Science Daily, 12/31/08 - "An extract from grape seeds forces laboratory leukemia cells to commit cell suicide, according to researchers from the University of Kentucky. They found that within 24 hours, 76 percent of leukemia cells had died after being exposed to the extract ... They also discovered that the extract does not affect normal cells, although they don't know why"
  • Anthocyanins battle blood vessel degradation: study - Nutra USA, 12/22/08 - "OPC was found to effectively delay SIPS (stress induced senescence) caused by exposure to rotenone, a chemical substance that is known to generate oxidative stress ... The ability of OPCs to delay senescence was associated with a decrease in the levels of a marker of DNA damage and DNA terminal ends (gamma-H2AX), suggesting that the possible molecular mechanism by which OPCs delay senescence in endothelial cells is through reduction in DNA damage" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.  I've been taking 50 mg three times per day for years.
  • Pine bark extract may help joints and hearts: Study - Nutra USA, 12/11/08 - "The decrease of systemic inflammatory markers, particularly CRP, suggests Pycnogenol properties may be potent enough to arrest the spread of inflammation from osteoarthritic joints to the whole organisms ... subjects received either two daily doses of 50 mg Pycnogenol or placebo for three months ... people receiving the pine bark extract experienced significant reductions in CRP levels from an average of 3.9 mg/L at the start of the study to 1.1 mg/L after three months. This is equivalent to a 71 per cent reduction ... Moreover, a reduction in the blood levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of 30 per cent was recorded" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract may boost oral health: Study - Nutra USA, 11/26/08 - "The extracts showed a good antibacterial activity, as evidence by the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the test compound against the two strains"
  • How Red Wine Compounds Fight Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 11/23/08 - "Teplow's lab has been studying how amyloid beta (Aß) is involved in causing Alzheimer's. In this work, researchers monitored how Aß40 and Aß42 proteins folded up and stuck to each other to produce aggregates that killed nerve cells in mice. They then treated the proteins with a polyphenol compound extracted from grape seeds. They discovered that polyphenols carried a one-two punch: They blocked the formation of the toxic aggregates of Aß and also decreased toxicity when they were combined with Aß before it was added to brain cells"
  • Grapes May Aid A Bunch Of Heart Risk Factors, Animal Study Finds - Science Daily, 10/29/08 - "Could eating grapes help fight high blood pressure related to a salty diet? And could grapes calm other factors that are also related to heart diseases such as heart failure? A new University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center study suggests so"
  • Grapes And Grape Extracts May Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Review Article Suggests - Science Daily, 10/28/08 - "grape polyphenols work in many different ways to prevent cardiovascular and other "inflammatory-mediated" diseases. Polyphenols are natural antioxidants found in grapes and some other plant foods. Their types and actions vary, depending on where in the grape they are found. Grape seeds, grape skin, and grape juice contain several types of polyphenols, including resveratrol, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanins and colon cancer: Structure is key, says study - Nutra USA, 9/19/08
  • Bilberry and pine bark combo wards off glaucoma: study - Nutra USA, 7/24/08 - "intra-ocular hypertension (IOP) ... The bilberry and pine bark product was Mirtogenol, a combination of Indena's Mirtoselect standardised bilberry extract and Horphag's Pycnogenol pine bark extract ... IOP was also seen to be lowered in 19 of the 20 intervention patients, from an average of 25.2mmHg to 22.0mmHG. Only one of the control patients saw a drop in IOP" - [Abstract] - See bilberry at Amazon.com and Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects - Mol Vis. 2008 Jul 10;14:1288-92 - "intraocular pressure (IOP) ... After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg" - [Nutra USA] - See bilberry at Amazon.com and Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract may ease menstrual pains: study - Nutra USA, 6/20/08 - "Pycnogenol, 60 mg per day ... At the end of the study, Suzuki and co-workers found that, while women in the low pain group showed no benefits from pine bark supplementation, women with dysmenorrhea did significantly benefit. In addition to a reduction in the use of NSAIDs, a reduction in the number of painful days due to dysmenorrhea from 2.1 days before supplementation to 1.3 days during the third and fourth menstrual cycle" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com or grape seed extract at Amazon.com (some say the grape seed extract is the same without the patent markup).
  • Grape Seed Extract May Reduce Cognitive Decline Associated With Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 6/17/08 - "Chemical analysis showed that the major polyphenol components in the study's grape seed extract product are catechin and epicatechin, which are also abundant in tea and cocoa. These components differ from resveratrol, a polyphenol that has been reported to reduce amyloid beta secretion in cells and generally increase lifespan by mimicking calorie restriction. Resveratrol appears to be effective only at extremely high doses, which may limit its use in people. In contrast, the catechins in the extract product studied appear to be effective at much lower doses" - [Nutra USA] - My favorite is the grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract may boost diabetics' heart health - Nutra USA, 5/12/08 - "recruited diabetic subjects with an average age of 60 and randomly assigned them to receive daily supplements of Pycnogenol (125 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks ... All subjects were receiving pharmaceutical anti-hypertension treatment (angiotensin- converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors) ... 58.3 per cent of subjects in the Pycnogenol group experienced blood pressure control, defined as attaining a stable systolic blood pressure, compared to 20.8 per cent in the placebo group ... use of ACE inhibitors was reduced by 50 per cent in the group receiving the pine bark extract ... a 23.7 mg/dL reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the Pycnogenol group, compared to only 5.7 mg/dL in the placebo group"
  • Pine bark extract's osteoarthritis potential expanded - Nutra USA, 4/17/08 - "Using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index as a measure of arthritis symptoms, the researchers report a 56 per cent reduction in the global WOMAC score for people in the Pycnogenol group, compared to only 9.6 per cent for people in the placebo group. Scores for stiffness were reduced by 53 per cent" - [Abstract] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Study supports Pycnogenol for better memory in elderly - Nutra USA, 3/18/08 - "150mg of Pycnogenol ... three months, the participants receiving Pycnogenol had "significantly improved" memory, as seen in a factor that combined accuracy scored from spatial working memory and numeric working memory tasks"
  • Winemaking Waste Proves Effective Against Disease-causing Bacteria In Early Studies - Science Daily, 1/2/08 - "specific polyphenols, present in large amounts in fermented seeds and skins cast away after grapes are pressed, interfere with the ability of bacteria to contribute to tooth decay. Beyond cavities, the action of the wine grape-based chemicals may also hold clues for new ways to lessen the ability of bacteria to cause life-threatening, systemic infections"
  • Grape OPCs linked to preventing LDL cholesterol - Nutra USA, 11/23/07 - "The results of the first phase of the project are extremely promising, because they indicate that OPCs, at levels found in circulation after oral intake, are capable of protecting LDL from oxidation, and appear to be more effective protectors than vitamin E" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract shows arthritis benefits - Nutra USA, 11/20/07 - "after 90 days of Pycnogenol supplementation the WOMAC scores for self-reported pain, stiffness, and physical function were reduced by 43, 35, and 52, respectively"
  • Grape Powder Blocks Genes Linked To Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/07 - "The Wnt pathway has been linked to more than 85 percent of sporadic colon cancers, which is the most common form of colon cancer ... Wnt signaling in the patients taking 80 grams of grape powder was significantly reduced ... Eighty grams of grape powder equal a half glass of wine or 1 pound of grapes, which is equivalent to three dietary servings of grapes, according to the USDA"
  • Chemical In Red Wine, Fruits And Vegetables May Stop Cancer, Heart Disease, Depending On The Dose - Science Daily, 10/30/07 - "very high doses of antioxidant polyphenols shut down and prevent cancerous tumors by cutting off the formation of new blood vessels needed for tumor growth ... the same polyphenols play a beneficial role for those with diseased hearts and circulatory systems by facilitating blood vessel growth ... the amount of polyphenols necessary to obtain an anti-cancer effect is the equivalent of drinking about a bottle of red wine each day"
  • Pine bark extract boost for blood flow and heart health - Nutra USA, 10/18/07 - "Acetylcholine stimulates the cells of arteries to produce NO from L-arginine faster ... In turn, the NO causes the muscle surrounding arteries to relax, which results in an increase of blood vessel diameters. When subjects had taken Pycnogenol the relaxation of arteries was increased by 42 per cent as compared to the group taking placebo tablets" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and citicoline at Amazon.com.
  • Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds inactivates the PI3-kinase/PKB pathway and induces apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line - Cancer Lett. 2007 Oct 6 - "grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ... GSPE (10-100mug/ml) significantly inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in CaCo2 cells, but did not alter viability in the normal colon cell line (NCM460). The increased apoptosis observed in GSPE-treated CaCo2 cells correlated with an attenuation of PI3-kinase (p110 and p85 subunits) and decreased PKB Ser(473) phosphorylation. GSPE might thus exert its beneficial effects by means of increased apoptosis and suppression of the important PI3-kinase survival-related pathway"
  • Red Wine Protects The Prostate - Science Daily, 5/25/07 - "men who drink an average of four to seven glasses of red wine per week are only 52% as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as those who do not drink red wine ... when white wine was compared with red, red had the most benefit ... But much of the speculation focuses on chemicals—including various flavonoids and resveratrol—missing from other alcoholic beverages"
  • Pine bark extract shows promise for slowing sugar uptake - Nutra USA, 2/9/07 - "Extracts from French maritime pine bark may inhibit an enzyme linked to glucose absorption 190 times more than a synthetic medication, says new research from Germany that could offer significant benefits for diabetics if the results can be translated from the lab to humans"
  • Life-extending compound may be great news -- for mice - CNN, 12/21/06 - "In one study, scientists provided mice a high-calorie, high-fat diet and then gave half of the animals resveratrol. At 114 weeks -- old age for mice -- less than a third of the mice taking resveratrol died. More than half of the mice who did not take resveratrol died. In another study, mice who took resveratrol lost weight, increased metabolism and doubled their exercise endurance"
  • Red Wine Ingredient Increases Endurance, Study Shows - New York Times, 11/16/06 - "Resveratrol makes you look like a trained athlete without the training"
  • Flavonoid-Rich Grapeseed Extracts: for Cardiovascular Patients - Medscape, 11/9/06 - "The antioxidant and vascular protective aspects of flavonoid-rich products such as GSE, when combined with the potential hypolipidaemic and anti-platelet effects make a strong case for its potential in preventing and treating diseases associated with endothelial injury, oxidative damage and inflammation; chief among which are type 2 DM and atherosclerotic vascular disease ... the use of GSE in such patients may demonstrate concomitant improvements in insulin resistance, endothelial function, inflammation in high-risk patient groups and ultimately cardiovascular outcome"
  • Healthy Life Prolonged in Mice - Medscape, 11/3/06 - "In addition to extending their lives, resveratrol also kept the mice fit and healthy in their old age"
  • Wine Ingredient May Nix Fat's Effects - WebMD, 11/1/06 - "A new study shows obese, middle-aged mice fed a fatty diet supplemented with resveratrol, an antioxidant found in red wine, seemed to be spared most of the unhealthy effects of their extra weight and lived longer than those fed the same fat-laden diet without resveratrol"
  • One for the Ages: A Prescription That May Extend Life - New York Times, 10/31/06 - "One leading candidate, a newly synthesized form of resveratrol — an antioxidant present in large amounts in red wine — is already being tested in patients. It may eventually be the first of a new class of anti-aging drugs. Extrapolating from recent animal findings, Dr. Richard A. Miller, a pathologist at the University of Michigan, estimated that a pill mimicking the effects of calorie restriction might increase human life span to about 112 healthy years"
  • Grape Seed Extract Halts Cell Cycle, Checking Growth Of Colorectal Tumors In Mice - Science Daily, 10/29/06 - "documented a 44 percent reduction of advanced colorectal tumors in the animals, and also revealed, for the first time, the molecular mechanism by which grape seed extract works to inhibit cancer growth"
  • Grape seed extracts could improve skin from within - Nutra USA, 10/27/06 - "looked at the effect of a OPC dietary supplement on skin reddening (erythema) induced by exposure to UV radiation ... the subjects receiving the dietary supplement of OPCs had 13 per cent less erythema than those receiving no supplement ... Levels of skin hydration were also said to be higher in the group taking the dietary supplement"
  • Red Wine vs. Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/24/06 - "3% of red wine drinkers had such abnormal growths, compared with nearly 9% of white wine drinkers and almost 10% of teetotalers ... they suggest that a compound found in grapes and red wine – the antioxidant resveratrol -- may cut the odds of getting abnormal colon growths that can become cancerous"
  • Resveratrol in red wine could cut colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 10/23/06 - "Drinking more than three glasses of red wine a week could cut the risk of colorectal cancer by almost 70 per cent ... the active component in wine that may be behind the apparent benefits is most likely resveratrol"
  • Grape Seed Extract vs. Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/19/06 - "The cancer cells treated with grape seed extract were more likely to halt their normal growth cycle and die, compared to those not treated with the extract"
  • Longevity Genes and Caloric restriction - Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "Humans seeking to slow aging and reduce degenerative disease risk may consider reducing food intake and ingesting 20-40 mg of resveratrol and 250-850 mg of metformin each day"
  • Pine Bark Extract May Effectively Treat ADHD in Boys - Medscape, 6/23/06 - "61 children with ADHD were randomized 2:1 to receive 1 mg/kg/day pine bark extract or placebo for 4 weeks. Average age was 9.5 years ... The pine bark extract group had a significant reduction in hyperactivity and improved attention, visual-motor coordination, and concentration, whereas there were no positive effects noted in the placebo group"
  • Pycnogenol May Help Reduce Muscular Cramps and Pain - Medscape, 6/20/06 - "While analog measurements of muscular cramping and pain remained stable in the placebo group during the treatment phase, Pycnogenol significantly improved symptoms"
  • Study Shows Grape Seed Extract May Be Effective In Reducing Blood Pressure - Science Daily, 3/27/06 - "The first group received a placebo, while the second and third groups received 150 milligrams and 300 milligrams, respectively, of a new grape seed extract ... Participants in the two groups receiving grape seed extract experienced an equal degree of reduced blood pressure. The average drop in systolic pressure was 12 millimeters. The average drop in diastolic pressure was 8 millimeters" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • More support for grape seed extract’s health benefits - Nutra USA, 3/21/06
  • Red Wine Ingredient May Delay Aging - WebMD, 2/10/06 - "Researchers found adding resveratrol, an organic compound found in grapes and particularly in red wine, to the daily diet of short-lived fish prolonged their lifespan and delayed the onset of age-related memory and other problems" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Natural Compound Prolongs Lifespan And Delays Onset Of Aging-related Traits In A Short-lived Vertebrate - Science Daily, 2/7/06 - "The researchers added resveratrol to daily fish food and found that this treatment increased longevity and also retarded the onset of aging-related decays in memory and muscular performance" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Pycnogenol reduces osteoarthritis pain, study - Nutra USA, 2/6/06 - "300 mg pine bark extract supplements ... Thirty minutes after taking the supplement, the mean inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 was 22.5 and 15 per cent"
  • Compound In Wine Reduces Levels Of Alzheimer's Disease-causing Peptides - Science Daily, 11/4/05 - "resveratrol, a compound found in grapes and red wine, lowers the levels of the amyloid-beta peptides which cause the telltale senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease ... Resveratrol in grapes may never reach the concentrations required to obtain the effect observed in our studies"
  • Pine Bark Extract May Prevent Leg Clots - WebMD, 8/12/05 - "After the flight those not treated with Pycnogenol had almost double the ankle-swelling score of those who received Pycnogenol"
  • Broad-Spectrum Effects of Grape Seed Extract - Life Extension Magazine, 7/05
  • Grapeseed extract may stop arteries from hardening - Nutra USA, 6/23/05 - "grapeseed extract stopped cholesterol from building up in the arteries of guinea pigs, which in turn leads to the thickening and hardening of the vessels and the resulting condition, atherosclerosis"
  • Resveratrol could prevent ‘flu epidemics - Nutra USA, 5/24/05
  • Grape juice may lower BP by relaxing arteries - Nutra USA, 4/5/05
  • O Christmas Tree: Your Bark May Fight Arthritis - Science Daily, 12/28/04
  • Red Wine Lovers, Take Heart: More Evidence Points To The Drink's Cardiac Health Benefits - Science Daily, 12/10/04 - "a well-known antioxidant found in red wine, called resveratrol, may benefit heart tissue by limiting the effects of a condition called cardiac fibrosis"
  • Red Wine Mist? Resveratrol Shows Potential Effects Against COPD, Asthma, Arthritis - Science Daily, 11/1/04 - "their research group had "looked at the over-the-counter" versions of resveratrol and found that "it's not very pure and probably wouldn't be worth taking." The major problem is bioavailability. The compound dissolves only in certain solvents, including alcohol"
  • Daily Glass of Red Wine May Cut Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/04 - "men who consumed four or more glasses of red wine per week reduced their risk of prostate cancer by 50 percent ... That compound, Stanford and colleagues believe, may be an antioxidant called resveratrol, which is abundant in the skins of red grapes but much less so in the skins of white grapes"
  • Red Wine Protects Prostate - WebMD, 9/23/04 - "red wine drinkers who had between four and seven 4 ounce glasses of red wine per week had a 48% lower risk of prostate cancer"
  • Grapes May Cut Cholesterol and Blood Fats - WebMD, 8/27/04
  • Resveratrol linked to longer life - Nutra USA, 7/19/04 - "resveratrol activated proteins called sirtuins in fruitflies and worms, extending their lifespan without reducing fertility"
  • Study Identifies Genetics Of Fat Metabolism, Red Wine Link - Science Daily, 7/9/04 - "When cells were exposed to resveratrol, our studies showed a pretty dramatic reduction in the conversion to fat cells and a lesser but still significant increase in the mobilization of existing fat, or the rate at which the cells metabolized stored fat" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Scientists question power of resveratrol supplements - Nutra USA, 4/22/04
  • Cancer Claims for Red Wine Supplement Suspect - WebMD, 4/21/04 - "resveratrol, an antioxidant found in grape skins, wine, and peanuts, barely enters the human bloodstream when taken by mouth"
  • Weight loss with grape extract - Nutra USA, 4/5/04
  • Resveratrol, Powerful Protection Against Prostate Cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 4/04 - "Resveratrol works through more than a dozen different anticancer mechanisms and selectively targets cancer cells. This single supplement modulates hormones, has several mechanisms that stop cancer cells from multiplying, and even has the ability to destroy cancer cells"
  • Pycnogenol for diabetes control - Nutra USA, 3/22/04 - "the patients were able to significantly lower their glucose levels when they supplemented with 50-200 mg of the supplement ... Studies have found Pycnogenol reduces high blood pressure, platelet aggregation, LDL (bad)-cholesterol and enhances circulation" - See iHerb Pycnogenol products.
  • Antioxidant May Help Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 2/20/04 - "people with high blood pressure who took the supplement, called Pycnogenol, were able to lower their daily dose of blood pressure-lowering medications by more than 30% ... researchers looked at the effects of daily supplementation with 100 milligrams of Pycnogenol" - Some claim that grape seed extract is identical to Pycnogenol without the patent mark-up.  See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pycnogenol reduces need for hypertension drugs - Nutra USA, 2/19/04 - "supplementation with 100mg Pycnogenol over a period of 12 weeks helped to reduce patients’ dose of the calcium antagonist nifedipine in a statistically significant manner" - Some claim that grape seed extract is identical to Pycnogenol without the patent mark-up.
  • Recent Vintage, No Bouquet - Time Magazine, 2/16/04 - "Packed into each Longevinex capsule is an active ingredient roughly equivalent to between 5 and 15 glasses of red wine or unfermented grape juice. The key compound is an antioxidant called resveratrol, which has been shown to play a role in longevity — at least for one-cell organisms"
  • Fruits Offer Powerful Protection From Skin Cancer - Intelihealth, 10/30/03 - "Resveratrol significantly inhibited UVB-mediated increases in skin thickness and edema; epidermal cyclooxygenase (COX-2); ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme and protein levels; and protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), all of which are established markers of tumor promotion. Resveratrol also further stimulated a UVB-mediated increase in p53 protein levels and was found to inhibit UVB exposure-mediated increases in cell cycle promoting signals including the activation of cell division"
  • Red Wine Ingredient May Fight COPD - WebMD, 10/27/03 - "resveratrol, a compound found in the skins of red fruits such as grapes, may slow down the inflammatory process involved in the lung disease COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)"
  • “Grape Expectations”: Lengthen Lifetime with Red Wine? - Physician's Weekly, 9/15/03 - "Resveratrol, a molecule that exists naturally in grapes and red wine, was shown to extend the life span of yeast cells (polyphenols) by up to 80%. The researchers plan to examine resveratrol's effect in multi-cellular organisms such as worms, fruit flies, and eventually humans"
  • New Healthy Ingredient Found in Red Wine - WebMD, 9/9/03 - "red wines are a significant source of saponins, which are believed to promote heart health by binding to cholesterol and preventing the absorption of cholesterol in the blood. The plant compounds are also thought to play a role in inflammation, which could have beneficial effects in reducing heart disease and cancer risks ... Of the wines tested, red zinfandel had the highest saponin levels"
  • Red Wine Counteracts Cigarette Smoking - WebMD, 9/4/03 - "Drinking two glasses of red wine for every cigarette smoked is not a wise idea ... However, red wine contains antioxidants -- phenols -- so powerful that they can counteract something so harmful as smoking. That's his message" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Drinking Red Wine May Slow Aging - WebMD, 8/25/03 - "resveratrol mimics calorie restriction in yeast -- activating enzymes that slow aging, increasing the stability of DNA, hence extending lifespan by as much as 70% ... Researchers now hope to eventually test how resveratrol works in other subjects, including humans" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
  • Grape Seed Extract May Be A Useful Supplement To Blunt Hypertension In Postmenopausal Women - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "a diet moderately high in grape seed extract can blunt salt (sodium chloride)-sensitive hypertension to about the same extent as treatment with either plant estrogens or 17ß-estradiol. This suggests that mechanisms other than the estrogen receptor activation actually provides the beneficial effects of estrogen therapy and that grape seed extract may be a useful supplement to blunt hypertension and other cardiovascular symptoms in postmenopausal women" - See iHerb grape seed extract products.
  • Pycnogenol® Effective for Vein Disorder - New Hope Natural Media, 10/24/02
  • Pycnogenol Helps Hypertension - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/02 - "researchers gave 200 mg Pycnogenol to 11 mildly hypertensive patients (average age 50 years) for eight weeks. Patients were in Stage 1 hypertension—a systolic blood pressure range of 140­159 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure range of 90 to 99 mmHg ... Pycnogenol reduced the systolic blood pressure to 134 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure to 94 mmHg in study participants ... Our research demonstrates Pycnogenol's ability to elevate the production of nitric oxide in the vessel walls to reduce blood pressure and help decrease hypertensive morbidity and mortality" - See iHerb grape seed extract/Pycnogenol products.  Note:  Pycnogenol is a patented product from pine bark.  Grape seed extract is the same compound without the patent markup.
  • The Lungs Favor White Wine - WebMD, 5/20/02 - "those studies have shown that a daily dose of 1 to 3 glasses of red wine can improve cardiovascular health ... We found that white wine intake was strongly associated with better [lung] function ... One glass of wine per day equaled a 1.5% higher lung function, adding one or two more years to the person's lifetime; 3 glasses a day improved lung capacity by 3% ... He speculates that white wine drinkers have higher levels of vitamin antioxidants in their blood" - Also see flavonoids.
  • Pycnogenol Helps Hypertension - Nutrition Science News, Spring '02 - "A new study conducted at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in Tucson shows that pycnogenol, an extract of French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima) may lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients"
  • Pycnogenol - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 3/02 - "Subjects taking pycnogenol experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure, although there was no statistical significance in diastolic blood pressure when compared to placebo"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Wine, Women, and Stroke, A Little of the Grape May Lower Stroke Risk in Young Women - WebMD, 1/4/01
  • Proanthocyanidin Power - Nutrition Science News, 6/00 - "Grape seeds can have 7 to 15 percent more OPCs than pine bark and can be more potent as well as more economical."

Abstracts:

  • Normalization of cardiovascular risk factors in peri-menopausal women with Pycnogenol® - Minerva Ginecol. 2017 Feb;69(1):29-34 - "Pycnogenol®, 100mg/day, was used as a supplement for 8 weeks by a group of 35 women. A comparable group of 35 women with identical cardiovascular risk factors was included as the control group ... Plasma free radicals dropped significantly by 22% (P<0.05). Homocysteine and CRP levels decreased sharply by 43% and 60%, respectively ... Almost all menopausal symptoms, scored by The Menopausal Symptoms Questionnaire 34, improved significantly following supplementation with Pycnogenol®" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.  Some say grape seed extract is similar without the patent markup.  See Best Naturals Grape Seed Extract 400 mg Veggie Capsule, 120 Count.
  • Postpartum Varicose Veins: Supplementation with Pycnogenol or Elastic Compression-A 12-Month Follow-Up - Int J Angiol. 2017 Mar;26(1):12-19 - "At 3 and 6 months in the Pycnogenol group the number of veins and incompetent sites were lower. At 6 months there were 13.3% of patients with edema in controls versus 3.2% in the Pycnogenol group. Spider veins decreased in Pycnogenol patients. Cramps and other minor symptoms were less common in the Pycnogenol group. In both groups there was a significant improvement at 6 months with better results in the Pycnogenol group. The need for treatment was limited with a decreased need for sclerotherapy, surgery, and conservative treatments in the Pycnogenol group. The overall satisfaction was higher among Pycnogenol patients, and compliance was optimal"
  • Chronic supplementation with dietary proanthocyanidins protects from diet-induced intestinal alterations in obese rats - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Feb 20 - "The present study investigated in obese rats the role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) chronic treatment, taken in a low, moderate or high dose, on obesity-associated intestinal alterations in response to a cafeteria diet (CAF) ... This study provides evidence for the ameliorative effect of a proanthocyanidin extract on high-fat/high-carbohydrate diet-induced intestinal alterations, specifically reducing intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress and suggesting a protection against a barrier defect"
  • Preservation of muscular mass and strength in aged subjects with Pycnogenol® supplementation - Minerva Ortopedica E Traumatologica, Oct 16 - "Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improved muscular strength and the general fitness level (also decreasing oxidative stress) in otherwise healthy, older subjects with symptoms of fatigue and signs of muscle mass loss" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com (some claim grape seed extract is basically the same thing without the patent mark-up).
  • Grape seed procyanidin extract mediates antineoplastic effects against lung cancer via modulations of prostacyclin and 15-hete eicosanoid pathways - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Sep 22 - "Our findings support the continued investigation of GSE as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent against lung cancer" - See OPCs+95 at Amazon.com and OPCs+95 at iHerb.
  • Subchronic treatment with grape-seed phenolics inhibits ghrelin production despite a short-term stimulation of ghrelin secretion produced by bitter-sensing flavanols - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jul 15 - "Grape-seed phenolic compounds have recently been described as satiating agents in rats when administered as a whole phenolic extract (GSPE) ... The sustained satiating effects of GSPE are related to a long-term decrease in ghrelin expression" - See Best Naturals Grape Seed Extract 400 mg Veggie Capsule, 120 Count.
    • Ghrelin - wikipedia.org - "When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops.a It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake"
  • The Effects of Pycnogenol® as Add-on Drug to Metformin Therapy in Diabetic Rats - Phytother Res. 2016 May 11 - "Pycnogenol® (PYC) belongs to strong antioxidants that may interfere with different pathways playing an important role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. Metformin (MET), commonly used antidiabetic drug, has cardio-protective effects via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK). In our study, we examined the effects of PYC as add-on drug to metformin therapy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed that both used agents, PYC and MET, showed improvement of blood glucose levels, vascular reactivity, left ventricular hypertrophy, expression of AMPK, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in left ventricle of the hearts. However, the combination of these interventions has failed to possess higher efficacy" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice - Front Behav Neurosci. 2016 Feb 9 - "In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and OPCs+95 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibit UV radiation-induced skin tumor development through functional activation of the immune system - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Mar 15 - "The incidence of skin cancer is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined. The main risk factor for this disease is overexposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV irradiation induces inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and suppression of the immune system in the skin, which together contribute to carcinogenesis. The use of dietary phytochemicals shows great promise as a complementary and alternative strategy for skin cancer prevention. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been tested extensively for their anti-skin cancer effect using in vivo animal models ... These effects of GSPs could be useful in attenuation of the adverse effects of UV radiation and may have health benefits in humans"
  • Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice - Med Sci Monit. 2016 Mar 17;22:880-889 - "Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice"
  • Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Feb 1 - "Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols ... While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape ... Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape-ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer"
  • Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan 20 - "Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • The COFU3 Study. Improvement in cognitive function, attention, mental performance with Pycnogenol® in healthy subjects (55-70) with high oxidative stress - J Neurosurg Sci. 2015 Dec;59(4):437-46 - "Oxidative stress was comparable in both groups at inclusion. It was significantly decreased with Pycnogenol® (-28.07%; P<0.05) at 12 months; there was no decrease in controls. The short blessed test (SBT) value was significantly increased in controls (P<0.05); but significantly decreased in the Pycnogenol® group ... Pycnogenol® supplementation for 12 months appears to improve cognitive function and oxidative stress in normal subjects between 55 and 70 years of age" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:260530 - "HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract ... HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation"
  • Effects of grape seed extract beverage on blood pressure and metabolic indices in individuals with pre-hypertension: a randomised, double-blinded, two-arm, parallel, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 16 - "grape seed extract (GSE) ... Subjects consumed a juice (167 kJ (40 kcal)) containing 0 mg (Placebo) or 300 mg/d GSE (150 mg) twice daily for 6 weeks ... GSE significantly reduced systolic BP (SBP) by 5.6 % (P=0.012) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 4.7 % (P=0.049) after 6 weeks of intervention period ... GSE significantly reduced systolic BP (SBP) by 5.6 % (P=0.012) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 4.7 % (P=0.049) after 6 weeks of intervention period"
  • French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence - Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2015 Oct 23 - "the existing data provide compelling evidence that Pycnogenol® intake does not only provide photoprotection, but may be used to (i) reduce hyperpigmentation of human skin and (ii) improve skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis"
  • For Alzheimer's patients, resveratrol brings new hope - CNN, 9/11/15 - "Even for the relatively small number of participants in the study, the researchers did see indication that resveratrol could improve cognition. Patients in this group had slight improvements in their ability to carry out daily tasks, such as remembering to brush their teeth. And anecdotally, patients who took resveratrol told the researchers that they felt like they were maintaining their mental ability. (Neither the participants nor the researchers knew who was taking resveratrol and who was taking placebo.) ... If resveratrol does pan out in further research, it may add to the medications that are currently available, such as Aricept and Exelon, which slow, but do not halt, progression of the disease ... resveratrol on its own might not end up working as well as a combination of resveratrol and other polyphenol compounds found in red wine, grape juice and grape seed extract, which could help people at risk of Alzheimer's and those who already have mild symptoms"
  • Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo - Nutrients. 2015 Aug 7 - "Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease ... These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression"
  • Higher dietary anthocyanin and flavonol intakes are associated with anti-inflammatory effects in a population of US adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 27 - "calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... an inverse association between higher anthocyanin and flavonol intakes and IS was observed with a mean ± SE difference between quintile categories 5 and 1 of -1.48" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 100mg, Grape Seed Extract, 100 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects - Nutrients. 2015 Apr 30;7(5):3138-3153 - "In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidin ... 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle" - See wine extract at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Pycnogenol® on endothelial dysfunction in borderline hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hyperglycemic individuals: the borderline study - Int Angiol. 2015 Feb;34(1):43-52 - "half of the subjects in each group used 150 mg/day Pycnogenol®. 31 normal subjects were included as control ... This open registry study indicates that Pycnogenol® improves EF in preclinical, borderline subjects in a macro-microcirculatory model. This observation may suggest an important preventive possibility for borderline hypertensive, hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic subjects" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Purified anthocyanin supplementation reduces dyslipidemia, enhances antioxidant capacity, and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients - J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):742-8 - "A total of 58 diabetic patients were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 29/group) for 24 wk ... Anthocyanin supplementation significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol (by 7.9%; P < 0.05), triglycerides (by 23.0%; P < 0.01), apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 (by 16.5%; P < 0.05), and apo C-III (by 11.0%; P < 0.01) and increased HDL cholesterol (by 19.4%; P < 0.05) compared with placebo after the 24-wk intervention ... Furthermore, supplementation with anthocyanin lowered fasting plasma glucose (by 8.5%; P < 0.05) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (by 13%; P < 0.05), and elevated serum adiponectin (by 23.4%; P < 0.01) and β-hydroxybutyrate (by 42.4%; P = 0.01) concentrations compared with placebo supplementation" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 100mg, Grape Seed Extract, 100 Capsules at Amazon.com.
    • Anthocyanin  - Wikipedia - "They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals"
    • Anthocyanin Pigments and Polyphenolics - oregonstate.edu - "Anthocyanins are one class of flavonoid compounds, which are widely distributed plant polyphenols"
  • Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals aged 35-55 - J Neurosurg Sci. 2014 Dec;58(4):239-48 - "Pycnogenol® (150 mg/day) ... Cognitive function, attention, mental performance, sustained attention, memory, executive functions, mood and oxidative stress values were comparable at inclusion. At 12 weeks the improvement in Pycnogenol® subjects was more significant than in controls. Plasma-free radicals (oxidative stress) were significantly decreased (median -30.4%) at 12 weeks in Pycnogenol® subjects in comparison with a non-significant variation observed in controls (+0.9%; difference between groups). Considering the cognitive test battery (PASAT, pattern recognition memory, spatial recognition memory, spatial working memory), Pycnogenol® subjects showed a small but significant improvement with spatial recognition memory unchanged. Mood parameters (alertness, anxiety, contentedness) also improved in professionals using the supplement. In the evaluation of 12 professional daily tasks all items were improved with Pycnogenol® supplementation. The score relative to semi-professional minitasks was improved more in Pycnogenol® subjects. Tolerability and compliance were optimal with >94% of the doses of supplement correctly used" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Improvement of common cold with Pycnogenol®: a Winter registry study - Panminerva Med. 2014 Dec;56(4):301-8 - "All subjects used the "best management" for colds and one group added Pycnogenol® capsules (50 mg, bid/die) from day zero. The resulting registry groups were comparable ... The number of days with a perceived cold affecting the patients was reduced in the supplement group (3.1;0.4 days) in comparison with controls (4.2;0.2). Lost working days were significantly decreased in the supplement group (0.55;0.3 versus 0.67;0.3 in controls). The need to use any other compound (on demand basis; OTC products) to manage symptoms and the occurrence of any clinically significant complications were significantly lower in the Pycnogenol® group ... Pycnogenol® supplementation appears to make regression faster for all symptoms in comparison with controls" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory Effects of French Pine Bark Extract, Pycnogenol® , on Alveolar Bone Resorption and on the Osteoclast Differentiation - Phytother Res. 2014 Oct 21 - "Pycnogenol® (PYC) ... PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis"
  • Improvements of venous tone with pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency: an ex vivo study on venous segments - Int J Angiol. 2014 Mar;23(1):47-52 - "Pycnogenol seems to decrease passive dilatation and stretching and gives vein walls a greater tonic recovery and elasticity that allows the vein to recover its original shape after dynamic stresses"
  • Improvement in symptoms and cochlear flow with pycnogenol in patients with Meniere's disease and tinnitus - Minerva Med. 2014 Jun;105(3):245-54 - "All subjects were managed with the best available management (BM); one group used the supplement Pycnogenol (150 mg/day) ... There was a more significant improvement in all registry items at 3 and 6 months in the Pycnogenol group (P<0.05). The number of lost working days was lower in the Pycnogenol group. At 3 months, 45.4% of subjects using Pycnogenol were completely asymptomatic in comparison with 23.07% of controls. At 6 months 87.3% of the Pycnogenol subjects were asymptomatic compared with 34.6% of controls. Cochlear flow velocity was significantly better (higher flow, higher diastolic component) in the Pycnogenol group (P<0.05). The subjective tinnitus scale decreased in both groups (P<0.05); the decrease was more significant in Pycnogenol subjects (P<0.05) at 3 and 6 months"
  • Grape seed extract and zinc containing nutritional food supplement prevents onset and progression of age-related cataract in wistar rats - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(5):524-30 - "In the group treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets, the formation of cataract was significantly prevented. In the normal and selenite induced senile cataract control group, the levels of lens oxidative stress markers, G6PD and ATP were substantially lower than in the grape seed extract with Zincovit tablets treated group" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and Health Aid Zincovit - C (Zinc, Vit C & Propolis) - Blister Pack 60 Tablets.
  • Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middle-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Menopause. 2014 Feb 10 - "double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 96 women aged 40 to 60 years who had at least one menopausal symptom. The study participants were randomized to receive grape seed extract tablets containing either low-dose (100 mg/d) or high-dose (200 mg/d) proanthocyanidin, or placebo, for 8 weeks ... The following significant changes were observed during the course of the study: (1) physical symptom score, hot flash score, and (2) Athens Insomnia Scale score decreased in the high-dose group after 8 weeks of treatment; (3) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety score and (4) systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 4 weeks; and, (5) lastly, muscle mass increased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 8 weeks of treatment"
  • Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Dec;53(6):644-54 - "physical fitness (PF) ... Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) ... divided into 2 parts. In PART 1 (Pycnogenol 100 mg/day), the APFT was used to assess an improvement in PF during an 8-week preparation and training program. In PART 2 (Pycnogenol 150 mg/day), the study evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation in athletes in training for a triathlon ... Results: PART 1. There was a significant improvement in both males and females in the 2-mile running time within both groups, but the group using Pycnogenol (74 subjects) performed statistically better than controls (73 subjects). The number of push-ups was improved, with Pycnogenol subjects performing better. Sit-ups also improved in the Pycnogenol group. Oxidative stress decreased with exercise in all subjects; in Pycnogenol subjects the results were significantly better. PART 2. In the Pycnogenol group 32 males (37.9; SD 4.4 years) were compliant with the training plan at 4 weeks. In controls there were 22 subjects (37.2;3.5) completing the training plans. The swimming, biking and running scores in both groups improved with training. The Pycnogenol group had more benefits in comparison with controls. The total triathlon time was 89 min 44 s in Pycnogenol subjects versus 96 min 5 s in controls. Controls improved their performing time on average 4.6 minutes in comparison with an improvement of 10.8 minutes in Pycnogenol subjects. A significant decrease in cramps and running and post-running pain was seen in the Pycnogenol group; there were no significant differences in controls. There was an important, significant post-triathlon decrease of PFR one hour after the end of the triathlon with an average of -26.7, whereas PFR in controls increased. In Pycnogenol subjects there was a lower increase on oxidative stress with a faster recovery to almost normal levels (<330 for these subjects). These variations in PFR values were interpreted as a faster metabolic recovery in subjects using Pycnogenol" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Anthocyanins and Flavones Are Associated with Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Women - J Nutr. 2013 Dec 11 - "In multivariable analyses, higher anthocyanin and flavone intake were associated with significantly lower peripheral insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; quintile 5 (Q5) to Q1 = -0.1, P-trend = 0.04 for anthocyanins and flavones] as a result of a decrease in insulin concentrations (Q5-Q1 = -0.7 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.02 anthocyanins; Q5-Q1 = -0.5 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.02 flavones). Higher anthocyanin intake was also associated with lower hs-CRP levels (Q5-Q1 = -0.3 mg/L, P-trend = 0.04), whereas those in the highest quintile of flavone intake had improved adiponectin levels (Q5-Q1 = 0.7 μg/L, P-trend = 0.01). Anthocyanin-rich foods were also associated with lower insulin and inflammation levels"
  • Gallic Acid Is an Active Component for the Anticarcinogenic Action of Grape Seed Procyanidins in Pancreatic Cancer Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 10 - "GSPE inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells, which is primarily mediated by the downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. GSPE also reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species. The component of the extract that possesses the highest antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity was gallic acid" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanin supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity and enhances cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with hypercholesterolemia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 27 - "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties ... A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of each group) for 24 wk in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ... Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.018 and P<0.001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the activity of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P<0.001)" - See anthocyanin products at iHerb.
    • Anthocyanin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Anthocyanins ... are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed procyanidins in pre- and mild hypertension: a registry study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:313142 - "The efficacy of a standardized grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE, Enovita) to decrease blood pressure when associated with nondrug intervention (diet and lifestyle modifications) was investigated in a controlled registry study involving 119 healthy, pre- and mildly hypertensive subjects. Two dosages of Enovita were evaluated (150 and 300 mg/die) ... After four months of treatment, a statistically significant higher, and dose-dependent, improvement in all endpoints was observed in the treatment groups compared to that of the control, with blood pressure normalizing in 93% of the higher dosage (300 mg) treatment group. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSPEs have beneficial cardiovascular effects that complement current intervention strategies in the hypertension area. The effect on blood pressure adds to the beneficial effects of GSPEs on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) phenotype associated with the oxidation of membrane lipids (endothelial dysfunction, formation of oxidized LDL, and activation of phagocytic cells)" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • High Concentrations of a Urinary Biomarker of Polyphenol Intake Are Associated with Decreased Mortality in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2013 Jun 26 - "Polyphenols might have a role in the prevention of several chronic diseases, but evaluating total dietary polyphenol (TDP) intake from self-reported questionnaires is inaccurate and unreliable. A promising alternative is to use total urinary polyphenol (TUP) concentration as a proxy measure of intake. The current study evaluated the relationship between TUPs and TDPs and all-cause mortality during a 12-y period among older adult participants ... In the multivariable Cox model, participants in the highest tertile of TUP at enrolment had a lower mortality rate than those in the lowest tertile [HR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.99); P-trend = 0.045], whereas no significant associations were found between TDP and overall mortality. TUP is an independent risk factor for mortality among community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that high dietary intake of polyphenols may be associated with longevity"
  • Differential Effect of Grape Seed Extract against Human Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Apoptosis Induction - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65 Suppl 1:44-53 - "GSE suppressed growth and induced apoptotic death in NSCLC cells irrespective of their k-Ras status"
  • The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis - Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 22:1-8 - "Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2 % grape juice control group; 1 % grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1 % grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 25:1-13 - "These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells"
  • Pycnogenol® Supplementation Improves Health Risk Factors in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome - Phytother Res. 2013 Jan 28 - "In the 6-month study Pycnogenol® supplementation 150 mg/day decreased waist circumference, TG levels, blood pressure and increased the HDL cholesterol levels in subjects. Pycnogenol lowered fasting glucose from baseline 123 +/- 8.6 mg/dl to 106.4 +/- 5.3 after 3 months and to 105.3 +/- 2.5 at the end of the study (p < 0.05 vs controls). Men's waist circumference decreased with Pycnogenol from 106.2 +/- 2.2 cm [41.8 inches] to 98.8 +/- 2.3 cm [38.9 inces] and to 98.3 +/- 2.1 after 3 and 6 months. Women's waist decreased from 90.9 +/- 1.6 cm to 84.6 +/- 2.1 cm and to 83.6 +/- 2.2 cm after 3 and 6 months. Both genders waist circumference reduction was significant as compared to controls at both time points. In addition, plasma free radicals decrease in the Pycnogenol group was more effective than in the control group (-34.6%; p < 0.05)" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and CACO-2 Cells - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 16 - "The (n-3) PUFAs, 20:5 (n-3) EPA and 22:6 (n-3) DHA, are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion ... We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFA was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Grape Polyphenols Prevent Fructose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 28 - "grape polyphenols (PPs) ... Thirty-eight healthy overweight/obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (18 men and 20 women) were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial between a grape PP (2 g/day) and a placebo (PCB) group. Subjects were investigated at baseline and after 8 and 9 weeks of supplementation, the last 6 days of which they all received 3 g/kg fat-free mass/day of fructose ... In the PCB group, fructose induced 1) a 20% decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.05) and an 11% decrease in glucose infusion rate (P < 0.05) as evaluated during a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, 2) an increase in systemic (urinary F2-isoprostanes) and muscle (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and protein carbonylation) oxidative stress (P < 0.05), and 3) a downregulation of mitochondrial genes and decreased mitochondrial respiration (P < 0.05). All the deleterious effects of fructose were fully blunted by grape PP supplementation ...A natural mixture of grape PPs at nutritional doses efficiently prevents fructose-induced oxidative stress and IR. The current interest in grape PP ingredients and products by the global food and nutrition industries could well make them a stepping-stone of preventive nutrition"
  • LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of grape extract used as a dietary supplement on healthy volunteers - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed over 56 days and included 60 volunteers. Thirty volunteers took 700 mg of the grape extract, Eminol® (E), and 30 took the placebo (P). On comparison of the results, a decrease in total cholesterol (E: 213.77 +/- 4.1 mg/dl and P: 245.57 +/- 4.1 mg/dl; p = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (E: 142.17 +/- 3.1 mg/dl and P: 165.13 +/- 3.1 mg/dl; p = 0.02) levels as well as an increase in antioxidant capacity (E: 65.63 +/- 5.8 μmol TE/mg and P: 57.80 +/- 7.7 μmol TE/mg; p < 0.01) and vitamin E (E: 11.46 +/- 0.5 μg/ml and P: 9.06 +/- 0.5 μg/ml; p = 0.018) was observed. This result indicates that the grape extract Eminol® modulated the lipid profile in terms of cardiovascular risk indicators, lowering total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels"
  • Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts alleviate oxidative stress and ER stress in skeletal muscle of low-dose streptozotocin- and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Nov 17 - "Although ER stress in pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue was reported to be a novel event linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is much less information on this event in skeletal muscle ... This study focuses on the effects of a strong antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), on skeletal muscle in diabetic rats induced with low dose streptozotocin- and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. After 16 wk of GSPE treatment, diabetic rats showed decreased plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance ... These findings suggest that GSPE may have auxiliary therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes mellitus by decreasing oxidative stress and ER stress in skeletal muscle"
  • Grape Polyphenols Reduce Blood Pressure and Increase Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Men with Metabolic Syndrome - J Nutr. 2012 Jul 18 - "We evaluated the effects of grape polyphenols in individuals classified with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men (n = 24) aged 30-70 y were randomly assigned to consume either a freeze-dried grape polyphenol powder (GRAPE) or a placebo for 30 d in a double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 3-wk washout period ... These results suggest that GRAPE polyphenols may potentiate vasorelaxation and reduce BP and circulating cell adhesion molecules, resulting in improvements in vascular function"
  • Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease - Neurology. 2012 Apr 10;78(15):1138-45 - "We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both)" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Antithrombin Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Black Chokeberry and Grape Seeds - Phytother Res. 2012 Apr 4 - "Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality ... Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A. melanocarpa and seeds of V. vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states"
  • Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging - J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Apr 2 - "older adult subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16-weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and post-intervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. We also observed relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline"
  • Red wine polyphenols improve an established aging-related endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric artery of middle-aged rats: Role of oxidative stress - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Feb 13 - "The present findings indicate that aging is associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations involving an increased oxidative stress, and that these responses are improved by the intake of RWPs or apocynin for 4weeks most likely by normalizing the expression of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase and angiotensin receptors"
  • Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE) in Preventing Cyclosporine A-induced Nephropathy - Nephrology (Carlton). 2012 Jan 18 - "The study demonstrates the abilty of GSPE to attenuate cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats, via its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. GSPE is a natural product containing high amounts of polyphenols with known anti-inflammatory properties ... We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by antiapoptotic and antioxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels"
  • Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study - Eur Heart J. 2012 Jan 11 - "Patients received Pycnogenol (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks followed by placebo or vice versa on top of standard cardiovascular therapy ... In CAD patients, Pycnogenol treatment was associated with an improvement of FMD from 5.3 +/- 2.6 to 7.0 +/- 3.1 (P < 0.0001), while no change was observed with placebo (5.4 +/- 2.4 to 4.7 +/- 2.0; P = 0.051). This difference between study groups was significant [estimated treatment effect 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75, 3.75, P < 0.0001]. 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane, an index of oxidative stress, significantly decreased from 0.71 +/- 0.09 to 0.66 +/- 0.13 after Pycnogenol treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group (mean difference 0.06 pg/mL with an associated 95% CI (0.01, 0.11), P = 0.012]. Inflammation markers, platelet adhesion, and blood pressure did not change after treatment with Pycnogenol or placebo. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress"
  • Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women - Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;25(2):86-92 - "This study provides skin-physiological and for the first time molecular evidence that Pycnogenol supplementation benefits human skin by increasing skin hydration and skin elasticity. These effects are most likely due to an increased synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules such as hyaluronic acid and possibly collagen. Pycnogenol supplementation may thus be useful to counteract the clinical signs of skin aging" - [Nutra USA]
  • Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Reduces Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Rats - Am J Med Sci. 2011 Nov 16 - "renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) ... GSPE reduced histological renal damage and nuclear factor-κB activity. These results suggest that GSPE reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R"
  • Pycnogenol® supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students - Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53 - "In the 8-week study Pycnogenol® supplementation improved sustained attention, memory, executive functions and mood ratings in the students. The improvement was statistically significant. The actual performance on real tests was measured in students undergoing university examinations. The controls failed 9 tests out a total of 84 (10.71%). In the Pycnogenol® group the students failed 7 tests out of 112 (6.25%) with a difference of 4.46% of failures in the Pycnogenol® group that performed, statistically, generally better. The average test score measured by the marks obtained was 23.81 (1.1) in controls vs. 26.1(1.3) (P<0.024) in the Pycnogenol® group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin, mineral, and specialty supplements and risk of hematologic malignancies in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jul 29 - "After adjustment, high use of garlic supplements (≥4 days/week for ≥3 years; HR=0.55 [95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.87]; p=0.028 for trend) and ever use of grape seed supplements (HR=0.57 [0.37-0.88]) were inversely associated with hematologic malignancies in our models. In addition, high use (8-10 pill-years) of multivitamins was suggestive of an inverse association (HR)=0.80 [0.64-1.01]). In contrast, no associations were observed for the remaining supplements ... These data indicate that use of garlic and grape seed may be associated with reduced risk of hematologic malignancies.Impact: This is the first cohort study to suggest a possible role of these supplements in the chemoprevention of hematologic malignancies"
    • Hematological malignancy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes"
  • Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition - Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):65-70 - "Pycnogenol® significantly contributed to reduce signs and symptoms associated with menopausal transitions in women investigated in this study. Furthermore, Pycnogenol® improved the quality of life of most women and these benefits may be at least in part attributed to decreased oxidative stress levels" - [Nutra USA]
  • Catechin-Rich Grape Seed Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6J Mice - Ann Nutr Metab. 2011 Aug 9;58(3):250-258 - "The main polyphenol components of CGSE were catechin and epicatechin. CGSE supplementation in the HFD-induced obesity model chronically suppressed the increase in body weight and the weight of fat pads. Furthermore, CGSE improved metabolic parameter abnormalities and upregulated the fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CGSE contains monomeric catechins in high concentrations and ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice"
  • The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug;111(8):1173-81 - "Upon meta-analysis, grape seed extract significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference -1.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -2.85 to -0.22, P=0.02]), and heart rate (weighted mean difference -1.42 bpm (95% confidence interval -2.50 to -0.34, P=0.01]). No significant effect on diastolic blood pressure, lipid levels, or CRP was found. No statistical heterogeneity was observed for any analysis (I(2)<39% for all). Egger's weighted regression statistic suggested low likelihood of publication bias in all analysis (P>0.05 for all), except for the effect on diastolic blood pressure (P=0.046). Based on the currently available literature, grape seed extract appears to significantly lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on lipid or CRP levels" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract supplementation prevents high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats by improving insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-9 - "Recent evidence strongly supports the contention that grape seed extract (GSE) improves hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in high-fructose-fed rats. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of action, we examined the effects of GSE on the expression of muscle proteins related to the insulin signalling pathway and of mRNA for genes involved in the adiponectin signalling pathway. Compared with rats fed on a normal diet, high-fructose-fed rats developed pathological changes, including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, a low level of plasma adiponectin and a high level of plasma fructosamine. These disorders were effectively attenuated in high-fructose-fed rats supplemented with GSE. A high-fructose diet causes insulin resistance by significantly reducing the protein expression of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt and GLUT4, and the mRNA expression of adiponectin, adiponectin receptor R1 (AdipoR1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α in the skeletal muscle. Supplementation of GSE enhanced the expression of insulin signalling pathway-related proteins, including Akt and GLUT4. GSE also increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AMPK-α. In addition, GSE increased the mRNA levels of glycogen synthase and suppressed the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3-α, causing an increase in glycogen accumulation in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that GSE ameliorates the defective insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways in the skeletal muscle, resulting in improved insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats"
  • Improvement of mitochondrial function in muscle of genetically obese rats after chronic supplementation with proanthocyanidins - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 5 - "grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ... In muscle, chronic GSPE administration decreased citrate synthase activity, the amount of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and II, and Nrf1 gene expression, without any effects on the mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This situation was associated with lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Additionally, GSPE administration enhanced the ability to oxidise pyruvate, and it also increased the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation including cytochrome c oxidase. There is strong evidence to suggest that GSPE administration stimulates mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle specifically by increasing the capacity to oxidise pyruvate and contributes to reduced muscle ROS generation in obese Zucker rats"
  • Protective Effect of Pycnogenol® on Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Jun 28 - "The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density"
  • Clinical Assessment of a Supplement of Pycnogenol® and l-arginine in Japanese Patients with Mild to Moderate Erectile Dysfunction - Phytother Res. 2011 May 27 - "Subjects were instructed to take a supplement (Pycnogenol® 60 mg/day, l-arginine 690 mg/day and aspartic acid 552 mg/day) or an identical placebo for 8 weeks, and the results were assessed using the five-item erectile domain (IIEF-5) of the International Index of Erectile Function. Additionally, blood biochemistry, urinalysis and salivary testosterone were measured. Eight weeks of supplement intake improved the total score of the IIEF-5. In particular, a marked improvement was observed in 'hardness of erection' and 'satisfaction with sexual intercourse'. A decrease in blood pressure, aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), and a slight increase in salivary testosterone were observed in the supplement group. No adverse reactions were observed during the study period. In conclusion, Pycnogenol® in combination with l-arginine as a dietary supplement is effective and safe in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com, L-arginine products at Amazon.com and l-aspartic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Supplementation of Grape Skin Extract Improves Glycemia and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a Western High Fat Diet - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 9 - "Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity"
  • Chronic intake of red wine polyphenols by young rats prevents aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance: Role of NADPH oxidase - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Dec 15 - "Aging is associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance, which promote cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether chronic intake of red wine polyphenols (RWPs), a rich source of natural antioxidants, prevents aging-related impairment of vascular function and physical exercise capacity. Vascular reactivity from 12-, 20- and 40-week-old rats was assessed in organ chambers. Rats received from week 16 to 40 either solvent, RWPs or the antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Aging was associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations, oxidative stress (dihydroethidine staining), and an upregulation of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase p22phox and nox1 subunits, and AT1 and AT2 receptors (assessed by immunohistochemistry) in the mesenteric artery. RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved aging-related decline in physical exercise"
  • Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol® in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation - Panminerva Med. 2010 Jun;52 - "These results suggest that in selected patients with tinnitus and altered perfusion, Pycnogenol is effective in a short period of time in relieving tinnitus symptoms by improving cochlear blood flow. The effect is more pronounced with higher Pycnogenol dosage" - [Nutra USA]
  • Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and the risk of stomach cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 3 - "Strong inverse relations were found for proanthocyanidins. The OR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) for monomers and dimers combined and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.63) for polymers with three or more mers. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetables, or vitamin C, did not materially change these associations. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest that dietary proanthocyanidins have a favorable role on gastric cancer risk"
  • Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants--a controlled study - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Mar;15(1):41-6 - "evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol as an adjunct to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor ramipril treatment of hypertensive patients presenting with early signs of renal function problems. One group of 26 patients was medicated with 10 mg ramipril per day only; a second group of 29 patients took Pycnogenol in addition to the ACE inhibitor over a period of 6 months ... Urinary albumin decreased from 87 +/- 23 to 64 +/- 16 mg/d with ramipril only. Additional Pycnogenol lowered albumin significantly better from 91 +/- 25 to 39 +/- 13 mg/day (P < .05). In both groups, serum creatinine was lowered; however, only in the combination treatment group did the effect reached statistical significance. In both groups, CRP levels decreased from 2.1 to 1.8 with ramipril and from 2.2 to 1.1 with the ramipril-Pycnogenol combination; the latter reached statistical significance. Kidney cortical flow velocity was investigated by Doppler color duplex ultrasonography. Both systolic and diastolic flow velocities increased significantly after 6 months medication with ramipril. The addition of Pycnogenol to the regimen statistically significantly further enhanced kidney cortical flow velocities, by 8% for diastolic flow and 12% for systolic flow, relative to values found for the group taking ramipril only" - [Nutra USA]
  • Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Function by Procyanidin-Rich Foods and Beverages (dagger) - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 28 - "Evaluation of the relative effects of extracts of cranberry juice compared to apple, cocoa, red wine, and green tea showed inhibition of ET-1 synthesis was dependent primarily on their oligomeric procyanidin content. Procyanidin-rich extracts of cranberry juice triggered morphological changes in endothelial cells with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and increased immunostaining for phosphotyrosine residues ... procyanidin tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, and heptamer produced concentration-dependent decreases with IC(50) values of 5.4, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 muM, respectively. Levels of ET-1 mRNA showed a similar pattern of decreases, which were inversely correlated with increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a key endothelial transcription factor with a broad range of antiatherosclerotic actions including suppression of ET-1 synthesis" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.comand grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pycnogenol((R)) Improves Microcirculation, Retinal Edema and Visual Acuity in Early Diabetic Retinopathy - J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Nov 16 - "Results: The major positive observation of this study is the visual improvement, which was subjectively perceived by 18 out of 24 patients in the Pycnogenol group. Testing of visual acuity using the Snellen chart showed a significant improvement from baseline 14/20 to 17/20 already, after 2 months treatment, whereas no change was found in the control group. Conclusions: Pycnogenol taken at this early stage of retinopathy may enhance retinal blood circulation accompanied by regression of edema, which favorably improves vision of patients" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oligomeric proanthocyanidins improve memory and enhance phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 - Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct 13:1-11 - "This indicates that oligomers result in an increase in the densities of axons, dendrites and synapses. To investigate the protective mechanisms of oligomers against brain dysfunction with ageing, we carried out a receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation antibody array, and clarified that the administration of oligomers led to an increase in the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, suggesting the neuroprotective role of oligomers. The phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 was more greatly increased in the hypothalamus and choroid plexus than in other brain regions of SAMP8. Memory in oligomer-treated mice was impaired by SU1498, a VEGFR-2-specific antagonist. Elucidating the relationship between memory impairment with ageing and VEGFR-2 signalling may provide new suggestions for protection against memory deficit in the ageing brain" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity - Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):526-31 - "GSE significantly improved markers of inflammation and glycaemia and a sole marker of oxidative stress in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects at high risk of cardiovascular events over a 4-week period, which suggests it may have a therapeutic role in decreasing cardiovascular risk"
  • Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov 26 - "GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11 - "control colorectal cancer (CRC) ... Grape seed extract (GSE) ... Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29, and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all 3 cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all 3 cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects"
  • Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta -protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity - J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 24 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... studies showed that a commercially-available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition"
  • Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis - Phytother Res. 2008 Aug;22(8) - "Results show that Pycnogenol in patients with mild to moderate OA improves symptoms and is able to spare NSAIDs"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women's Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 May 19 - "After multivariable adjustment, lung cancer incidence was inversely associated with intakes of flavanones (HR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.86, all results highest vs. lowest quintile) and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57-0.97). Among current and past smokers, those with intakes in the highest quintile for flavanones (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.86), and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.66; 95% CI; 0.49-0.89) had significantly lower lung cancer incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Similar associations were not seen in never smokers. Isoflavone intake was inversely associated with overall cancer incidence (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00). This study provides further support for a beneficial effect of flavonoid intake on lung cancer risk, especially among current and past smokers"
  • Multi-targeted prevention and therapy of cancer by proanthocyanidins - Cancer Lett. 2008 May 3 - "A wide variety of botanicals, mostly dietary flavonoids or polyphenolic substances, have been reported to possess substantial anti-carcinogenic and antimutagenic activities because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Proanthocyanidins are considered as one of them, and are abundantly available in various parts of the plants, such as fruits, berries, bark and seeds. Their modes of action were evaluated through a number of in vitro and in vivo studies which showed their potential role as anti-carcinogenic agent. We summarize and highlight the latest developments on anti-carcinogenic activities of proanthocyanidins from different sources, specifically from grape seeds, and their molecular targets, such as NF-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, PI3K/Akt, caspases, cytokines, angiogenesis and cell cycle regulatory proteins and other check points, etc. Although the bioavailability and metabolism data on proanthocyanidins is still largely unavailable, certain reports indicate that at least monomers and smaller oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed in the gut. The modulation of various molecular targets by proanthocyanidins in vitro and in vivo tumor models suggests their importance, contribution and mechanism of action to the prevention of cancers of different organs" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and Pycnogenol at Amazon.comSome say the grape seed extract if the same as Pycnogenol without the patent markup.
  • Treatment of osteoarthritis with Pycnogenol((R)). The SVOS (San Valentino osteo-arthrosis study). evaluation of signs, symptoms, physical performance and vascular aspects - Phytother Res. 2008 Apr;22(4):518-23 - "The global WOMAC score decreased by 56% (p < 0.05) in the treatment group versus 9.6% in the placebo group. Walking distance in the treadmill test was prolonged from 68 m at the start to 198 m after 3 months treatment (p < 0.05), under placebo, from 65 m to 88 m (NS). The use of drugs decreased by 58% in the treatment group (p < 0.05) versus 1% under placebo. Gastrointestinal complications decreased by 63% in the treatment group, but only 3% under placebo. Overall, treatment costs were reduced significantly compared with placebo ... After 3 months edema decreased in 79% of Pycnogenol patients (p < 0.05) vs 1% in controls" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population - J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):553-62 - "101 elderly participants (60-85 years) consuming a daily dose of 150 mg of Pycnogenol for a three-month treatment period ... Statistically significant interactions were found for memory-based cognitive variables and lipid peroxidation products, with the Pycnogenol group displaying improved working memory and decreased concentrations of F2-isoprostanes relative to the control group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Pycnogenol((R)), French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans - Hypertens Res. 2007 Sep;30(9):775-80 - "These findings suggest that Pycnogenol((R)) augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing in NO production. Pycnogenol((R)) would be useful for treating various diseases whose pathogeneses involve endothelial dysfunction"
  • Resveratrol inhibits expression and binding activity of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor, CCR2, on THP-1 monocytes - Atherosclerosis. 2007 May 11 - "Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and its receptor, CCR2, play a key role in atherosclerosis ... These inhibitory effects of resveratrol on chemokine receptor binding and expression may contribute, in part, to its cardiovascular protective activity in vivo"
  • Flavonoid-rich grapeseed extracts: a new approach in high cardiovascular risk patients? - Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Nov;60(11):1484-92 - "Flavonoids have been a major focus of attention since the days of the French paradox and the presence of high quantity of flavonoids in grapeseed extracts has prompted research looking at its effects on novel markers of vascular risk"
  • Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol - Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;15(6):329-35 - "1-month Pycnogenol administration caused a significant reduction of hyperactivity, improves attention and visual-motoric coordination and concentration of children with ADHD. In the placebo group no positive effects were found. One month after termination of Pycnogenol administration a relapse of symptoms was noted. Our results point to an option to use Pycnogenol as a natural supplement to relieve ADHD symptoms of children"
  • Quality Assessment of Commercial Dietary Antioxidant Products From Vitis vinifera L. Grape Seeds - Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(2):244-54 - "oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC ... The ORAC value of the different brands of commercial products studied (n = 16) varied from 2.71 to 26.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg ( asymptotically equal to10-fold difference)"
  • The combination of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols increases blood pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - J Hypertens. 2005 Feb;23(2):427-434 - "Vitamin C alone reduced systolic BP versus placebo ... However, treatment with the combination of vitamin C and polyphenols increased systolic BP (4.8 +/- 0.9 mmHg versus placebo ... and diastolic BP (2.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.0001 versus placebo"
  • The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;58(4):667-73 - "These findings suggest that grape seed could be effective in reducing 24 h EI [energy intake] in normal to overweight dietary unrestrained subjects, and could, therefore, play a significant role in body-weight management"
  • The cancer preventative agent resveratrol is converted to the anticancer agent piceatannol by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1 - Br J Cancer 2002 Mar 4;86(5):774-8 - "This observation provides a novel explanation for the cancer preventative properties of resveratrol. It demonstrates that a natural dietary cancer preventative agent can be converted to a compound with known anticancer activity by an enzyme that is found in human tumours"
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