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Home > Anti-aging Research > Vitamin D

Vitamin D

Vitamin D conversion (ng/nl vs. nmol/l)

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News & Research:

  • Vitamin D protects against severe asthma attacks - Science Daily, 10/3/17 - "Vitamin D is thought to protect against such attacks by boosting immune responses to respiratory viruses and dampening down harmful airway inflammation ... vitamin D supplementation resulted in: ... a 30 per cent reduction in the rate of asthma attacks requiring treatment with steroid tablets or injections ... a 50 per cent reduction in the risk of experiencing at least one asthma attack requiring Accident and Emergency Department attendance and/or hospitalisation" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Increases the Risk for Chronic Headaches - Medscape, 8/3/17 - "In those with frequent headache, the average serum vitamin D concentration was 38.3 nmol/L; while in those without frequent headache, the average vitamin D concentration was 43.9 nmol/L ... The authors concluded that low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with a markedly higher risk for frequent headaches in men"
  • Vitamin D may improve sunburn, according to new clinical trial - Science Daily, 7/6/17 - "Participants who consumed the highest doses of vitamin D had long-lasting benefits -- including less skin inflammation 48 hours after the burn. Participants with the highest blood levels of vitamin D also had less skin redness and a jump in gene activity related to skin barrier repair ... What we did not expect was that at a certain dose, vitamin D not only was capable of suppressing inflammation, it was also activating skin repair genes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Slows Colon Cancer Progression - Medscape, 6/7/17 - "in the high-dose group (n = 69), the median PFS, which was the primary endpoint, was 13.1 months, compared with 11.2 months for the low-dose group (n = 70). That translated into a 31% reduced relative risk for disease progression in the high-dose group ... Patients in the high-dose group received a loading dose of 8000 IU/day of vitamin D3 orally for 2 weeks followed by 4000 IU/day. Those in the low-dose group received a standard vitamin D3 dose of 400 IU/day ... The disease control rate in the high-dose group was 96% vs 84% in the low-dose group"
  • Vitamin D Supplements May Raise Sex Hormone Levels in Men - Medscape, 6/1/17 - "Testosterone is converted to estradiol, and SHBG binds testosterone and estradiol, Dr Lerchbaum observed, but only the unbound fraction of hormones is biologically active. Effectively, the lower SHBG levels result in more bioavailable testosterone. "We think that low SHBG levels should be an advantage for these men because they have more biologically active hormone." ... Maybe. Sufficient estradiol levels are important for the feedback mechanism with hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (LH and FSH levels) ... It may be speculated that the decrease in SHBG and the resultant increases in free testosterone levels might help improve the hypogonadism problem and fertility in these" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplements could improve fertility - Science Daily, 5/23/17 - "Research from her group and others suggests vitamin D affects many aspects of fertility in both genders, including influencing production and maturation of sperm cells in men, egg cell and uterine lining maturation in women, and sex hormone production in both sexes. Vitamin D levels have been associated with in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) outcome, some features of PCOS and endometriosis in women. In men, levels of vitamin D have been linked to semen quality and male hormone levels in both fertile and infertile men" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Widespread vitamin D deficiency likely due to sunscreen use, increase of chronic diseases, review finds - Science Daily, 5/1/17 - "chronic diseases like Type 2 Diabetes and those related to malabsorption, including kidney disease, Crohn's and celiac disease greatly inhibit the body's ability to metabolize vitamin D from food sources ... Symptoms for insufficient or deficient vitamin D include muscle weakness and bone fractures ... SPF 15 or greater decreases vitamin D3 production by 99 percent ... Research is ongoing to determine whether vitamin D deficiency has a role in multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disorders, infections, respiratory disease, cardiometabolic disease, cancer, and fracture risk ... Currently, insufficiency is defined as between 21 and 30 ng/ml and deficiency is considered below 20ng/ml by the Endocrine Society" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise and Vitamin D: A Heart-Healthy Combo - WebMD, 5/1/17 - "A combination of exercise and sufficient vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of serious heart problems more than either one alone"
  • Does Vitamin D decrease risk of cancer? - Science Daily, 3/28/17 - "Participants were randomly assigned to take either 2000 international units (IU) of vitamin D3 and 1500 mg. of calcium or identical placebos daily for 4 years ... Women who were given vitamin D3 and calcium supplements had 30% lower risk of cancer ... Cedric Garland, a co-investigator at the University of California San Diego said "This is the most important scientific study of this century to date.""
  • Army develops new nutritional bed-time snack bar for basic trainees - Army Times, 3/23/17 - "Military health experts have found that recruits often arrive to basic with poor vitamin D status, making their bones more vulnerable to fracture and injury ... Up to 18 percent of recruits suffer from these stress fractures ... Roughly 60 percent of those who suffer from stress fractures end up dropping out of the military, while long term injuries can occur later in life for those that push through ... The new nutritional snack bar developed at the Natick facility boosts calcium and vitamin D levels ... Trainees don’t get a lot of treats during basic training, and since this bar is made of chocolate, we know compliance won’t be an issue. It’s a lot more enticing than having to swallow a bunch of pills" - Note:  Two pills are a "bunch of pills".  Plus vitamin D can be taken less frequently in higher doses so you're just talking about the calcium pill every day and a vitamin D capsule once per week or month.  It just makes me wonder if the procurement officer was getting something under the table.  When you've got a tight budget you don't go with the option that costs 50 times as much because someone would rather eat a bar than take a pill.
  • Link between Vitamin D treatment and autism prevention - Science Daily, 3/17/17 - "We found that pregnant females treated with active vitamin D in the equivalent of the first trimester of pregnancy produced offspring that did not develop these deficits"
  • More than half of college football athletes have inadequate levels of vitamin D - Science Daily, 3/17/17 - "Vitamin D has been shown to play a role in muscle function and strength ... The average age of the athletes was 22. Their vitamin D levels were determined with a blood test. Levels were defined as normal (? 32 ng/mL), insufficient (20 -- 31 ng/mL), and deficient (< 20 ng/mL) ... A total of 126 players (59%) were found to have an abnormal serum vitamin D level, including 22 athletes (10%) with a severe deficiency. Researchers found a significantly higher prevalence of lower extremity muscle strain and core muscle injury in those who had low vitamin D levels. Fourteen study participants reported missing at least one game due to a strain injury, and 86% of those players were found to have inadequate vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status at ICU Admission May Predict A-Fib and Bedsores - Medscape, 2/28/17 - "Patients with Vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL were nearly four times as likely to develop new-onset atrial fibrillation, with an odds ratio of 3.59 (95% CI, 1.01–12.70). On regression analysis, the risk for the condition decreased by 15% for each unit increase in vitamin D ... A second study of 402 surgical ICU patients found that 11 percent developed hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Patients with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL were more than twice as likely to develop the ulcers (OR 2.51; 95% CI, 1.06–5.97). On regression analysis, the risk of ulcers fell by 11% with each unit increase in vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D Tied to Lower Risk of Colds, Infections - WebMD, 2/16/17 - "The 12 percent reduction meant that 33 people would need to take vitamin D supplements to prevent one acute respiratory tract infection. The benefit of the supplements was greater among people who took daily or weekly vitamin D without additional large doses ... The protective effect of vitamin D supplements was strongest for those with severe vitamin D deficiency. In this group, only four people would need to take vitamin D supplements to prevent one acute respiratory infection"
  • Increased levels of active vitamin D can help to optimize muscle strength - Science Daily, 2/15/17 - "Individuals with an increased lean mass, and muscle bulk, had a higher level of active vitamin D in the bloodstream" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Increased Headache Risk - Medscape, 1/19/17 - "Data from 2600 middle-aged men from Finland who participated in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease (KIHD) Risk Factor Study showed that those with the lowest levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were more than twice as likely to report having chronic headaches as those who had the highest vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D does more than help bones stay strong, and most kids don’t get enough - Washington Post, 1/17/17 - "They help the body absorb nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. This is why vitamin D is added to calcium-rich milk. Studies show that only 10 to 15 percent of calcium in food is absorbed without vitamin D ... If you boys want to fight off colds this winter so you don’t miss any sports games or weekend fun, vitamin D can help boost your immune system ... The current recommended daily allowance for individuals ages 1 to 70 is 600 IU, or inter­national units, but more recent research at the Boston University School of Medicine recommends up to 2,000 IU. Other studies recommend even higher levels for optimal health ... Because one glass of milk provides just 100 IU of vitamin D, a piece of salmon offers 360 IU and an egg yolk under 50 IU, even the lowest recommendation of 600 IU a day is hard for most children to attain without regular sun exposure"
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of chronic headache - Science Daily, 1/4/17 - "analysed the serum vitamin D levels and occurrence of headache in approximately 2,600 men aged between 42 and 60 years in 1984-1989. In 68% of these men, the serum vitamin D level was below 50 nmol/l, which is generally considered the threshold for vitamin D deficiency ... When the study population was divided into four groups based on their serum vitamin D levels, the group with the lowest levels had over a twofold risk of chronic headache in comparison to the group with the highest levels"
  • Vitamin D improves gut flora and metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 12/21/16 - "a high fat diet affects the balance between good and bad bacteria in the gut. This induces modest fatty liver and slightly raises blood sugar levels in mice. Remarkably, an insufficient supply of vitamin D aggravates the imbalance in gut flora, contributing to full-scale fatty liver and metabolic syndrome ... Vitamin D deficiency decreases the production of defensins, which are anti-microbial molecules essential to maintain healthy gut flora"
  • Vitamin D reduces respiratory infections - Science Daily, 11/16/16 - "could help reduce one of the leading causes of serious illness, debilitation and death among patients in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities ... Vitamin D can improve the immune system's ability to fight infections because it bolsters the first line of defense of the immune system ... 55 received high doses of vitamin D or 100,000 units monthly (averaging 3,300-4,300 units daily). And 52 received lower doses averaging between 400-1,000 units daily. Those with higher doses saw ARIs cut nearly in half. They also had over double the incidence of falls ... This is a potentially life-saving discovery ... here is very little in a doctor's arsenal to battle ARI, especially since most are viral infections where antibiotics don't work. But vitamin D seems able to potentially prevent these infections"
  • Vitamin D levels predict risk of brain decline in Chinese elderly - Science Daily, 7/27/16 - "It is now believed to also play a significant role in maintaining healthy brain function. An increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has been observed in those with low vitamin D levels, and studies from Europe and North America have linked low vitamin D levels with future cognitive decline ... individuals with lower vitamin D levels at the start of the study were approximately twice as likely to exhibit significant cognitive decline over time. In addition, low vitamin D levels at baseline also increased the risk of future cognitive impairment by 2-3 times"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Diabetic Retinopathy - Medscape, 5/28/16 - "The mechanism could be twofold, he said. Studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes and may also directly reduce vascular endothelial growth factors. (Thus, deficiency would have the opposite effects.) ... For any diabetic retinopathy, the odds ratio (OR) between those with and without vitamin D deficiency was 1.391 (P = .011). For nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, the OR was 1.209 (P = .001), and for proliferative retinopathy 1.315 (P < .001). For all the studies combined, the odds ratio was 1.267 (P < .001)"
  • Nutrient supplements can give antidepressants a boost - Science Daily, 4/26/16 - "Omega 3 fish oils, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), methylfolate (bioactive form of folate) and Vitamin D, were all found to boost the effects of medication ... They reported mixed results for zinc, vitamin C and tryptophan (an amino acid). Folic acid didn't work particularly well, nor did inositol" - Note: For people who want an increase in energy and mood with anti-aging effects to boot, I’d skip the antidepressants and go with a combination of deprenyl, lithium (the over-the-counter supplement form), GH-3 and beta-arginine. On the beta-arginine, it will weird you out if you don’t start slow and take it with food if possible. Build yourself up to 3200 mg per day.  Don’t take more than 800 mg per three or four hour period.  Check with a doctor first on all of that.  Also, see methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Higher levels of vitamin D correspond to lower cancer risk - Science Daily, 4/6/16 - "The new PLOS ONE study sought to determine what blood level of vitamin D was required to effectively reduce cancer risk ... Cancer incidence declined with increased 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D concentrations of 40 ng/ml or greater had a 67 percent lower risk of cancer than women with levels of 20 ng/ml or less ... Garland said a broad effort to increase 25(OH)D concentrations to a minimum of 40 ng/ml in the general population would likely and substantially reduce cancer incidence and associated mortality" -  Note:  40 ng/ml equals 100 nmol/l.  They usually used ng/ml in the U.S.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D improves heart function, study finds - Science Daily, 4/4/16 - "In the 80 patients who took Vitamin D3, the heart's pumping function improved from 26% to 34%. In the others, who took placebo, there was no change in cardiac function"
  • Avoiding Sun as Dangerous as Smoking - Medscape, 3/23/16 - "The results add to the longstanding debate on the role of vitamin D in health and the amount of it people need, but this study doesn't resolve the question"
  • Low vitamin D predicts aggressive prostate cancer - Science Daily, 3/1/16 - "Men with dark skin, low vitamin D intake or low sun exposure should be tested for vitamin D deficiency when they are diagnosed with an elevated PSA or prostate cancer. Then a deficiency should be corrected with supplements ... Of that group, 87 men had aggressive prostate cancer. Those with aggressive cancer had a median level of 22.7 nanograms per milliliter of vitamin D, significantly below the normal level of more than 30 nanograms/milliliter. The average D level in Chicago during the winter is about 25 nanograms/milliliter ... Most people in Chicago should be on D supplements, particularly during winter months"
  • Higher risk of leukemia linked to low sunlight, vitamin D - Science Daily, 1/6/16 - "These results suggest that much of the burden of leukemia worldwide is due to the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency we are experiencing in winter in populations distant from the equator"
  • Could Vitamin D Help Fight Multiple Sclerosis? - WebMD, 12/30/15 - "His team tested two doses in 40 adults with MS. Over six months, one group took 10,400 IU of vitamin D a day -- about 17 times the amount that the U.S. government recommends for healthy adults (600 IU a day); the other group took 800 IU a day ... In the end, only the high-dose group showed changes in their immune system activity. The largest effect, Calabresi said, was a reduction in cells that produce an inflammatory protein called interleukin-17"
  • Low levels of vitamin D may increase risk of stress fractures in active individuals - Science Daily, 12/14/15 - "Based on these findings, we recommend a serum vitamin D level of at least 40 ng/mL to protect against stress fractures, especially for active individuals who enjoy participating in higher impact activities ... This correlates with an earlier study of 600 female Navy recruits who were found to have a twofold greater risk of stress fractures of the tibia and fibula with a vitamin D level of less than 20 ng/mL compared with females with concentrations above 40 ng/mL"
  • Does Vitamin-D Intake During Resistance Training Improve the Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic and Strength Response in Young and Elderly Men? - Medscape, 10/22/15 - "No additive effect of vitamin-D intake during 12 weeks of resistance training could be detected on either whole muscle hypertrophy or muscle strength, but improved muscle quality in elderly and fiber type morphology in young were observed, indicating an effect of vitamin-D on skeletal muscle remodeling"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 9/14/15 - "The magnitude of the effect of Vitamin D insufficiency on cognition was substantial ... Vitamin D supplementation remains an intriguing possibility to delay or even prevent dementia" - [Science Daily]
  • Vitamin D may play key role in preventing macular degeneration - Science Daily, 8/31/15 - "women who are deficient in vitamin D and have a specific high-risk genotype are 6.7 times more likely to develop AMD than women with sufficient vitamin D status and no high risk genotype ... Vitamin D shows promise for protecting against macular degeneration because of its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties; antiangiogenic refers to slowing the growth of new blood vessels, often seen in late stages of AMD ... Our study suggests that being deficient for vitamin D may increase one's risk for AMD, and that this increased risk may be most profound in those with the highest genetic risk for this specific variant in the CFH protein"
  • Vitamin D Improves Depression in Women With Liver Disease - Medscape, 6/25/15 - "in depressed patients, we found a significant improvement in BDI-II scores after both 3 and 6 months of vitamin D therapy, after which patients got significantly worse on BDI-II scores once vitamin D treatment was stopped"
  • Vitamin D supplements may benefit children with kidney disease - Science Daily, 6/11/15 - "Five-year kidney survival was 75% in patients with vitamin D levels ≥50 nMol/L at the start of the study and 50% in those with lower levels"
  • Vitamin D shows promise for treating Crohn's disease - Science Daily, 6/12/15 - "the authors assigned 27 CD patients in remission to 2000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation or placebo for 3 months. They found, that patients treated with the supplementation were more likely to maintain their intestinal permeability, whereas this deteriorated in the placebo group. Increased intestinal permeability is considered a measure of gut leakiness, which is shown to predict and precede clinical relapse in CD. In addition, patients with the highest blood levels of vitamin D had signs of reduced inflammation (measured by C-reactive protein and antimicrobial peptides), and these patients also reported better quality of life"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation for Pain - Medscape, 5/19/15 - "Between 50% and 80% of patients in U.S. healthcare facilities are deficient in vitamin D. Although many foods and drinks are fortified with supplementary vitamin D, the amounts are often insufficient for normal serum concentrations. Although research has demonstrated mixed results regarding pain incidence and serum vitamin D concentrations, observational and prospective studies suggest that correction of vitamin D concentrations may decrease pain of multiple origins. Vitamin D supplementation in patients with low serum concentrations may be an easy and safe way to decrease pain occurrences"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight - WebMD, 5/8/15 - "The new study included 400 overweight and obese people with vitamin D deficiency who were put on a low-calorie diet and then divided into three groups. One group took no vitamin D supplements, while the two other groups took either 25,000 international units (IU) or 100,000 IU of vitamin D per month ... After six months, participants in both vitamin D supplementation groups had lost more weight and had greater reductions in their waistlines than those who hadn't taken the supplements"
  • Low Risk of Problems from Too Much Vitamin D - WebMD, 5/7/15 - "The data included more than 20,000 vitamin D blood level measurements taken between 2002 and 2011 from residents of a single community in Minnesota ... Just one case of vitamin D toxicity was found over the decade-long study period, the researchers said. That person's vitamin D level was 364 ng/mL" - Note: 364 ng/mL equals 908 nmol/l.
  • More than one-third of Division I college athletes may have low vitamin D levels - Science Daily, 3/27/15 - "The mean serum 25 level for the athletes, enrolled in a broad range of indoor and outdoor sports, was 40.1 ±14.9 ng/mL (>32 ng/mL is considered normal; 20 to <32 ng/mL, insufficient; and <20 ng/mL, deficient). Overall, 66.4 percent of participants had sufficient vitamin D levels and 33.6 percent, insufficient or deficient levels ... Men were 2.8 times more likely to have an abnormal vitamin D level"
  • Vitamin D status, hypertension and ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective - J Hum Hypertens. 2015 Mar 26 - "Meticulous management of hypertension, regular monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels and treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency, particularly in hypertensive subjects, could help in effective prevention of stroke"
  • Metformin, vitamin D3 show impressive promise in preventing colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 3/24/15 - "Not only did the combination of the two improve outcomes in animal studies, but the dual-compound effect was dramatically better than either option alone. Even better, these impressive results required only modest amounts of metformin and Vitamin D3, making concerns about side effects from mega-dosing entirely moot ... Few colon neoplasias developed in the animals receiving moderate doses of metformin-vitamin D combination ... On average, there was also a 40 percent decrease in the development of polyps in all animals receiving both drugs in combination compared to the control groups" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Vitamin D may keep low-grade prostate cancer from becoming aggressive - Science Daily, 3/22/15 - "His previous research had shown that when men with low-grade prostate cancer took vitamin D supplements for a year, 55 percent of them showed decreased Gleason scores or even complete disappearance of their tumors compared to their biopsies a year before ... assigned 37 men undergoing elective prostatectomies either to a group that received 4,000 U of vitamin D per day, or to a placebo group that didn't receive vitamin D. The men's prostate glands were removed and examined 60 days later ... many of the men who received vitamin D showed improvements in their prostate tumors, whereas the tumors in the placebo group either stayed the same or got worse. Also, vitamin D caused dramatic changes in the expression levels of many cell lipids and proteins, particularly those involved in inflammation"
  • Vitamin D prevents diabetes and clogged arteries in mice - Science Daily, 3/19/15 - "In our study, inactivation of the vitamin D receptor induced diabetes and atherosclerosis, so normalizing vitamin D levels may have the opposite effect"
  • Recommendation for vitamin D intake was miscalculated, is far too low, experts say - Science Daily, 3/17/15 - "The recommended intake of vitamin D specified by the IOM is 600 IU/day through age 70 years, and 800 IU/day for older ages. "Calculations by us and other researchers have shown that these doses are only about one-tenth those needed to cut incidence of diseases related to vitamin D deficiency," ... We call for the NAS-IOM and all public health authorities concerned with transmitting accurate nutritional information to the public to designate, as the RDA, a value of approximately 7,000 IU/day from all sources ... This intake is well below the upper level intake specified by IOM as safe for teens and adults, 10,000 IU/day" - Hmm, what have I been saying in my newsletters?
  • High levels of vitamin D is suspected of increasing mortality rates - Science Daily, 3/10/15 - "If your vitamin D level is below 50 or over 100 nanomol per litre, there is an greater connection to deaths. We have looked at what caused the death of patients, and when numbers are above 100, it appears that there is an increased risk of dying from a stroke or a coronary" - Note:  The conversion for nmol/l to ng/ml for vitamin D is at http://www.endmemo.com/medical/unitconvert/Vitamin__D.php.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D may control brain serotonin, affecting behavior and psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 2/25/15 - "Serotonin affects a wide-range of cognitive functions and behaviors including mood, decision-making, social behavior, impulsive behavior, and even plays a role in social decision-making by keeping in check aggressive social responses or impulsive behavior ... Many clinical disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression share as a unifying attribute low brain serotonin ... This publication suggests that optimizing intakes of vitamin D, EPA, and DHA would optimize brain serotonin concentrations and function, possibly preventing and ameliorating some of the symptoms associated with these disorders without side effects" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com, Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Childhood Vitamin D Levels Linked to Later Atherosclerosis - Medscape, 2/18/15 - "low 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin-D levels in childhood are associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) almost 30 years later, particularly in females"
  • Low Vitamin D in Childhood Linked to Later Heart Risks - NYTimes.com, 2/10/15 - "A vitamin D level of between 30 to 50 is generally considered adequate. Children in the lowest one-quarter for vitamin D levels, about 15 nanograms per milliliter, were nearly twice as likely to have thickening of the carotid artery as those in the other three quarters"
  • Low vitamin D predicts more severe strokes, poor health post-stroke - Science Daily, 2/5/15 - "Stroke patients with low vitamin D levels were found to be more likely than those with normal vitamin D levels to suffer severe strokes and have poor health months after stroke ... Overall, patients who had low vitamin D levels -defined as less than 30 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) -- had about two-times larger areas of dead tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply compared to patients with normal vitamin D levels ... For each 10 ng/mL reduction in vitamin D level, the chance for healthy recovery in the three months following stroke decreased by almost half, regardless of the patient's age or initial stroke severity"
  • Vitamin D Linked to Lower Colorectal Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/16/15 - "people with high amounts of 25-hydroxy vitamin D had a lower risk of getting colorectal tumors that have a large number of immune cells. The authors say this suggests there’s an interaction between vitamin D and the immune system that may work to prevent colorectal cancer"
  • Vitamin D May Boost Colon Cancer Survival: Study - WebMD, 1/12/15 - "We found that patients who had vitamin D levels at the highest category had improved survival and improved progression-free survival, compared with patients in the lowest category ... Those patients survived one-third longer than patients with low levels of vitamin D -- an average 32.6 months, compared with 24.5 months"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Risk of Preterm Birth in Study - WebMD, 1/8/15 - "Women with the lowest levels of vitamin D were about 1.5 times as likely to deliver early compared to those with the highest levels ... In the study, Bodnar and her colleagues grouped women as less than 50 nmol/L, 50 to 74.9 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L or above"
  • Maternal Vitamin D Status Tied to Long-term Outcomes in Kids - Medscape, 12/16/14 - "children born to mothers with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels less than 50 nmol/L at 18 weeks' gestation were at increased risk for impaired lung development at 6 years, neurocognitive problems at 10 years, eating disorders during adolescence, and lower peak bone mass at 20 years"
  • Vitamin D reduces lung disease flare-ups by over 40 percent - Science Daily, 12/2/14 - "Patients with a vitamin D deficiency benefited dramatically from taking the supplements but the striking reduction in flare-ups was not seen among patients who had a higher vitamin D status at the start of the trial. However, researchers did find vitamin D supplementation modestly reduced the severity and duration of flare-up symptoms in all patients in the vitamin D group, regardless of their baseline vitamin D levels, compared to the placebo group"
  • Vitamin D deficiency, depression linked in international study - Science Daily, 12/2/14 - "Vitamin D deficiency is not just harmful to physical health -- it also might impact mental health ... based on the team's investigations, vitamin D was likely to be a contributing factor in seasonal depression ... Vitamin D is also involved in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine within the brain, both chemicals linked to depression ... Vitamin D levels of more than 50 nanomoles per liter are recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine"
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and Renal Cell Carcinoma - Medscape, 11/6/14 - "A doubling of 25(OH)D3 was associated with 28% lower odds of RCC" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Breathe easier: Get your vitamin D - Science Daily, 10/28/14 - "Of some 21,000 asthma patients in Israel studied, those with a Vitamin D deficiency were 25 percent more likely than other asthmatics to have had at least one flare-up in the recent past"
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases poor brain function after cardiac arrest by sevenfold - Science Daily, 10/20/14 - "Patients with a poor neurological outcome had a significantly lower vitamin D level (7.9 ng/mL) compared to those with a good neurological outcome (12.4 ng/mL) (p=0.002). The researchers found that 65% of patients with vitamin D deficiency had a poor neurological outcome at 6 months after discharge compared to 23% of patients with healthy vitamin D levels. They also found that 29% of patients with vitamin D deficiency had died at 6 months compared to none of the patients with good vitamin D levels (p=0.007)"
  • Could Vitamin D Make Childbirth Less Painful? - WebMD, 10/14/14 - "Women with lower vitamin D levels required more pain medication than those with higher vitamin D levels, according to the study scheduled for presentation Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in New Orleans" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D significantly improves symptoms of winter-related atopic dermatitis in children - Science Daily, 10/3/14 - "enrolled 107 children, ages 2 to 17, from nine outpatient clinics ... One group received a daily vitamin D dose of 1000 IU while the other received a placebo ... At the end of the month, children receiving the vitamin D supplement had an average 29 percent improvement on the primary assessment tool used, compared with 16 percent improvement in the placebo group"
  • Higher Vit D in Menopause Linked to Big Reduction in Fracture - Medscape, 9/15/14 - "assessed 1620 women who were enrolled in the bone cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), funded by the US National Institutes of Health ... Most of the women (74.5%) were premenopausal or early menopausal, 7.2% were late perimenopausal, and 4.8% were postmenopausal, early in the course of the study, 2 years after enrolling ... The women had mean 25(OH)D levels at the 2-year visit of 21.6 ng/mL ... The mean age of the women at time of 25(OH)D measure was 48.5 years ... average follow-up of 9.5 years ... each 10-ng/mL increase in mean serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 25% lower nontraumatic fracture risk"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to increased risks after noncardiac surgery - Science Daily, 8/15/14 - "The researchers analyzed the relationship between vitamin D level and surgical outcomes in approximately 3,500 patients who underwent operations other than heart surgery between 2005 and 2011 ... Higher vitamin D concentrations were associated with decreased odds of in-hospital mortality/morbidity ... For each 5 ng/mL increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, the combined risk of death, cardiovascular events, or serious infections decreased by seven percent"
  • Vitamin D And Dementia: A Very Close Tie - Medscape, 8/6/14 - "Researchers obtained blood samples in 1992–1993 and in 2008; they measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations. They classified these samples as follows: less than 25 nmol/L (severely deficient), 25 nmol/L or greater to less than 50 nmol/L (deficient), and 50 nmol/L or greater (sufficient) ... After also adjustment for education, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms, the HRs for all-cause dementia were 1.53 in those who were vitamin D deficient and 2.25 for those who were severely deficient ... Low vitamin D levels likely affect cognition through both neurodegenerative and vascular mechanisms ... The findings suggest that the optimal vitamin D level to prevent dementia is 50 nmol/L. Others in the field argue that a higher level — 75 nmol/L — is better" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D deficiency raises risk of schizophrenia diagnosis - Science Daily, 7/22/14 - "The meta-analysis found that people with schizophrenia had significantly lower levels of vitamin D in the blood compared to the control groups. The average difference in vitamin D levels between schizophrenic patients and control participants was -5.91 ng/ml. People with vitamin D deficiency were 2.16 times more likely to have schizophrenia than those with sufficient vitamin D in their bloodstreams. In addition, 65 percent of the participants who had schizophrenia also were vitamin D deficient"
  • Let the Sun Shine: Vitamin D in CRC - Medscape, 7/14/14 - "The investigators found strong associations between plasma 25-OHD concentration and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (P = .008) and all-cause mortality (P = .003). Adjusted hazards ratios were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.90) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.89), respectively (highest vs lowest 25-OHD tertile), particularly in stage II disease (hazard ratio, 0.44; P = .004 for CRC-specific mortality)"
  • Plasma Vitamin D Concentration Influences Survival Outcome After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer - J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul 7 - "We found strong associations between plasma 25-OHD concentration and CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause mortality (P = .003). Adjusted HRs were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.90) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.89), respectively (highest v lowest 25-OHD tertile), particularly in stage II disease (HR, 0.44; P = .004 for CRC-specific mortality). We detected gene-environment interactions between 25-OHD concentration and rs11568820 genotype for CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause (P = .022) mortality, number of protective alleles (P = .004 and P = .018, respectively), and GAGC haplotype at the VDR locus for all-cause mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 6/26/14 - "In the new study, researchers analyzed genetic data from more than 146,500 people of European descent in Europe and North America. For each 10 percent increase in vitamin D levels, there was an 8 percent decrease in the risk of developing high blood pressure"
  • Vitamin D can lower weight, blood sugar via the brain, study finds - Science Daily, 6/23/14 - "Compared with the control rats, animals that received vitamin D had improved glucose tolerance, which is how the body responds to sugar. In a separate experiment, these treated rats also had greatly improved insulin sensitivity, the body's ability to successfully respond to glucose. When this ability decreases -- called insulin resistance -- it eventually leads to high blood sugar levels. Two of insulin's main effects are to clear glucose from the bloodstream and decrease glucose production in the liver. In this study, vitamin D in the brain decreased the glucose created by the liver ... In a separate experiment of long-term vitamin D treatment, the researchers gave three rats vitamin D and four rats vehicle alone for four weeks. They observed a large decrease in food intake and weight in rats receiving vitamin D compared with the group that did not get vitamin D. Over 28 days, the treated group ate nearly three times less food and lost 24 percent of their weight despite not changing the way they burned calories"
  • Raising low vitamin D levels lowers risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes - Science Daily, 6/23/14 - "In the new study, every unit increase in vitamin D level after supplementation of the vitamin decreased the risk of progression to diabetes by 8 percent ... 68 subjects received ready-to-mix, powdered vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, D-Rise sachets, USV Ltd., Mumbai, India) at a dose of 60,000 International Units (IU) once weekly for eight weeks and then monthly ... After an average of nearly two years and four months' follow-up, only six of 55 subjects (10.9 percent) in the group that received vitamin D plus calcium supplementation had become diabetic, whereas diabetes developed in 13 of 49 individuals (26.5 percent) in the calcium-alone group. Blood sugar levels reportedly became normal in about twice as many people in the vitamin D group as in the group that did not get vitamin D supplementation: 23 of 55 subjects versus 10 of 49 subjects, respectively (41.8 percent versus 20.4 percent)"
  • Low Vitamin D Tied to Premature Death - NYTimes.com, 5/12/14 - "people with a blood level below 9 nanograms per milliliter had almost double the risk of premature death compared with those with levels of 50 or higher ... there was little danger in taking vitamin D supplements, “as long as we keep blood levels below 200 nanograms per milliliter.”"
  • Improved Survival in Cancer Patients With High Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/1/14 - "overall survival for colorectal and breast cancer patients in the highest quartile of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels was significantly better than it was for those in the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D levels ... Overall survival was also significantly better for lymphoma patients in the highest 25(OH)D quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile ... Considering that vitamin D deficiency is widespread around the world, our suggestion is to ensure everyone has sufficient levels of this important nutrient — that is, circulating 25(OH)D levels — greater than 75 nmol/L ... when investigators compared 25(OH)D levels in the range of 40 to 70 nmol/L to levels <19 nmol/L, they found that a 10-nmol/L increase in circulating vitamin D levels upon cancer diagnosis was associated with a 4% reduction in all-cause mortality among all cancer patients in whom a dose-response relationship was assessed"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Aggressive, Advanced Prostate Cancers: Study - WebMD, 5/1/14 - "Tresearchers checked vitamin D levels in 667 Chicago men between the ages of 40 and 79 who were having prostate biopsies because they'd recently had an abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) test or because a doctor felt changes to the prostate during a physical exam ... Normal vitamin D levels are in the range of 30 to 80 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) ... About 44 percent of the men with positive biopsies and 38 percent of those who tested negative for cancer had low vitamin D levels ... Among men who tested positive for cancer after their biopsies, those who also had very low levels of vitamin D -- under 12 ng/ml -- had greater odds of more advanced and aggressive cancers than those with normal levels"
  • Vitamin D may raise survival rates among cancer patients - Science Daily, 4/29/14 - "The meta-analysis looked at the results of 25 separate studies that measured vitamin D levels in cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and tracked survival rates. In most of the research, patients had their vitamin D levels tested before they underwent any treatment for cancer. The study found a 10 nmol/L increase in vitamin D levels was tied to a 4 percent increase in survival among people with cancer ... Researchers found the strongest link between vitamin D levels and survival in breast cancer, lymphoma and colorectal cancer"
  • Vitamin D deficiency contributes to poor mobility among severely obese people - Science Daily, 4/15/14 - "The cross-sectional study examined physical functioning and vitamin D levels in 252 severely obese people. Participants were timed as they walked 500 meters and climbed up and down a single step 50 times. They also provided estimates of their physical activity ... the group with the highest vitamin D levels had the fastest walking times and highest amount of self-reported physical activity. This group also had the lowest average BMI of the study participants ... Improving vitamin D status should improve quality of life and may decrease the risk of early death in people with severe obesity"
  • Vitamin D deficiency, cognition appear to be linked in older adults - Science Daily, 4/16/14 - "The researchers looked at 2,777 well-functioning adults aged 70 to 79 whose cognitive function was measured at the study's onset and again four years later. Vitamin D levels were measured at the 12-month follow-up visit ... With just the baseline observational data, you can't conclude that low vitamin D causes cognitive decline. When we looked four years down the road, low vitamin D was associated with worse cognitive performance on one of the two cognitive tests used"
  • More Fractures Seen When Vitamin D Is Consistently Low - Medscape, 4/15/14 - "Adequate levels of vitamin D help increase calcium absorption from the gut, and both calcium and vitamin D are important in terms of bone health ... The remaining question, said Dr. Judge, is "Would intervening with the women with the lowest 25OHD levels decrease their risk of fractures?" He continued, "I believe the evidence suggests that the answer is yes. The working hypothesis is that vitamin D reduces fractures in elderly people by improving balance and reducing the risk of falls, rather than through its effect on bone density.""
  • Vitamin D Concentrations, Health Conditions, and Mortality - Medscape, 4/3/14 - "Fair, poor, and very poor health; self-reported diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; depression; muscle weakness; poor balance; and all-cause mortality were all associated with serum 25(OH)D levels less than 50 nmol/L, even after adjustment for confounding. The findings also suggest that, in older men, for a wide range of health conditions, physical performance measures, disability, falls, and mortality, the optimum range of 25(OH)D is between 50.0 and 74.9 nmol/L, with no additional benefit for 25(OH)D levels of 75.0 nmol/L or greater"
  • Vitamin D increases breast cancer patient survival, study shows - Science Daily, 3/6/14 - "Vitamin D metabolites increase communication between cells by switching on a protein that blocks aggressive cell division ... As long as vitamin D receptors are present tumor growth is prevented and kept from expanding its blood supply. Vitamin D receptors are not lost until a tumor is very advanced. This is the reason for better survival in patients whose vitamin D blood levels are high ... Women in the high serum group had an average level of 30 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in their blood. The low group averaged 17 ng/ml. The average level in patients with breast cancer in the United States is 17 ng/ml ... a serum level of 50 ng/ml is associated with 50 percent lower risk of breast cancer. While there are some variations in absorption, those who consume 4,000 International Units (IU) per day of vitamin D from food or a supplement normally would reach a serum level of 50 ng/ml"
  • 8 Signs You Need To Be Getting More Vitamin D - ABC News, 3/3/14 - "Decreased muscular size can be the result of not enough vitamin D in muscle and nerve tissue ... women with low levels of D are twice as likely to combat depression ... Insufficient levels of vitamin D have been linked to chronic pain ... when you're low in the nutrient, your bones become weakened, meaning your risk for stress fractures increases ... when you don't get enough, your blood pressure can creep up ... lower levels of vitamin D were linked to higher levels of daytime sleepiness ... D affects the levels of serotonin in your brain—which also impacts your mood ... Some studies have shown reduced aerobic capacity and overall endurance in athletes with low vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Vitamin D deficiency occurs in early stage - Science Daily, 2/27/14 - "Vitamin D deficiency precedes the onset of type 1 diabetes. This may be a consequence of an immune response ... In the case of prediabetic children, we must therefore be mindful of the risk of vitamin D deficiency and consider recommending vitamin D supplementation at an early stage of type 1 diabetes"
  • Lack of Vitamin D Linked to CVD Biomarkers, Inflammation - Medscape, 2/27/14 - "Compared with individuals with sufficient serum levels of vitamin D (>75 nmol/L), those who were deficient (<25 nmol/L) had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and CRP, and they were more likely to have CRP:IL-10 and IL-6:IL-10 ratios above 2, where IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory biomarker ... I think all of us now think that inflammation is a critical factor in a lot of disease . . . so there's some rationale for thinking about trying to reduce chronic inflammation with something as simple as vitamin D, and it may have a further effect on atherosclerotic risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Causal link found between vitamin D, serotonin synthesis and autism in new study - Science Daily, 2/26/14 - "serotonin, oxytocin, and vasopressin, three brain hormones that affect social behavior, are all activated by vitamin D hormone ... adequate levels of vitamin D may be required to produce serotonin in the brain where it shapes the structure and wiring of the brain, acts as a neurotransmitter, and affects social behavior ... The current guidelines for adequate vitamin D levels are concentrations above 30 ng/ml ... greater than 70% of U.S. population does not meet this requirement and that adequate vitamin D levels have plummeted over the last couple of decades. This precipitous drop in adequate levels of vitamin D in the US is concurrent with the rise in autism ... dietary intervention with vitamin D, tryptophan and omega 3 fatty acids would boost brain serotonin concentrations and help prevent and possibly ameliorate some of the symptoms associated with ASD without side effects"
  • Vitamin D provides relief for those with chronic hives, study shows - Science Daily, 2/17/14 - "Over 12 weeks, 38 study participants daily took a triple-drug combination of allergy medications (one prescription and two over-the-counter drugs) and one vitamin D3, an over-the-counter supplement. Half of the patient's took 600 IUs of vitamin D3 and the other half took 4000 IUs ... after just one week, the severity of patients' symptoms decreased by 33 percent for both groups. But at the end of three months, the group taking 4000 IUs of vitamin D3 had a further 40 percent decrease in severity of their hives. The low vitamin D3 treatment group had no further improvement after the first week" - [Abstract]
  • Taking vitamin D2 is a poor choice for athletes, research shows - Science Daily, 1/28/14 - "taking vitamin D2 supplements decreased levels of vitamin D3 in the body and resulted in higher muscle damage after intense weight lifting ... When the sun hits our skin, it turns into vitamin D3 ... High vitamin D2 levels are not a normal experience for the human body"
  • Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may increase risk of severe preeclampsia - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "researchers studied blood samples collected from 700 pregnant women who later developed preeclampsia in an effort to examine a woman's vitamin D status during pregnancy and her risk of developing preeclampsia ... also studied blood samples from 3,000 mothers who did not develop preeclampsia ... vitamin D sufficiency was associated with a 40 percent reduction in risk of severe preeclampsia. But there was no relationship between vitamin D and mild preeclampsia" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Slow Multiple Sclerosis, Study Suggests - WebMD, 1/20/14 - "For the study, researchers measured vitamin D levels in 465 patients with signs of MS who took part in a trial designed to study interferon beta-1b treatment. For the next five years, patients underwent MRI scans so the researchers could track brain lesions associated with the disease ... During the first year of follow-up, increases of 50 nmol/L of vitamin D were associated with a 57 percent lower risk of developing new brain lesions ... In addition, patients had a 57 percent lower risk of relapse ... They also had a 25 percent lower yearly increase in T2 lesion size (these hallmarks of MS appear as bright spots on an MRI) and a 0.41 percent lower yearly loss in brain size over the course of the study" - [Science Daily]
  • Higher vitamin D levels associated with better cognition, mood in Parkinson's disease patients - Science Daily, 1/16/14 - "higher plasma vitamin D levels were associated with lower symptom severity, better cognition, and less depression in the entire group, but the relationships were even stronger in those who were not demented ... For the entire group, significant negative associations were found between vitamin D levels and disease severity ... Mean vitamin D3 levels were higher in those who were not demented"
  • Vitamin D supplements reduce pain in fibromyalgia sufferers - Science Daily, 1/17/14 - "30 women with FMS with low serum calcifediol levels (below 32ng/ml) were randomized to a treatment or control group. The goal for the treatment group was to achieve serum calcifediol levels between 32 and 48ng/ml for 20 weeks via oral cholecalciferol supplements ... Twenty-four weeks after supplementation was stopped, a marked reduction in the level of perceived pain occurred in the treatment group. Between the first and the 25th week on supplementation, the treatment group improved significantly on a scale of physical role functioning, while the placebo group remained unchanged. The treatment group also scored significantly better on a Fibromalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) on the question of "morning fatigue.""
  • Geriatrics Society Guidelines: Vitamin D May Prevent Falls - Medscape, 1/10/14 - "Calcium absorption, healthy bone density, and physical function all require adequate vitamin D levels, and calcium is also vital for bone health. In addition, low Vitamin D levels are linked to muscle weakness, loss of bone strength, and falls and fractures ... For the population of older adults, a total average daily intake from all sources (diet, supplement, and sunlight) of 4000 IU will ensure that 90% of the population will achieve serum 25(OD) D levels of 30 ng/mL ... This is the serum level that will maximize the protection from falls and fractures that vitamin D can provide ... To maximize absorption, the vitamin D supplements should be taken with meals that provide some fat or oils ... clinicians generally do not need to measure vitamin D levels in patients receiving adequate supplementation"
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels in Pregnancy Could Help Babies Become Stronger - Science Daily, 1/3/14 - "Low vitamin D status has been linked to reduced muscle strength in adults and children, but little is known about how variation in a mother's status during pregnancy affects her child ... vitamin D levels were measured in 678 mothers in the later stages of pregnancy ... When the children were four years old, grip strength and muscle mass were measured. Results showed that the higher the levels of vitamin D in the mother, the higher the grip strength of the child, with an additional, but less pronounced association between mother's vitamin D and child's muscle mass" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Fatal CVD - Medscape, 12/23/13 - "Even after adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking and physical activity, vitamin D deficiency still conferred a significant 27% increased risk for total CVD, and a 62% increased risk for fatal CVD ... Individuals with low vitamin D levels also had a significant 36% increased risk of total CHD and a nonsignificant 33% increased risk of total stroke"
  • Calcium + Vitamin D: Surprises From Long-term Follow-up - Medscape, 12/11/13 - "the analyses that were limited to adherent women who were taking at least 80% of their study pills compared with the women who were taking at least 80% of their placebo pills showed a statistically significant 29% reduction in the risk for hip fracture ... Also shown in the new report is that with longer-term follow-up, a statistically significant reduction in in situ breast cancer emerged -- a 13% reduction overall ... In terms of all cancers, among the women who had low baseline intake of vitamin D, there was a statistically significant 9% reduction in total cancer with supplementation, and also a marginally significant 9% reduction in all-cause mortality"
  • Vitamin D decreases pain in women with type 2 diabetes, depression - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Researchers in this study tested the efficacy of weekly vitamin D2 supplementation (50,000 IUs) for six months on depression in women with type 2 diabetes. Depression significantly improved following supplementation. In addition, 61 percent of patients reported shooting or burning pain in their legs and feet (neuropathic pain) and 74 percent reported numbness and tingling in their hands, fingers, and legs (sensory pain) at the beginning of the study. Researchers found a significant decrease in neuropathic and sensory pain at three and six months following vitamin D2 supplementation"
  • New study suggests low vitamin D causes damage to brain - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine, the UK study showed that middle-aged rats that were fed a diet low in vitamin D for several months developed free radical damage to the brain, and many different brain proteins were damaged as identified by redox proteomics. These rats also showed a significant decrease in cognitive performance on tests of learning and memory" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Onset of Psychosis - Medscape, 11/1/13 - "A study of almost 140 participants in the United Kingdom showed that those who were presenting to a psychiatric in-patient facility with an FEP had significantly lower levels of vitamin D than did their age-matched, healthy peers ... What surprised us was the degree of difference between the patients and their matched controls, with patients being nearly 3 times as likely to have full-blown vitamin D deficiency ... The study is published in the November issue of Schizophrenia Research"
  • Low vitamin D levels raise anemia risk in children - Science Daily, 10/21/13 - "their results are not proof of cause and effect, but rather evidence of a complex interplay between low vitamin D levels and hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein in red blood cells. The investigators say several mechanisms could account for the link between vitamin D and anemia, including vitamin D's effects on red blood cell production in the bone marrow, as well as its ability to regulate immune inflammation, a known catalyst of anemia ... researchers studied blood samples from more than 10,400 children, tracking levels of vitamin D and hemoglobin. Vitamin D levels were consistently lower in children with low hemoglobin levels compared with their non-anemic counterparts, the researchers found" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D does not contribute to kidney stones - Science Daily, 10/17/13 - "a study of 2,012 participants -- published in the American Journal of Public Health -found no statistically relevant association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) serum level in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and the incidence of kidney stones"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency Prevalent in Psychiatric Patients - Medscape, 7/22/13 - "Among the patients, 75% had vitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/mL, generally considered by groups, including the American College of Physicians, to represent insufficiency ... Vitamin D insufficiency may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of mental illness through interactions that affect cellular mechanisms, which eventually diverge into different clinically observed phenotypes ... as many as 63% of patients with insufficient vitamin D levels were not treated with supplementation ... Physicians who work in those units should make sure vitamin D screening and evaluation is part of routine evaluation of patients, not necessarily because it may be causative of psychiatric symptoms but because there are a lot of conditions that are associated with vitamin D deficiency — osteoporosis, diabetes, and some other medical problems that are also relatively common in patients with psychiatric illnesses"
  • Too Little Vitamin D May Hasten Disability as You Age - WebMD, 7/17/13 - "It's estimated that as many as 90 percent of older people are vitamin D-deficient ... Among participants aged 65 to 88, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were 1.7 times as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels. Among participants aged 55 to 65, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Accelerated Aging of Bones - Science Daily, 7/10/13 - "collected samples of iliac crest bone cores from 30 participants, half of whom were deficient in vitamin D and showed early signs of osteomalacia ... while vitamin D-deficient subjects had less overall mineralization due to a reduction of mineralized bone, underneath the new non-mineralized surfaces, the existing bone was actually more heavily mineralized, and displayed the structural characteristics -- mature collagen molecules and mineral crystals -- of older and more brittle bone ... vitamin D deficiency increases both the initiation and propagation of cracks by 22- to 31-percent"
  • Vitamin D improves mood and blood pressure in women with diabetes - Science Daily, 6/25/13 - "The pilot study included 46 women who were an average age of 55 years, had diabetes an average of 8 years and insufficient blood levels of vitamin D (18 ng/ml). They took a weekly dose (50,000 International Units) of vitamin D ... After six months, their vitamin D blood levels reached sufficient levels (average 38 ng/ml) and their moods improved significantly. For example, in a 20-question depression symptom survey, scores decreased from 26.8 at the beginning of the study (indicating moderate depression) to 12.2 at six months (indicating no depression. (The depression scale ranges from 0 to 60, with higher numbers indicating more symptoms of depression.) ... Blood pressure also improved, with the upper number decreasing from 140.4 mm Hg to 132.5 mm Hg. And their weight dropped from an average of 226.1 pounds to 223.6 pounds"
  • Findings emphasize importance of vitamin D in pregnancy - Science Daily, 6/22/13 - "While current studies suggest that around a fifth (19 per cent) of a newborn baby's supply or deficiency of vitamin D comes directly from its mother, experts from Kingston's School of Life Sciences have discovered that the figure is, in fact, almost three times as high at 56 per cent ... focused on 120 samples taken from 60 Greek mothers and their babies ... Although the Mediterranean nation enjoys more hours of sunshine than the United Kingdom, the research revealed that many of the mothers had low levels of vitamin D ... the type of vitamin D commonly measured in blood tests was not as reliable an indicator of vitamin D activity as other strands. They went on to discover that two epimer forms, previously thought to be unimportant, influenced levels in babies"
  • Vitamin D supplementation may delay precocious puberty in girls - Science Daily, 6/17/13 - "Among girls, puberty generally begins between the ages of 10 and 14 ... Precocious puberty is diagnosed in girls when sexual development begins before the age of 8 ... girls with precocious puberty were significantly more likely than those with age-appropriate development to have a severe vitamin D deficiency. Among the precocious puberty group, 44 percent had a severe deficiency in vitamin D, compared to 21 percent of the group with age-appropriate physical development"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With GI and Ear Infections - Medscape, 6/12/13 - "measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a random sample of 475 children (mean +/- standard deviation age: 8.9 +/- 1.6 years) and followed them for an academic year ... VDD was associated with increased rates of diarrhea with vomiting (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.53) and earache/discharge with fever (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 4.44). VDD was not significantly related to cough with fever" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Genetic Research Clarifies Link Between Hypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "Low levels of vitamin D can trigger hypertension ... those with high concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) had reduced blood pressure and therefore a reduced risk of hypertension ... for every 10% increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, there was a 8.1% decrease in the risk of developing hypertension"
  • Hepatitis B Viral Levels May Soar When Vitamin D Drops - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "They analyzed serum samples from treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis who visited the outpatient liver clinic of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital in Frankfurt, Germany from January 2009 to December 2012 ... 25(OH)D3 and HBV DNA serum levels showed a significant, inverse correlation ... HBV DNA was the strongest determinant of low 25(OH)D3 serum concentration in our cohort"
  • Extra Vitamin D May Ease Crohn's Symptoms, Study Finds - WebMD, 5/20/13 - "Extra vitamin D "was associated with significantly less physical, emotional and general fatigue, greater quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living," ... evaluated 27 patients who had Crohn's in remission. (Even in remission, fatigue and quality of life can be problematic.) The patients were assigned to take either 2,000 IUs (international units) of vitamin D a day or a dummy vitamin for three months"
  • Preterm infants may need 800 IU of vitamin D3 per day - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Recommendations from medical organizations on how much vitamin D should be given to preemies range from 400 IU to 1000 IU per day. This lack of consensus prompted researchers from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, to conduct the largest study to date on vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants ... The infants then were randomly assigned to receive either 800 IU or 400 IU of oral vitamin D3 ... vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) ... After supplementation, the prevalence of VDI at 40 weeks was 43 percent lower in the 800 IU group than the 400 IU group (38 percent vs. 67 percent). In addition, VDI was significantly lower in the 800 IU group when the infants were 3 months old (12 percent vs. 35 percent)"
  • Sunshine hormone, vitamin D, may offer hope for treating liver fibrosis - Science Daily, 4/25/13 - "The Evans lab discovered a genetic switch through which vitamin D-related ligands such as calcitriol, a hormonally active form of the vitamin, can put the brakes on fibrosis. "Preclinical results suggest the 'vitamin D brake' is highly efficacious and led us to believe that the time is right to consider a trial in the context of chronic liver disease,""
  • Vitamin D may reduce risk of uterine fibroids - Science Daily, 4/15/13 - "Women who had sufficient amounts of vitamin D were 32 percent less likely to develop fibroids than women with insufficient vitamin D ... Those with more than 20 nanograms per milliliter of 25-hydroxy D were categorized as sufficient, though some experts think even higher levels may be required for good health"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes - Science Daily, 3/27/13 - "researchers from the University of Calgary in Canada carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of all existing evidence on the effect of vitamin D concentration on pregnancy and birth outcomes ... pregnant women with low levels of 5-OH vitamin D were more likely to develop gestational diabetes (odds ratio of 0.79), had an increased chance of developing preeclampsia (odds ratio of 0.65) and an increased chance of giving birth to a baby small for gestational age (odds ratio of 0.57)"
  • Potential immune benefits of strong vitamin D status in healthy individuals - Science Daily, 3/20/13 - "improvement in the vitamin D status of healthy adults significantly impacts genes involved with a number of biologic pathways associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. While previous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for the aforementioned diseases, these results go a step further and provide direct evidence that improvement in vitamin D status plays a large role in improving immunity and lowering the risk for many diseases"
  • Vitamin D replacement improves muscle efficiency - Science Daily, 3/18/13 - "Researchers from Newcastle University ... investigated phosphocreatine recovery times in patients with vitamin D deficiency. They employed a non-invasive magnetic resonance scan to measure phosphocreatine dynamics in response to exercise in the calf muscles of 12 patients with severe vitamin D deficiency before and after treatment with vitamin D ... phosphocreatine recovery significantly improved after the patients took a fixed dose of oral vitamin D for 10-12 weeks (average phosphocreatine recovery half time decreased from 34.4sec to 27.8sec, p<0.001). All patients reported an improvement in symptoms of fatigue following supplementation. In a parallel study, the group demonstrated that low Vitamin D levels were associated with reduced mitochondrial function"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Tied to Lower Blood Pressure in Blacks - WebMD, 3/15/13 -"vitamin D may lower blood pressure by causing blood vessels to relax, allowing for more and easier blood flow ... Forman's team randomly assigned 250 black participants to one of three doses of vitamin D supplements or an inactive placebo ... those taking 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day saw their systolic blood pressure drop by 0.7 mm Hg. For those taking 2,000 IU, the drop was 3.4 mm Hg, and for those taking 4,000 IU, systolic pressure dropped by 4 mm Hg ... those receiving the placebo saw their systolic blood pressure rise by 1.7 mm Hg, the researchers noted ... Endocrine Society committee guidelines recommend that adults take 1,500 to 2,000 units of vitamin D daily" - [Abstract]
  • Effects of Vitamin D on Immune Disorders - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "For a long time, VD was regarded as an essential factor only in generation (in infancy) and maintenance (primarily in postmenopausal women) of bone mineralization but hardly anything more. However, during the last 10–15 years, so many new studies have been published on the extraskeletal effects of VD. They encompass three fields: a basically inhibitory effect on deleterious immune reactions, which facilitate the production of certain endogenous antimicrobial agents such as cathelicidin and defensins, which allegedly provide protection against a wide range of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and common influenza, and inhibit of carcinogenesis, primarily in the colon, breast, prostate gland and so on. In view of the large amount of new data only the first topic has been reviewed in this paper. As discussed above, VD has been shown to be involved in the prevention of certain pathological immune reactions leading to various autoimmune disorders (Type 1 diabetes, colitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and graft rejection) and asthma (and other atopic diseases), and even in COPD, which is not regarded as an autoimmune disease"
  • Vitamin D, omega-3 may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Our new study sheds further light on a possible role for nutritional substances such as vitamin D3 and omega-3 in boosting immunity to help fight Alzheimer's ... The team incubated the immune cells overnight with amyloid-beta. They added either an active form of vitamin D3 called 1alpha,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 or an active form of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA called resolvin D1 to some of the cells to gauge the effect they had on inflammation and amyloid-beta absorption ... Both 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and resolvin D1 improved the ability of the Alzheimer's disease patients' macrophages to gobble-up amyloid-beta, and they inhibited the cell death that is induced by amyloid-beta. Researchers observed that each nutrition molecule utilized different receptors and common signaling pathways to do this"
  • Low vitamin D levels may increase risk of Type 1 diabetes - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "researchers conducted a prospective case-control study of U.S. military personnel on active duty, using blood samples from the Department of Defense Serum Repository, which contains more than 40 million samples collected from 8 million military personnel since the mid-1980s ... The researchers found that white, non-Hispanic, healthy young adults with higher serum levels (>75 nmol/L) of vitamin D had about half the risk of developing type 1 diabetes than those with the lowest levels of vitamin D (<75 nmol/L) ... The risk of type 1 diabetes appears to be increased even at vitamin D levels that are commonly regarded as normal, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the population could benefit from increased vitamin D intake ... Whereas it is premature to recommend universal use of vitamin D supplements for prevention of type 1 diabetes, the possibility that many cases could be prevented by supplementation with 1,000-4,000 IU/day, which is largely considered safe, is enticing"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to high risk of premenopausal breast cancer - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "women whose serum vitamin D level was low during the three-month period just before diagnosis had approximately three times the risk of breast cancer as women in the highest vitamin D group ... this new study points to the possibility of a relevant window of time for cancer prevention in the last three months preceding tumor diagnosis -a time physiologically critical to the growth of the tumor ... this is likely to be the point at which the tumor may be most actively recruiting blood vessels required for tumor growth ... Based on these data, further investigation of the role of vitamin D in reducing incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, particularly during the late phases of its development, is warranted ... A 2011 meta-analysis by Garland and colleagues estimated that a serum level of 50 ng/ml is associated with 50 percent lower risk of breast cancer. While there are some variations in absorption, those who consume 4000 IU per day of vitamin D from food or a supplement normally would reach a serum level of 50 ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D Holds Promise in Battling a Deadly Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 1/22/13 - "triple-negative breast cancer ... Importantly, vitamin D plays a role in turning off this pathway, providing a safe and cost-effective strategy to fight these types of tumors ... In previous research, Gonzalo's team showed that vitamin D inhibits CTSL-mediated degradation of 53BP1 in non-tumor cells, as efficiently as specific CTSL inhibitors. This time, they found that treatment of BRCA1-deficient tumor cells with vitamin D restores high levels of 53BP1, which results in increased genomic instability and reduced proliferation. Importantly, their evidence suggests that vitamin D treatment might restore the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in patients who become resistant ... In the future, women with triple-negative breast cancer may benefit from a treatment that includes vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D and Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medscape, 1/21/13 - "It appears that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with RA, and that vitamin D deficiency may be linked to disease severity in RA. As vitamin D deficiency has been linked to diffuse musculoskeletal pain, these results have therapeutic implications. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed both for the prevention of osteoporosis as well as for pain relief in patients with RA"
  • Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Headache - Medscape, 1/8/13 - "the incidence of nonmigrainous headache was 20% higher in participants who had the lowest levels of serum 25(OH)D than in those with the highest levels ... The Tromsø Study began in 1974"
  • Significant link found between daytime sleepiness and vitamin D - Science Daily, 12/14/12 - "progressively higher levels of daytime sleepiness were correlated inversely with progressively lower levels of vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D can help infection-prone patients avoid respiratory tract infection - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "researchers examined whether treatment with vitamin D can prevent and relieve respiratory tract infections in particularly infection-prone patients. All the 140 participants from the Immunodeficiency Unit had symptoms of disease in their respiratory tracts for at least 42 days prior to the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which received vitamin D in relatively high doses, the other a placebo. They were also asked to keep a diary recording their state of health every day during the year-long study period ... The results show that symptoms of respiratory tract infection declined by almost a quarter and the use of antibiotics by almost half. Vitamin D treatment was also tolerated well by all patients and gave no serious side-effects"
  • Mother’s vitamin D level linked to birth weight - Science Daily, 12/10/12 - "We found that a mother's vitamin D level, in the first or second trimester of pregnancy, was related to the normal growth of babies who delivered at term ... If a mother was vitamin D deficient, the birth weight of her baby was 46 g lower after accounting for other characteristics of the mom. Also if moms were vitamin D deficient in the first trimester, they had twice the risk of delivering a baby that suffered from growth restriction during the pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Risk for Dental Caries - Medscape, 12/4/12 - "There have been 3 studies conducted recently ... They were very favorable, but they increased vitamin D levels by low amounts through full-spectrum lighting, making it unclear if the caries reduction was due to vitamin D or due to the pineal gland activation"
  • Vitamin D tied to women's cognitive performance - Science Daily, 11/30/12 - "Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease ... low vitamin D levels among older women are associated with higher odds of global cognitive impairment and a higher risk of global cognitive decline ... Slinin's group based its analysis on 6,257 community-dwelling older women who had vitamin D levels measured during the Study of Osteopathic Fractures" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D linked to lower rates of tooth decay - Science Daily, 11/27/12 - "The review, published in the December issue of Nutrition Reviews, encompassed 24 controlled clinical trials, spanning the 1920s to the 1980s, on approximately 3,000 children in several countries. These trials showed that vitamin D was associated with an approximately 50 percent reduction in the incidence of tooth decay"
  • High Vitamin D levels in pregnancy may protect mother more than baby against multiple sclerosis - Science Daily, 11/19/12 - "scientists reviewed information about 291,500 blood samples from 164,000 people collected since 1975 in the northern half of Sweden ... women who had high levels of vitamin D in their blood had a 61 percent lower risk of developing MS, compared to those who had low levels of vitamin D in their blood ... No association was found between the mother's vitamin D level and whether her child would later develop MS ... our study suggests the protective effect may start in later pregnancy and beyond"
  • Month of birth effect: Give pregnant women vitamin D supplements to ward off multiple sclerosis, say researchers - Science Daily, 11/14/12 - "The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is highest in the month of April, and lowest in October ... there is now a strong case for vitamin D supplementation of pregnant women in countries where ultraviolet light levels are low between October and March ... The analysis indicated a significant excess risk of 5% among those born in April compared with what would be expected. Similarly, the risk of MS was 5 to 7% lower among those born between October and November, the data indicated"
  • Vitamin D deficiency linked to type 1 diabetes - Science Daily, 11/15/12 - "The six-year study of blood levels of nearly 2,000 individuals suggests a preventive role for vitamin D3 in this disease ... This study used samples from millions of blood serum specimens frozen by the Department of Defense Serum Registry for disease surveillance ... Based mainly on results of this study, Garland estimates that the level of 25(OH)D needed to prevent half the cases of type 1 diabetes is 50 ng/ml ... While there are a few conditions that influence vitamin D metabolism, for most people, 4000 IU per day of vitamin D3 will be needed to achieve the effective levels"
  • Vitamin D may prevent clogged arteries in diabetics - Science Daily, 11/13/12 - "blood vessels are less like to clog in people with diabetes who get adequate vitamin D. But in patients with insufficient vitamin D, immune cells bind to blood vessels near the heart, then trap cholesterol to block those blood vessels ... in diabetes patients with low vitamin D -- less than 30 nanograms per milliliter of blood -- the macrophage cells were more likely to adhere to the walls of blood vessels, which triggers cells to get loaded with cholesterol, eventually causing the vessels to stiffen and block blood flow ... We looked at blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes control, body weight and race. But only vitamin D levels correlated to whether these cells stuck to the blood vessel wall"
  • Vitamin D could hold vital key to arresting development of Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 11/8/12 - "Alzheimer's patients who were not using medication had very poor stores of vitamin D2 -- the type originating from food such as oily fish, rather than that obtained from exposure to the sun. "The vitamin was either non-existent or in such low quantities that it could barely be measured," he explained. "In comparison, people in the study who were either being treated with drugs to control their Alzheimer's or who didn't have the condition at all showed far higher levels.""
  • Vitamin D as an Adjunct Therapy for Patients With T2DM: Abstract and Introduction - Medscape, 11/8/12 - "In summary, the present interventional study performed in an Arab population suggests that daily 2000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation in a vitamin D deficient T2DM population is associated with measurable cardioprotective indices. Supplementation to achieve higher levels of vitamin D remains a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM patients" - See Figure 1 in that article.
  • Lack of vitamin D contributes to pain in black Americans with knee osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "vitamin D deficiency may be one of many factors that account for increased pain in older black Americans with knee osteoarthritis (OA) ... During the last decade medical evidence has uncovered the importance of vitamin D, not only as a vitamin that aids in calcium absorption, but as a powerful hormone with numerous functions throughout the body. In fact, studies have found that a decreased vitamin D level reduces immunity and may contribute to diseases such as cancer and diabetes ... not everyone is aware of what factors decrease vitamin D and how low levels could contribute to health issues, including chronic pain"
  • High levels of vitamin D in plasma protects against bladder cancer - Science Daily, 10/20/12 - "The authors of the study took blood samples from more than 2,000 individuals -- including patients with bladder cancer and control subjects free from the disease -- in 18 Spanish hospitals, making of this the largest study carried out to-date in this field. "We have seen that those subjects with the highest levels of 25(OH)D3, a stable form of vitamin D in the blood, are those who showed the lowest risk of suffering bladder cancer. These results indicate that high levels of this vitamin are associated with protection from the illness or, similarly, that low levels are associated with a higher risk of suffering from it," says Malats"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to more severe multiple sclerosis symptoms - Science Daily, 10/2/12 - "For the study, Mowry and her colleagues used data from a five-year study of 469 people with MS. Each year, beginning in 2004, researchers drew blood from, and performed MRIs on, the brains of study participants, looking for both new lesions and active spots of disease, which lit up when a contrast dye was used. The investigators found that each 10-nanograms-per-milliliter increase in vitamin D levels was associated with a 15 percent lower risk of new lesions and a 32 percent lower risk of spots of active disease, which require treatment with medication to reduce likelihood of permanent nerve damage. Higher vitamin D levels were also associated with lower subsequent disability"
  • Low levels of vitamin D are associated with mortality in older adults - Science Daily, 10/2/12 - "We observed vitamin D insufficiency (defined as blood levels <20 ng/ml), in one third of our study participants. This was associated with nearly a 50 percent increase in the mortality rate in older adults"
  • Largest Study to Date Links Low Vitamin D to CVD Risk - Medscape, 9/26/12 - "The scientists compared the 5% lowest levels of vitamin D (<5 nmol/L) with the 50% highest levels (>50 nmol/L). In Denmark--where foods are not fortified with vitamin D--it is currently recommended to have a vitamin-D status of at least 50 nmol/L, they note ... they found a stepwise increase in risk: those with the lowest levels of vitamin D had a 40% increased risk of ischemic heart disease, a 64% higher chance of an MI, a 57% increased risk of early death, and an 81% higher likelihood of fatal ischemic heart disease/MI"
  • Vitamin D in Pregnancy May Be Key for Baby's Brain - WebMD, 9/20/12 - "researchers measured the vitamin D levels of pregnant women mainly during their second trimester. At 14 months, their babies underwent an approximately hour-long battery of standardized tests that measured their mental development and their psychomotor skills, or their ability to control their physical movements ... babies whose mothers had an optimal level of vitamin D scored slightly higher than babies of mothers who were D deficient ... Even here in L.A., where it’s often sunny, people don’t get enough sun, because of smog, because they stay indoors, or because they use a lot of sunblock"
  • Cord Blood Vitamin D Linked to Air Pollution - Medscape, 9/19/12 - "Associations between estimated maternal air pollution exposure and newborn serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were significant in all trimesters, but especially so in the third ... It is not clear how in utero exposure to urban air pollutants might contribute to subsequent vitamin D deficiency in cord blood serum. High levels of air pollution, by reducing the amount of ultraviolet B solar radiation reaching the ground, could reduce cutaneous vitamin D synthesis"
  • High doses of vitamin D help tuberculosis patients recover more quickly - Science Daily, 9/3/12 - "high doses of the vitamin Can dampen down the body's inflammatory response to infection, enabling patients to recover faster, with less damage to their lungs ... their results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might help patients recover better from other diseases such as pneumonia ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB, was cleared from the patients' sputum (the phlegm coughed up from deep in the lungs) faster in those who were taking vitamin D, taking an average of 23 days to become undetectable under the microscope compared to 36 days in the patients who were taking the placebo"
  • Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Medscape, 8/9/12 - "Current understanding points to beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with IBD in terms of bone and muscle preservation, reduction in inflammation and potentially reduced risk of cancer in patients with IBD. However, these beneficial effects must be balanced with potential adverse effects in the clinical setting. The precise thresholds of serum 25(OH) vitamin D for beneficial and potentially adverse effects remain poorly defined in the literature. Until further evidence is available, we recommend to aim for a serum 25(OH) vitamin D level of 75 nmol/L. In a condition with a propensity to affect young people and a disproportionate effect on quality of life and productivity, the potential advent of inexpensive supplementary therapies presents an attractive option for ongoing research"
  • Vitamin D may protect lung function in smokers - Science Daily, 7/20/12 - "We found that vitamin D sufficiency (defined as serum vitamin D levels of >20 ng/ml) had a protective effect on lung function and the rate of lung function decline in smokers"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and lung function in asthmatic children - Science Daily, 7/13/12 - "In our study of 1,024 children with mild to moderate persistent asthma, those who were deficient in vitamin D levels showed less improvement in pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after one year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids than children with sufficient levels of vitamin D ... These results indicate that vitamin D supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory properties of corticosteroids in patients with asthma"
  • Association Between Plasma 25-OH Vitamin D and Testosterone - Medscape, 7/13/12 - "In conclusion, the present study confirms previous findings of a positive association between vitamin D status as reflected by 25(OH) vitamin D levels and testosterone levels, although in our study, this finding was not supported by parallel seasonal variation patterns of 25(OH) vitamin D and testosterone. Whether these cross-sectional findings reflect a causal relationship deserves further scientific examination"
  • Low Vitamin D May Blunt Effectiveness of Asthma Treatment - Medscape, 7/13/12 - "In asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids, vitamin D deficiency is associated with poorer lung function than [in] children with vitamin D insufficiency or sufficiency ... the investigators analyzed data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, a multicenter trial of 1041 children diagnosed with mild to moderate persistent asthma ... Among children being treated with corticosteroids, those who were vitamin D deficient were less likely than other children taking the same drug to show big improvements in prebronchodilator FEV1 scores after 12 months of treatment"
  • High-dose vitamin D prevents fractures in elderly - MSNBC, 7/5/12 - "A new analysis of nearly a dozen studies testing vitamin D in older individuals has concluded that it takes a daily dose of at least 800 international units (IU) to consistently prevent broken bones ... the clearest impact was seen in nursing home patients, who were given the highest doses of vitamin D and regularly took their pills because the nurses were giving them ... Just as important is the discovery that too much calcium - more than 1,000 mg per day - may dilute vitamin D's benefits to bones, she said. Because many supplements contain 1,000 mg, the calcium people get in their diets may send people over the limit ... "In the medical world, vitamin D seems like a very low priority. It may be the lack of lobbying for it, the fact that it costs almost nothing" and some people think it's too good to be true, she said. "But the data are impressive.""
  • Vitamin D deficiency common among adolescents evaluated for weight-loss surgery - Science Daily, 6/26/12 - "In one of the first studies of its kind, Censani and her co-investigators found that more than half of adolescents undergoing evaluation for weight-loss surgery were vitamin D deficient, and 8 percent had severe deficiencies. Slightly less than one-fifth had adequate vitamin D levels. Patients with the highest BMIs were the most likely to be vitamin deficient ... African Americans were the most likely to be vitamin D deficient, while Caucasians were the least likely to have a deficiency"
  • Treating vitamin D deficiency may improve depression - Science Daily, 6/25/12 - "Women with moderate to severe depression had substantial improvement in their symptoms of depression after they received treatment for their vitamin D deficiency ... Vitamin D may have an as-yet-unproven effect on mood, and its deficiency may exacerbate depression ... Pathak presented the research findings in three women, who ranged in age from 42 to 66. All had previously diagnosed major depressive disorder, also called clinical depression, and were receiving antidepressant therapy ... After treatment, all three women reported significant improvement in their depression, as found using the Beck Depression Inventory"
  • Vitamin D May Help Breast Cancer Survivors Stay on Track - Medscape, 6/25/12 - "women taking 30,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 weekly on starting letrozole therapy achieved significant benefits in terms of fatigue, joint pain, and disability from joint pain ... Aromatase inhibitors are one of the most important endocrine treatments for breast cancer, but the problem is that about half of the women have severe musculoskeletal pain from these agents, and 18% to 30% report fatigue, [resulting in] a discontinuation rate of about 10% each year ... pain relievers are the only available treatment option ... Using the Simple Descriptive Pain Intensity scale for analysis, only 37% of women receiving vitamin D3 supplementation reported a musculoskeletal event (joint pain, disability from joint pain, or resulting discontinuation of letrozole) at 6 months compared with 51% of those in the placebo group ... In addition, significantly fewer patients receiving vitamin D3 supplementation reported adverse quality of life events, including worsening of pain, disability, or fatigue (42% vs 72%; P < .001)"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Weight Gain in Older Women - WebMD, 6/25/12 - "Of more than 4,600 women aged 65 and older, those with insufficient levels of vitamin D in their blood gained about two pounds more than those who had adequate levels of the vitamin during a five-year study ... Besides weight gain, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to a host of diseases and conditions, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and some autoimmune disorders ... The Institute of Medicine recently raised the recommended daily intake to 600 IU for people aged 1-70 and to 800 IU for adults older than 70. Other groups set the bar even higher"
  • Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis May Benefit From Vitamin D - Medscape, 6/22/12 - "Significant protective factors were hemoglobin levels above 12 g/dL and the treatment with oral active vitamin D ... patients receiving oral active vitamin D had significantly better outcomes in terms of avoiding peritonitis over time compared with patients who were not taking it ... oral active vitamin D reduced the risk of developing peritonitis by 57% ... oral active vitamin D was associated with a 54% decreased risk for all-cause death ... The biggest problem in studying the effects of vitamin D, he said, is that it is "too cheap...so there is no company interested in this kind of study. But this should be stimulated by authorities, I think. It's a cheap drug, and probably it is a very valuable one.""
  • Low Vitamin D in Diet Linked to Increased Stroke - Medscape, 6/20/12 - "Study participants included 7385 Japanese-American men who enrolled in the Honolulu Heart Program, a long-running, prospective, population-based observational study, between 1965 and 1968. They were 45 and 68 years old at the baseline examination and were followed through 1999 for stroke ... Age-adjusted rates of stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile (0 - 1.12 µg/day) compared with the highest quartile (4.13 - 211.60 µg/day)"
  • Vitamin D with calcium shown to reduce mortality in elderly - Science Daily, 6/15/12 - "The findings from the study found that the reduced mortality was not due to a lower number of fractures, but represents a beneficial effect beyond the reduced fracture risk ... This is the largest study ever performed on effects of calcium and vitamin D on mortality ... Our results showed reduced mortality in elderly patients using vitamin D supplements in combination with calcium, but these results were not found in patients on vitamin D alone ... pooled data from eight randomized controlled trials with more than 1,000 participants each. The patient data set was composed of nearly 90 percent women, with a median age of 70 years. During the three-year study, death was reduced by 9 percent in those treated with vitamin D with calcium ... Some studies have suggested calcium (with or without vitamin D) supplements can have adverse effects on cardiovascular health ... Although our study does not rule out such effects, we found that calcium with vitamin D supplementation to elderly participants is overall not harmful to survival, and may have beneficial effects on general health"
  • Health benefits of vitamin D dependent on type taken - Science Daily, 5/31/12 - "some foods are fortified with vitamin D. Fortification is usually with vitamin D2, as this is not derived from animals. However this new research, carried out by scientists from the University of Surrey, suggests that vitamin D3 is the more beneficial of the two types of vitamin D in raising the vitamin D levels in our blood when given as a supplement ... vitamin D3, the type of vitamin D found in foods including eggs and oily fish, is more effectively converted by the body into the hormone responsible for health benefits in humans ... The researchers analysed the results of 10 separate studies, involving over 1,000 people in total, comparing the health benefits of vitamin D2 and D3, and found "a clear favouring" of vitamin D3 supplements raising vitamin D serum levels in humans"
  • Older adults may need more vitamin D to prevent mobility difficulties, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/29/12 - "We observed about a 30 percent increased risk of mobility limitations for those older adults who had low levels of vitamin D, and almost a two-fold higher risk of mobility disability"
  • Children's body fat linked to Vitamin D insufficiency in mothers - Science Daily, 5/23/12 - "the children who were born to mothers who had low vitamin D status in pregnancy had more body fat when they were six years old. These differences could not be explained by other factors such as mother's weight gain in pregnancy, or how physically active the children were ... An interpretation of our data is that there could be programmed effects on the fetus arising from a lack of maternal vitamin D that remain with the baby and predispose him or her to gain excess body fat in later childhood"
  • Vitamin D blood level for reducing major medical risks in older adults identified, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/1/12 - "the researchers concluded that the risk of these disease events rose when the concentration of 25(OH)D fell below 20 ng/milliliter or 50 nmol/liter"
  • Vitamin D may protect against viral infections during the winter - Science Daily, 4/30/12 - "insufficient levels of vitamin D are related to a deficiency in our innate immune defenses that protect us from infections, neoplasias or autoimmune diseases. Since vitamin D levels decrease during autumn and winter when days are shorter and sunlight is relatively weak, this may explain why people are more prone to viral infection during these times. It also suggests that increased vitamin D intake, especially in older populations, could strengthen people's innate immunity against viral infections ... the researchers compared the changes in the blood levels of vitamin D among three groups of healthy subjects: young (age range: 20-30), middle (age range: 31-59), and elderly (age range: 60-86). They found decreased levels of vitamin D with aging, prompting researchers to compare whether such changes kept any relationship with toll-like receptor (TLR) expression measured on lymphocytes and monocytes and function after in vitro stimulation with specific ligands for each of the nine human TLRs and measurement of effector molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Specifically, they found that the TRL most affected by a vitamin D insufficiency is TLR7, which regulates the immune response against viruses"
  • Oral vitamin D supplements reduced levels of Ki67 in prostate cancer cells - Science Daily, 3/31/12 - "The results not only point to the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects the rate of prostate cancer growth, but also indicate that vitamin D may slow the growth of prostate cancer cells"
  • Asthma: Low Vitamin D Linked to High IgE, Need for Steroids - Medscape, 3/22/12 - "We suggest that supplementation with vitamin D should be done in patients with asthma, both adults and children, to lower steroid requirement and improve steroid response"
  • Sun Exposure Not Enough to Correct Vitamin D Deficiency - Medscape, 3/17/12 - "although "sunlight is a very reliable source of vitamin D, nutritional sources are clearly required and are, of course, much safer
  • Low Vitamin D Raises Mortality Risk in Nursing Home Patients - Medscape, 3/12/12 - "The first prospective cohort study to examine vitamin D deficiency and mortality among elderly female nursing home patients found that nearly all have 25(OH)D levels below the limits of normal, and that those with the lowest vitamin D levels were most likely to die within the next 27 months"
  • Scientists pinpoint how vitamin D may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 3/6/12 - "vitamin D3 may activate key genes and cellular signaling networks to help stimulate the immune system to clear the amyloid-beta protein ... in both Type I and Type II macrophages, the added 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 played a key role in opening a specific chloride channel called "chloride channel 3 (CLC3)," which is important in supporting the uptake of amyloid beta through the process known as phagocytosis. Curcuminoids activated this chloride channel only in Type I macrophages ... The scientists also found that 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 strongly helped trigger the genetic transcription of the chloride channel and the receptor for 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Type II macrophages"
  • Vitamin D May Decrease Risk for Crohn's Disease - Medscape, 3/1/12 - "An analysis of the data based on predefined plasma 25(OH)D levels showed that vitamin D–sufficient women (levels ≥ 30 ng/mL) were 62% less likely to be diagnosed with CD during the 22-year interval than those with deficient vitamin D levels (<20 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 - 0.97; Ptrend = .048)"
  • Vitamin D shrinks fibroid tumors in rats - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "Fibroids increased in size in the untreated rats, but, in the rats receiving vitamin D, the tumors had shrunk dramatically. On average, uterine fibroids in the group receiving vitamin D were 75 percent smaller than those in the untreated group ... he amount of vitamin D the rats received each day was equivalent to a human dose of roughly 1,400 international units"
  • Can Vitamin D Treat Pain? - Medscape, 2/27/12 - "Dysmenorrhea affects almost one half of menstruating women. The pelvic pain is believed to be triggered by excessive uterine production of prostaglandins, synthesized from omega-6 fatty acids before menses, that control vasoconstriction and uterine contractions ... vitamin D may act as an anti-inflammatory and may regulate the expression of key genes involved in the prostaglandin pathway, causing decreased biological activity of prostaglandins ... The women were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 300,000 IUs of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) or placebo 5 days before the time they expected to begin their next menstrual period ... After 2 months, baseline pain scores decreased 41% among women in the vitamin D group; there was no difference in scores among women taking placebo ... The 300,000 IU dose of vitamin D used in the study is probably harmless if taken every month or 2, and even perhaps every week, but it could cause hypercalcemia if taken daily"
  • Vitamin D3 may cut fat mass, boost heart health markers - Nutra USA, 2/24/12 - "daily dose of 1,000 International Units ... The present study has shown that although the daily intake of a 25 micrograms vitamin D3 supplement increases total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, it has a beneficial effect on HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I concentrations, apoA-I:apo B-100 and LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratios in overweight and obese women" - [Abstract]
  • How vitamin D inhibits inflammation - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis and prostate cancer, who are vitamin D deficient, may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to get their serum vitamin D levels above 30 nanograms/milliliter ... Cells incubated with no vitamin D and in solution containing 15 ng/ml of vitamin D produced high levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, major actors in the inflammatory response. Cells incubated in 30 ng/ml vitamin D and above showed significantly reduced response to the LPS. The highest levels of inflammatory inhibition occurred at 50 ng/ml"
  • Memo to pediatricians: Screen all kids for vitamin D deficiency, test those at high risk - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "Prolonged and untreated vitamin D deficiency can affect multiple organs and functions, including bone growth and density, metabolism, heart and immunity, but it rarely causes overt symptoms and often goes unnoticed ... Vitamin D deficiency in childhood can cause skeletal deformities, brittle bones, frequent fractures and lead to premature osteoporosis in later life. However emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in far more than bone health. Recent studies have found a link between low vitamin D levels and some cancers, heart disease, suppressed immunity and even premature death" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • More Evidence Links Low Vitamin D to Depression - Medscape, 2/13/12 - "One thing that complicates trials is that if you give someone vitamin D, it takes a long time for it to have much effect, as vitamin D levels go up and down very slowly; it probably wouldn't be a fast antidepressant"
  • Low Vitamin D in Pregnancy Linked to Language Problems in Children - WebMD, 2/13/12 - "A new study from Australia suggests that white women who had the lowest stores of vitamin D during their second trimester were nearly twice as likely to have a child with language difficulties than women with the highest blood concentrations"
  • Lower levels of sunlight exposure link to allergy and eczema in children, study suggests - Science Daily, 2/3/12 - "The report builds upon existing evidence that suggests exposure to the sun may play a role in rising levels of food allergy and eczema. Sunlight is important because it provides our body with the fuel to create vitamin D in the skin"
  • 70 percent of Europeans suffer from low vitamin D levels, experts say - Science Daily, 1/13/12 - "Europeans have suffered an alarming decrease in their levels of this vitamin. In their opinion, the ideal would be to maintain blood levels above 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D is essential to the immune system and processes such as calcium absorption"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to depression, psychiatrists report - Science Daily, 1/5/12 - "UT Southwestern researchers examined the results of almost 12,600 participants from late 2006 to late 2010. Dr. Brown and colleagues from The Cooper Institute found that higher vitamin D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of current depression, particularly among people with a prior history of depression. Low vitamin D levels were associated with depressive symptoms, particularly those with a history of depression, so primary care patients with a history of depression may be an important target for assessing vitamin D levels. The study did not address whether increasing vitamin D levels reduced depressive symptoms"
  • Calcium plus vitamin D may cut body fat levels: RCT data - Nutra USA, 12/16/11 - "Orange juice providing a daily 1050 mg dose of calcium and 300 IU vitamin D was associated with a significant reduction in visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults, compared with adults drinking a non-fortified juice ... For the new study, Dr Kaplan and his co-workers recruited 171 overweight and obese people with an average age of 40 to participate in their two 16-week parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. One trial involved the regular beverage and the second trial involved the reduced-energy (lite) version ... The test groups consumed three 240 mL glasses of the regular or lite orange juice per day. The total daily dose of calcium was 1050 mg and 100 IU vitamin D per serving. The control groups were given the same juices but without the addition of the vitamin and mineral ... the visceral adipose tissue in people consuming the regular fortified orange juice decreased by an average of 12.7 cm2, compared with only 1.3 cm2 in the control regular juice ... the lite fortified juice group displayed visceral adipose tissue reductions of 13.1 cm2 [2.03 square inches], compared with 6.4 cm2 [0.992 square inches] in the lite control group ... On the other hand, no differences between any of the groups were recorded in terms of average weight loss" - [Abstract] - Note: Don't confuse square inches with just inches.  Inches2 doesn't mean inches1.  Picture a two inch cube of water put into some kid of plastic belt that spreads around your waist area.
  • Vitamin D may slash pancreatic cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 12/14/11 - "Data from over 1,500 people collected over 14 years indicated that people with vitamin D insufficiency were at a 30% increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer, compared with people with adequate levels of the sunshine vitamin ... Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading causing of cancer death (about 37,500 per year) in the US" - [Abstract]
  • Low Vitamin D May Raise Diabetes Risk in Kids - WebMD, 12/5/11 - "The study included more than 400 obese kids and teens between the ages of 6 and 16, and 87 normal-weight children and teens ... Obese children were more than three times more likely than non-obese children to be vitamin D deficient, and both obesity and low vitamin D levels were associated with higher degrees of insulin resistance ... Obese children were also more likely than non-obese children to skip breakfast and drink more soda and juice, suggesting that these lifestyle factors may contribute to lower vitamin D levels ... current evidence suggests that vitamin D may help increase insulin production to help compensate for insulin resistance"
  • Low vitamin D levels may be associated with recurrent inflammatory spinal cord disease - Science Daily, 11/14/11 - "The study found that vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients who developed recurrent spinal cord disease. "Our findings suggest that there may be an association between lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with recurrent TM/NMO/NMO spectrum disorders as compared with their counterparts with monophasic disease," ... This is consistent with other recurrent autoimmune conditions and points to a common link between low vitamin D levels and immunologic dysregulation"
  • Spine Surgery Patients Need Adequate Vitamin D Levels - Medscape, 11/11/11 - "The mean vitamin D level in the study population was 28.6 +/- 13.0 ng/mL, and 27% of the patients were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) ... lthough a previous study showed inadequate vitamin D levels in 43% of patients undergoing orthopedic procedures, this is the first study to look solely at patients undergoing spine surgery ... To maintain bone health and normal calcium metabolism, the Institute of Medicine established a recommended daily allowance for vitamin D of 600 IU"
  • Vitamin D crucial in human immune response to tuberculosis, scientists find - Science Daily, 10/12/11 - "The team found that T cells, which are white blood cells that play a central role in immunity, release a protein called interferon-g that triggers communication between cells and directs infected immune cells to attack the invading tuberculosis bacteria. However, this activation requires sufficient levels of vitamin D to be effective ... Researchers next tested serum taken from blood samples in healthy humans, both with and without sufficient levels of vitamin D. They found that the immune response was not triggered in the serum with lower vitamin D levels, as is found in many African Americans. But, when adequate vitamin D was added to this deficient serum, the immune response was effectively activated ... vitamin D may help both innate and adaptive immunity, two systems that work synergistically together to fight infections"
  • Vitamin D deficiency common in cancer patients - Science Daily, 10/3/11 - "More than three-quarters of cancer patients have insufficient levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) and the lowest levels are associated with more advanced cancer ... Researchers are just starting to examine how vitamin D may impact specific features of cancer, such as the stage or extent of tumor spread, prognosis, recurrence or relapse of disease, and even sub-types of cancer"
  • Vitamin D could lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/4/11 - "New tests performed on participants of the KORA study have shown that people with a good supply of vitamin D have a lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, while individuals with lower concentrations of vitamin D in their blood have a higher risk. This effect could be attributable, amongst other things, to the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D"
  • Oral steroids linked to severe vitamin D deficiency in nationwide US study - Science Daily, 9/29/11 - "People taking oral steroids are twice as likely as the general population to have severe vitamin D deficiency ... When doctors write that prescription for steroids and they're sending the patients for lab tests, they should also get the vitamin D level measured"
  • Vitamin D deficiency linked with airway changes in children with severe asthma - Science Daily, 9/22/11 - "Children with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) may have poorer lung function and worse symptoms compared to children with moderate asthma, due to lower levels of vitamin D in their blood ... This study clearly demonstrates that low levels of vitamin D are associated with poorer lung function, increased use of medication, worse symptoms and an increase in the mass of airway smooth muscle in children with STRA"
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Dosing Strategies After Acute Hip Fracture - Medscape, 9/12/11 - "Our findings reveal that a simple daily 1,000 IU vitamin D3 dosing regimen may be as effective as a regimen that adds a loading dose of vitamin D2 to daily vitamin D3 for increasing 25-OHD levels as early as 4-weeks. However, more than 25% of all study patients taking 1,000 IU vitamin D3 (with or without the loading dose) still did not achieve the target 25-OHD level of at least 75 nmol/L. Future studies should examine higher daily doses of vitamin D3 (i.e. 2,000 IU) as well as the benefits of an additional loading dose in patients who are severely deficient"
  • ‘Most’ American children not getting enough vitamin D - Nutra USA, 8/30/11 - "The majority of American children are not getting sufficient vitamin D from sun exposure, even in summer months ... The researchers calculated average vitamin D production from sun exposure according to gender, age, skin type, clothing and the season for children living in the northern (45°N) and southern (35°N) US ... The results challenge conclusions by the American Academy of Dermatology, which states that people will still make “ample” vitamin D3 (at least 1,000 IU/day) because they get plenty of “casual” (everyday) exposure to UV out side" - [Abstract]
  • Confirmation that vitamin D acts as a protective agent against the advance of colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/16/11 - "A study conducted by VHIO researchers confirms that a lack of vitamin D increases the aggressiveness of colon cancer ... In light of these findings, chronic vitamin D deficiency represents a risk factor in the development of more aggressive colon tumours. Patients in the initial stages of colon cancer, the time when the VDR still has a substantial presence in the cells, could benefit from being treated with vitamin D3. However, this would not be useful in the advanced stages of the disease when the presence of the VDR is very much reduced"
  • Low vitamin D linked to earlier first menstruation - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "Researchers from the University of Michigan School of Public Health measured the blood vitamin D levels in 242 girls ages 5-12 from Bogota, Colombia, and followed them for 30 months. Girls low on vitamin D were twice as likely to start menstruation during the study than those with sufficient vitamin D ... Early menstruation is a risk factor for behavioral and psychosocial problems in teens. Also, girls who have an earlier menarche appear to have increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases and cancer -- particularly breast cancer, as adults"
  • Tufts-Harvard study builds vitamin D's anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 8/9/11 - "The study included 92 people with an average age of 57 and an average BMI of 32 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (2000 IU per day) or calcium carbonate (800 mg per day). Participants received either the vitamin D with or without calcium or calcium alone for 16 weeks ... At the end of the study, a measure of the function of beta-cells was improved in the people receiving vitamin D, with the so-called disposition index (a measure of beta cell function in the pancreas that includes measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity) improved by about 26 percent, compared with a decline of about 14 percent in the no-vitamin D group" - [Abstract]
  • Which Is Better: Vitamin D2 or D3? - Medscape, 7/29/11 - "In conclusion, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) are not bioequivalent and should not be considered interchangeable. Although few head-to-head trials exist, based on pharmacokinetic studies and limited clinical evidence, cholecalciferol is preferred over ergocalciferol. Because of its shorter half-life and decreased potency, this is especially relevant in the setting of severe deficiency, where high-dose ergocalciferol is often only given once weekly. Health professionals should encourage use of cholecalciferol over ergocalciferol in all patients without severe renal failure, either as a general supplement or as a treatment for vitamin D deficiency"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Atherosclerosis, Study Finds - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "They found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with both intima-media thickness (beta, -0.01 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .05) and maximal carotid plaque thickness (beta, -0.10 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .03) ... In a model containing traditional cardiac risk factors and indices of mineral metabolism, 25-hydroxyvitamin D accounted for 13% of the variance in both intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness"
  • Vitamin D relieves joint, muscle pain for breast cancer patients - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Rastelli's group recruited 60 patients who reported pain and discomfort associated with anastrozole, one of three FDA-approved aromatase inhibitors. The patients they studied also had low vitamin D levels. Half the group was randomly assigned to receive the recommended daily dose of vitamin D (400 international units) plus a 50,000-unit vitamin D capsule once a week. The other half received the daily dose of 400 units of vitamin D plus a weekly placebo. All subjects received 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily throughout the study ... patients receiving high-dose vitamin D every week reported significantly less musculoskeletal pain and also were less likely to experience pain that interfered with daily living"
  • Vitamin D can help elderly women survive, review suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "The eight-strong international team of researchers identified 50 randomised trials that together had 94,148 participants. They had a mean age of 74 years, and 79% were women. "Our analyses suggest that vitamin D3 reduces mortality by about 6%. This means that you need to give about 200 people vitamin D3 for around two years to save one additional life," ... There were no significant benefits of taking other forms of vitamin D such as vitamin D2, and the active forms of the vitamin, alfacalcidol or calcitriol. However, the researchers point out that they could only find much less data relating to these types of vitamin D and so these conclusions should be taken with caution ... alfacalcidol and calcitriol significantly increased the risk of hypercalcaemia, and vitamin D3 combined with calcium significantly increased the risk of kidney stones"
  • Vitamin D, calcium combo may halve melanoma risk some women - USATODAY.com, 6/29/11 - "The supplements were 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D daily ... Over about seven years of follow-up, the women taking the supplements who had had previous non-melanoma skin cancer reduced their risk of developing melanoma by 57 percent, compared with similar women not taking the supplements"
  • Vitamin D supplements found to be safe for healthy pregnant women - Science Daily, 6/24/11 - "Dr Hollis' team monitored the pregnancies of 350 women, from a variety of ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, who were all between 12 and 16 weeks into gestation. The women were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group received 400 IU of vitamin D per day, the second group received 2,000 IU per day and the third received 4,000 IU daily ... women who received the highest level of supplementation (4,000 IU per day) were more likely to achieve and sustain the desired level of circulating levels of vitamin D throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, the researchers found that pregnant women who received lower levels of vitamin D supplementation did not attain the threshold circulating level of the vitamin"
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 6/25/11 - "The mean follow-up of the 2039-person cohort was 3.2 years ... Participants with vitamin D levels in the highest tertile (median concentration, 30.1 ng/mL) had a hazard ratio of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.93) for developing diabetes, compared with those with vitamin D levels in the lowest tertile (median concentration, 12.8 ng/mL)"
  • More evidence vitamin D boosts immune response - Science Daily, 6/17/11 - "Laboratory-grown gingival cells treated with vitamin D boosted their production of an endogenous antibiotic, and killed more bacteria than untreated cells, according to a paper in the June 2011 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity. The research suggests that vitamin D can help protect the gums from bacterial infections that lead to gingivitis and periodontitis"
  • Endocrine Society Issues Practice Guideline on Vitamin D - Medscape, 6/7/11 - "Based on all the evidence, at a minimum, we recommend vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL, and because of the vagaries of some of the assays, to guarantee sufficiency, we recommend between 40 and 60 ng/mL for both children and adults ... Adults 70 years and older require at least 800 IU/day of vitamin D for bone health and fall prevention; at least 1500 to 2000 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D may be needed to keep 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/mL ... Pregnant and lactating women need a minimum of 600 IU/day of vitamin D; 1500 IU/day may be needed to maintain blood levels of 25(OH)D higher than 30 ng/mL ... Tolerable upper limits of vitamin D, which "should not be exceeded without medical supervision," include the following: 1000 IU/day for infants aged up to 6 months ... 1500 IU/day for infants aged 6 months to 1 year old ... 2500 IU/day for children aged 1 to 3 years ... 3000 IU/day for children aged 4 to 8 years ... 4000 IU/day for everyone older than 8 years"
  • High levels of vitamin D needed for bone density drugs to work, study shows - Science Daily, 6/6/11 - "To fully optimize a drug therapy for osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD), patients should maintain vitamin D levels above the limits recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) ... maintaining a circulating vitamin D level above 33 ng/ml is associated with a seven-fold greater likelihood of having a more favorable outcome with bisphosphonate therapy"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 3 - Medscape, 6/6/11 - "Nutritionally, vitamin D can be derived from dairy foods and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and tuna. However, 20 minutes of sunshine or five to seven minutes in a tanning bed generate five times more vitamin D3 than that obtained from eating 3 ½ ounces of salmon.[50] Exposure to sunlight also increases the risk of skin malignancies, so that various recommendations for the prudent use of sunscreen such as leaving the arms and legs free of sunscreen or delaying use of sunscreen for 20 minutes after exposure have been advocated. However, oral supplementation with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 is probably a safer but less physiological way to normalize vitamin D levels. Proponents of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) claim that D3 is 3- to 10-fold more effective in raising 25-OH vitamin D levels, has a higher affinity for the vitamin D binding protein, results in more 25-OH vitamin D generation, and has a greater affinity for the vitamin D receptor. Proponents of D3 also claim that vitamin D3 but not vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, a synthetic vitamin D product) has been shown to prevent bone fractures. However, most clinicians believe that there is little if any difference between supplementation with D3 and D2 and because D2 is more readily available, it is the most prescribed vitamin D replacement therapy ... When vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed, doses of 50,000 to 100,000 U weekly dependent upon the 25-OH vitamin D level are recommended. After three months if the 25-OH vitamin D level is in the sufficiency range, the weekly dose that resulted in the correction of the 25-OH vitamin D level should be administered on a monthly basis or more frequently depending on monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D levels.[1,51] In severe cases of vitamin D deficiency such as those that occur after gastric bypass surgery, higher and more frequently administered doses may be necessary"
  • Low Vitamin D: A Contributor to Mental Disorders in Children? - Medscape, 6/2/11 - "Children with severe mental health disorders, including psychosis, have twice the rate of vitamin D insufficiency as mentally healthy children ... 21% of children with severe psychiatric symptoms requiring residential care had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels lower than 20 ng/mL (the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] minimum recommended level) compared with 14% of children who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), a population-based study designed to assess the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 2 (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 5/30/11 - "An association of vitamin D deficiency with autoimmune disease (particularly multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes) is well established, and vitamin D supplementation has the potential to avoid the development of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with infection and allergy and correction of vitamin D deficiency may improve the manifestations of asthma. Because 1-25-OH-vitamin D is anti-proliferative and promotes differention as well as inhibiting apoptosis and angiogenesis, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple cancers including colon, breast and prostate cancers and is associated with a worsened prognosis from these cancers. Through an effect on insulin resistance and insulin release vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes and may also be associated with diabetic complications"
  • Vitamin D increases speed of sperm cells, researchers discover - Science Daily, 5/25/11 - "A new study conducted in 300 normal men showed a positive correlation between the percentage of motile sperm and serum vitamin D levels. The study was recently published in the scientific journal Human Reproduction, and showed additionally that stimulation of human spermatooza in the laboratory with activated vitamin D can increase their forward movement"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 1: Physiology of Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/24/11 - "In conclusion, an epidemic of vitamin D deficiency has developed in the last 20 years due mainly to a lack of exposure to the sun and the increase in obesity. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can have devastating effects. Although historically, vitamin D deficiency is associated only with rickets and osteomalacia, its effects are much more protean"
  • Vitamin D improves exercise outcomes in patients with COPD - Science Daily, 5/15/11 - "patients treated with vitamin D had a significant improvement in exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength compared to those in the placebo group"
  • Low Vitamin D at Birth Linked to Lung Infections - WebMD, 5/10/11 - "At birth, more than a quarter of the infants had low vitamin D -- serum levels of less than 20 ng/mL. During their first year of life, these kids had a sixfold higher risk of RSV lung infection than did the 46% of kids whose vitamin D levels at birth were at least 30 ng/mL ... It's not just the Netherlands. Other Western nations, including the U.S., have similar rates of low vitamin D ... U.S. researchers reported in 2010 that at a single Boston hospital, 58% of infants and 36% of mothers had low vitamin D levels (under 20 ng/mL). Severe vitamin D deficiency (defined as lower than 15 ng/mL) was seen in 38% of the infants and in 23% of the mothers"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in pneumonia patients associated with increased mortality - Science Daily, 5/10/11 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher mortality within the first 30 days after hospital admission for pneumonia. The association between vitamin D deficiency was not explained by patient age, sex, comorbidities, the severity of the systemic inflammatory response, or other known prognostic factors"
  • Before you start bone-building meds, try dietary calcium and supplements, experts urge - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "For many people, prescription bone-building medicines should be a last resort ... adults who increase their intake of calcium and vitamin D usually increase bone mineral density and reduce the risk for hip fracture significantly ... I suspect that many doctors reach for their prescription pads because they believe it's unlikely that people will change their diets ... prescription bone-building medications are expensive, and many have side effects, including ironically an increase in hip fractures and jaw necrosis. They should be used only if diet and supplements don't do the trick ... For bone health, the researchers also encourage consuming adequate protein, less sodium, and more magnesium and potassium"
  • Low vitamin D in kids may play a role in anemia - Science Daily, 5/1/11 - "vitamin D deficiency may play an important role in anemia ... looked at data from the blood samples of more than 9,400 children, 2 to 18 years of age. The lower the vitamin D levels, the lower the hemoglobin and the higher the risk for anemia, the researchers found. Children with levels below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of blood had a 50 percent higher risk for anemia than children with levels 20 ng/ml and above. For each 1 ng/ml increase in vitamin D, anemia risk dropped by 3 percent"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Aggressive Breast Cancer - WebMD, 4/29/11 - "Women in the study with triple-negative tumors, which do not respond to hormone treatments, were almost three times more likely to have suboptimal vitamin D levels as women with other breast cancers"
  • Obese adolescents lacking vitamin D, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/28/11 - "For this retrospective study, Harel and his co-authors explored the prevalence of low vitamin D status among 68 obese adolescents, and examined the impact of treatment of low vitamin D status in these patient ... low vitamin D status was present in all of the girls (72 percent deficient and 28 percent insufficient) and in 91 percent of the boys (69 percent deficient and 22 percent insufficient). Of those with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, 43 patients had a repeat measurement of vitamin D level after treatment. While there was a significant increase in vitamin D levels following treatment, serum vitamin D levels normalized in only 28percent of these patients. Repeat multiple courses of vitamin D treatment in the patients who did not normalize their vitamin D levels after initial course, failed to normalize their low vitamin D status ... The researchers question whether a higher daily vitamin D intake than the one recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (600 international units of vitamin D/day) may be required as part of treatment in obese adolescents, in an attempt to increase their vitamin D status"
  • Vitamin D Protects Against Age-Related Vision Loss in Women - ABC News, 4/12/11 - "women who consume high levels of vitamin D through certain fish, dairy, eggs, and leafy greens could lower the risk of macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss in later life, by 59 percent" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D levels linked with health of blood vessels - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "A lack of vitamin D, even in generally healthy people, is linked with stiffer arteries and an inability of blood vessels to relax ... people with vitamin D deficiency had vascular dysfunction comparable to those with diabetes or hypertension ... It could be strengthening endothelial cells and the muscles surrounding the blood vessels. It could also be reducing the level of angiotensin, a hormone that drives increased blood pressure, or regulating inflammation ... Forty-two study participants with vitamin D insufficiency whose levels later went back to normal had an average drop in blood pressure of 4.6 millimeters mercury"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in cirrhosis - Science Daily, 3/15/11 - "The study showed that vitamin D deficiency is more frequent and severe in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis than in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Furthermore, it indicated that the degree of liver dysfunction, rather than the aetiology of cirrhosis, dictates the risk of vitamin D deficiency ... This study emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin D levels in all patients with cirrhosis"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency high among patients with early Parkinson disease - Science Daily, 3/14/11 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with a variety of clinical disorders and chronic diseases, including impaired balance, decreased muscle strength, mood and cognitive dysfunction, autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes (types 1 and 2), and certain forms of cancer ... Vitamin D insufficiency has been reported to be more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than in healthy control subjects, but it is not clear whether having a chronic disease causing reduced mobility contributes to this relatively high prevalence ... At the baseline visit, most study participants (69.4 percent) had vitamin D insufficiency and more than a quarter (26.1 percent) had vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D linked to lung cancer survival, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/1/11 - "Recent research suggests vitamin D may be able to stop or prevent cancer. Now, a new study finds an enzyme that plays a role in metabolizing vitamin D can predict lung cancer survival ... Levels of the enzyme, called CYP24A1, were elevated as much as 50 times in lung adenocarcinoma compared with normal lung tissue. The higher the level of CYP24A1, the more likely tumors were to be aggressive. About a third of lung cancer patients had high levels of the enzyme. After five years, those patients had nearly half the survival rate as patients with low levels of the enzyme ... Researchers then linked this to how CYP24A1 interacts with calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to allergies in kids - Science Daily, 2/24/11 - "When the resulting data was analyzed by Einstein researchers, no association between vitamin D levels and allergies was observed in adults. But for children and adolescents, low vitamin D levels correlated with sensitivity to 11 of the 17 allergens tested, including both environmental allergens (e.g., ragweed, oak, dog, cockroach) and food allergens (e.g., peanuts). For example, children who had vitamin D deficiency (defined as less than 15 nanograms of vitamin D per milliliter of blood), were 2.4 times as likely to have a peanut allergy than were children with sufficient levels of vitamin D (more than 30 nanograms of vitamin D per milliliter of blood)"
  • Markedly higher vitamin D intake needed to reduce cancer risk, researchers say - Science Daily, 2/22/11 - "We found that daily intakes of vitamin D by adults in the range of 4000-8000 IU are needed to maintain blood levels of vitamin D metabolites in the range needed to reduce by about half the risk of several diseases -- breast cancer, colon cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes ... Most scientists who are actively working with vitamin D now believe that 40 to 60 ng/ml is the appropriate target concentration of 25-vitamin D in the blood for preventing the major vitamin D-deficiency related diseases ... only 10 percent of the US population has levels in this range, mainly people who work outdoors"
  • Vitamin D linked to colon cancer protection: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/7/11 - "for every 10 nanograms per milliliter increase in 25(OH)D levels the associated risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 15 percent, while the risk of breast cancer was associated with an 11 percent decrease. However, when the researchers restricted their analysis to prospective studies only, the breast cancer risk was decreased by only 3 percent, whereas data from case-control studies indicated a risk reduction of 17 percent" -[Abstract]
  • Vitamin D deficiency alters lung growth and decreases lung function - Science Daily, 1/28/11 - "The results of this study clearly demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency alters lung growth, resulting in lower lung volume and decrements in lung function"
  • Vitamin D3 ’87 percent more potent’ than D2: Study - Nutra USA, 1/11/11 - "By the various measures employed, D3 was from 56 to 87 percent more potent than D2 in raising serum 25(OH)D, and more than three times as potent in increasing fat calciferol content"
  • Vitamin D accelerates recovery from tuberculosis - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "The average time to clearance of TB from the lungs among all study participants was 6 weeks for patients taking standard therapy alone and 5 weeks for those taking additional vitamin D, although this difference was not large enough to sustain statistical significance. However, patients who had a particular genetic type of vitamin D receptor were much more vitamin D responsive than others and cleared TB bacteria much more quickly if they received vitamin D in addition to standard antibiotic treatment"
  • Vitamin D deficiencies may impact onset of autoimmune lung disease - Science Daily, 1/4/11- "A new study shows that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to the development and severity of certain autoimmune lung diseases ... vitamin D deficiencies have been found to affect the development of other autoimmune diseases, like lupus and type 1 diabetes ... those with connective tissue disease-related ILD were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency -- 52 percent versus 20 percent -- and insufficiency -- 79 percent versus 31 percent -- than other forms of ILD"
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Vitamin D on Muscle Strength and Mobility in Older Women with Vitamin D Insufficiency - Medscape, 1/4/11 - "In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation in older individuals receiving calcium improved hip muscle strength and mobility in participants with low baseline values. Given the importance of maintaining physical performance in older people to maintain a healthy and independent life in the community, vitamin D should be added to those with insufficiency or deficiency to improve muscle function"
  • Newborns with low vitamin D levels at increased risk for respiratory infections - Science Daily, 12/27/10
  • Three-quarters of hip fracture patients are vitamin D deficient, Indian study reveals - Science Daily, 12/12/10 - "Of the patients who had suffered hip fractures, 76.7% were shown to be vitamin D deficient as measured by serum 25(OH)D levels of less than 20 ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D Levels Low Even In Breast Cancer Patients Taking Supplements - Medscape, 12/10/10 - "A majority of the women (73%) were taking vitamin D supplements, but even among this group, vitamin D deficiency was found in 25%"
  • Low vitamin D status associated with cognitive decline: Study - Nutra USA, 12/2/10 - "A total of 5,596 women, not taking vitamin D supplements were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline weekly staus: either inadequate (less than 35 micrograms per week) or recommended (more than 35 micrograms per week) ... Compared to women with recommended weekly vitamin D dietary intakes, women with inadequate intakes were reported to have lower scores on the SPMSQ mental state questionnaire" - [Abstract]
  • Report sets new dietary intake levels for calcium and vitamin D to maintain health and avoid risks associated with excess - Science Daily, 12/1/10 - "The science on calcium's role in bone health shows that 700 milligrams per day meets the needs of almost all children ages 1 through 3, and 1,000 milligrams daily is appropriate for almost all children ages 4 through 8. Adolescents ages 9 through 18 require no more than 1,300 milligrams per day. For practically all adults ages 19 through 50 and for men until age 71, 1,000 milligrams covers daily calcium needs. Women starting at age 51 and both men and women age 71 and older need no more than 1,200 milligrams per day ... As for vitamin D, 600 IUs daily meets the needs of almost everyone in the United States and Canada, although people 71 and older may require as much as 800 IUs per day because of potential physical and behavioral changes related to aging"
  • Low vitamin-D levels found in northern California residents with metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 11/30/10 - "compared with healthy controls, blood levels of vitamin D are significantly reduced in patients in the Sacramento area with metabolic syndrome ... In spite of our great sun exposure in Northern California, 30 percent of patients with metabolic syndrome have vitamin-D deficiency, and even many subjects in the control group had inadequate levels ... These factors indicate disturbances in the body's metabolism, conferring at least a five-fold increased risk of developing diabetes and doubling the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke ... it is possible that people with metabolic syndrome have higher than average needs for vitamin D"
  • Low blood levels of vitamin D linked to chubbier kids, faster weight gain - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "the kids with the lowest vitamin D levels at the beginning tended to gain weight faster than the kids with higher levels ... children with the lowest vitamin D levels had more drastic increases in central body fat measures ... Vitamin D deficiency was also linked to slower growth in height among girls but not boys"
  • Insufficient vitamin D levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients linked to cancer progression and death - Science Daily, 11/3/10 - "patients with insufficient levels of vitamin D when their leukemia was diagnosed progressed much faster and were about twice as likely to die as were patients with adequate levels of vitamin D ... They also found solid trends: increasing vitamin D levels across patients matched longer survival times and decreasing levels matched shortening intervals between diagnosis and cancer progression ... Other studies have suggested that low vitamin D levels at diagnosis may be associated with poorer outcomes in colorectal, breast, melanoma and lung cancers, as well as lymphoma ... Vitamin D insufficiency, in general, is widespread"
  • Relationship Observed Between Cord Blood Vitamin D, Child's Adiponectin Levels - Medscape, 10/31/10 - "Higher cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] show an association with higher adiponectin levels in children at age 3 years ... Each 25 nmol/L increment in cord blood 25(OH)D also was associated with a decrement of 0.15 in the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score at age 3 years"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy - Medscape, 10/22/10 - "People with diabetes had significantly lower mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than people without diabetes (22.9 vs 30.3 ng/mL; P < .001), according to the poster. People with no eye disease had the highest serum vitamin D levels (mean, 31.9 ng/mL), and those with proliferative retinopathy had the lowest levels (mean, 21.1 ng/mL) ... People who took a daily multivitamin that included vitamin D (n = 102) had a mean serum vitamin D level of 31.1 ng/mL; those who did not take a multivitamin (n = 119) had vitamin D levels averaging only 22.0 ng/mL (P < .001), according to the poster. Dr. Payne noted that even those who took daily multivitamins had a 44% incidence of vitamin D insufficiency"
  • Skin Cancer Patients More Likely to Be Deficient in Vitamin D - Time Magazine, 10/19/10 - "The results point out that while dermatologists are understandably focused on their patients' skin cancer risk, they should also be checking their vitamin D levels and advising those who are low to supplement their levels with a pill ... We should be more proactive at checking these levels"
  • Genetic predisposition to certain skin cancers may be associated with vitamin D deficiency - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "Patients with basal cell nevus syndrome, which predisposes them to develop non-melanoma skin cancers, appear to be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency if they take steps to protect themselves from sunlight ... When compared with the general population, patients with basal cell nevus syndrome had lower average vitamin D levels and were three times more likely to be deficient"
  • Vitamin d deficiency puts inflammatory bowel disease patients at greater risk of osteoporosis, study finds - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "IBD patients with an abnormal bone density exam had a significantly higher rate of Vitamin D deficiency than those who had normal DEXA scans .... This finding is not surprising since Crohn's disease usually affects the small intestine, which is the part of the gut that absorbs the most nutrients"
  • Vitamin D deficiency rampant in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, damaging patient recovery - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "Almost 50 percent of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery have vitamin D deficiency that should be corrected before surgery to improve patient outcomes"
  • Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 9/30/10 - "In summary, vitamin D supplementation is an effective strategy for reducing falls in older adults and should probably be incorporated into the clinical practice of providers caring for older adults, especially those at risk for falling. Although the effect appears to be modest, possibly because of inadequate dosing, vitamin D is inexpensive and well tolerated; a slight reduction in falls with vitamin D supplementation might lead to a significant decrease in the costs associated with fall morbidity and mortality"
  • Vitamin D protects against obesity-induced endometrial cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/21/10 - "25 percent of obese mice fed a vitamin D supplemented diet developed endometrial cancer, while 67 percent of obese mice not treated with the vitamin developed cancer ... vitamin D offered no protective effects for normal weight mice ... Vitamin D has been shown to be helpful in a number of cancers, but for endometrial cancer, our study suggests it protects only against cancer that develops due to obesity ... Still, if these results are confirmed in women, use of vitamin D may be a wonderfully simple way to reduce endometrial cancer risk"
  • Vitamin D is a prognostic marker in heart failure, study finds - Science Daily, 8/31/10 - "Survival rates in heart failure patients with reduced levels of vitamin D are lower than in patients with normal levels ... Results also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with activation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS -- a pivotal regulatory system in heart failure) and an altered cytokine profile"
  • Female Incontinence Risk Linked to Vitamin D Levels - Doctor's Guide, 8/26/10 - "Mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower for women reporting urinary and/or faecal incontinence regardless ... the risk of urinary incontinence was significantly decreased in women aged 50 years and older with vitamin D levels >30 ng/mL (P =.022), translating into a 45% decreased risk of urinary incontinence with vitamin D levels in the normal range ... treating pre- and postmenopausal women for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency may strengthen pelvic muscles and potentially decrease the prevalence of urinary incontinence"
  • Vitamin D found to influence over 200 genes, highlighting links to disease - Science  Daily, 8/23/10 - "The extent to which vitamin D deficiency may increase susceptibility to a wide range of diseases is dramatically highlighted in newly published research ... The researchers found 2,776 binding sites for the vitamin D receptor along the length of the genome. These were unusually concentrated near a number of genes associated with susceptibility to autoimmune conditions such as MS, Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (or 'lupus') and rheumatoid arthritis, and to cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and colorectal cancer ... vitamin D had a significant effect on the activity of 229 genes including IRF8, previously associated with MS, and PTPN2, associated with Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D may treat or prevent allergy to common mold - Science Daily, 8/16/10 - "The environmental mold, Aspergillus fumigatus, is one of the most prevalent fungal organisms inhaled by people. In the vast majority, it is not associated with disease. However, in asthmatics and in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), it can cause significant allergic symptoms. Up to 15% of CF patients develop a severe allergic response called Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) ... adding vitamin D not only substantially reduced the production of the protein driving an allergic response, but it also increased production of the proteins that promote tolerance"
  • More support for vitamin D’s colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/10 - "In people using NSAIDs, the potential risk reduction of higher vitamin D levels was increased to 66 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Can vitamin D compete with bone drugs? (ATOM) - betterbones.com, 8/4/10 - "At the end of the day, vitamin D was shown to reduce more fractures than the popular bisphosphonate drugs"
  • Nutrient blend improves function of aging brain: rat study - Nutra USA, 7/21/10 - "NT-020 is a combination of blueberry, green tea extract, carnosine and vitamin D3 ... The NT-020 group demonstrated increased adult neural stem cell proliferation in the two main stem cell niches in the brains and improvement in learning and memory"
    • Natural substance NT-020 aids aging brains in rats, study finds - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "Aging has been linked to oxidative stress, and we have previously shown that natural compounds made from blueberries, green tea, and amino acids, such as carnosine, are high in antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity .... The combination of these nutrients, called NT-020, creates a synergistic effect that promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the aged animals ... NT-020 may have not only a positive effect on the stem cell niche ... NT-020 may have far-reaching effects on organ function beyond the replacement of injured cells, as demonstrated by cognitive improvement in the NT-020 group"
  • Low vitamin D levels associated with cognitive decline - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "An estimated 40 percent to 100 percent of older adults in the United States and Europe are deficient in vitamin D ... Participants who were severely deficient in vitamin D (having blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 25 nanomoles per liter) were 60 percent more likely to have substantial cognitive decline in general over the six-year period and 31 percent more likely to experience declines on the test measuring executive function than those with sufficient vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D levels associated with Parkinson's disease risk - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "Over a 29-year follow-up, through 2007, 50 of the participants developed Parkinson's disease. After adjusting for potentially related factors, including physical activity and body mass index, individuals in the highest quartile (one-fourth of the study population) of serum vitamin D levels had a 67 percent lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than those in the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D Low in Patients With Headache and Migraine - Medscape, 7/6/10 - "Patients with headache and migraine may need to have their vitamin D levels assessed ... Vitamin D may play some yet unknown role in multiple painful and possibly headache and migraine disorders ... vitamin D is safe when used in physiologic doses of at least 5000 IU/day from all sources, including sunlight, diet, and supplements"
  • Low vitamin D linked to the metabolic syndrome in elderly people - Science Daily, 7/1/10 - "vitamin D inadequacy may be a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, a condition that affects one in four adults ... Because the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, an adequate vitamin D level in the body might be important in the prevention of these diseases ... The researchers found a 48 percent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D and mental agility in elders - Science Daily, 6/25/10 - "The participants, ages 65 to 99 years, were grouped by their vitamin D status, which was categorized as deficient, insufficient, or sufficient. Only 35 percent had sufficient vitamin D blood levels. They had better cognitive performance on the tests than those in the deficient and insufficient categories, particularly on measures of "executive performance," such as cognitive flexibility, perceptual complexity, and reasoning. The associations persisted after taking into consideration other variables that could also affect cognitive performance"
  • Poor control of diabetes may be linked to low vitamin D - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Despite receiving regular primary care visits before referral to the endocrine clinic, 91 percent of patients had either vitamin D deficiency (defined as a level below 15 nanograms per deciliter, or ng/dL) or insufficiency (15 to 31 ng/dL) ... Additionally, the investigators found an inverse relationship between the patients' blood levels of vitamin D and their hemoglobin A1c value, a measure of blood sugar control over the past several months. Lower vitamin D levels were discovered in patients with higher average blood sugars as measured by HbA1c"
  • Vitamin D deficiency confirmed as common across a range of rheumatic conditions - Science Daily, 6/18/10 - "Two separate studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with a range of rheumatic diseases, with over half of all patients having below the 'normal' healthy levels of vitamin D (48-145 nmol/L) in their bodies. A further study assessing response to vitamin D supplementation found that taking the recommended daily dose did not normalise vitamin D levels in rheumatic disease patients"
  • Vitamin D May Cut Risk of Flu - WebMD, 6/16/10 - "people who maintain vitamin D blood levels of 38 nanograms per milliliter or more are less likely to get viral infections such as flu than people with less in their blood ... Of 18 people who maintained that level during the study period, only three developed viral infect ... But of the 180 other participants with less vitamin D in their blood, 81(45%), did get sick with viral infections ... And those with higher levels of vitamin D also experienced a marked reduction in the number of days they were ill"
  • Vitamin D Exposure in Childhood Linked to Age at Onset of MS - Medscape, 6/10/10 - "For those living in low– to medium–solar radiation areas, the researchers found a significant association between earlier age at onset of symptoms and sun exposure in the fall/winter season between the ages of 6 and 15 years (2.3 years average earlier onset; P = .01). Intake of cod liver oil during childhood produced a 3-year delay in onset"
  • Many pregnant women not getting enough vitamin D: Prenatal vitamins help, but are not enough for everyone - Science Daily, 5/11/10 - "out of every ten pregnant women in the United States are not getting enough Vitamin D"
  • New vitamin D recommendations for older men and women - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "The estimated average vitamin D requirement of older adults to reach a serum 25OHD level of 75 nmol/l (30ng/ml) is 20 to 25 µg/day (800 to 1000 IU/day) ... Intakes may need to increase to as much as 50 µg(2000IU) per day in individuals who are obese, have osteoporosis, limited sun exposure (e.g. housebound or institutionalised), or have malabsorption ... For high risk individuals it is recommended to measure serum 25OHD levels and treat if deficient"
  • Rx: Take Vitamin D with Largest Meal - WebMD, 5/7/10 - "Taking your vitamin D supplement with the largest meal of the day may boost its absorption substantially"
  • Teens in South Getting Too Little Vitamin D - WebMD, 5/3/10 - "young people who live in the South, where sunlight is ample, also have low vitamin D levels ... About half (56.4 %) of the youths tested had vitamin D insufficiency, meaning the level was low but not affecting health. But 28.8% had vitamin D deficiency -- a level low enough to cause health problems"
  • Low vitamin D levels are related to MS brain atrophy, cognitive function, studies show - Science Daily, 4/29/10 - "only seven percent of persons with secondary-progressive MS showed sufficient vitamin D, compared to 18.3 percent of patients with the less severe relapsing-remitting type ... Higher levels of vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 metabolism byproducts (analyzed as a ratio) also were associated with better scores on disability tests, results showed, and with less brain atrophy and fewer lesions on MRI scans"
  • Better vitamin D status could mean better quality of life for seniors - Science Daily, 4/25/10 - "When the results were tabulated, participants with the highest levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D had better physical function. And, although physical function declined over the course of the study, it remained significantly higher among those with the highest vitamin D levels at the beginning of the study compared to those with the lowest vitamin D levels. The scientists were not surprised to learn that, in general, vitamin D consumption was very low in this group of otherwise healthy seniors. In fact, more than 90% of them consumed less vitamin D than currently recommended, and many were relying on dietary supplements"
  • Low Vitamin D Level Tied to Cognitive Decline - WebMD, 4/16/10 - "Two new studies add to evidence that older people with low levels of vitamin D may be more likely to suffer from cognitive impairment. ... Results showed that the lower their score on the test, the lower their vitamin D levels"
  • Rheumatoid arthritis linked to vitamin D deficiency, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/10/10 - "There's higher risk in the northern latitudes ... This might be related to the fact that there's less sunlight in these areas, which results in a vitamin D deficiency ... long term exposure may be more important than recent exposure"
  • Vitamin D may save 40,000 Canadian lives per year - Nutra USA, 4/2/10 - "The results of this study strongly suggest that the personal and economic burden of disease in Canada could be significantly reduced if the mean serum 25(OH)D level was increased from its current level of 67 nmol/L to the optimal level of 105nmol/L" - [Abstract]
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels Linked to Lower Risk for Female Pelvic Floor Disorders - Medscape, 4/1/10 - "In women at least 50 years old with vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL or higher (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34 - 0.91), the likelihood of urinary incontinence was significantly reduced"
  • Vitamin D shows promise against seasonal ‘flu: Study - Nutra USA, 4/1/10 - "daily supplements of vitamin D3 reduced the influence of seasonal ‘flu (influenza A) by over 40 per cent ... The benefits of vitamin D supplementation were even more noticeable in children who had low levels of vitamin D at the start of the study, with a 74 per cent reduction in the incidence of ‘flu observed" - [Abstract]
  • Treating vitamin D deficiency significantly reduces heart disease risk, studies find - Science Daily, 3/15/10 - "Preventing and treating heart disease in some patients could be as simple as supplementing their diet with extra vitamin D ... For the first study ... 47 percent of the patients who increased their levels of vitamin D between the two visits showed a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease ... In the second study ... The patients in each category who increased their vitamin D levels to 43 nanograms per milliliter of blood or higher had lower rates of death, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, high blood pressure, depression, and kidney failure. Currently, a level of 30 nanograms per milliliter is considered "normal" ... Increasing vitamin D intake by 1000 to 5000 international units (IU) a day may be appropriate"
  • Vitamin D crucial to activating immune defenses - Science Daily, 3/7/10 - "Vitamin D is crucial to activating our immune defenses and that without sufficient intake of the vitamin, the killer cells of the immune system -- T cells -- will not be able to react to and fight off serious infections in the body"
  • Low levels of vitamin D linked to muscle fat, decreased strength in young people - Science Daily, 3/6/10 - "A ground-breaking study published in the March 2010 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism found an astonishing 59 per cent of study subjects had too little Vitamin D in their blood. Nearly a quarter of the group had serious deficiencies (less than 20 ng/ml) of this important vitamin. Since Vitamin D insufficiency is linked to increased body fat, decreased muscle strength and a range of disorders, this is a serious health issue ... The study by Dr. Kremer and co-investigator Dr. Vincente Gilsanz, head of musculoskeletal imaging at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles of the University of Southern California, is the first to show a clear link between Vitamin D levels and the accumulation of fat in muscle tissue -- a factor in muscle strength and overall health" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D lifts mood during cold weather months, researchers say - Science Daily, 3/3/10 - "A daily dose of vitamin D may just be what people in northern climates need to get through the long winter ... This nutrient lifts mood during cold weather months when days are short and more time is spent indoors ... Vitamin D deficiency continues to be a problem despite the nutrient's widely reported health benefits"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Asthma - WebMD, 3/3/10
  • High levels of vitamin D in older people can reduce heart disease and diabetes - Science Daily, 2/16/10 - "Researchers looked at 28 studies including 99,745 participants across a variety of ethnic groups including men and women. The studies revealed a significant association between high levels of vitamin D and a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (33% compared to low levels of vitamin D), type 2 diabetes (55% reduction) and metabolic syndrome (51% reduction)"
  • Living Long and Living Well (Dr. Oz) - Time Magazine, 2/15/10 - "Insufficient vitamin D is our most important vitamin deficiency and is possibly a factor in our high levels of cancer, autoimmune ailments and heart disease"
  • Vitamin D for Mom May Lower Baby’s MS Risk - WebMD, 2/9/10 - "We also found the risk of MS among daughters whose mothers were in the top 20% of vitamin D intake during pregnancy was 45% lower than daughters whose mothers were in the bottom 20% for vitamin D intake during pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D May Ease Asthma - WebMD, 1/28/10 - "people with higher vitamin D levels had better lung function measures than people with lower vitamin D levels. In particular, people with low vitamin D performed worse on tests of lung function and airway hyper-responsiveness, two hallmarks of asthma ... researchers say vitamin D levels were directly related to the participants’ score on the breathing tests: the lower the vitamin D levels, the worse their performance"
  • Vitamin D supplements could fight Crohn's disease - Science Daily, 1/27/10 - "Vitamin D acts directly on the beta defensin 2 gene, which encodes an antimicrobial peptide, and the NOD2 gene that alerts cells to the presence of invading microbes. Both Beta-defensin and NOD2 have been linked to Crohn's disease. If NOD2 is deficient or defective, it cannot combat invaders in the intestinal tract ... Siblings of patients with Crohn's disease that haven't yet developed the disease might be well advised to make sure they're vitamin D sufficient"
  • Vitamin D supplementation can reduce falls in nursing care facilities - Science Daily, 1/24/10
  • Vitamin D May Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/22/10 - "They discovered that those with the highest blood levels of vitamin D had a nearly 40% decrease in colorectal cancer risk than those with the lowest levels" - [Science Daily]
  • Benefits of calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures confirmed - Science Daily, 1/14/10 - "both calcium and vitamin D supplements on a daily basis reduces the risk of bone fractures, regardless of whether a person is young or old, male or female, or has had fractures in the past, a large study of nearly 70,000 patients from throughout the United States and Europe has found"
  • Low Vitamin D Has a Role in Heart Risk - WebMD, 1/7/10 - "Darker-skinned people produce less vitamin D from the sun than those with lighter skin, and studies show that blacks are far more likely to have lower levels of the vitamin than whites ... Several recent studies also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk for heart attack and stroke ... Compared to everyone else in the study, the quarter with the lowest vitamin D levels had a 40% higher risk of dying from heart attacks, strokes, and other heart-related events ... Blacks were 38% more likely to die of cardiovascular causes than non-Hispanic whites, and the researchers concluded that most of this excess was related to their lower vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D May Reduce Cardiac Work - Medscape, 12/10/09 - "Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are linked with increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure and with the rate-pressure product (RPP) ... The inverse association between vitamin D status and the rate-pressure product suggests that people with high vitamin D levels have hearts that work more efficiently"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation and Cancer Prevention - Medscape, 12/8/09 - "The relative risk for the development of cancer at the study's end was 0.402 for the calcium plus vitamin D group (P = .013) and 0.532 for the calcium-only group (P = .063) ... This translated to a predicted 35% reduced risk of cancer for every 25-nmol/L (10-ng/mL) increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The authors concluded that improving vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduced all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women and that baseline and treatment-induced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were strong predictors of cancer risk"
  • Vitamin D levels associated with survival in lymphoma patients - Science Daily, 12/5/09 - "Patients with deficient vitamin D levels had a 1.5-fold greater risk of disease progression and a twofold greater risk of dying, compared to patients with optimal vitamin D levels after accounting for other patient factors associated with worse outcomes"
  • Multiple health concerns surface as winter, vitamin D deficiences arrive - Science Daily, 11/23/09 - "About 70 percent of the population of the United States has insufficient levels of vitamin D"
  • Inadequate levels of vitamin D may significantly increase risk of stroke, heart disease and death - Science Daily, 11/16/09 - "a new study by researchers at the Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City suggests that Vitamin D contributes to a strong and healthy heart as well -- and that inadequate levels of the vitamin may significantly increase a person's risk of stroke, heart disease, and death, even among people who've never had heart disease ... patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were 77 percent more likely to die, 45 percent more likely to develop coronary artery disease, and 78 percent were more likely to have a stroke than patients with normal levels. Patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were also twice as likely to develop heart failure than those with normal Vitamin D levels ... Recently, studies have also linked Vitamin D to the regulation of many other bodily functions including blood pressure, glucose control, and inflammation, all of which are important risk factors related to heart disease"
  • Heart and bone damage from low vitamin D tied to declines in sex hormones - Science Daily, 11/15/09 - "Researchers at Johns Hopkins are reporting what is believed to be the first conclusive evidence in men that the long-term ill effects of vitamin D deficiency are amplified by lower levels of the key sex hormone estrogen, but not testosterone ... an adequate daily intake of vitamin D is between 200 and 400 international units, but Michos feels this is inadequate to achieve optimal nutrient blood levels (above 30 nanograms per milliliter). Previous results from the same nationwide survey showed that 41 percent of men and 53 percent of women are technically deficient in the nutrient, with vitamin D levels below 28 nanograms per milliliter"
  • Low vitamin D again linked to higher mortality - Nutra USA, 11/3/09 - "Writing in the journal Clinical Endocrinology, scientists from the Netherlands, Austria, and the US report that low blood levels of the sunshine vitamin are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality from heart disease ... several biologic mechanisms could explain a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and mortality, with the vitamin’s active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) linked to a range of effects including control of inflammatory compounds, regulating immune health and blood pressure, or reducing arterial hardening ... People with the lowest average vitamin D levels (30.6 nanomoles per litre) were found to be at a 124 and 378 per cent increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, respectively" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D supplements show anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 10/27/09 - "At the end of the test period, women in the vitamin D group experienced “significant improvements” in both insulin sensitivity and resistance, said the researchers, which was also accompanied a decrease in fasting insulin levels, compared to placebo" - [Abstract]
  • Weekly And Biweekly Vitamin D2 Prevents Vitamin D Deficiency - Science Daily, 10/26/09 - "50,000 International Units (IU) of vitamin D2, given weekly for eight weeks, effectively treats vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D Levels Are Too Low In Millions Of US Children, Latest Analysis Confirms - Science Daily, 9/26/09 - "roughly 20 percent of all children fell below the recommended 50 nmol/L. Moreover, more than two-thirds of all children had levels below 75 nmol/L, including 80 percent of Hispanic children and 92 percent of non-Hispanic black children ... If 75 nmol/L or higher is eventually demonstrated to be the healthy normal level of vitamin D, then there is much more vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. than people realize"
  • Vitamin D May Help Prevent Falls - WebMD, 10/2/09 - "Taking vitamin D supplements, at a dose of 700-1,000 international units per day, may make falling 19% less likely for people aged 65 and older"
  • High-Dose Vitamin D Supplement May Reduce Risk of Falling Among Older People - Medscape, 10/1/09 - "Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D"
  • Does Vitamin D Protect Against High BP? - WebMD, 9/24/09 - "Vitamin D deficiency earlier in life appeared to be a predictor of hypertension more than a decade later"
  • Insufficient Levels Of Vitamin D Puts Elderly At Increased Risk Of Dying From Heart Disease - Science Daily, 9/21/09 - "Compared to those with optimal vitamin D status, those with low vitamin D levels were 3 times more likely to die from heart disease and 2.5 times more likely to die from any cause ... Dr. Ginde says the findings suggest that current daily recommendations of vitamin D may not be enough for older adults to maintain optimal health"
  • Why Low Vitamin D Raises Heart Disease Risks In Diabetics - Science Daily, 8/21/09 - "Low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes ... When people are deficient in vitamin D, the macrophage cells eat more cholesterol, and they can't get rid of it. The macrophages get clogged with cholesterol and become what scientists call foam cells, which are one of the earliest markers of atherosclerosis"
  • Vitamin D may reduce pre-eclampsia risk: Study - Nutra USA, 8/20/09
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to metabolic syndrome - Nutra USA, 8/4/09 - "According to findings published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, the lowest levels of the sunshine vitamin were associated with a 31 per cent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, compared to only 10 per cent for people wit the highest average levels"
  • 7 in 10 U.S. Kids Have Low Vitamin D - WebMD, 8/3/09 - "Seven out of 10 U.S. children have too-low vitamin D levels, putting them at risk of heart disease, rickets, and weak bones ... Most people need regular vitamin D supplements ... Kids who have low vitamin D levels are at serious risk of heart disease in adulthood ... even after controlling for all kinds of factors that affect heart disease risk -- obesity, exercise levels, race/ethnicity, age, gender, and socioeconomic status -- low vitamin D put kids at risk of heart disease as adults"
  • Vit D-curcumin combo offers brain health potential - Nutra USA, 7/27/09 - "The curcuminoids were found to enhance binding of beta-amyloid to macrophages, and that vitamin D could strongly stimulate the uptake and absorption of beta-amyloid in macrophages in most of the patients ... Since vitamin D and curcumin work differently with the immune system, we may find that a combination of the two or each used alone may be more effective — depending on the individual patient" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.comand curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, Curcumin May Help Clear Amyloid Plaques Found In Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/15/09 - "The team discovered that curcuminoids enhanced the surface binding of amyloid beta to macrophages and that vitamin D strongly stimulated the uptake and absorption of amyloid beta in macrophages in a majority of patients ... Since vitamin D and curcumin work differently with the immune system, we may find that a combination of the two or each used alone may be more effective — depending on the individual patient" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Study: 88% of GI Cancer Patients Deficient in Vitamin D - oncologystat.com, 7/6/09 - "At baseline, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was nearly 88%, including 61% of patients who met criteria for moderate to severe deficiency"
  • Understanding The Anticancer Effects Of Vitamin D3 - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "the active form of vitamin D3 directly activates the CST5 gene in human colon cancer cell lines, increasing levels of cystatin D protein. Functionally, cystatin D was shown to inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells lines in vitro and when they were xenotransplanted into mice. As knocking down expression of cystatin D in human colon cancer cell lines rendered them unresponsive to the antiproliferative effects of the active form of vitamin D3, the authors conclude that CST5 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene and that it mediates a large proportion of the anticancer effects of the active form of vitamin D3"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Widespread And On The Increase - Science Daily, 6/30/09 - "A new report issued by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and published in the scientific journal Osteoporosis International1, shows that populations across the globe are suffering from the impact of low levels of vitamin D. The problem is widespread and on the increase, with potentially severe repercussions for overall health and fracture rates"
  • Successful Weight Loss With Dieting Is Linked To Vitamin D Levels - Science Daily, 6/11/09 - "the authors found that baseline, or pre-diet, vitamin D levels predicted weight loss in a linear relationship. For every increase of 1 ng/mL in level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol—the precursor form of vitamin D and a commonly used indicator of vitamin D status—subjects ended up losing almost a half pound (0.196 kg) more on their calorie-restricted diet. For each 1-ng/mL increase in the active or "hormonal" form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), subjects lost nearly one-quarter pound (0.107 kg) more ... Additionally, higher baseline vitamin D levels (both the precursor and active forms) predicted greater loss of abdominal fat"
  • American Academy of Pediatrics announces that it is doubling the amount of vitamin D it is recommending for infants, children and adolescents - ABC News video - 6:09 minutes
  • More Vitamin D for all - ABC News Video - 1:11 minutes
  • Is Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Dementia? - Science Daily, 5/26/09 - "Several studies have correlated tooth loss with development of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. There are two primary ways that people lose teeth: dental caries and periodontal disease. Both conditions are linked to low vitamin D levels, with induction of human cathelicidin by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D being the mechanism ... There is also laboratory evidence for the role of vitamin D in neuroprotection and reducing inflammation, and ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function ... those over the age of 60 years should consider having their serum 25(OH)D tested, looking for a level of at least 30 ng/mL but preferably over 40 ng/mL, and supplementing with 1000-2000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or increased time in the sun spring, summer, and fall if below those values" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • New Model Of Cancer Development: Low Vitamin D Levels May Have Role - Science Daily, 5/22/09 - "previous theories linking vitamin D to certain cancers have been tested and confirmed in more than 200 epidemiological studies, and understanding of its physiological basis stems from more than 2,500 laboratory studies ... Vitamin D may halt the first stage of the cancer process by re-establishing intercellular junctions in malignancies having an intact vitamin D receptor ... Vitamin D levels can be increased by modest supplementation with vitamin D3 in the range of 2000 IU/day"
  • Vitamin D good for brains and lungs, say new studies - Nutra USA, 5/22/09
  • Vitamin D for Quicker Thinking? - WebMD, 5/21/09 - "Men in their 60s and 70s with low levels of vitamin D were the most likely participants to have low scores on the visual scanning and processing test"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency Linked To Bacterial Vaginosis In Pregnant Women - Science Daily, 5/21/09 - "Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in US women of childbearing age, and is common in pregnant women. BV occurs when the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria ... Overall, women with BV had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than those without BV (P < 0.01). The prevalence of BV decreased as vitamin D concentration increased to 80 nmol/L (P < 0.001). Compared with 75 nmol/L, serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 20 nmol/L and 50 nmol/L were associated with 65% and 26% increases, respectively, in the likelihood of BV. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with BV in the first 4 mo of pregnancy. Further, poor vitamin D status may contribute to the strong racial disparity in the prevalence of BV in US women"
  • Vitamin D May Halt Lung Function Decline In Asthma And COPD - Science Daily, 5/20/09 - "Dr. Damera and his colleagues found calcitriol inhibits HASM in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum inhibitory effect of 60 percent +/- 3 percent at 100nM"
  • Older People Need More Sun, Expert Urges - Science Daily, 5/11/09 - "His team found a high correlation between low vitamin D levels and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. They found 94% of people in the study had a vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) deficiency or insufficiency. The results showed 42.3% of these people also had metabolic syndrome ... Vitamin D deficiency is becoming a condition that is causing a large burden of disease across the globe with particular deleterious impact among the elderly"
  • Low Vitamin D Causes Problems For Acutely Ill Patients - Science Daily, 4/30/09 - "45% of people in our ICU were Vitamin D deficient ... When the team correlated the Vitamin D levels with a disease severity score, there was a direct correspondence between sickness and Vitamin D deficiency. In other words, the sicker someone was, the lower the levels of Vitamin D. Out of the 42 patients studied, there were 3 deaths. The 3 patients who died all had the lowest level of Vitamin D in the cohort"
  • High Doses of Vitamin D Cut MS Relapses - WebMD, 4/28/09
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Severe Asthma - WebMD, 4/23/09 - "low vitamin D levels were associated with more asthma hospitalizations in the previous year, more airway hyperactivity in lung function tests, more use of anti-inflammatory asthma medications like inhaled steroids in the previous year, and higher blood levels of allergy markers"
  • Human Lung Tumors Destroy Anti-cancer Hormone Vitamin D, Pitt Researchers Find - Science Daily, 4/20/09 - "Human lung tumors have the ability to eliminate Vitamin D, a hormone with anti-cancer activity"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Related To Increased Inflammation In Healthy Women - Science Daily, 4/8/09 - "75 percent of Americans do not get enough Vitamin D. Researchers have found that the deficiency may negatively impact immune function and cardiovascular health and increase cancer risk. Now, a University of Missouri nutritional sciences researcher has found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammation, a negative response of the immune system, in healthy women ... This may explain the vitamin's role in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases, including heart disease, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis ... To improve vitamin D status and achieve its related health benefits, most people should get at least 1000 IU of vitamin D per day"
  • Vitamin D Benefits Dialysis Patients - Medscape, 4/1/09 - "Over-the-counter vitamin D supplementation improves serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis, without raising serum calcium or phosphorus levels ... Studies in healthy patients have provided supplementation up to 10,000 IU a day with no observed adverse effects"
  • Nonvertebral Fracture Prevention With Vitamin D May Be Dose-Dependent - Medscape, 3/31/09 - "A dose-response relationship between vitamin D and fracture reduction is supported by epidemiologic data showing a significant positive trend between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and hip bone density and lower extremity strength"
  • Increasing Number Of Americans Have Insufficient Levels Of Vitamin D - Science Daily, 3/24/09 - "Average blood levels of vitamin D appear to have decreased in the United States between 1994 and 2004 ... Overall, the mean [average] serum 25(OH)D level in the U.S. population was 30 nanograms per milliliter during the 1988-1994 collection and decreased to 24 nanograms per milliliter during the 2001-2004 collection ... These findings have important implications for health disparities and public health"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Associated With Reduced Fracture Risk in Older Adults - Doctor's Guide, 3/23/09 - "The authors then pooled the results of only the 9 trials in which participants received doses of more than 400 international units per day. At this dosage, vitamin D supplements reduced non-vertebral fractures by 20% and hip fractures by 18% ... A greater reduction in risk was also seen among trial participants whose blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D achieved a greater increase" - [Science Daily]
  • Inadequate Vitamin D Levels Linked To High Use Of Narcotic Medication By Patients In Chronic Pain - Science Daily, 3/20/09 - "Mayo Clinic research shows a correlation between inadequate vitamin D levels and the amount of narcotic medication taken by patients who have chronic pain ... Physicians who care for patients with chronic, diffuse pain that seems musculoskeletal — and involves many areas of tenderness to palpation — should strongly consider checking a vitamin D level ... many patients who have been labeled with fibromyalgia are, in fact, suffering from symptomatic vitamin D inadequacy"
  • Not Enough Vitamin D In The Diet Could Mean Too Much Fat On Adolescents - Science Daily, 3/16/09 - "A Medical College of Georgia study of more than 650 teens age 14-19 has found that those who reported higher vitamin D intakes had lower overall body fat and lower amounts of the fat in the abdomen, a type of fat known as visceral fat, which has been associated with health risks such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and hypertension"
  • Low Vitamin D Hurts Teenagers’ Hearts - WebMD, 3/11/09 - "Compared to the 25% of teens with the highest levels of vitamin D in their blood (more than 26 nanograms per milliliter), the 25% of teens with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 15 ng/mL) had: ... Fourfold greater risk of metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors for diabetes ... 2.54 times greater risk of high blood sugar ... 2.36 times greater risk of high blood pressure"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalent in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease - Medscape, 3/5/09 - "The prevalence of deficiency in this contemporary study group was 39%"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Colds - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "those with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 10 nanograms per milliliter of blood) were 36% more likely to report having a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with higher levels (30 ng/mL or higher) ... people with asthma with the lowest vitamin D levels were five times more likely to have had a recent respiratory infection. Among those with COPD, recent respiratory infections were twice as common among those with lowest vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D may be critical to reduce multiple sclerosis risk - Nutra USA, 2/12/09
  • Vitamin D Tied To Muscle Power In Adolescent Girls - Science Daily, 2/10/09 - "Our study found that vitamin D is positively related to muscle power, force, velocity and jump height in adolescent girls ... Vitamin D affects the various ways muscles work and we've seen from this study that there may be no visible symptoms of vitamin D deficiency"
  • Genetic Study Shows Direct Link Between Vitamin D And MS Susceptibility 'Gene' - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "The research suggests that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and the early years may increase the risk of the offspring developing MS later in life"
  • Vitamin D Found To Stimulate A Protein That Inhibits The Growth Of Breast Cancer Cells - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "Calcitrol, the active form of vitamin D, has been found to induce a tumor suppressing protein that can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells"
  • Vitamin D Tied To Muscle Power In Adolescent Girls - Science Daily, 2/3/09 - "Vitamin D is significantly associated with muscle power and force in adolescent girls"
  • Shedding light on vitamin D deficiency ‘crisis’ - MSNBC, 2/2/09 - "the vitamin D story is much bigger than an unexpected case of rickets. Deficiency in vitamin D, a fat-soluble supplement needed to maintain normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, does appear to be a growing problem. Some medical experts even claim we are suffering through a vitamin D deficiency "crisis.""
  • Low Levels Of Vitamin D Link To Cognitive Problems In Older People - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "Researchers from the Peninsula Medical School, the University of Cambridge and the University of Michigan, have for the first time identified a relationship between Vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin", and cognitive impairment in a large-scale study of older people ... as levels of Vitamin D went down, levels of cognitive impairment went up. Compared to those with optimum levels of Vitamin D, those with the lowest levels were more than twice as likely to be cognitively impaired"
  • Vitamin D Is The 'It' Nutrient Of The Moment - Science Daily, 1/12/09 - "Vitamin D is quickly becoming the "it" nutrient with health benefits for diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease and now diabetes ... Diet alone may not be sufficient to manage vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency In Infants And Nursing Mothers Carries Long-term Disease Risks - Science Daily, 12/28/08 - "vitamin D is now viewed not simply as a vitamin with a role in promoting bone health, but as a complex hormone that helps to regulate immune system function. Long-term vitamin D deficiency has been linked to immune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, and cancer"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With Greater Rates Of Cesarean Sections - Science Daily, 12/23/08 - "pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient are also at an increased risk for delivering a baby by caesarean section as compared to pregnant women who are not vitamin D deficient ... 28 percent of women with serum 25(OH)D less than 37.5 nmol/L had a caesarean section, compared to only 14 percent of women with 25(OH)D greater than 37.5 nmol/L"
  • Nearly Three-quarters Of Youths With Diabetes Insufficient In Vitamin D - Science Daily, 12/15/08 - "Three-quarters of youths with type 1 diabetes were found to have insufficient levels of vitamin D, according to a study by researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center – findings that suggest children with the disease may need vitamin D supplementation to prevent bone fragility later in life"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/08 - "a review article published in the December 9 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology ... patients with vitamin D levels below 15 ng/mL were twice as likely to experience a heart attack, stroke, or other CV event within the next 5 years compared with those with higher levels"
  • Lack Of Vitamin D Causes Weight Gain And Stunts Growth In Girls - Science Daily, 12/11/08 - "The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in young people living in a sun-rich area was surprising," says study lead author, Richard Kremer, co-director of the Musculoskeletal Axis of the MUHC. "We found young women with vitamin D insufficiency were significantly heavier, with a higher body mass index and increased abdominal fat, than young women with normal levels"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Mortality in Kidney Disease - Medscape, 12/9/08
  • Men’s Vitamin D Levels Dipped over Decades - WebMD, 12/8/08 - "men's vitamin D levels have declined between 7% and 12% over the past 15 to 20 years ... She attributes most of the decline to changes in body mass index, decreases in milk intake, and increases in sun protection ... vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cancer, heart disease, depression, and weight gain"
  • Too Little Vitamin D Puts Heart at Risk - WebMD, 12/1/08 - "people with low vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or other heart-related event during follow-up, compared with those with higher vitamin D levels ... Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 blocks approximately 99% of vitamin D synthesis by the skin ... The safe upper limit of vitamin D consumption is 10,000 IU per day ... Vitamin D supplements are available in two different forms: Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3. Although both appear effective in raising vitamin D blood levels, Vitamin D3 supplements appear to result in a longer-lasting boost"
  • 'Let The Sunshine In' To Protect Your Heart This Winter - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "The temperature might not be the only thing plummeting this winter. Many people also will experience a decrease in their vitamin D levels ... Chronic vitamin D deficiency may be a culprit in heart disease, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome"
  • Vitamin D Can Alter Color Cancer Cells In Many Ways, Through One Pathway - Science Daily, 11/17/08 - "Vitamin D can tame the rogue cell by adjusting everything from its gene expression to its cytoskeleton"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency Linked to Increased Body Fat - Medscape, 11/10/08 - "The study sample consisted of 90 postpubertal women aged 16 to 22 years and living in California ... Insufficiency of 25(OH)D, defined as a serum level of 29 ng/mL or less, was present in approximately 59% of participants, and the remaining 41% had sufficient 25(OH)D levels, defined as a serum level of 30 ng/mL or more. Serum 25(OH)D levels were strongly negatively related to CT measures of visceral and subcutaneous fat and to DXA values of body fat" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Could Vitamin D Save Us From Radiation? - Science Daily, 117/08 - "calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, may protect us from background radiation and could be used as a safe protective agent before or after a low-level nuclear incident"
  • Monthly Vitamin D3 Supplementation Safe and Effective - Medscape, 10/22/08 - "A single 45,000-IU dose of vitamin D3 given every 4 weeks is as safe as smaller daily or weekly doses and is as effective in achieving protective levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, according to a study conducted in Israel"
  • Vitamin D A Key Player In Overall Health Of Several Body Organs, Says Biochemist - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "In a paper published in the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Norman identifies vitamin D's potential for contributions to good health in the adaptive and innate immune systems, the secretion and regulation of insulin by the pancreas, the heart and blood pressure regulation, muscle strength and brain activity. In addition, access to adequate amounts of vitamin D is believed to be beneficial towards reducing the risk of cancer ... Norman also lists 36 organ tissues in the body whose cells respond biologically to vitamin D. The list includes bone marrow, breast, colon, intestine, kidney, lung, prostate, retina, skin, stomach and the uterus ... deficiency of vitamin D can impact all 36 organs"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Common In Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "analyzed vitamin D levels of 504 inflammatory bowel disease patients ... almost 50 percent of the patients were Vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11 percent being severely deficient ... 92.4 percent of chronic liver patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one third were severely deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common among cirrhotics"
  • Parkinson's Disease Linked to Vitamin D Insufficiency - WebMD, 10/13/08 - "Participants provided blood samples, which showed vitamin D insufficiency in 55% of the Parkinson's disease patients, compared to 41% of the Alzheimer's patients and 36% of the healthy participants"
  • Pediatrics Group Doubles Children's Recommended Daily Vitamin D Intake - WebMD, 10/13/08 - "The new guidelines are especially important for breastfed babies, since breast milk isn't rich in vitamin D ... I would have probably gone with 400 IU in the first year or two of life, and after that I would have increased it to at least 1,000 and also monitor the vitamin D [blood] level"
  • Vitamin D may protect skin from within: Study - Nutra USA, 10/8/08 - "Atopic dermatitis (AD) ... All of the participants were given daily vitamin D supplements of 4000 IUs for 21 days ... After supplementation, the skin of people with AD showed statistically significant increases in cathelicidin from 3.53 to 23.91 relative copy units (RCU). Moreover, normal skin showed a “modest increase”, said the researchers, from 1.0 to 1.78 RCU"
  • Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease at Increased Risk of Vitamin D Deficiencies - Doctor's Guide, 10/7/08 - "conducted analysed vitamin D levels of 504 patients with IBD ... researchers found almost 50% of the patients were vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11% being severely deficient ... with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... 92.4% of the patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one-third was severely deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Oral Vitamin D May Help Prevent Some Skin Infections - Science Daily, 10/6/08 - "use of oral Vitamin D supplements bolsters production of a protective chemical normally found in the skin, and may help prevent skin infections that are a common result of atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema"
  • Vitamin D again linked to breast cancer protection - Nutra USA, 9/26/08 - "Increased intakes of the vitamin were associated with a 24 per cent reduction in the risk of developing ER+ and PR+ tumours" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Linked to Genetic and Environmental Risk for MS - Medscape, 9/26/08 - "Everyone who has examined this from the National Academy of Sciences to the dietary committee of the European Union to a variety of professional organizations all agree pretty much that the amount of vitamin D that people are getting is too low"
  • Calcium With or Without Vitamin D May Help Prevent Osteoporosis - Medscape, 8/27/08 - "For best therapeutic effect, we recommend minimum doses of 1200 mg of calcium, and 800 IU of vitamin D (for combined calcium plus vitamin D supplementation)"
  • Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency May Lurk in Breastfed Babies - New York Times, 8/25/08 - "Some experts fear that vitamin D deficiency, which can be asymptomatic, may be more common than pediatricians realize and that rickets — perceived to be a 19th-century scourge that was wiped out with the fortification of milk — may be going undetected ... Physicians have known for more than a century that exclusive breast-feeding may be associated with vitamin D deficiency and rickets, and that the condition is easily prevented and treated with inexpensive vitamin drops or cod liver oil. But doctors are reluctant to say anything that might discourage breast-feeding"
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases hip fracture risk: researchers - Nutra USA, 8/20/08 - "women with the lowest 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations (47.6 nmol/L) at study entry had a significantly greater increased risk for subsequent hip fracture during the next seven years than did women with the highest concentrations (70.7 nmol/L)" - [Abstract]
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Pose Large Threat To Health; Overall 26 Percent Increased Risk Of Death - Science Daily, 8/12/08 - "This translates overall to an estimated 26 percent increased risk of any death, though the number of deaths from heart disease alone was not large enough to meet scientific criteria to resolve that it was due to low vitamin D levels ... Previous results from the same nationwide survey showed that 41 percent of men and 53 percent of women are technically deficient in the nutrient, with vitamin D levels below 28 nanograms per milliliter"
  • Pain 'linked with low vitamin D' - BBC News, 8/11/08 - "Low levels of the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D, may contribute to chronic pain among women ... If I had chronic pain I would certainly check I was getting enough vitamin D"
  • Low Level of Vitamin D Ups Death Risk - WebMD, 8/11/08 - "Over an average follow-up period of about nine years, 1,806 participants died. The researchers found a 26% increased risk of death from any cause for the quartile of participants with the lowest vitamin D levels compared to those with the highest levels"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Independent Predictor of Fatal Stroke - Medscape, 7/24/08 - "Low levels of vitamin D appear to be an independent predictor of fatal stroke — a finding that suggests supplementation may be a promising approach for stroke prevention"
  • Vitamin D: Builds Bones And Much More - Science Daily, 7/14/08 - "Recently, researchers have found that vitamin D may help reduce the risk of other diseases ... Fall prevention: ... Cancer prevention: ... Chronic pain prevention: ... Protection against autoimmune diseases: ... Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Vitamin D Levels Tied to Colorectal Cancer Survival - Medscape, 7/14/08 - "Compared with patients with the lowest levels, those with the highest had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.52 for overall mortality"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Chronic Migraine - Medscape, 7/7/08 - "New research showing that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic migraine suggests that this patient group, like other vitamin D deficient populations, is at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and other serious illnesses that have been linked to low levels of this "good-health" vitamin ... 40.7% of patients with chronic migraine were deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The study also showed that the longer individuals had chronic migraine, the more likely they were to be vitamin D deficient"
  • News - Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy Affects Baby's Dental Health - [Science Daily] - Doctor's Guide, 7/3/08 - "Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy may affect primary tooth calcification, leading to enamel defects, which are a risk factor for early childhood tooth decay"
  • Some Seek Guidelines to Reflect Vitamin D's Benefits - washingtonpost.com, 7/4/0 - "A flurry of recent research indicating that Vitamin D may have a dizzying array of health benefits has reignited an intense debate over whether federal guidelines for the "sunshine vitamin" are outdated, leaving millions unnecessarily vulnerable to cancer, heart disease, diabetes and other ailments"
  • Vitamin D May Up Colon Cancer Survival - WebMD, 6/18/08 - "patients with colon cancer who were among the top 25% in levels of vitamin D before being diagnosed were less likely to die during the study period than those who were among the 25% with the lowest levels of the vitamin" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com
  • Adults still risk vitamin D deficiency - USA Today, 6/16/08 - "She began screening all of her patients last year and says 95% have come up deficient. "I'm even seeing it in twenty- and thirty somethings," she says"
  • Lack of vitamin D rampant in infants, teens - USA Today, 6/16/08 - "Vitamin D deficiency is much more of a health problem than anyone realized ... 40% of infants and toddlers tested below average for vitamin D. In a previous study, Gordon and fellow researchers discovered that 42% of adolescents were vitamin D deficient ... Current recommendations by the Institute of Medicine suggest 200 IUs of vitamin D a day for children and 400 IUs for adults, but Callahan, who serves on an institute committee that aims to update those guidelines, says she suggests higher levels to many of her patients, at least 800 to 1,000 IUs a day"
  • Vitamin D: New Way To Treat Heart Failure? - Science Daily, 6/11/08 - "treatments with activated vitamin D prevented heart muscle cells from growing bigger – the condition, called hypertrophy, in which the heart becomes enlarged and overworked in people with heart failure. The treatments prevented heart muscle cells from the over-stimulation and increased contractions associated with the progression of heart failure"
  • Low Vitamin D Ups Heart Risk in Men - WebMD, 6/9/08 - "men who had vitamin D levels of 15 ng/mL or less in their blood samples -- an indication of vitamin D deficiency -- had an increased risk for heart attack compared to those whose vitamin D level was considered sufficient (30 ng/mL). The twofold increased risk remained significant even when adjusting for other factors known to contribute to heart disease, such as high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart disease"
  • Sun Exposure And Vitamin D Levels May Play Strong Role In Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children - Science Daily, 6/5/08 - "This research suggests that childhood type 1 diabetes may be preventable with a modest intake of vitamin D3 (1000 IU/day) for children, ideally with 5 to 10 minutes of sunlight around noontime, when good weather allows"
  • Vitamin D Promising Against IgA Nephropathy - Medscape, 6/3/08 - "The patients were given oral calcitriol 0.5 mcg twice weekly for 12 weeks. The team found a progressive decrease in urine protein-creatinine ratio from 1.98 g/g to 0.81 g/g during the first 6 weeks. This persisted throughout the study period ... There was a simultaneous decrease in serum TGF-beta level, and the percentage of decrease in serum TGF-beta level significantly correlated with percentage of change in proteinuria"
  • Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency May Increase Risk for Preeclampsia - Medscape, 6/3/08 - "Compared with controls, women who subsequently developed preeclampsia had lower adjusted serum 25(OH)D concentrations in early pregnancy (geometric mean, 45.4 vs 53.1 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 38.6 - 53.4 vs 47.1 - 59.9 nmol/L; P < .01) ... After adjusting for potential confounders, a 50-nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with twice the risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1 - 5.4). Compared with control newborns, those of women with preeclampsia were twice as likely to have 25(OH)D concentrations less than 37.5 nmol/L"
  • Babies, Tots Low on Vitamin D - WebMD, 6/2/08 - "Forty percent of those kids had suboptimal blood levels of vitamin D, including 12% who had vitamin D deficiency. And X-rays showed that a third of kids with vitamin D deficiency had bone demineralization, a sign of thinner bones ... Breastfed babies were particularly likely to be low in vitamin D"
  • Current Vitamin D Recommendations Fraction Of Safe, Perhaps Essential Levels For Children - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "The current recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin D for children is 200 International Units (IUs), but new research reveals that children may need and can safely take ten-times that amount ... Only children given the equivalent of 2,000 IUs a day of vitamin D increased 25-OHD levels from the mid-teens to the mid-thirties (ng/ml)--the level considered optimal for adults. None of the children in either trial showed any evidence for vitamin D intoxication"
  • Supplement Your Knowledge of Vitamin D - WebMD, 5/19/08 - "That's not enough, Boston University vitamin D expert Michael Holick, MD, PhD, tells WebMD. Holick recommends a dose of 1,000 IU a day of vitamin D for both infants and adults -- unless they're getting plenty of safe sun exposure ... The Vitamin D Council recommends that healthy adults take 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily -- more if they get little or no sun exposure ... some recent studies suggest that healthy adults can tolerate more than 10,000 IU of vitamin D per day. John Jacob Cannell, MD, executive director of The Vitamin D Council, notes that the skin makes 10,000 IU of vitamin D after 30 minutes of full-body sun exposure. He suggests that 10,000 IU of vitamin D is not toxic"
  • Aggressive Vitamin D Treatment for Osteoporosis - Medscape, 5/19/08 - "Singh called the findings "alarming" and said that although many physicians believe vitamin D deficiency is not a problem, with 41% of study patients found to have a vitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL, "most likely that is not true," he said"
  • Link Between Vitamin D Status And Breast Cancer Illuminated - Science Daily, 5/15/08 - "This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that higher serum levels of vitamin D are associated with reduced incidence rates of breast cancer worldwide"
  • Prostates protected by vitamin D: study - Nutra USA, 5/14/08 - "In this study, we have demonstrated that 1,25-(OH)2D can protect nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells against H2O2-induced cell death through modulating the ROS defense systems, suggesting a possible role of 1,25-(OH)2D in prostate cancer prevention"
  • Hypovitaminosis D Appears Common Among Skin Cancer Population - oncologystat.com, 5/12/08 - "Nearly all patients undergoing Mohs surgery for nonmelanoma skin cancer were found to be vitamin D deficient"
  • Vitamin D Protects Cells From Stress That Can Lead To Cancer - Science Daily, 5/13/08 - "By inducing a specific gene to increase expression of a key enzyme, vitamin D protects healthy prostate cells from the damage and injuries that can lead to cancer"
  • Vitamin D and cancer: maintaining levels key to protection? - Nutra USA, 5/12/08 - "After adjusting for various potential confounding factors, the researchers report that people with the highest level of 25(OH)D (76.3 nanomoles per litre) were 55 per cent less likely to die form fatal cancer than those with the lowest levels (18.1 nmol/L)" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Linked to Reduced Mortality Rate in Chronic Kidney Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/7/08 - "For patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD), treatment with activated vitamin D may reduce the risk of death by approximately one-fourth"
  • Many Depressed Older Adults Lack Vitamin D - WebMD, 5/6/08 - "Researchers reporting in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry have linked low blood levels of vitamin D -- the "sunshine vitamin" -- and increased parathyroid hormone levels to depression among older adults"
  • Vitamin D3 for 1 Year Is Safe in Adolescents - Medscape, 5/5/08 - "Vitamin D3 at doses equivalent to 2000 IU/day for 1 year is safe in adolescents and results in desirable vitamin D levels"
  • A Too-Good-to-Be-True Nutrient? - washingtonpost.com. 4/29/08 - "Among the more intriguing findings is a recent review of 18 studies involving nearly 60,000 people that showed those who took Vitamin D supplements had a 7 percent reduction in mortality from all causes compared with those who didn't take the supplements"
  • Low Vitamin D, High CRP Linked to Poorer Function in Heart Failure Patients - Medscape, 4/28/08 - "Lower vitamin D levels and higher C-reactive protein levels are associated with poor aerobic capacity and greater frailty in elderly patients with heart failure"
  • High Blood Levels Of Vitamin D Protect Women From Breast Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/22/08 - "Women with a very low blood level of 25(OH)D have a considerably increased breast cancer risk. The effect was found to be strongest in women who were not taking hormones for relief of menopausal symptoms"
  • Vitamin D Important In Brain Development And Function - Science Daily, 4/21/08 - "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function, and that supplementation for groups chronically low in vitamin D is warranted"
  • Vitamin D May Protect Against Peripheral Artery Disease - Science Daily, 4/20/08 - "When the researchers adjusted for age, sex, race and co-existing health problems, they found that PAD was 64 percent more common in the group with the lowest vitamin D levels compared with the group with the highest levels"
  • Vitamin D status linked to artery health: study - Nutra USA, 4/17/08 - "Data from 4839 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) showed that the prevalence of PAD was 4.4 per cent lower in people with blood levels of vitamin D above 29.2 nanograms per millilitre (ng/mL) than in people with blood levels below 17.8 ng/mL"
  • Vitamin D And Calcium Influence Cell Death In The Colon, Researchers Find - Science Daily, 4/13/08 - "We were pleased that the effects of calcium and vitamin D were visible enough in this small study to be significant and reportable"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency May Be To Blame For Soft Bones In Baby's Skull - Science Daily, 3/26/08 - "Softening of the skull bones in normal-looking babies might reflect vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D May Cut Child Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 3/12/08 - "giving infants vitamin D supplements cuts their risk of type 1 diabetes by 29% ... infants in wintry Finland are 400 times more likely than a child in sunny Venezuela to have childhood diabetes"
  • The vitamin D miracle: Is it for real? - globeandmail.com, 3/8/08 - "... Researchers in Australia are testing this hypothesis by studying the brains of rats born to pregnant mothers deprived of vitamin D - with alarming results. The vitamin-D-deprived rodent brains had more cell proliferation, enlarged ventricles and less of a protein necessary for nerve growth ..." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A Ray Of Sunshine In The Fight Against Cancer: Vitamin D May Help - Science Daily, 2/13/08 - "It sounds too good to be true … a little inexpensive pill that could block the development of some cancers, strengthen bones, prevent multiple sclerosis and alleviate winter depression ... But it’s not science fiction. The “new aspirin” could be Vitamin D ... during the winter, Canadians take at least 1,000 units a day of Vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D Appears to Cut Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 10 ng/mL, a level of 50 ng/mL reduced the risk for breast cancer by 50%. This level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D would require an average intake of 4000 IU of vitamin D per day, although the authors note that intake of 2000 IU per day combined with sun exposure of approximately 12 minutes per day with 50% of the skin exposed could also help patients achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 50 ng/mL ... Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 12 ng/mL, a level of at least 33 ng/mL or more was associated with a 50% reduction in the risk for incident colorectal cancer ... vitamin D intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day would confer an appropriate balance between protection against colorectal cancer and adverse events related to hypervitaminosis"
  • Lack Of Vitamin D May Increase Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 1/7/08 - "those with blood levels of vitamin D below15 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) had twice the risk of a cardiovascular event such as a heart attack, heart failure or stroke in the next five years compared to those with higher levels of vitamin D ... Overall, 28 percent of individuals had levels of vitamin D below15 ng/mL and 9 percent had levels below10 ng/mL. Although levels above 30 ng/mL are considered optimal for bone metabolism, only 10 percent of the study sample had levels in this range"
  • Sunlight: Good for Bad for Cancer Risk? - WebMD, 1/7/08 - "In populations with similar skin types, the incidence of all kinds of skin cancer increases from north to south, they found ... The incidence of internal cancers -- colon, lung, breast, and prostate -- also increased from north to south. But Setlow's team found that those who lived in southern latitudes -- and who made more vitamin D from sun exposure -- were much less likely to die from those cancers than were the northern latitude residents"
  • Lung Cancer Rarer in Sunny Countries? - WebMD, 12/18/07
  • Vitamin D2 just as good as D3? - Nutra USA, 1/4/08 - "Previously, researchers from Creighton University in Omaha reported in 2004 that while both forms of the vitamin do produce similar rises in serum concentration of the native vitamin, indicating equivalent absorption, only vitamin D3 sustained 25(OH)D levels over a 14 day period. However, serum 25OHD fell rapidly in the D2-supplemented subjects and was not different from baseline at 14 days"
  • Vitamin D2 Is As Effective As Vitamin D3 In Maintaining Concentrations Of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/2/08 - Note:  That contradicts previous studies.  I err on the safe side.  See:
    • Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91 - "Vitamin D(2) potency is less than one third that of vitamin D(3). Physicians resorting to use of vitamin D(2) should be aware of its markedly lower potency and shorter duration of action relative to vitamin D(3)"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Fatigue and Muscle Pain in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/07 - "Treatment of low levels of vitamin D in women with early stage breast cancer appears to reduce fatigue and muscle pain associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy"
  • Lung cancer 'link to lack of sun' - BBC News, 12/18/07 - "Cancer results when cells start to divide in an uncontrolled fashion ... vitamin D stimulated the release of chemicals which, in combination with calcium, formed a glue-like substance which bind these cells tightly together, and put a brake on their division"
  • Vitamin D dose study adds weight to intake increases - Nutra USA, 12/12/07 - "Doses of vitamin D3 of 2,000 International Units (IU) - the current tolerable upper intake level (UL) in Europe and the US - are needed to ensure blood levels of the vitamin amongst post-menopausal African-American women ... A recent review of the science reported that the tolerable upper intake level for oral vitamin D3 should be increased five-fold, from the current tolerable upper intake level (UL) in Europe and the US of 2000 International Units (IU), equivalent to 50 micrograms per day, to 10,000 IU" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Highly Prevalent Among Epilepsy Patients - Medscape, 12/6/07 - "the study showed 44.5% of epilepsy patients — 45.3% of men and 43.7% of women — were vitamin D deficient, putting these patients at potential increased risk for a wide variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and infectious disease, among others"
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels May Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 11/19/07 - "During a 17-year follow-up of a Finnish cohort of approximately 4,000 men and women, researchers demonstrated that individuals with a higher serum vitamin D level had a 40% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with lower values"
  • Can Calcium & Vitamin D Reduce Diabetes Risk? - Physician's Weekly, 11/19/07 - "found a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 diabetes based on the utilization of vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation ... a combination of vitamin D and calcium supplements may play a role in type 2 diabetes prevention particularly in high-risk populations"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels May Worsen Osteoarthritis Of The Knee - Science Daily, 11/15/07 - "Researchers studied 65 women and 35 men in their sixties who showed signs of having knee OA by measuring blood levels of vitamin D, their baseline knee pain, the time needed for arising several times from a chair, and the time needed to walk 20 meters ... Of the 100 participants, 47 percent were vitamin D deficient, with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml. This deficiency contributed to increased pain and difficulty walking among the participants" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Deficiency In Exposure To Sunlight Linked To Endometrial Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/07 - "In general, endometrial cancer incidence was highest at the highest latitudes in both hemispheres ... This is the third environmental paper from this research team to show a strong association between vitamin D and cancer using global incidence data (GLOBOCAN). The first paper, which illuminated a similar pattern for kidney cancer, was published Sept. 15, 2006, in the International Journal of Cancer. The second, on ovarian cancer, was published Oct. 31, 2006, in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine"
  • Low Vitamin D Raises Pain and Functional Impairment in Osteoarthritis - Doctor's Guide, 11/12/07 - "Low levels of vitamin D are associated with more knee pain and walking difficulty in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Live longer with vitamin D, study says - Nutra USA, 11/9/07
  • Vitamin D 'may help slow ageing' - BBC News, 11/8/07 - "those with higher vitamin D levels showed fewer ageing-related changes in their DNA ...women with higher levels of vitamin D were more likely to have longer telomeres in these cells, and vice versa" - " See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Relationship between vitamin D and muscle size and strength in patients on hemodialysis - J Ren Nutr. 2007 Nov;17(6):397-407 - "Treatment with active vitamin D was associated with greater muscle size and strength in this cohort of HD patients"
  • Exposure To Sunlight May Decrease Risk Of Advanced Breast Cancer By Half - Science Daily, 10/18/07 - "We believe that sunlight helps to reduce women's risk of breast cancer because the body manufactures the active form of vitamin D from exposure to sunlight ... It is possible that these effects were observed only among light- skinned women because sun exposure produces less vitamin D among women with naturally darker pigmentation"
  • Vitamin D deficiency linked to greater pain - Nutra USA, 10/15/07 - "Of these patients, 26 per cent had vitamin D inadequacy and needed almost twice the dose of morphine of the group with adequate vitamin D levels"
  • Prostate Cancer Survival Varies by Season - washingtonpost.com, 10/7/07 - "Summer and autumn months correspond to times when vitamin D is highest (in Norway). Although the study does not prove vitamin D is the determining factor, it does suggest that this possibility should be studied further ... Compared with men diagnosed in the summer and fall, those diagnosed in the winter and spring were 20 percent more likely to die within three years after diagnosis"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalent, Minimum Recommended Dose May Be Too Low - Doctor's Guide, 9/26/07
  • Low Vitamin D Linked To Higher Risk Of Hip Fracture - Science Daily, 9/20/07 - "The risk of hip fractures was 77 percent higher among women whose 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were at the lowest concentrations ... most experts think that people need at least 800 to 1,000 international units a day"
  • As Vitamins Go, D, You Are My Sunshine - washingtonpost.com, 9/18/07 - "the study found no "negative surprises" from taking vitamin D, as long as doses were kept between 300 to 2,000 international units (IU) per day"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Appear To Be Associated With Lower Risk Of Death - Science Daily, 9/10/07
  • Take Vitamin D, Live Longer? - WebMD, 9/10/07 - "People taking vitamin D were 7% less likely to die during the studies. The precise reason for their lower death rate isn't clear, and the reviewers aren't recommending a specific vitamin D dose"
  • Low Vitamin D During Pregnancy Linked To Pre-eclampsia - Science Daily, 9/7/07 - "Low vitamin D early in pregnancy was associated with a five-fold increase in the odds of preeclampsia"
  • Vitamin D for Cancer Prevention? - WebMD, 9/5/07 - "The 2,000-IU daily dose of vitamin D suggested by the reviewers is currently considered the "tolerable upper limit" for vitamin D ... a projected 50% reduction in colon cancer incidence would require a universal intake of 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D3 ... A similar reduction in breast cancer incidence would require 3,500 IU per day"
  • The Impact of Low Vitamin D on Cardiovascular Outcomes - Physician's Weekly, 8/27/07 - "serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, or vitamin D, appears to be associated with important cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults ... The adjusted prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and high serum triglyceride levels was significantly higher for patients with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D"
  • Low Plasma Vitamin D Linked to Increased Risk of Rectal Cancer - Medscape, 8/22/07 - "We calculated the rectal cancer risk of the lowest quartile compared with the combined category of other quartiles in men and women ... These odds ratios were 4.6 in men and 2.7 in women"
  • Study Shines More Light On Benefit Of Vitamin D In Fighting Cancer - Science Daily, 8/21/07 - "For the first time, we are saying that 600,000 cases of breast and colorectal cancer could be prevented each year worldwide, including nearly 150,000 in the United States alone ... The serum level recommended by the study would correspond to intake of 2000 International Units per day of vitamin D3 for a meaningful reduction in colorectal cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • One Dose of Vitamin D Enhances Immunity to Mycobacteria - Medscape, 8/2/07 - "In healthy people who have been in contact with tuberculosis patients, a single oral dose of vitamin D enhances antimycobacterial immunity"
  • Sunshine 'protective' against MS - BBC News, 7/28/07 - "An earlier study found women who took vitamin D supplements were 40% less likely to develop MS ... Depending on the activity, the twin who spent more hours outdoors had up to a 57% reduced risk of developing MS"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Elevated Blood Pressure - Medscape, 7/24/07 - "Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects in the highest 25OHD quintile (85.7 mmol/L or greater) were 3.0 mm Hg and 1.6 mm Hg lower, respectively, compared with patients in the lowest 25OHD quintile"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency: Common And Problematic Yet Preventable - Science Daily, 7/19/07 - "Studies have shown people living at higher latitudes (where the angle of the sun's rays are unable to sufficiently produce adequate amounts of vitamin D in the skin) are more likely to develop and die of Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian, breast and other cancers ... both prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have also shown an association between low levels of vitamin D and an increased risk for Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease ... Holick believes the current recommended Adequate Intakes for vitamin D need to be increased to 800 -- 1000 IU vitaminD3/d"
  • Low vitamin D levels may increase metabolic syndrome risk - Nutra USA, 7/17/07 - "The most relevant finding in our study was the association of vitamin D concentrations with lipid levels. Our results are in concordance with the concept that vitamin D appears to be necessary to maintain adequate apolipoprotein A-I concentrations, the main component of HDL cholesterol - [Abstract]
  • National Osteoporosis Foundation's Updated Recommendations for Calcium and Vitamin D3 Intake - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/07 - "adults aged 50 years and older should have 1200 mg of calcium/day and 800 to 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D3/day"
  • Vitamin D Fights Colon Cancer - WebMD, 7/10/07 - "The findings support a number of previous studies that link vitamin D to colon cancer protection, to protection against breast and ovarian cancer, to protection against pancreatic cancer, and to overall reduction of cancer risk"
  • Kids' Bones at Risk From Low Vitamin D - WebMD, 7/9/07 - "55% of the children had lower than recommended vitamin D levels ... Overall, 68% of children had inadequate stores of the vitamin in their blood during the colder months when they spent more time indoors"
  • Vitamin D Level May Be Low Despite Adequate Sun Exposure - Medscape, 6/29/07 - "Despite this abundant sun exposure, 51% of the subjects had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations below 30 ng/mL, defined as "low vitamin D status ... Overall, vitamin D level did not correlate with age, skin color, or sun exposure"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Increased CV Risk Factors - Medscape, 6/15/07 - "Adults with low serum levels of vitamin D are more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and high triglycerides than are adults with higher vitamin-D levels"
  • Cancer Benefit From Vitamin D? - WebMD, 6/8/07 - "Women in the four-year study took 1,500 milligrams of calcium supplementation either alone or with 1,100 International Units (IU) of vitamin D each day ... women who took both supplements wound up with nearly 60% less risk of cancers at the end of the study compared with women who took placebo"
  • Study: Vitamin D Reduces Cancer Risk - washingtonpost.com, 6/8/07 - "Only 13 women, or 3 percent, developed cancer over four years of calcium and vitamin D supplements. With calcium alone, 17 women, or 4 percent, got cancer. With dummy pills, cancer appeared in 20 women, or 7 percent ... That shows a 60 percent lower cancer risk over four years in the group taking both supplements, compared to patients taking placebos"
  • Decreased Vitamin D Levels Linked to Shorter Telomeres - Doctor's Guide, 6/5/07 - "Investigators found the difference in TRFL between the highest and lowest tertiles of vitamin D was 92.6 base pairs (P =.006). That result was equivalent to 4.2 years of telomeric aging"
  • Calcium/Vitamin D Slows Weight Gain - WebMD, 5/14/07 - "Half the women took 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D every day ... Women not taking enough calcium were getting the greatest benefit. They were 11% less likely to gain weight and more likely to remain weight-stable or lose weight"
  • Higher Intake Of Fish And Vitamin D Levels Linked To Lower Risk Of Age-related Macular Disease - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "When participants were split into five groups based on level of vitamin D in the blood, those in the highest group had a 40 percent lower risk of early AMD than those in the lowest group"
  • Nutrients may cut macular degeneration risk - CNN, 5/14/07 - "Taking vitamin D and eating fish -- especially those high in omega-3 fatty acids -- may reduce the risk of the most common cause of blindness among the elderly"
  • Vitamin D Supplements May Offer Cheap And Effective Immune System Boost Against TB - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "a single 2.5mg dose of vitamin D may be enough to boost the immune system to fight against tuberculosis (TB) and similar bacteria for at least 6 weeks"
  • The Vitamin D Pandemic and its Health Consequences - Michael Holick, 5/7/08
  • High Calcium And Vitamin D Intakes Associated WIth Higher Risk Of Cognitive Impairment In Elderly - Science Daily, 5/1/07 - "we do not know if high calcium and vitamin D intake are involved with the causation of brain lesions, but the study provides support to the growing number of researchers who are concerned about the effects of too much calcium, particularly among older adults, given the current emphasis on promoting high intakes of calcium and vitamin D"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked To Poor Physical Performance In Older Adults - Science Daily, 4/23/07 - "physical performance and grip strength were about five to 10 percent lower in those who had low levels of vitamin D ... Current recommendations call for people from age 50 to 69 to get 400 international units (IUs) of vitamin D per day and for those over age 70 ... Higher amounts of vitamin D may be needed for the preservation of muscle strength and physical function as well as other conditions such as cancer prevention"
  • Higher Dose of Vitamin D May Reduce Risk for Falls in Nursing Home Residents - Medscape, 3/2/07 - "Compared with residents taking placebo, those taking 800 IU had a 72% lower adjusted-incidence rate ratio of falls during the 5-month study"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Widespread During Pregnancy - Doctor's Guide, 3/1/07 - "Our study shows that current vitamin D dietary intake recommendations are not enough to meet the demands of pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D May Reduce Falls In Elderly Nursing Home Residents - Science Daily, 2/22/07 - "seniors taking a high daily dose of vitamin D experienced 72 percent fewer falls compared to those taking a placebo ... The dose that was most effective, 800 International Units per day, is higher than the dose typically prescribed to seniors"
  • Vitamin D Appears to Cut Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/12/07 - "Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 10 ng/mL, a level of 50 ng/mL reduced the risk for breast cancer by 50%. This level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D would require an average intake of 4000 IU of vitamin D per day, although the authors note that intake of 2000 IU per day combined with sun exposure of approximately 12 minutes per day with 50% of the skin exposed could also help patients achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 50 ng/mL"
  • Vitamin D Backed For Cancer Prevention In Two New Studies - Science Daily, 2/8/07 - "Two new vitamin D studies using a sophisticated form of analysis called meta-analysis, in which data from multiple reports is combined, have revealed new prescriptions for possibly preventing up to half of the cases of breast cancer and two-thirds of the cases of colorectal cancer in the United States ... The serum level associated with a 50 percent reduction in risk could be maintained by taking 2,000 international units of vitamin D3 daily plus, when the weather permits, spending 10 to 15 minutes a day in the sun"
  • Could Some Sun Be Good for Your Skin? - WebMD, 1/29/07 - "There is a growing body of research suggesting that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for a host of human cancers, as well as other disorders including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, and multiple sclerosis"
  • Vitamin D May Protect Against MS - WebMD, 12/19/06 - "Compared with whites with the lowest levels, those with the highest were found to have a 62% lower risk for developing the disease ... Most multivitamins contain 400 IU of vitamin D, which has been thought to be a sufficient daily dosage. But Finn argues that most people need between 800 and 1,000 IU a day, especially in the winter"
  • Almost Everyone Needs More of the Sunshine Vitamin - US News, 12/18/06 - "A single nutrient that keeps bones strong, wards off diabetes, and protects against tuberculosis, cancer, colds, and the flu ... the rash of new findings suggests to the experts that the guidelines are way too low ... many people suffering symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia actually have a painful softening of the bones that is caused by a D deficiency ... having too little appears to cause the immune system to weaken as well"
  • Deficiency In Exposure To Sunlight Linked To Ovarian Cancer - Science Daily, 11/2/06 - "This new global study shows a link between deficiency of vitamin D and increased incidence of ovarian cancer, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may reduce the incidence of this aggressive cancer"
  • New Study Gives Further Hope That Vitamin D Can Fight Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 10/17/06 - "women with early stage disease had significantly higher levels of vitamin D (15 to 184 mmol/litre) than the women in the advanced stages of the disease (16 to 146 mmol/litre)"
  • Vitamin D May Slow Breast Cancer - WebMD, 10/17/06 - "women with early-stage breast cancer had much higher levels of vitamin D in their blood than women with more advanced disease"
  • Vitamin D May Cut Pancreatic Cancer Risk By Nearly Half - Science Daily, 9/12/06 - "taking the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of Vitamin D (400 IU/day) reduced the risk of pancreatic cancer by 43 percent ... Vitamin D has shown strong potential for preventing and treating prostate cancer, and areas with greater sunlight exposure have lower incidence and mortality for prostate, breast, and colon cancers"
  • Vitamin D May Cut Pancreatic Cancer - WebMD, 9/12/06
  • Sun Exposure Cuts Cancer Risk at 16 Sites, Study Says - Medscape, 8/15/06 - "solar ultraviolet B irradiance is associated with reduced risk at 16 sites of cancer through production of vitamin D. These cancers include 6 sites of gastrointestinal cancers, 3 cancers of female sites, 3 urogenital cancers, 2 types of lymphomas, and 2 upper aerodigestive tract cancers"
  • Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake May Not Be Optimal - Medscape, 7/19/06 - "An intake for all adults of >/=1000 IU (40 µg) vitamin D (cholecalciferol)/day is needed to bring vitamin D concentrations in no less than 50% of the population up to 75 nmol/L"
  • Increasing Dietary and Supplemental Calcium - Medscape, 6/16/06 - "Postmenopausal women, as reported in many studies, tend to have average serum 25(OH)D values ranging from 50 to 55 nmol/L (20 to 22 ng/mL)[8,10] and are therefore absorbing the calcium they ingest with reduced efficiency ... raising serum 25(OH)D from the typical postmenopausal range up to 75 nmol/L resulted in a 33% reduction in all osteoporotic fractures combined"
  • Vitamin D Targets Thrombosis in Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/15/06
  • New Research Clarifies Roles Of Calcium, Vitamin D, And Protein In Bone Health, Fracture Risk - Science Daily, 6/6/06 - "age has little bearing on the degree of deficiency. "Even young post-menopausal women should take some form of vitamin D supplementation,""
  • 5 things you need to know about calcium - MSNBC, 5/26/06 - "You may need more vitamin D. Current federal recommendations for adults aged 51 to 70 still call for the 400 IU daily used in these studies. Yet research now shows that 700 to 1,000 IU of vitamin D a day appears necessary to reach the most healthy blood levels of vitamin D. A daily intake of 400 IU is now considered inadequate to prevent fractures"
  • Low Vitamin D May Harm Teens’ Lungs - WebMD, 5/23/06 - "35% of the teens consumed less than 200 IU (international units) of vitamin D per day ... The teens who had low levels of vitamin D in their diets (157 IU or less) also had significantly lower lung function"
  • Low Vitamin D Common in Elderly and Associated with Physical Function Loss - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/06 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is universally common in older adults and associated with more physical function loss over time"
  • High Vitamin D Serum Levels Associated with Decreased Risk of Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 4/10/06
  • Vitamin D Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in Case-Control Study - Doctor's Guide, 4/10/06 - "Women who took cod liver oil for 10 years or more had a 34% reduced risk, relative to those who did not"
  • High-dose vitamin D supplements act as anti-inflammatory - Nutra USA, 4/10/06
  • Food Antioxidants, Vitamin D Fight Breast Cancer - HealthDay, 4/7/06 - "postmenopausal women who consumed high levels of flavonoids, a class of antioxidants found in plants, had a 45 percent lower risk of breast cancer ... Those who had the highest levels of intake of kaempferol had a 38 percent decrease in the incidence of ovarian cancer compared to women with the lowest levels of this flavonoid ... those with the highest blood levels of a vitamin D metabolite known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D had a 50 percent reduced risk of breast cancer"
  • Vitamin D And Flavonoids Examined For Impact On Breast And Ovarian Cancers - Science Daily, 4/7/06 - "Vitamin D in blood serum equal to 52 nanograms per milliliter was associated with a 50 percent reduced risk of breast cancer. To move closer to a serum concentration of 52 nanograms/milliliter, a typical individual would have to consume no less than 1,000 International Units (IU) of Vitamin D every day, through supplements or vitamin D-fortified foods"
  • Vitamin D May Protect Against Cancer - WebMD, 4/4/06 - "At least half of American adults suffer from vitamin D deficiencies that place them at increased risk of cancer ... taking at least 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D daily can slash the risk of breast, colon, and other cancers"
  • Vitamin D linked to lower breast cancer risk - Nutra USA, 4/4/06 - "a serum vitamin D level of 52 nanograms per milliliter was associated with a 50 percent reduction in breast cancer risk. To have such a serum vitamin level would require a daily intake of about 1,000 International Units (IU)"
  • Calcium, vitamin D may lower diabetes risk - Nutra USA, 4/3/06 - "A combined daily intake of more than 1,200 milligrams of calcium and more than 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D was associated with a 33 per cent lower risk of type-2 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D and Cancer: A Goldilocks Paradox? - Medscape, 3/30/06 - "In laboratory models, vitamin D reduces cell proliferation and increases cell differentiation, improves cell adhesion, and inhibits cancer progression and metastasis"
  • Women with Osteoporosis May Need More Vitamin D - Healthwell, 3/16/06 - "More than half of American women receiving drug therapy for osteoporosis are deficient in vitamin D ... The new research suggests that many women with osteoporosis are using drugs to treat a problem that could be helped simply by getting sun more often or by taking a nutritional supplement"
  • Researchers Reveal Possibility Of Separating Anticancer Properties Of Vitamin D - Science Daily, 3/18/06
  • Maternal Intake of Vitamin D during Pregnancy May Protect against Early Childhood Wheezing Illnesses - Doctor's Guide, 3/6/06
  • Kids' Asthma Linked to Maternal Nutrition - HealthDay, 3/4/06 - "expectant mothers who take higher amounts of vitamin D may decrease their child's risk for asthma ... Vitamin D deficiency is common in areas where asthma is also widespread, raising the suspicion that the two are linked"
  • Bone Supplements (Calcium and Vitamin D) review - ConsumerLab.com, 3/3/06
  • Vitamin D - Cancer Prevention and Other New Uses - Life Extension Magazine, 3/06 - "Once considered little more than a compound that promotes healthy bones, vitamin D is now recognized as an important weapon in the fight against cancer ... While the Institute of Medicine suggests 400-600 IU of vitamin D daily, the American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA) advises that all men and women over the age of 50 should consume 800-1000 IU of vitamin D each day"
  • Vitamin D, calcium supplements could reduce falls in women, not men - Nutra USA, 2/28/06 - "700 IU of cholocalciferol (vitamin D3) plus 500 mg of calcium in the form of calcium citrate malate ... After three years of supplementation the researchers observed: “Long-term dietary cholocalciferol-calcium supplementation reduces the odds of falling in ambulatory (mobile) older women by 46 per cent, and especially in non-active women by 65 per cent.”"
  • Calcium Plus Vitamin-D Supplementation Does An Older Body Good - Science Daily, 2/24/06 - "The older the woman, the more likely it is that consistent use of calcium and vitamin-D supplements will play a role in reducing her risk for osteoporosis"
  • Vitamin D Protects Against Tuberculosis - Intelihealth, 2/23/06 - "Four years of work led to the finding that the human defense mechanism involves vitamin D"
  • Study Finds Calcium Supplements Don't Prevent Broken Bones - New York Times, 2/15/06 - "the participants were randomly assigned to take 1000 milligrams of calcium and 400 international units of vitamin D a day ... When they looked only at the women who took 80 percent of their pills, the supplements reduced hip fractures by 29 percent. The annual rate of hip fractures in adherent women taking the supplements was 10 per 10,000, compared with 14 per 10,000 in adherent women taking placebos"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D: Help Women's Hips? - WebMD, 2/15/06 - "Calcium and vitamin D supplements may help protect some older women's hips -- but only when taken regularly"
  • Vitamin D Inhibits Progression Of Some Prostate Cancers - Science Daily, 2/8/06 - "vitamin D significantly limits the ability of prostate cancer cells to invade healthy cells by reducing the activity of two enzymes -- proteases called matrix metalloproteinase and cathepsin" [WebMD]
  • Vitamin D – sunlight or supplements? - Nutra USA, 2/1/06 - "Supplements and diet, and not sunlight, should be your source of vitamin D, dermatology experts have concluded after reviewing studies from both sides of the on-going debate"
  • How to get vitamin D? - USA Today, 1/29/06 - "Adults who consume 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D daily might lower their risks of colon, breast and ovarian cancers by up to 50% ... Essentially no one in the United States is getting that"
  • Epidemiology of Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Recent Findings - Medscape, 1/9/06 - "In vitro, animal and clinical studies strongly indicate that vitamin D may have anticancer benefits, including against progression (such as metastasis) in colorectal cancer and possibly other cancers. Thus improving vitamin D status could be potentially beneficial against either incidence or mortality, or both ... Current recommended intakes of vitamin D (for example, 400 IU/day) may be too low to provide maximal benefits, though the precise optimal dose remains unestablished"
  • Pregnant? Vitamin D May Aid Baby's Bones - Doctor's Guide, 1/6/06
  • Vitamin D May Lower Some Cancer Risk - WebMD, 12/28/05
  • Revealed: the pill that prevents cancer - The Independent, 12/28/05 - "What it can do ... Heart disease ... Lung disease ... Cancers (breast, colon, ovary, prostate) ... Diabetes ... High blood pressure ... Schizophrenia ... Multiple sclerosis ... Rickets and osteoporosis" - See iHerb vitamin D products.
  • Vitamin D Needed To Cut Cancer Risk, Researchers Say - Science Daily, 12/28/05 - "Taking 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D3 daily appears to lower an individual's risk of developing certain cancers – including colon, breast, and ovarian cancer – by up to 50 percent"
  • Be tenacious about soaking up vitamin D - US News, 12/26/05 - "vitamin D deficiency appears to be fairly common. One study in Boston found that of 307 adolescents tested, 75 were vitamin D deficient ... a shortage could even play a role in cancer, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis"
  • Vitamin D May Help Treat Some Asthma - WebMD, 12/8/05 - "vitamin D may help people with steroid-resistant asthma respond better to steroid pills taken for asthma"
  • Leading Osteoporosis Experts Reach Consensus on Role of Vitamin D in Bone Health in Americans Over 50 - Doctor's Guide, 11/22/05 - "over 70% of women ages 51-70 and nearly 90% of women over 70 are not getting the recommended adequate intake of vitamin D ... The roundtable panelists expressed concern that current recommendations do not provide for optimal bone health and recommended that intake levels be increased to 800-1,000 IU per day for patients over age 50"
  • Vitamin D may cut falls in elderly, further evidence - Nutra USA, 11/22/05 - "According to the report in this month's issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (vol 53, issue 11, pp1881-8), the vitamin D group were between 27-37 per cent less likely to experience a fall compared with the placebo group after two years"
  • Vitamin D: Important for Prevention of Osteoporosis, Cardiovascular Heart Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Autoimmune Diseases, and Some Cancers - Medscape, 11/11/05 - "A multivitamin Containing 400 IU of vitamin D is inadequate to satisfy the body's requirement.[32] It is estimated that at least 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day is needed to satisfy the body's requirement"
  • Vitamin D Intake Vital for Bone Health - Intelihealth, 11/8/05
  • Adequate Vitamin D Status Appears More Important than High Calcium Intake for Maintaining Calcium Metabolism - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/05 - "vitamin D sufficiency may be more important than high calcium intake in maintaining desired values of serum PTH ... Vitamin D supplements are necessary to ensure adequate vitamin D status for most of the year in northern climates"
  • Vitamin D Compounds May Fight Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/1/05 - "Vitamin D compounds may help slow or prevent prostate cancer ... Calcitriol "markedly reduced tumor burden over time,""
  • Most Postmenopausal Women Are Vitamin D Deficient: Presented at ASBMR - Doctor's Guide, 9/29/05 - "64% of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D3 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Linked With Neuromuscular Performance in the Elderly - Medscape, 9/28/05 - "The change in performance scores with increasing serum 25(OH)D was significant for all steps ... This is a very important study because it suggests that vitamin D is not only important for bone health, but is important in neuromuscular stability"
  • Report highlights the importance of vitamin D for teeth - Nutra USA, 9/22/05
  • Vitamin D, NSAIDS Provide Double Whammy Against Prostate Cancer, Stanford Study Finds - Science Daily, 9/1/05 - "The growth of prostate cancer cells can be halted by combining a form of vitamin D, available only by prescription, with low doses of an over-the-counter painkiller ... The combination reduced prostate cancer cell growth in a laboratory dish by up to 70 percent, according to the findings"
  • Taking A Break From Fractures: A Closer Look At Vitamin D - Science Daily, 8/11/05 - "The researchers concluded, though, that higher daily doses, in the range of 700 to 800 IU, may reduce the risk of fracture by approximately 25 percent ... only subjects receiving higher doses of vitamin D supplementation had significantly fewer fractures than did subjects in the comparison groups"
  • Do Vitamin D Pills Help Blacks? - WebMD, 7/25/05
  • Sunlight Lowers Prostate Cancer Risk - HealthDay, 6/15/05 - "the men with high sun exposure were at half the prostate cancer risk of men with low sun exposure ... the body manufactures the active form of vitamin D from exposure to sunlight"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D in Diet May Prevent PMS - WebMD, 6/13/05 - "Those who ate about four servings a day of low-fat dairy or yogurt or fortified orange juice had a 40% lower risk of PMS than those who did not. That is about 1,200 milligrams of calcium or 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D each day"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Appears to Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Development in Women: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/13/05 - "When they compared the highest and lowest quintile cohorts of vitamin D intake from all sources, the researchers found the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes was 0.72" - I read that as a 28% reduced risk.
  • Physicians Often Overlook Vitamin D Status in Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/05 - "More than half of postmenopausal women are not getting enough vitamin D"
  • Study Reveals a Link Between Vitamin D Markers and Bone Density - Doctor's Guide, 5/25/05
  • Scientists: Sunshine May Prevent Cancer - CBS 2 Chicago, 5/21/05 - "vitamin D increasingly seems important for preventing and even treating many types of cancer ... In the last three months alone, four separate studies found it helped protect against lymphoma and cancers of the prostate, lung and, ironically, the skin. The strongest evidence is for colon cancer"
  • Vitamin D Deficit: Women's Silent Bone Threat - WebMD, 5/20/05 - "The study included 1,554 postmenopausal U.S. women being treated for osteoporosis ... More than half of the women (52%) had less-than-optimal levels of vitamin D ... Doctors need to pay more attention to vitamin D status"
  • Vitamin D Does Prevent Fractures in Elderly - HealthDay, 5/10/05 - "If someone did not have a fracture yet, I would recommend 700 to 800 International Units (IU) of vitamin D a day, with at least 700 milligrams of calcium ... If you have had a fracture, you should discuss with your physician whether you may need more. The National Science Foundation says the safe upper limit is 2,000 units a day, so you can go to 1,500 units or higher, especially if you live in a country like the United Kingdom, where you have little exposure to sunlight"
  • Get vitamin D from supplements not sunshine - Nutra USA, 5/4/05 - "Their conclusion was reached after data on the relationship between sunlight, tanning booths and vitamin D was reviewed at a conference convened by the American Academy of Dermatology Association"
  • Statins Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 4/18/05 - "looked at 450 men and women with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer ... The high-vitamin D group was more than twice as likely to be alive five years later"
  • A Deficiency of D? -  WshingtonPost.com, 4/5/05 - "most adults, especially those over 50, fall short on recommended daily levels of vitamin D, an essential nutrient long known to preserve bones and now increasingly tied to protection against ailments from cancer to rheumatoid arthritis ... the most practical way to increase our vitamin D levels is from supplements ... a growing number of scientists believe that vitamin D intake should be at least 1,000 IU or higher"
  • Vitamin D Can Help Most Dialysis Patients - HealthDay, 3/24/05 - "At the end of the two-year study, 76 percent of the patients receiving vitamin D injections were still alive, compared with 59 percent of patients who didn't receive vitamin D"
  • Osteoporosis and Bone Health - Physician's Weekly, 3/21/05 - "Calcium and vitamin D intakes are far below recommended levels for all ages, sexes, and races in the United States"
  • Vitamin D and the Elderly - Medscape, 3/14/05 - "vitamin D insufficiency is related to a number of other disorders frequently observed among the elderly, such as breast, prostate and colon cancers, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders including hypertension ... 800 IU (20 μg) vitamin D per day in combination with calcium reduces systolic blood pressure in elderly women"
  • Vitamin D Injections May Significantly Improve Survival In Dialysis Patients - Science Daily, 3/11/05 - "At the end of the two-year study period, 76 percent of those receiving any form of activated vitamin D were still alive, compared with 59 percent of those not receiving the therapy"
  • Getting Enough Vitamin D? - Dr. Weil, 3/8/05
  • Dialysis Patients: Longer Lives With Vitamin D? - WebMD, 3/1/05 - "vitamin D injections, given to patients with kidney failure, results in a significantly reduced risk of death compared to those who do not receive the treatment"
  • Vitamin D May Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/18/04
  • Vitamin D May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - CBS 2 Chicago, 2/17/05 - "men with higher levels vitamin D in their blood were half as likely to develop aggressive forms of the disease than those with lower amounts"
  • Sun Exposure May Fight Some Cancers - WebMD, 2/1/05 - "The important message is that that this anticancer effect is very unlikely to be sunlight itself. It is more likely to be vitamin D generated by sun exposure"
  • Vitamin D may slow prostate tumour growth - CTV.ca, 1/16/05 - "the vitamin D seemed to cut the rise in PSA rates by more than half. Without vitamin D, PSA rates rose by about five per cent. With vitamin D, PSA rates only rose by two per cent"
  • Vitamin D deficiency tied to host of dangers - Boston Globe, 12/30/04 - "adequate vitamin D levels reduce cancer risk by 30 percent ... We absolutely have a huge problem with vitamin D deficiency ... vitamin D is important for muscle performance in older people ... vitamin D researchers such as Dr. Joel Finkelstein of Massachusetts General Hospital suggest people of all ages should get 800 units of vitamin D or more"
  • Vitamin D May Prevent Falls in Seniors - Healthwell Exchange, 12/9/04
  • Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis May Benefit from Increased Levels of Vitamin D - Doctor's Guide, 10/18/04 - "Higher levels of vitamin D appear to increase muscle strength, improving physical function for knee-osteoarthritis patients who are vitamin-D deficient ... increasing serum vitamin D over 30 months correlated directly with an improvement in WOMAC [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index] disability measures"
  • Vitamin D Found To Reduce Age-Related Falls - Science Daily, 10/12/04 - "Elderly people who get supplemental vitamin D in their diets have stronger muscles than those who don't ... elderly people fell down 22 percent less often if they took vitamin D supplements"
  • Vitamin D Often Overlooked When Treating Osteoporosis - Medscape, 10/5/04 - "patients with lower levels of vitamin D did worse in the domains of social activities and mobility on the standard Qualeffo-41 questionnaire ... people who are deficient in vitamin D have aches and pains that impact on their activities of daily living, and that impact is independent of their osteoporosis level ... vitamin D deficiency is associated with diabetes; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis; colon, prostate, and breast cancer; and high blood pressure ... I would recommend that both children and adults get about 1,000 IU a day"
  • Vitamin D Inadequacy Highly Prevalent Among Women Treated for Osteoporosis in North America - Doctor's Guide, 10/4/04 - "More than half of women currently treated for osteoporosis have suboptimal levels of vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D May Help Aging Muscles Stay Strong - WebMD, 9/16/04 - "older men and women with the highest levels of vitamin D in their blood were an average of 0.27 seconds, or 5.6% faster in completing the walk test compared with those with the lowest levels"
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels Associated With Improved Lower Extremity Function - Medscape, 8/31/04
  • Gum health, new target for vitamin D? - Nutra USA, 8/31/04 - "the higher the levels of vitamin D in volunteers' blood, the better their gum health ... the lower their vitamin D serum levels, the greater the risk of tooth loss"
  • Vitamin D May Ease Depression - WebMD, 8/3/04 - "Vitamin D supplementation ... may also relieve depression ... Basically, what vitamin D does is increase levels of the [chemical] serotonin in the brain ... About 90% of patients in my hospital are vitamin D deficient"
  • Scientists call for calcium, vitamin D fortification - Nutra USA, 7/28/04 - "Americans consume inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D – far below the recommended levels established by the Food Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences"
  • Vitamin D3 more potent than D2, further evidence - Nutra USA, 6/21/04 - "Calculating the difference in potency by measuring the area under the curve revealed an even greater difference with D3 more than nine times more effective than D2"
  • Vitamin D Cuts Risk of Falls for Elderly - HealthDay, 4/27/04 - "a daily vitamin D dose of 800 units reduces the incidence of falls in people aged 65 and older by 22 percent ... Previous studies have shown vitamin D reduces the number of fractures caused by falls because it strengthens bones"
  • Getting Some Sun May Fight Blood Cancer - WebMD, 3/31/04 - "women and men who got the most sun exposure during their off-work hours had the lowest risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... What might be causing it? The obvious answer is that vitamin D synthesized in the skin from sun exposure is causing this effect. There is increasing evidence that vitamin D has protective effects against many cancers. The evidence for colorectal cancer protection is pretty solid"
  • Vitamin D to protect women - Nutra USA, 3/23/04 - "Now the researchers believe that a contributing factor to high rates of the cancer may be low levels of vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D in boys to avoid schizophrenia in men - Nutra USA, 3/11/04
  • Vitamin D Appears Beneficial In Reducing The Risk For Rheumatoid Arthritis - Doctor's Guide, 2/12/04 - "Vitamin D has immunologic activity independent of its role in calcium regulation ... overall, greater intake of vitamin D was inversely associated with risk of RA (relative risk [RR] 0.67"
  • Sunscreens can block vitamin D - MSNBC, 1/19/04
  • Vitamin D May Prevent MS - WebMD, 1/12/04 - "women who get doses typically found in daily multivitamin supplements -- of at least 400 international units -- are 40% less likely to develop multiple sclerosis compared with those not taking over-the-counter supplements"
  • Vitamin D May Prevent Arthritis - WebMD, 1/9/04 - "women whose diets were highest in vitamin D had the lowest incidence of rheumatoid arthritis ... Holick says most people need to take 1000 IU of vitamin D each day. And he says even this amount may be inadequate in people who have no exposure to the sun"
  • Vitamin D May Protect Against Rheumatoid Arthritis - HealthDay, 1/9/04 - "The greater the intake of vitamin D, the lower the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disorder involving inflammation in the lining of the joints and sometimes other internal organs as well"
  • Lack of Vitamin D Linked to Pain - WebMD, 12/10/03
  • People with Undetermined Muscle/Bone Pain May be Vitamin D Deficient - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/03 - "Research conducted at the University of Minnesota found that 93 percent of all subjects with non-specific musculoskeletal pain were vitamin D deficient"
  • What Causes, Prevents Colon Polyps - WebMD, 12/9/03 - "Just take an aspirin, a multivitamin, and eat a bowl of fiber-packed cereal with some milk ... In this new report, vitamin D shines -- it's associated with a one-third reduced risk of serious colon polyps that often lead to cancer in men getting at least 645 IUs of this nutrient each day"
  • Vitamin D concerns on the rise - MSNBC, 12/5/03 - "Inadequate vitamin D isn’t as obvious in adults, but bone weakening can be significant. In one study of women with osteoporosis, those who consumed the most vitamin D from food and supplements developed 37 percent fewer hip fractures than did women who consumed the least"
  • Calcium And Vitamin D Collaborate To Reduce Colorectal Cancer Risk - Intelihealth, 12/3/03
  • Calcium Intake Plus Vitamin D May Protect Against Colon Adenomas - Medscape, 12/2/03 - "Calcium supplementation reduces the rate of colon adenomas, but only if vitamin D levels are adequate"
  • Could Too Little Sun Cause Cancer? - WebMD, 11/20/03 - "there's growing concern that this advice is contributing to another health problem -- a vitamin D deficiency ... This important nutrient is best known for building strong bones and teeth -- key to preventing osteoporosis -- but low levels have also been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes, muscle and bone pain, and perhaps more frightening, a greater chance of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, ovaries, esophagus, and lymphatic system"
  • Scientists concerned about vitamin D levels in the U.S. - USA Today, 10/28/03 - "Heaney cited one study that men needed 1,000 IUs a day during Nebraska winters to keep their vitamin D levels from dropping ... A study of 2,600 healthy Britons given 800 IUs a day saw their risk of bone fractures drop 33%, he said, suggesting today's doses are insufficient to protect bones"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Common in Residency - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/03 - "Nutritional assessment showed that roughly two-thirds of the house staff had a total vitamin D intake below the Reference Daily Intake of 400 IU/day. One participant with inadequate vitamin D intake in the fall was taking a daily multivitamin, as were 11 with sufficient vitamin D intake"
  • Can vitamin D keep the elderly on their feet? - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 10/03
  • Vitamin D Deficiency In Kids - CBS News, 9/29/03 - "Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium, which is important for the development of strong bones ... The latest research shows that some teens may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency because they don't get enough milk on a daily basis or enough sunlight in winter"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Prevention - Medscape, 9/11/03 - "Bottom line: Vitamin D supplementation is absolutely critical to bone health in the aging population. Although a number of research questions still need to be addressed, there is currently sufficient evidence to show that all women, living in areas of Northern Latitude, should be taking a vitamin D (and calcium) supplement"
  • Teens' Vitamin D Deficiency Brings Worry - Intelihealth, 9/2/03 - "Often undetected and untreated, vitamin D deficiency puts them at risk for stunted growth and debilitating osteoporosis later in life ... There's even evidence that chronic deficiency may be linked with some cancers, diabetes and high blood pressure"
  • Low Dietary Calcium May be Major Cause of Nutritional Rickets Among North American Infants - Doctor's Guide, 8/12/03 - "New research shows that some North American infants are not receiving enough dietary calcium and, as a result, are developing rickets -- a disease usually attributed to a lack of vitamin D or insufficient exposure to sunlight -- at a higher level than previously thought"
  • Sun Exposure May Reduce Multiple Sclerosis Risk - WebMD, 8/6/03 - "Researchers say the findings suggest there may be a link between multiple sclerosis and insufficient ultraviolet radiation or vitamin D -- or both"
  • Long-term Haemodialysis Patients Show Survival Advantage When Treated with Paricalcitol Over Calcitriol for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism - Doctor's Guide, 7/31/03
  • Vitamin D Supplements for Kidney Failure Not All the Same - HealthDay, 7/30/03 - "Those taking a relatively new form of the substance, paricalcitol, had a 16 percent lower risk of early death than those on the older version, calcitriol"
  • Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Effective for Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/03 - "In women over the age of 65, there is increased risk of osteoporotic fracture of the hip and non-vertebral sites. Daily vitamin D intake between 800 and 900 IU and 1200-1300 mg of calcium for this population results in increased bone density, decreased bone turnover, and decreased non-vertebral fractures ... Studies have linked vitamin D supplementation to a decrease in body sway, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may protect against fracture by preventing falls" - See drugstore.com/GNC calcium plus vitamin D supplementsicon.
  • High Incidence of Vitamin D Deficiency Seen in Obese African American Women - Doctor's Guide, 6/23/03
  • Vitamin D May Aid Breast Cancer Treatment - HealthDay, 6/6/03 - "a derivative of vitamin D known as EB1089 may yield some powerful anti-cancer properties, particularly when combined with radiation therapy"
  • Rickets Rates Rising - Physician's Weekly, 5/26/03
  • Vitamin D May Augment Breast Cancer Treatments - Physician's Weekly, 5/19/03 - "treatment with vitamin D was three times more effective in preventing new tumor growth when compared to radiation therapy alone"
  • Vitamin D Effective Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain - New Hope Natural Media, 5/1/03 - "new study in Spine (2003;28:177–9) ... All participants with vitamin D deficiency reported improvement in their back pain after taking vitamin D, whereas 69% of those with normal vitamin D levels improved"
  • Vitamin D: New Weapon in Battle Against Breast Cancer? - HealthDay, 4/23/03 - "Other studies have shown vitamin D interferes with tumor growth in both cell cultures and animals ... this has been shown for both breast and prostate cancer ... when they treated breast cancer cells in a laboratory setting with normal doses of a vitamin D analog (ILX 23-7553) before radiation, the response to radiation was enhanced"
  • Breastfed Babies Need Vitamin D Supplements - WebMD, 4/7/03
  • Babies Need More Vitamin D - HealthDay, 4/7/03 - "the nation's leading group of child doctors is recommending that many infants and children be given daily vitamin D supplements ... women are choosing to breast-feed ... people are avoiding the sun"
  • Vitamin D Improves Calcium Intake - HealthDay, 4/3/03 - "The Creighton University studies indicate that vitamin D supplements can increase calcium absorption by as much as 65 percent, even when a person's initial level of vitamin D is normal"
  • Vitamin D Plus Calcium Supplements Boosts Calcium Absorption - WebMD, 4/1/03 - "We need calcium for good bones, but vitamin D is equally important -- it helps the body with calcium absorption. In fact, calcium supplements plus vitamin D can increase calcium absorption by up to 65%"
  • Is Type 1 Diabetes an Environmental Disease? - Dr. Murray's Newsletter, 2/5/03 - "children who regularly took vitamin D had an 80% reduced risk of developing type 1 diabetes while those that had vitamin deficiency actually had a 300% increased risk of developing the disease"
  • Shining a Light on the Health Benefits of Vitamin D - New York Times, 1/28/03 - "His proudest accomplishments, he says, include discoveries that show how activated vitamin D can be used to treat osteoporosis, kidney failure and psoriasis ... this vitamin is critically important for maintaining normal calcium in the blood and for bone health. The vitamin plays a crucial role in most metabolic functions and also, muscle, cardiac and neurological functions ... there is evidence that vitamin D may have subtle but profound effects on regulating cell growth and on our cardiovascular and immune systems ... vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk for Type 1 diabetes. The converse is also true. Adequate vitamin D equals less risk for diabetes ... up to 50, 60 percent of free-living adults over the age of 65 were severely vitamin D deficient"
  • Vitamin D for Advanced Prostate Cancer - Physician's Weekly, 1/27/03 - "Calcitriol is an active form of vitamin D. Results from a phase II clinical trial suggest that the combination of calcitriol and the chemotherapy agent docetaxel may be twice as effective as the use of docetaxel alone in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer"
  • Postmenopausal Women May Need Supplements To Suppress Parathyroid Hormone Levels - Doctor's Guide, 12/20/02 - "These findings may call for widespread supplementation with calcium and vitamin D may be required in postmenopausal women"
  • New Form of Vitamin D Builds Bones - WebMD, 10/3/02
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Not Restricted To High-risk Groups - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/02 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is far more common than is generally assumed and is not necessarily restricted to high-risk groups such as the elderly ... Low vitamin D levels were found across diagnostic categories and were identified in 88 percent of patients with hip fractures; 67 percent of patients with wrist fractures; 50 percent of patients with vertebral fractures, and 52 percent of patients with other fractures ... This study demonstrates the high frequency of hypovitaminosis D in a UK specialist bone clinic setting and the clear need for vitamin D therapy may not [be] appreciated without [taking] vitamin D measurements"
  • Air Pollution Compromises Vitamin D Status - New Hope Natural Media, 9/19/02
  • Sunlight, A Cancer Protector In The Guise Of A Villain? - Intelihealth, 8/6/02 - "Their theory was that vitamin D, which the skin produces when exposed to sunshine, somehow prevents the growth of malignant cells ... researchers are looking into vitamin D as a possible remedy. Clinical trials in people are now under way, testing whether the vitamin or similar compounds can treat tumors or bolster chemotherapy"
  • Osteoporosis in Elderly Men Underestimated - Doctor's Guide, 6/24/02 - "As many as 30 percent of men over 65 years old may have osteoporosis ... The serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), although normal, was slightly lower in men with osteoporosis, an average of 1.57+/-0.74 in comparison to an average of 2.34+/-1.93 in men with no osteoporosis ... Because both groups of men have low-normal 25-OH vitamin D, and low urinary calcium, the investigators suggest that patients in their situation, could benefit from enhancing their nutritional status"
  • People Living In Higher Latitudes Require Fall, Winter Vitamin D Supplements - Doctor's Guide, 6/10/02 - "Given that almost every person in our sample had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 80 nmol/L at one point in the year, and that more than one-third of subjects had levels below the most conservative definition of vitamin D insufficiency, our findings support a recommendation for more aggressive vitamin D supplementation, particularly for elderly people and especially during the fall and winter months ... Low levels of vitamin D metabolites are associated with malabsorption of calcium, which results in bone loss"
  • Study Shows Benefits of Adding High-Dose Vitamin D to Chemotherapy for Advanced Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/02
  • Calcium and Vitamin D3 Effective and Cost-Saving in Preventing Hip Fracture in Elderly European Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/13/02 - "simple dietary supplementation with calcium and vitamin D not only helps prevent hip fracture in institutionalized elderly women, it also saves up to 711,000 Euros (some US $640,000) per 1000 treated ... One group received elemental 1200 mg/day calcium plus 800 IU/day vitamin D3, while the other received a placebo. After three years, 25 percent fewer hip fractures were found among members of the supplemented group ... The savings may even be greater than this: remember, this study only takes into account hip fractures, but supplementation could prevent many other types of fracture as well"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D3 Supplementation Reduces Hyperparathyroidism And Hip Fracture - Doctor's Guide, 5/9/02 - "Supplementation with a combination of calcium and vitamin D3 reverses hyperparathyroidism and the risk of hip fracture in elderly women"
  • Exposure To Sunlight Lowers Risks Of Four Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/02 - "exposure to sunlight contributes to non-melanoma skin cancer. "By contrast, several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against female breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world." ... Some studies have suggested an association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D and colorectal, prostate and female breast cancers"
  • Aging Bone Mineral Density Better With High Protein Diet Plus Extra Calcium, Vitamin D - WebMD, 4/1/02
  • Sun May Protect Against Some Cancers - WebMD, 3/14/02 - "new findings from an independent researcher suggest that getting too little sun may increase the risk of dying from a host of other cancers ... Sunlight exposure increases the body's production of vitamin D. People who get lower amounts of sunlight exposure therefore manufacture lower amounts of vitamin D. Grant says vitamin D may have a protective effect and taking vitamin D supplements might offer adequate protection to people who get little natural sunlight"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation During Infancy Reduces Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes - Intelihealth, 11/8/01 - "Those who regularly took at least the recommended dose of vitamin D (2000 IU daily) during their first year of life had an 80% reduced risk of type 1 diabetes compared to those who received less than the recommended amount"
  • Lack of Vitamin D May Cause Juvenile Diabetes - DrMirkin.com, 11/5/01
  • Vitamin D Supplements May Protect Against Diabetes in Kids - WebMD, 11/1/01 - "giving vitamin D supplements to children may help protect them from high blood sugar ... Children who had the recommended supplements of vitamin D (usually in the form of cod-liver oil) were found to have an 80% reduction in diabetes risk, compared to those receiving less than the recommended dose"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D Help You Hold on to Those Pearly Whites - WebMD, 10/29/01 - "examined 145 healthy men and women aged 65 and older who had taken either calcium plus vitamin D supplements or placebo ... The calcium was given at a dose of 500 mg and vitamin D at 700 IU daily ... 27% of the placebo group, but only 13% of the supplement group, lost one or more teeth during the three-year study ... Once the study was finished, the researchers continued to count teeth for a couple of more years. Again, they found that those taking in at least 1,000 mg of calcium each day were able to hold on to more teeth"
  • 'D' Good News for Stroke Patients - WebMD, 7/9/01 - "These patients often have dramatic responses to vitamin D therapy ... Patients who are so weak that they are in a wheelchair will gain significant muscle strength and walk in a few months."
  • Too Many Elderly Lacking in Vitamin D, Study: Deficiency All Too Common, Could Be Cause of Muscle Weakness - WebMD, 5/16/01 - "many elderly patients who are bedridden or in wheelchairs may actually be suffering from muscle weakness caused by severe, but easily treatable, vitamin D deficiencies ... The researcher suggests that even twice that amount may not be enough in chronically ill and even healthy older patients, because absorption of the vitamin tends to be impaired with age"
  • Elderly Lack Adequate Levels of Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/8/01 - "Despite the fact that most of patients were daily receiving multivitamins containing 400-800 IU of vitamin D, investigators found that the majority had low levels of the nutrient ... Vitamin D increases calcium absorption by 30% to 80% and is therefore crucial in order to maintain strong bones"
  • Childhood Rickets Makes A Comeback - Intelihealth, 3/30/01 - "Rickets, a vitamin D deficiency that causes bones to soften and bend and often results in bowlegs, was once a major health problem ... The government attributes the comeback to the popularity of milk substitutes like soy that lack certain nutrients; the failure to supplement breast milk with vitamin D; and a lack of childhood exposure to sunlight. Sunlight stimulates the body to produce vitamin D."
  • Childhood rickets is making a comeback - USA Today, 3/30/01
  • Food for Thought: Rickets on the Rise? A Smattering of Cases Is Raising Eyebrows -- and Questions - WebMD, 3/29/01 - "Rickets is a disease typically caused by vitamin D deficiency; the classic symptom is weakened or deformed bones. The disease was common a century ago during the Industrial Revolution when children went malnourished and without regular exposure to the sun, which triggers the body to make vitamin D. But now, thanks to a better understanding of nutrition, and fortification of certain foods, rickets is preventable and extremely rare in the U.S."
  • Canceling Cancer: New Cancer Prevention Strategies on the Horizon - WebMD, 3/26/01 - "Huerta and his team used a compound similar to vitamin D but with some different properties. Sure enough, this compound, which they call Ro 26-9114, reduced the growth of colon tumors in mice to a similar degree as regular vitamin D but without the problematic side effects"

Abstracts:

  • Healthier Lipid Profiles with Vitamin D Supplementation in a Pilot Study in Argentinean Children of Two Ethnicities - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Aug 21:1-8 - "These results suggest that children who had received vitamin D supplementation had significantly higher vitamin D status and HDL-C, as compared with non-supplemented children in both communities" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder - Psychiatry Res. 2017 Aug;254:232-237 - "As a result we found significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and higher levels of homocysteine in the patient group compared to control group (p values for all three scores were <0.001), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in terms of folate levels (p=0.083). This demonstrates that one carbon metabolism and vitamin D deficiency can play a role in the aetiology of OCD" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status and the Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Mortality in Ischemic Stroke Patients: Data from a 24-Month Follow-Up Study in China - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(7):766-771 - "Compared with the first quartile of serum 25(OH) D levels, the ORs for stroke recurrence and mortality were as follows: second quartile, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.63-0.93) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89); third quartile, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31-0.55) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.52); fourth quartile, 0.12 (95% CI, 0.07-0.19) and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.15), respectively"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Quality of Life and Physical Performance in Osteoarthritis Patients - Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 799 - "Vitamin D2 supplementation for six months reduced oxidative protein damage, decreased pain (VAS), improved quality of life, and improved grip strength and physical performance in osteoarthritis patients" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment in obesity can be reversed by vitamin D administration in rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jul 6:1-9 - "Vitamin D improved hippocampus oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in HFD-induced obese rats and improved cognitive performance"
  • Impact of Vitamin D deficiency on subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: a pooled analysis of cohort studies - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 May 9 - "Both Vitamin D deficiency and Vitamin D insufficiency are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, potentially suggesting an increased CV risk in these clinical settings"
  • Vitamin D supplement ameliorates hippocampal metabolism in diabetic rats - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jun 9 - "These results suggest that 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 treatment can ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced damage on hippocampal metabolism, possibly through alleviating the aberrant activation of ER stress"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations - J Nutr. 2017 May 24 - "An inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and mortality was observed only for participants with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and was strongest for the latter. Accordingly, the expected effects were much stronger and the expected power was much higher for interventions that targeted these groups than for untargeted interventions ... For example, a targeted intervention study with 10,000 older adults (age 50-75 y) with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L that increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 20 nmol/L in the intervention group (n = 5000) would be expected to yield a 26% reduction of all-cause mortality that could be detected with 89% power within 5 y of follow-up compared with a 10% mortality reduction and 20% power in an untargeted intervention study of the same size"
  • Lower Serum Vitamin D Level Was Associated with Risk of Dry Eye Syndrome - Med Sci Monit. 2017 May 10;23:2211-2216 - "A significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and DES incidence was detected in this study"
  • Vitamin D Status, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance Decline in Very Old Adults: A Prospective Study - Nutrients. 2017 Apr 13;9(4) - "Low baseline 25(OH)D may contribute to muscle strength decline in the very old and particularly in men"
  • Joint Association of Low Vitamin D and Vitamin K Status With Blood Pressure and Hypertension  - Hypertension. 2017 Apr 10 - "The combination of low vitamin D and K status was associated with increased blood pressure and a trend for greater hypertension risk" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and MK-7 at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of 3-Monthly Vitamin D Supplementation Plus Exercise on Survival after Surgery for Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in Adult Patients over 50 Years: A Pragmatic Randomized, Partially Blinded, Controlled Trial - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(4):413-420 - "Patients were randomized to receive either 3-monthly oral doses of 3 mg calcifediol (Hidroferol Choque®) or placebo in the 12 months postsurgery. Patients who received calcifediol were also given an exercise programme. The placebo group received standard health recommendations only ... At 4 years after surgery, 20 (22.7%) had died, 3 (3.4%) from the intervention group and 17 (19.3%) from the non-intervention group ... 3-monthly, oral supplements of 3 mg calcifediol plus daily exercise improved survival at one-year and four-year follow up after surgery for an osteoporotic hip fracture"
  • Vitamin D and muscle trophicity - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017 Mar 2 - "Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation ... Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.  I find that it takes about 8,000 IU average per day to keep my vitamin D around 60 ng/mL but I'm old.  I take 10,000 IU per day because some days I forget to take it.
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression - PLoS One. 2017 Feb 15;12(2):e0170665 - "Age-associated decline in muscle function represents a significant public health burden. Vitamin D-deficiency is also prevalent in aging subjects, and has been linked to loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), but the precise role of specific vitamin D metabolites in determining muscle phenotype and function is still unclear ... These data show that although 25OHD3 has potent actions on muscle gene expression, the circulating concentrations of this metabolite are more closely linked to body fat mass, suggesting that 25OHD3 can influence muscle function via indirect effects on adipose tissue. By contrast, serum 1α,25(OH)2D3 has limited effects on muscle gene expression, but is associated with increased muscle strength and lean mass in women" - [Nutra USA]
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Has a Modest Positive Association with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Middle-Aged US Adults - J Nutr. 2017 Feb 8. pii: jn244137 - "analyzed data from the US NHANES 2001-2002 ... Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L were considered optimal ... In the participants aged 40-59 y, an increment in serum 25(OH)D of 10 nmol/L was associated with a 0.03- ± 0.01-kbp longer LTL ... In a nationally representative population of adults, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with LTL in middle-aged participants (aged 40-59 y), independently of other factors. These findings suggest that decreased 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with genomic instability, although the clinical impact of this observation remains unclear" - [Nutra USA]
  • Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Metabolic Status in Vitamin D-Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease - J Nutr. 2017 Jan 25 - "Compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation resulted in significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14.9 ± 7.1 compared with +19.3 ± 7.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), serum insulin (-2.7 ± 1.1 compared with +1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.006), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 0.3 compared with +0.5 ± 0.3; P = 0.01), and β cell function (-9.1 ± 4.2 compared with +5.7 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and a significant increase in serum vitamin D (+6.8 ± 0.9 compared with +0.1 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (+0.008 ± 0.004 compared with -0.007 ± 0.004; P = 0.01). In addition, changes in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; -1.0 ± 0.5 compared with +0.6 ± 0.5 μg/mL; P = 0.02), plasma nitric oxide (NO; +7.0 ± 2.0 compared with -4.6 ± 2.0 μmol/L; P < 0.001), total reduced glutathione (GSH; +104 ± 16.4 compared with +24.8 ± 16.4 μmol/L; P = 0.001), and malondialdehyde concentrations (-0.2 ± 0.1 compared with +0.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L; P < 0.001) in the supplemented group were significantly different from the changes in these indicators in the placebo group"
  • Effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial - Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Dec 7:1-8 - "Vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate improved ADHD evening symptoms"
  • The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes: a dose-response study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul 27 - "Nearly 70% of all athletes showed an insufficient (50-75 nmol/l) or a deficient (<50 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentration at baseline ... Supplementation with 2200 IU/day vitamin D resulted in a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration in 80% of the athletes after 12 months"
  • Vitamin D Status and Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Case-Control Study - J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Jun 22:1-8 - "Women in the fourth quartile of serum 25(OH)D level had 3 times lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to those in the first quartile. In the adjusted model the inverse relationship remained significant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.269; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.122-0.593). In the stratified model by menopausal status the inverse association was only seen in premenopausal women (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.094-0.687). Dietary intake of vitamin D was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer (OR fourth quartile [Q4] vs first quartile [Q1] = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.196-0.784; p = 0.008). After adjusting for the confounding factors, this inverse association remained significant"
  • The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jun 2;13:24 - "Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3 ... participants were tested on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press strength (LP), 1RM bench press strength (BP), push-ups to failure (PU), vertical jump (VJ), pro-agility shuttle time (AG), peak power output (P), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and thigh muscle mass (TMM) ... There was a significant main effect (F(1,16) = 33.30, p < 0.001) for LBM where MT significantly increased LBM when compared to the PLA group (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant main effect for LP (F(1,16) = 666.74, p < 0.001) and BP (F(1,16) = 126.36, p < 0.001) where both increased significantly more in MT than PLA group (p < 0.001). No significant differences between MT and PLA were noted for FM, TMM, VJ, AG, P, or PU" - Note:  Seems like you might have gotten the same results with l-leucine (one of the ingredients in MaxxTOR®) alone.  See phosphatidic acid at Amazon.com, HMB at Amazon.com and leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of high doses of vitamin D3 on mucosa-associated gut microbiome vary between regions of the human gastrointestinal tract - Eur J Nutr. 2016 Jun;55(4):1479-89 - "We sampled stomach, small bowel, colon, and stools before and after 8 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation ... Vitamin D3 modulates the gut microbiome of the upper GI tract which might explain its positive influence on gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease or bacterial infections" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D Status and Mortality: Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data Confirms Strong Association - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 May 10:1-4 - "Scientists and physicians have suggested that poor vitamin D intake can result in increased cardio-vascular mortality. Also total mortality appears to be increased with poor vitamin D status. A research team of the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg (DKFZ) headed by Ben Schöttker was able to demonstrate this association in a meta-analysis of 8 European and US-based cohort studies"
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 May 7 - "Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was reported to be associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) ... After adjusting for all potential confounders, VDD was still linked with increased risk of DPN [odds ratio (OR) 2.59"
  • Combined 1,25-Dihydroxy-vitamin D and Resveratrol: A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Ameliorate Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Injury - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2015;85(3-4):174-84 - "Our study showed that combination of a non-hypotensive dose of 1,25 D and resveratrol can be a novel and effective strategy for protecting against ischemia" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr. 2016 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat  ... The first group received a daily L-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored ... After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg,P< 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s,P< 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68n/10 s,P< 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min,P< 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Telomerase Activity in Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes - FASEB Journal Apr 2016 - "Low telomerase activity and short telomere length are linked to type 2 diabetes and mortality. Hispanics are shown to have shorter telomere lengths as compared to Whites ... Participants were given 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplementation for 6 months ... telomerase activity levels increased from baseline to 6 months (49.3 ± 6.8 vs. 63.1 ± 7.2 RTA, respectively) which was statistically significant" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, PTH, and calcium in relation to survival following prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Mar 29 - "This study shows that levels of pre-diagnostic vitamin D above 85 nmol/L may improve survival in men with prostate cancer" - Note:  85 nmol/L = 34 ng/ml.  I'd still consider that way too low (see bullet below).
  • Vitamin D supplement improved testicular function in diabetic rats - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Mar 19 - "In diabetic rats, prolonged hyperglycemia evaluated inflammatory cytokines, damaged sperm production function and redox balance,diminished serum testosterone. After treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at two different doses respectively for 12 months, all the alternations were effectively normalized. 1,25(OH)2D3 showed inhibitory effect on excessive inflammatory biomarkers and adjusted the expression reproductive genes and testicular androgen synthesis. It also upregulated Bcl-2 expression, decreased Bax and COX-2 expression and inhibited active caspase cascade (caspase 8 and caspase 3), which may preserved the testicular cells under diabetic condition. It revealed that vitamin D supplement may protect the cells through suppressing inflammation factors and alleviating cell apoptotic death, as well as upregulating the expression of genes related to reproductive and testosterone synthesis"
  • Low vitamin D levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, evidence for their independent association in men in East China: a cross-sectional study (Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors (SPECT-China)) - Br J Nutr. 2016 Feb 18:1-8 - "In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43.3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84.56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40.8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62.2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.26, 1.88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research"
  • Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive functioning - Int Psychogeriatr. 2015 Dec 22:1-10 - "A lower serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with lower general cognitive functioning and slower information processing speed, but not with a faster rate of cognitive decline" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Contribution of vitamin D deficiency to the risk of coronary heart disease in subjects with essential hypertension - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Nov 23 - "Patients in the lowest quartile of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin-D experienced the most number of hard CHD events. A significant linear trend was observed in hazard ratios (HR) of incident hard CHD events in 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin-D quartiles which remained significant after multiple adjustments for conventional CHD risk-factors (HRs in full-adjusted model: 2.87 [1.76-4.70] for 1st quartile, 2.31 [1.39-3.83] for 2nd quartile and 1.87 [1.15-3.03] for 3rd quartile, compared with the highest quartile"
  • BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals - J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 - "In this study, higher BMI and higher body fat percentage were significantly associated with lower serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. This association was particularly present in individuals with overweight, and higher fat percentages, suggesting that these persons are at increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency"
  • High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction - Nutrients. 2015 Dec 2 - "Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple's infertility ... Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences"
  • Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults - Br J Nutr. 2015 Dec 1:1-9 - "25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25 % higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile)"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial - J Nutr. 2015 Nov 25 - "major depressive disorder (MDD) ... Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ... Overall, vitamin D supplementation of patients with MDD for 8 wk had beneficial effects on the BDI, indicators of glucose homeostasis, and oxidative stress"
  • A prospective study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk - Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 16 - "Higher 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer (ORQ4 v. Q1 0.30"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Might Be Tied to Impotence - WebMD, 11/13/15 - "The researchers concluded that men with vitamin D deficiency were 32 percent more likely to be impotent than those with sufficient vitamin D levels. This association held even after the study authors accounted for other factors associated with erectile dysfunction, such as drinking, smoking, diabetes, higher blood pressure, inflammation and certain medications"
  • The association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration with peripheral arterial disease: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Oct 14 - "circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in PAD patients compared with non-PAD participants (SMD = -0.32"
  • Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in prediabetic subjects identified according to HbA1c - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Oct 9;243(2):395-401 - "Subjects with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% and NFG/NT) had significantly reduced 25(OH)D levels compared with controls. Reduction of 25(OH)D levels is inversely associated with arterial stiffness independently of classical risk factors and inflammatory markers"
  • Vitamin D pill a day may improve exercise performance and lower risk of heart disease - Science Daily, 11/1/15 - "Previous studies suggest that vitamin D can block the action of enzyme 11-βHSD1, which is needed to make the "stress hormone" cortisol. High levels of cortisol may raise blood pressure by restricting arteries, narrowing blood vessels and stimulating the kidneys to retain water. As Vitamin D may reduce circulating levels of cortisol, it could theoretically improve exercise performance and lower cardiovascular risk factors ... gave 13 healthy adults matched by age and weight 50μg of vitamin D per day or a placebo over a period of two weeks ... Adults supplementing with vitamin D had lower blood pressure compared to those given a placebo, as well as having lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol in their urine. A fitness test found that the group taking vitamin D could cycle 6.5km in 20 minutes, compared to just 5km at the start of the experiment. Despite cycling 30% further in the same time, the group taking vitamin D supplements also showed lower signs of physical exertion"
  • Vitamin D, muscle function and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents from the Young Hearts Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Oct 20 - "boys aged 15 years in the highest tertile of standardized serum 25(OH)D concentration (>51nmol/L) had significantly higher muscle strength (β=3.90, P=<0.001) compared to those in the lowest tertile (<32nmol/L)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and ambulatory arterial stiffness index in newly diagnosed and never-treated hypertensive patients - Blood Press Monit. 2015 Oct 12 - "ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) ... Arterial stiffness measured by AASI in newly diagnosed and untreated patients with essential hypertension were significantly related to vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - Nutrients. 2015 Oct 1 - "The meta-analysis of 20 studies including 9209 participants showed that women with vitamin D deficiency experienced a significantly increased risk for developing GDM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53"
  • Nutraceutical intervention reverses the negative effects of blood from aged rats on stem cells - Age (Dordr). 2015 Oct - "Aging is associated with a decline in function in many of the stem cell niches of the body. An emerging body of literature suggests that one of the reasons for this decline in function is due to cell non-autonomous influences on the niche from the body ... We examined if we could reverse this effect of aged serum on stem cell proliferation by treating aged rats with NT-020, a dietary supplement containing blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3, and carnosine that has been shown to increase neurogenesis in aged rats. Young and aged rats were administered either control NIH-31 diet or one supplemented with NT-020 for 28 days, and serum was collected upon euthanasia ... Serum from aged rats significantly reduced cell proliferation as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays in both NPCs and MSCs. Serum from aged rats treated with NT-020 was not different from serum from young rats. Therefore, NT-020 rescued the effect of serum from aged rats to reduce stem cell proliferation"
  • Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Aug 19 - "The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance ... it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  100 nmol/L equals 40 ng/ml.  I think they usually use ng/ml in the U.S.  At least that's what my blood tests show.
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: evidence from meta-analysis - Nutr J. 2015 Aug 1;14(1):76 - "Results of our meta-analysis showed that subjects with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D level < 50 nmol/L) were at increased risk of developing AD by 21 % compared with those possessing 25(OH)D level > 50 nmol/L. Similar analysis also found a significantly increased dementia risk in vitamin D deficient subjects" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Study to Evaluate the Dose-Response of Three Different Vitamin D Treatment Schemes on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Concentration in Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency - Nutrients. 2015 Jul 3;7(7):5413-5422 - "In conclusion, a loading dose of 200,000 IU VTD3 followed by a monthly dose of 100,000 IU is the best dosing schedule to quickly and safely correct the VTD status"
  • Associations between Vitamin D Status, Supplementation, Outdoor Work and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis Assessment - Nutrients. 2015 Jun 15 - "Pooled data showed that subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels had increased PD risks compared with matched-controls according to the corresponding OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.65, and 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.51. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with significantly reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.90)"
  • Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects in rats: Involvement of the INSIG/SREBP pathway - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 May 9 - "Antipsychotic treatments, especially clozapine, elevated serum lipid levels, which were most apparent in VD deficient rats, but alleviated in VD-supplemented rats"
  • Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression - Br J Nutr. 2015 May;113(9):1418-26 - "sample of Finnish men and women aged 30-79 years from the Health 2000 Survey ... The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0.65 (95 % CI 0.46, 0.93; P for trend = 0·006) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors ... These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors"
  • Positive Effects of a Sufficient Pre-fracture Serum Vitamin D Level on the Long-Term Survival of Hip Fracture Patients in Finland: A Minimum 11-Year Follow-Up - Drugs Aging. 2015 May 7 - "Survival was highest among patients with a vitamin D level of ≥50 nmol/L"
  • Increases in pre-hospitalization serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with improved 30-day mortality after hospital admission: A cohort study - Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 14 - "30-day all-cause mortality rate was 8% (95%CI: 1-15) lower for each 10 ng/mL increase in pre-hospital 25(OH)D (P = 0.025) compared with the 30-day all-cause mortality rate in the entire cohort. In an adjusted logistic regression model, absolute changes of ≥10 ng/mL in patients with initial 25(OH)D concentrations < 20 ng/mL (n = 1944) decreased the odds of 30-day all-cause mortality by 48% (adjusted OR 0.52; 95%CI 0.30-0.93; P = 0.026) compared to patients with changes of <10 ng/mL" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with weight loss on inflammatory biomarkers in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Apr 23 - "In conclusion, Vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with weight-loss of at least 5% of baseline weight was associated with significant reductions in levels of IL-6" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary vitamin D3 improves postprandial hyperglycemia in aged mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Apr 10 - "Recent observational and randomized studies on vitamin D3 suggested that higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and more vitamin D3 intake are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia due to inappropriate glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and its age-dependent increase of onset ... When vitamin D3 is orally ingested in mice aged 12-14 weeks during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the serum glucose profile was not changed. In contrast, when OGTT was performed with old mice aged 30-34 weeks, the glucose profile was dramatically improved with increased insulin secretion, suggesting that orally ingested vitamin D3 potentiated GSIS in aged mice. Interestingly, there was also a significant increase in plasma GLP-1 in these aged mice"
  • Vitamin D3 seems more appropriate than D2 to sustain adequate levels of 25OHD: a pharmacokinetic approach - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 18 - "In the long term, D3 seems more appropriate for sustaining 25OHD, which could be relevant for classic and non-classic effects of vitamin D" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  Several studies have already shown that.  I don't know why they needed another.  I don't think D2 is even in supplements anymore except for the cheapest ones.
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Feb 25 - "Low levels of Vitamin D were associated with high BMI (p < 0.001), high total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p < 0.001 for all) in both diabetics and non-diabetics. Among non-diabetic patients, low Vitamin D was also associated independently with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.005). Low Vitamin D levels were independently associated with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (p < 0.005) and increased left atrial diameter (p < 0.03) measured by cardiac ultrasound by 2-dimensional echo. In the non-diabetic group, low Vitamin D levels were associated with impaired LV filling (high E/E') (p < 0.03) and low E/A mitral flow pattern measured by Doppler echocardiography (p < 0.05). Among diabetics, low Vitamin D levels were also related to increased LV end-systolic diameter (p < 0.05) and right ventricular diameter (p < 0.005). The association between LV diastolic filling (E/E') and Vitamin D levels was significant (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the commonly recognized risk factors of diastolic dysfunction in linear regression analysis"
  • Circulating Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Mar 26 - "a nested case-control study using 274 colorectal cases and 274 controls ... plasma 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely associated with odds of colorectal cancer (quartile 4 [Q4] versus quartile 1 [Q1]: OR (95% CI): 0.45 (0.25-0.81) ... In this cohort of healthy women, we found a significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and risk of incident colorectal cancer, and a borderline significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and colorectal cancer mortality"
  • Vitamin D Status Is Positively Associated with Calcium Absorption among Postmenopausal Thai Women with Low Calcium Intakes - J Nutr. 2015 Mar 25 - "These findings suggest that vitamin D status is an important determinant of calcium absorption among Thai women with low calcium intakes, and cassia may be a readily available source of calcium in this population"
  • Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2006 - Nutrients. 2015 Mar 13;7(3):1933-1944 - "analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006 ... After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07-2.33) compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL"
  • Live Longer with Vitamin D? - Nutrients. 2015 Mar 12;7(3):1871-1880 - "Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L). Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OH)D > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OH)D levels were ≥70 ng/mL"
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Likelihood of Having Depressive Symptoms among Japanese Workers - J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):541-6 - "Depressive symptoms were inversely associated with 25(OH)D. Compared with those with a 25(OH)D concentration of <20 μg/L, multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for depressive symptoms (CES-D scale score ≥16) were 0.75 (0.59, 0.95) and 0.66 (0.41, 1.06) for those with a 25(OH)D concentration of 20-29 μg/L and ≥30 μg/L, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). After further adjustment for leisure-time physical activity and shift work (factors closely related to photo-initiated vitamin D production), the OR (95% CI) for the highest category of 25(OH)D was 0.70 (0.43, 1.14). The association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms appears to be linear"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Plasma Klotho, and Lower-Extremity Physical Performance Among Older Adults: Findings From the InCHIANTI Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Mar 7 - "Each natural log of 25(OH)D (ng/mL) was associated with 0.61 higher average Short Physical Performance Battery scores (95% confidence interval: 0.35 to 0.88, p value < .001) after adjustment for covariates, a result that changed little after adjustment for klotho" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Feb 3:1-7 - "Higher levels were associated with prolonged survival in categorical variable analysis: adequate vs. deficient, hazard ratio = 0.61 ... A majority of newly diagnosed Stage IV CRC patients are vitamin D-deficient. Our data suggest that higher 25(OH)D levels are associated with better overall survival"
  • Vitamin D supplementation in the ICU patient - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan 29 - "Both biological and observational studies support the role of vitamin D deficiency in adverse critical illness outcomes. Interventional trials of critically ill patients show that to improve vitamin D status, high-dose vitamin D3 is required. Critically ill patients have a relatively blunted response to vitamin D supplementation compared to the general outpatient population"
  • Effects of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training on indices of obesity and insulin resistance in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women - J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2014 Sep;18 - "It was concluded that the 12 weeks of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training would have positive effects on abdominal fat and blood lipid profiles in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women. Vitamin D supplementation was especially effective when it was complemented with exercise training" - [Nutra USA]
  • The effect of monthly 50 000 IU or 100 000 IU vitamin D supplements on vitamin D status in premenopausal Middle Eastern women living in Auckland - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec 10 - "Monthly 100 000 IU vitamin D for 6 months is more effective than 50 000 IU in achieving serum-25(OH)D ⩾75 nmol/l; however, a third of women still did not achieve these levels" - Note:  100,00 IU per month is 3,333 IU per day.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Dec 2 - "We found higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations associated with lower prevalence of MetS (Odds Ratio (OR); 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.61; 0.49, 0.77 for adequate levels (≥75nmol/l) versus deficiency (<50nmol/l) . Additionally, in analysis of the individual components, the ORs for adequate versus deficient vitamin D levels were: 0.66 (95%CI 0.53,0.83) for elevated WC, 0.67 (95%CI 0.52,0.86) for reduced HDL-C, 0.69 (95%CI 0.54,0.88) for elevated triglycerides, 0.80 (95%CI 0.65,0.99) for elevated fasting glucose ... Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the elderly are associated with lower prevalence of MetS and, in particular, with more beneficial HDL-C, TG, WC and serum glucose"
  • The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids in postmenopausal women with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 13 - "total of 104 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to 1 of 2 groups taking a daily tablet for 6 months: a group consuming 4000 IU tablets of a vitamin D supplement (vitamin D group n = 52) or a group consuming placebo tablets (placebo group n = 52) ... Our findings revealed no significant changes in low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and total cholesterol concentrations, but did identify a greater decrease in serum triglycerides in the vitamin D group. The average effect of supplementation on the treated group was -34.24 mg/dL (P = 0.021), while the average treatment effect was -31.8 mg/dL" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic chemopreventive effects on colorectal neoplasia in rats and mice - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Nov 21 - "These findings show that combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic effects against the development of early colon neoplasia. They suggest that the combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin may represent a novel strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer" - See metformin at IAS and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis - J Nutr. 2014 Dec;144(12):2002-2008 - "joint space narrowing (JSN) ... The mean concentrations of serum 25(OH)D and PTH were 26.2 μg/L and 54.5 pg/mL, respectively. Approximately 16% of the population had serum 25(OH)D < 15 μg/L ... Participants with low vitamin D [25(OH)D < 15 μg/L] had >2-fold elevated risk of knee osteoarthritis progression compared with those with greater vitamin D concentrations (≥15 μg/L; OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.5). High serum PTH (≥73 pg/mL) was not associated with a significant increase in JSN score. However, participants with both low vitamin D and high PTH had >3-fold increased risk of progression (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2, 8.4)"
  • Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women: The Pro.V.A. Study - Neurology. 2014 Nov 5 - "The results of our study support an independent association between low 25OHD levels and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. In cognitively intact elderly subjects, 25OHD levels below 75 nmol/L are already predictive of global cognitive dysfunction at 4.4 years"
  • The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure in patients with elevated blood pressure and vitamin D deficiency: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Blood Press Monit. 2014 Oct 27 - "42 outpatients with elevated BP and vitamin D deficiency were assigned randomly to two groups: the vitamin D-supplemented group (VDG), who received one capsule containing 50 000 IU of cholecalciferol weekly, and the placebo group (PG), who received one similar capsule containing oral liquid paraffin as placebo for 8 weeks ... At the end of the intervention, the mean SBP and DBP, and the MAP decreased significantly in VDG compared with the PG ... The mean changes in SBP (-6.4±5.3 vs. 0.9±3.7 mmHg, PV<0.001), DBP (-2.4±3.7 vs. 1.0±2.7 mmHg, PV=0.003), and MAP (-3.7±3.6 vs. 0.9±2.5 mmHg, PV<0.001) were lower in the VDG than PG"
  • Associations between the Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Lipid Profiles in Japanese Men - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014 Oct 27 - "Serum 25(OH)D level is inversely correlated with the LDL-C/HDL-C, TG, ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-1 values in Japanese men, independent of the VFA and cardiorespiratory fitness"
  • The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids in postmenopausal women with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial - j.clnu.2014.10.002 - "randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to 1 of 2 groups taking a daily tablet for 6 months: a group consuming 4000 IU tablets of a vitamin D supplement (vitamin D group n = 52) or a group consuming placebo tablets (placebo group n = 52) ... did identify a greater decrease in serum triglycerides in the vitamin D group. The average effect of supplementation on the treated group was −34.24 mg/dL (P = 0.021), while the average treatment effect was −31.8 mg/dL (P = 0.023)" - [Nutra USA]
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality, and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancers, and fractures: a 13-y prospective population study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Nov;100(5):1361-70 - "Participants were categorized into 5 groups according to baseline serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D <30, 30 to <50, 50 to <70, 70 to <90, and ≥90 nmol/L ... The age-, sex-, and month-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality (2776 deaths) for men and women by increasing vitamin D category were 1, 0.84 (0.74, 0.94), 0.72 (0.63, 0.81), 0.71 (0.62, 0.82), and 0.66 (0.55, 0.79)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory cytokine concentrations in patients with diabetic foot infection - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 21;:1-6 - "As cytokine regulation plays a significant role in infection and wound-healing processes, the present study aimed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and inflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with diabetic foot infection ... severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated inflammatory cytokine concentrations in diabetic patients, particularly in those with foot infection"
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Oct 18 - "Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults"
  • Vitamin D Serum Level, Disease Activity and Functional Ability in Different Rheumatic Patients - Am J Med Sci. 2014 Oct 10 - "Serum vitamin D insufficiency (≤75 nmol/L) was found in 74% of patients with PsA, 94% patients with RA and 97% of patients with OA, whereas vitamin D deficiency (≤25 nmol/L) was found in 13% of patients with PsA, 39% of patients with RA and in 38% of patients with OA. Compared with RA, patients with PsA had significantly higher serum vitamin D (P = 0.002), and when controlling for age and gender, their serum vitamin D level was significantly associated with disease activity and functional activity" - Note:  They are calling < 75 nmol/L as " vitamin D insufficiency".  From what I've read that would make the overwhelming majority of any population sample vitamin D insufficient.  My last lab results were 60 for vitamin D3 and 1 for D2 (total 61) and that was with taking 7,000 IU per day.  I've since increased it.
  • Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation for winter-related atopic dermatitis in children - J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Oct;134(4):831-835.e1 - "assigned to oral cholecalciferol (1000 IU/day) versus placebo for 1 month ... Vitamin D supplementation improved winter-related AD among Mongolian children, a population likely to have vitamin D deficiency in winter"- See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Levels and Cognition in Elderly Adults in China - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Oct 3 - "Plasma vitamin D levels were lower in individuals with cognitive impairment (31.9 ± 15.3 nmol/L) than in those without (45.6 ± 19.6 nmol/L). There was a reverse association between plasma vitamin D and cognitive impairment. After adjusting for age, sex, chronic conditions, smoking and drinking habits, outdoor activities, depression, and activity of daily living limitations, the association remained significant. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for lowest versus highest vitamin D levels was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.41) for cognitive impairment, and the multivariable odds ratio associated with a 1-standard deviation decrement in plasma vitamin D was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00-1.74) for cognitive impairment"
  • Vitamin D prevents cognitive decline and enhances hippocampal synaptic function in aging rats - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 29 - "Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline ... Our studies demonstrate a causal relationship between vitamin D status and cognitive function, and they suggest that vitamin D-mediated changes in hippocampal gene expression may improve the likelihood of successful brain aging"
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of retinopathy in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes - Diabet Med. 2014 Sep 3 - "Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The prevalence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy doubles when the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is < 15.57 ng/ml"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and risk of colorectal cancer in the prostate, Lung, colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial - Int J Cancer. 2014 Aug 23 - "vitamin D binding protein (DBP) ... We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ... Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p-trend 0.01)"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Infertility: Insights From in vitro Fertilization Cycles - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Aug 14 - "Subgroup analyses showed that the group of women with the highest serum levels (>30 ng/mL) had the highest chances of pregnancy ... Vitamin D is an emerging factor influencing female fertility and IVF outcome"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency and Abnormal Hemoglobin A1c in Black and White Older Persons - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Aug 11 - "2,193 persons of age 70-79 years at Year 1 ... vitamin D insufficiency was associated with an increased likelihood of having abnormal A1c (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.03-2.37)"
  • Active Vitamin D (1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D) Is Associated With Chronic Pain in Older Australian Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Aug 7 - "Low 1,25D levels (<62.0 pmol/L) remained independently associated with chronic pain (odds ratio: 1.53" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin d in blood and risk of prostate cancer: lessons from the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial and the prostate cancer prevention trial - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Aug;23(8):1447-9 - "The "U-shaped" curve may reflect detection bias. In the PCPT study, in which detection bias was minimized, serum 25-OHD levels were associated with a linear decrease in the risk of high-grade prostate cancers. The results from these large prevention trials support the hypothesis that circulating levels of 25-OHD decrease the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancers"
  • Vitamin D Promotes Vascular Regeneration - Circulation. 2014 Jul 11 - "VitD3 is a novel approach to promote vascular repair"
  • Vitamin D and nifedipine in the treatment of Chinese patients with grades I-II essential hypertension: A randomized placebo-controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jul;235(1):102-9 - "Low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with hypertension ... All patients received a conventional antihypertensive drug (nifedipine, 30mg/d). One hundred and twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (n=63, 2000IU/d) or a placebo (n=63) as an add-on to nifedipine, by the method of permutated block randomization ... In vitamin D supplementation group, there was a significant increase in mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from baseline (19.4±11.6ng/ml) to 6 months (34.1±12.2ng/ml; p<0.001). At 6 months, the primary end points, a difference in the fall of 24-h mean blood pressure, between the groups was -6.2mmHg (95% CI -11.2; -1.1) for systolic blood pressure (p<0.001) and -4.2mmHg (95% CI -8.8; -0.3) for diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001) under intention to treat analysis. In patients with vitamin D <30ng/ml at baseline (n=113), 24-h mean blood pressure decreased by 7.1/5.7mmHg (p<0.001)"
  • Vitamin D: A Key to a Longer Life? - WebMD, 6/17/14 - "The researchers examined eight studies from Europe and the United States that together tracked more than 26,000 nonsmoking men and women ... Those with the lowest levels of vitamin D were about 1.5 times more likely than those with the highest levels to die from any cause and from heart disease during the periods of the studies. Those with low levels of vitamin D and a history of cancer were 1.7 times more likely to die of the disease ... It's not clear how vitamin D could help people live longer, but it might have something to do with the way it acts like a hormone"
  • Testicular synthesis and vitamin D action - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun 17 - "Data from our human primary testicular cell culture model suggest that vitamin D plays a major role in male steroidogenesis in vitro"
  • Association between serum vitamin D concentrations and inflammatory markers in the general adult population - Metabolism. 2014 May 9 - "Our study confirms a potential role of 25(OH)D in chronic inflammation"
  • Predicted 25(OH)D score and colorectal cancer risk according to vitamin D receptor expression - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jun 11 - "vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression ... Multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of predicted 25(OH)D scores were 0.48 (0.30-0.78) for VDR-negative tumor and 0.56 (0.42-0.75) for VDR-positive tumor"
  • Vitamin D Level and Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis - Nutrients. 2014 Jun 10;6(6):2196-2205 - "The 25(OH)D levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95% CI 1.08-6.08) were strongly associated with increased odds of CAP hospitalization"
  • 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduces Cerebral Amyloid-β Accumulation and Improves Cognition in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease - J Neurosci. 2014 May 21;34(21):7091-101 - "The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Effects of vitamin D on plasma lipid profiles in statin-treated patients with hypercholesterolemia: A randomized placebo-controlled trial - Clin Nutr. 2014 May 2 - "Patients with hypercholesterolemia were enrolled in this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Beijing (39°54' N). Fifty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (n = 28, 2000 IU/d) or a placebo (n = 28) as an add-on to statin ... At 6 months, the primary end point, a difference in the fall of serum total cholesterol levels between the vitamin D and placebo groups after 6 months of treatment was significant -22.1 mg/dl (95% CI -32.3; -12.2) (p < 0.001). The difference between the groups in the fall of serum triglyceride levels after 6 months of treatment was -28.2 mg/dl (95% CI -48.8; -8.4) (p < 0.001)"
  • Serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D receptor in migraine patients from central Anatolia region - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 May 18 - "The present findings may suggest that decreased serum vitamin D levels were associated with migraine"
  • Higher 25(OH)D2 Is Associated With Lower 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May 14:jc20141069 - "Despite common use of supplemental vitamin D2 in clinical practice, the associations of serum vitamin D2 concentrations with other vitamin D metabolites and total vitamin D are unclear ... We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 679 randomly selected participants from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study ... 25(OH)D2 is associated with lower levels of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that vitamin D2 may decrease the availability of D3 and may not increase calcitriol levels"
  • Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with the extent of coronary artery disease - Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 May 14 - "In patients undergoing coronary angiography hypovitaminosis D was observed in the vast majority of patients. Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with the prevalence and extent of CAD, especially for patients with values < 10 ng/ml"
  • Effects of six months of vitamin D supplementation in patients with heart failure: A randomized double-blind controlled trial - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Mar 5 - "Twenty-three chronic HF patients were randomized in a small parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All patients, with a mean age of 74 years and vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, received 800,000 IU (4000 IU/daily) of cholecalciferol or placebo for 6 months. The outcomes measured at baseline and after 6 months were ejection fraction (EF) ... EF increased significantly in the intervention group (6.71 vs. -4.3%; p < 0.001) ... Systolic blood pressure was lower after 6 months of cholecalciferol treatment (from 129.6 to 122.7 mm Hg, p < 0.05)"
  • Review: The Impacts of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Cancer Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 29 - "Searches of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases were performed and updated to December 2013 ... The pooled hazard ratio for the highest vs the lowest quartile of circulating 25(OH)D levels was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.91) for overall survival of colorectal cancer patients, 0.63 (95% CI = 0.51-0.77) for breast cancer patients, and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.36-0.64) for lymphoma patients. Higher 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality for patients with colorectal cancer (P = .005) and lymphoma (P < .001) and improved disease-free survival for patients with breast cancer (P < .001) or lymphoma (P < .05). A 10-nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D levels conferred a hazard ratio of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.95-0.97) for overall survival of the cancer patients"
  • Associations between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of metachronous colorectal adenoma - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Apr 16 - "No relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and overall odds for metachronous lesions was observed, with ORs (95 % CIs) of 0.80 (0.60-1.07) and 0.81 (0.60-1.10) for participants in the second and third tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.17). However, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of proximal metachronous adenoma, with an OR (95 % CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98) for individuals in the highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.04). While there was no relationship overall between 1,25(OH)2D and metachronous distal lesions, there was a significantly reduced odds for women, but not men, in the highest 1,25(OH)2D tertile compared with the lowest (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.27-1.03; p-trend = 0.05; p-interaction = 0.08). The observed differences in associations with proximal and distal adenomas could indicate that delivery and activity of vitamin D metabolites in different anatomic sites in the colorectum varies, particularly by gender"
  • Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 11;6(4):1501-18 - "A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27) ... Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication"
  • Impact of long-term vitamin D insufficiency on fracture risk - Science Daily, 4/4/14 - "Study participants at baseline were 1044 Swedish women, all aged 75, with 715 attending at the 5-year follow up. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (nmol/l) were classified as low (<50), intermediate (50 ) and high (>75) ... the incidence of hip fractures within 10 years was significantly lower in those women who were vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/l) at baseline and maintained this level at 5 years. The proportion of women sustaining FRAX fractures was 26.2% and 30% in the group which had consistently high or intermediate 25OHD levels compared to 45.6 % in the group with consistently low levels"
  • Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in people with a solid tumor cancer diagnosis: the tip of the iceberg? - Support Care Cancer. 2014 Feb 28 - "Electronic medical records from 2006 to 2007 of 39,252 adult solid tumor patients were reviewed ... Low (deficient or insufficient) 25(OH)D serum levels were highly prevalent in people with solid tumors"
  • U-Shaped Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Fracture Risk in Older Men: Results from the Prospective Population Based CHAMP Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Mar 27 - "The relationship between baseline 25OHD and fracture risk was U-shaped, with increased fracture risk in men with either low or high serum 25OHD levels. In multivariate analysis, the risk of fracture was greatest in men with 25OHD levels in the lowest quintile (25OHD ≤ 36nmol/L; hazard ratio (HR) = 3.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-7.0) and in men in the highest quintile (25OHD >72nmol/L; HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) compared to men in the 4th quintile (25OHD ≥60 to ≤72nmol/L)"
  • Plasma vitamin d levels and cognitive function in aging women: the nurses' health study - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014 - "Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later ... the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):-0.33,-0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4-6 years apart in age"
  • Letter to the editor: hypovitaminosis d: which oral supplement therapy? - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(4):449-50 - "We evaluated plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with the following cut-off values: <10ng/ml or <0-25 nmol/L (deficient), 10-30 ng/ml or 25-75nmol/L 30-50 (insufficient) and > 30 ng/ml or > 50 nmol/L (normal). The first 73 patients with hypovitaminosis D received at baseline 25,000 IU (Cholecalciferol) per os twice a month (Tp.A). The next patients (Tp.B) at baseline received a loading dose of 50,000 IU once a week for 8 weeks, followed by a maintenance dose of 25,000 IU twice a month ... hypovitaminosis D is a widespread condition (i.e. 82.3%) not only in elderly (75.6% of 75 patients aged <65 yrs and 86.5% of 168 subjects aged >65 yrs). Preliminary results at 6 months show that Tp.B is more effective in correcting hypovitaminosis D (baseline 14.4 ± 5.3 ng/ml; 24 wk 43.3 ± 14.7 ng/ml; p<0.0001)"
  • Serum Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Related to Blood Pressure in Diabetic Pregnancy - Am J Hypertens. 2014 Mar 22 - "gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) ... In this cohort of pregnant women with GDM, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with higher blood pressure, and in white women, serum vitamin D was an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure during pregnancy"
  • Dietary Vitamin D Inadequacy Accelerates Calcification and Osteoblast-Like Cell Formation in the Vascular System of LDL Receptor Knockout and Wild-Type Mice - J Nutr. 2014 Mar 19 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We have demonstrated enhanced vascular calcification in LDL receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice fed a diet low in vitamin D ... Collectively, the findings imply low vitamin D status as a causal factor for vascular calcification and atherosclerosis"
  • Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Body Composition, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk in Urban Central South Chinese Postmenopausal Women - Ann Nutr Metab. 2014 Mar 13;64(1):13-19 - "Approximately 72.1% women were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l) ... Serum 25(OH)D levels were correlated with all BMDs and negatively correlated with both 10-year fracture probabilities"
  • Vitamin D deficiency among the elderly: insights from Qatar - Curr Med Res Opin. 2014 Mar 13 - "A high prevalence of VitD deficiency (72%) was observed among the elderly in Qatar. Lower VitD was associated with higher HbA1c and lower HDL-C levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Inflammation in Older Irish Adults - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb 25 - "This study demonstrated significant associations between low vitamin D status and markers of inflammation (including the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10) within elderly adults. These findings suggest that an adequate vitamin D status may be required for optimal immune function, particularly within the older adult population"
  • Associations Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Multiple Health Conditions, Physical Performance Measures, Disability, and All-Cause Mortality: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Feb 27 - "Community-dwelling men aged 70 and older ... Fair, poor, and very poor health; self-reported diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; depression; muscle weakness; poor balance; and all-cause mortality were all associated with serum 25(OH)D levels less than 50 nmol/L, even after adjustment for confounding. The findings also suggest that, in older men, for a wide range of health conditions, physical performance measures, disability, falls, and mortality, the optimum range of 25(OH)D is between 50.0 and 74.9 nmol/L, with no additional benefit for 25(OH)D levels of 75.0 nmol/L or greater"
  • Vitamin D in Relation to Cognitive Impairment, Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers, and Brain Volumes - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Feb 25 - "the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cognitive impairment were as follows: 0.969 (0.948-0.990) per increase of 1 nmol/L of 25(OH)D and 4.19 (1.30-13.52) for 24(OH)D values less than 50 nmol/L compared with values greater than or equal to 50 nmol/L ... higher 25(OH)D levels were related to higher concentrations of CSF Aβ1-42 and greater brain volumes (eg, white matter, structures belonging to medial temporal lobe)"
  • Association of Myocardial Dysfunction with Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - J Diabetes Complications. 2014 Jan 16 - "Vitamin D deficiency was evident in 60 (63%) patients ... In patients with T2DM and no history of coronary artery disease, vit-D deficiency is independently associated with impaired global longitudinal strain. This suggests that vit-D deficiency may contribute to the development of myocardial dysfunction in these patients"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency in Elderly People in Swedish Nursing Homes is Associated with Increased Mortality - Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Feb 11 - "with the subjects in Q4(25(OH)D3 >48 nmol/l), HR (with 95% confidence interval) for mortality was 2.02 (1.31-3.12) in Q1(25(OH)D3 <29 nmol/l) (p<0.05), 2.03 (1.32-3.14) in Q2(25(OH)D3 30-37 nmol/l) (p<0.05) and 1.6 (1.03-2.48) in Q3(25(OH)D3 38-47 nmol/l) (p<0.05). The mean 25(OH)D3 concentration was 40.2 nmol/l (Standard Deviation (SD) 16.0) and 80% had 25(OH)D3 below 50 nmol/l" -  In table form:
    D3 (nmol/l) Mortality
    Greater than 48 1.0 (baseline)
    less than 29 2.02
    30 - 37 2.03
    38 - 47 1.6
  • Vitamin-D supplementation in prediabetes reduced progression to type 2 diabetes and was associated with decreased insulin resistance and systemic inflammation: An open label randomized prospective study from Eastern India - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Jan 6 - "Vitamin-D supplementation in vitamin-D insufficient/deficient prediabetes individuals is associated with significantly lower progression to diabetes (6/55 vs. 13/49; p=0.04) and higher reversal to normoglycemia (23/55 vs. 10/49; p=0.02), associated with decreased insulin resistance and systemic inflammation (TNFα and IL6). Baseline vitamin-D and 2h blood glucose independently predicted progression to diabetes"
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of metabolic syndrome: an ancillary analysis in the Diabetes Prevention Program - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 22 - "Using baseline data from the placebo and lifestyle intervention arms of the Diabetes Prevention Program (N=2000), multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome ... After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of 25OHD had lower odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.45-0.84), smaller waist circumference, higher high-density lipoprotein and lower fasting plasma glucose compared with participants in the lowest tertile of 25OHD. Higher plasma 25OHD concentration was associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower insulin secretion. After multivariate adjustment, there was a nonsignificant lower risk of metabolic syndrome in the highest tertile of 25OHD (hazard ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.48-1.32) compared with the lowest tertile"
  • Vitamin D Treatment in Primary Hyperparathyroidism: a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 13 - "hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) ... Forty-six PHPT patients were recruited, mean age of 58 (range 29-77) years and 35 (76%) were women ... Daily supplementation with 70 microgram (2800 IU) cholecalciferol or identical placebo for 52 weeks ... Daily supplementation with a high vitamin D dose safely improves vitamin D status and decreases PTH in PHPT patients. The vitamin D treatment is accompanied with reduced bone resorption and improved BMD before operation"
  • Vitamin D levels and liver histological alterations in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Jan 10 - "73 consecutive overweight and obese children with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and diffusely hyperechogenic liver on ultrasonography underwent liver biopsy ... 25-OH-VD concentrations are inversely associated with NASH and fibrosis in children with NAFLD"
  • Effect of 25 (OH) D replacements in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and coexistent vitamin D deficiency on serum 25(OH) D, calcium and PTH levels: A meta-analysis and review of literature - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Jan 2 - "Vitamin D replacement in subjects with PHPT and coexistent vitamin D deficiency increases 25 (OH) D and reduce serum PTH significantly without causing hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria"
  • Vitamin D confers protection to motoneurons and is a prognostic factor of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Nov 13 - "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable paralytic disorder primarily typified by the selective and progressive degeneration of motoneurons in the brain and spinal cord. ALS causes muscle wasting and atrophy, resulting eventually in respiratory failure and death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone with diverse biological functions that include protection against neuronal damage ... Here we found that the biologically active form of vitamin D significantly potentiated the effect of neurotrophic factors and prevented motoneurons from a Fas-induced death, while electrophysiological properties of motoneurons were not affected. In ALS patients, we report that a severe vitamin D deficiency accelerates by 4 times the rate of decline and were associated with a marked shorter life expectancy. Our findings support a neuroprotective function of vitamin D on motoneurons and propose vitamin D as a reliable prognostic factor of ALS"
  • Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec 24 - "A total of 328 African Americans in Boston, MA, were enrolled over 3 winters from 2007 to 2010 and randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/d for 3 mo ... Within African Americans, an estimated 1640 IU vitamin D3/d was required to achieve concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D recommended by the Institute of Medicine, whereas 4000 IU/d was needed to reach concentrations predicted to reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease risk in prospective observational studies"
  • Hypovitaminosis D and nocturnal hypertension in obese children: an interesting link - J Hum Hypertens. 2013 Dec 5 - "Low levels of vitamin D in obese children were associated with a higher BP burden, especially at night"
  • Maternal Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy and Bone Mass in Offspring at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Nov 5 - "investigated the association between maternal vitamin D status and peak bone mass of offspring in 341 mother and offspring pairs in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ... Outcomes were total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in offspring at 20 years of age ... Maternal vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.7% lower total body BMC (mean +/- SE: 2846 +/- 20 vs 2924 +/- 16 g, P = 0.004) and 1.7% lower total body BMD (1053 +/- 7 vs 1071 +/- 5 mg/cm2 , P = 0.043) in the offspring. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is associated with lower peak bone mass in their children. This may increase fracture risk in the offspring in later life"
  • Association of vitamin D status and blood pressure response after renal denervation - Clin Res Cardiol. 2013 Oct 31 - "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with hypertension; however, it is unclear whether vitamin D influences therapeutic blood pressure reduction. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension ... In patients with resistant hypertension, low vitamin D concentrations were associated with a decreased SBP response and a higher rate of non-response"
  • Insulin resistance indices are inversely associated with vitamin D binding protein concentrations - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 29 - "vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) ... Subjects were 47, post menarchal, female adolescents, mean age 15.8 +/- 1.4 years ... Our data suggest that, VDBP concentrations are regulated by total 25(OH)D levels to maintain adequate concentrations of bioavailable 25(OH)D. VDBP concentrations are inversely associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance"
  • Vitamin D and Physical Performance in Older Men and Women Visiting the Emergency Department Because of a Fall: Data from the Improving Medication Prescribing to reduce Risk Of FALLs (IMPROveFALL) Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct 1 - "Physical performance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go Test, the Five Time Sit to Stand Test, handgrip strength, and the tandem stand test ... In men, higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly associated with better handgrip strength (regression coefficient (B) = 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.04-5.69), faster TUG time (B = -2.82, 95% CI = -4.91 to -0.73), and faster FTSS time (B = -3.39, 95% CI = -5.67 to -1.11). In women, higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly associated with faster TUG time"
  • Effects of correction of vitamin D insufficiency on serum osteocalcin and glucose metabolism in obese children - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Sep 21 - "Osteocalcin (OCN) and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) have been shown to be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism (GluMet) ... involved 230 obese children in a cross-sectional part, and 72 participants in a prospective part in which children with VDI were treated with vitamin D2 at a dose of 20,000 IU daily for 28 days ... correction of VDI by raising mean (SD) 25-OHD of 51.5 (12.3) to 141.8 (40.8) nmol/L resulted in an improvement of their GluMet and increase in their whole-body insulin sensitivity index with no changes in their OCN measures"
  • A randomized study on the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and vitamin D receptor concentration in older women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 9 - "To determine whether vitamin D3 4000 IU/d alters muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramyonuclear VDR concentration over 4 months ... Vitamin D3 supplementation increased intramyonuclear VDR concentration by 30% and increased muscle fiber size by 10% in older, mobility-limited, vitamin D-insufficient women"
  • Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 24 - "At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that began in December 2008 and ended in April 2011. It was 6 months in duration ... Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to 100 μ g vitamin D3/d does not" - Note: 100 micrograms is 4,000 IU.
  • Inverse relationship between vitamin D status and insulin resistance and the risk of impaired fasting glucose in Korean children and adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010 - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Sep 19:1-8 - "In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of participants in the lowest serum 25(OH)D category having IFG was 2.96-3.15 compared with those in the highest 25(OH)D category"
  • Vitamin D3 effects on lipids differ in statin and non-statin treated humans: superiority of free 25-OH D levels in detecting relationships - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 12 - "D3 group: 14 men, 12 women, age 60 +/- 8y (mean +/-SD); placebo: 12 men, 11 women: 59 +/-12y with inadequate D status ... 12 week oral vitamin D3 titrated (1000-3000 IU/day) to achieve 25-OH D levels ≥ 25 ng/mL compared to placebo ... Vitamin D lipid lowering effects appear limited to statin-treated patients and are likely due to decreased cholesterol absorption"
  • Bioavailability of Vitamin D2 and D3 in Healthy Volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 3 - "Earlier studies have suggested that vitamin D2 is less biologically active than vitamin D3 ... we tested the effects of supplementation with 50 μ g/day doses of vitamin D2 or D3 or a placebo over a period of 8 weeks on 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, their sum 25(OH)D (primary outcome variables), and parathyroid hormone in healthy volunteers applying a double blind, randomized study design ... conducted during winter 2012 in Halle (Saale), at latitude of 51°47N, when UVB irradiation is virtually absent ... In the group receiving vitamin D2 (n=46), the 25(OH)D2 concentrations increased significantly, while the 25(OH)D3 concentration fell from 36.4+/-13.3 nmol/L at baseline to 16.6+/- 6.3nmol/L after 8 weeks (p<0.01). The total 25(OH)D was not different between the groups at baseline, but differed significantly between the groups after 4 and 8 weeks ... Vitamin D3 increases the total 25(OH)D concentration more than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 supplementation was associated with a decrease in 25(OH)D3, which can explain the different effect on total 25(OH)D"
  • Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants. They were followed up three times during 9 months ... At birth, 23% of mothers and 61% of infants had 25OHD <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD <25 nmol/l) was present in 66% of the children born by mothers with 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l (P<0.01), whereas only one child was born with deficiency among mothers with 25OHD >50 nmol/l. During follow-up, most of the children (>85%) had 25OHD levels >50 nmol/l, which most likely was attributable to the use of supplements, as more than 95% of the children were given daily vitamin D supplements of 10 μg of vitamin D ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50 nmol/l are needed to prevent vitamin D deficiency among newborn"
  • Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 21 - "Prospective cohort data from 128,779 postmenopausal women, including 1771 incident lung cancers in the Women's Health Initiative (Clinical Trials and Observational Study) 1993-2010, were analyzed ... No significant association was observed overall. Among never smokers, a total vitamin D intake ≥400 IU/d was significantly associated with lower risks of lung cancer (HR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.77 for ≥800 compared with <100 IU/d; P-trend = 0.01). No significant effect modification of total vitamin A intake on the association between total vitamin D intake and lung cancer was found. However, the Calcium/Vitamin D Trial active intervention was significantly associated with a lower lung cancer risk only among women with a vitamin A intake <1000 μg/d retinol activity equivalents (HR: 0.69"
  • Suboptimal effect of different vitamin D3 supplementations and doses adapted to baseline serum 25(OH)D on achieved 25(OH)D levels in patients with a recent fracture: a prospective observational study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Aug 19 - "Out of 1481 consecutive women and men with a recent clinical fracture, 707 had a baseline 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L and were supplemented with increasing doses of vitamin D3 (400, 800, 1700, ≥3500IU/day) according to the lower baseline 25(OH)D ... The increase in serum 25(OH)D was significantly larger with higher vitamin D3 supplementation doses. However, this dose-effect response was mainly explained by the baseline 25(OH)D, not the supplementation dose, with a greater magnitude of response at lower baseline 25(OH)D concentrations. In 21-27% of patients serum 25(OH)D3 levels did not reach 50 nmol/L after 11 months, at any dose"
  • Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 14 - "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied ... study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in The Netherlands ... appendicular lean mass (ALM) ... In this frail elderly population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with reduced ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake tended to be associated with impaired physical performance"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women - J Nutr. 2013 Jul 24 - "Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU/d cholecalciferol supplements (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 9 wk ... Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in serum hs-CRP (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.41 vs. +1.50 μg/mL; P-interaction = 0.01) and insulin concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.0 vs. +2.6 μIU/mL; P-interaction = 0.04) and a significant increase in the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index score (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +0.02 vs. -0.02; P-interaction = 0.006), plasma total antioxidant capacity (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +152 vs. -20 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.002), and total glutathione concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +205 vs. -32 μmol/L; P-interaction = 0.02) compared with placebo. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.65 vs. -0.12 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.2 vs. +5.5 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.4 vs. +3.1 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01) compared with placebo"
  • Low vitamin D status is an independent predictor of increased frailty and all-cause mortality in older men: the Health In Men Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun 20 - "4203 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia ... After a mean period of 5.3 years, the adjusted odds ratio of being frail at follow-up for men with low vitamin D and having zero deficit at baseline (FRAIL scale = 0) was 1.56 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.27). Low vitamin D also predicted all-cause mortality over a period of up to 9.2 years (hazards ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42), independent of baseline frailty and other covariates"
  • Hypovitaminosis D and incidence of obesity: a prospective study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;67(6):680-2 - "In subjects who were non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) at the second evaluation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values 17 ng/ml (42.5 nmol/l) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing obesity in the next 4 years (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.03-5.4, P=0.040 after diverse adjustments). We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity"
  • Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats - Cytokine. 2013 May 10 - "we concluded that vitamin D may play a pivotal role in exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation through the modulation of MAPK and NF-κB involved with VDR"
  • Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults - Nutr J. 2013 May 16;12(1):61 - "Intakes of calcium dairy-servings within-recommendations were inversely associated with plaque, among those with higher, but not lower, vitamin D intakes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, it is not possible to infer that this association is causal"
  • Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predict hip fracture in the elderly. A NOREPOS study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 15 - "risk of hip fracture in Norway, a high-latitude country that has among the highest hip fracture rates worldwide ... We observed an inverse association between s-25(OH)D and hip fracture; those with s-25(OH)D in the lowest quartile (<42.2 nmol/l) had a 38% (95% CI 9-74%) increased risk of hip fracture compared with the highest quartile ... In this prospective case-cohort study of hip fractures, the largest ever reported, we found an increased risk of hip fracture in subjects in the lowest compared to the highest quartile of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D"
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D associated with pulmonary function in Canadian adults with excess adiposity - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "cross-sectional study included 3359 adults aged ≥18 who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, and a 2-stage multiple linear regression analysis was conducted ... Hypovitaminosis D may be a risk factor for lung dysfunction, especially for overweight and obese men"
  • Associations Between Frailty and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Older Australian Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 May 8 - "Cross-sectional analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney, Australia, between January 2005 and May 2007 ... 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were independently associated with frailty in older men. This suggests that there might be a number of different biological mechanisms for how low vitamin D status might contribute to the frailty syndrome. In addition, the possibility that improving vitamin D status may specifically influence the incidence and progression of frailty needs to be explored"
  • Associations Between Vitamin D and Self-Reported Respiratory Disease in Older People from a Nationally Representative Population Survey - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 May 6 - "Health Survey for England 2005 ... Low serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with respiratory disease. Ensuring adequate 25(OH)D levels is of public health importance for older populations living in northern latitudes and may be an effective way to prevent concurrent respiratory infections and related complications in older people"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):447-55 - "Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases ... Our results indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and the 5-Year Incidence of CKD - Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 Apr 23 - "Our prospective cohort study shows that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher annual incidence of albuminuria and reduced eGFR and independently predicts the 5-year incidence of albuminuria"
  • Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective studies - Diabetes Care. 2013 May;36(5):1422-8 - "A linear trend analysis showed that each 10 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D levels was associated with a 4% lower risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Hypertension, Pulse, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Vitamin D Status in Finnish Men - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Apr 18 - "This study investigated baseline (n=2,271) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and baseline and 4 year (n=1,957) CVD risk in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged male smokers ... Change in pulse rate over time continued to be significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D baseline levels"
  • Hip bone loss is attenuated with 1000 IU but not 400 IU daily vitamin D3: a 1 year double-blind RCT in postmenopausal women - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Apr 13 - "Caucasian women aged 60-70 y (n = 305) were randomized to one of two doses of vitamin D or placebo ... Mean BMD loss at the hip was significantly less for the 1000 IU vitamin D group (0.05 +/- 1.46%), compared to the 400 IU vitamin D or placebo groups (0.57 +/- 1.33% and 0.60 +/- 1.67%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Mean(+/- SD) baseline 25(OH)D was 33.8 +/- 14.6 nmol/L; comparative 25(OH)D change for the placebo, 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D groups was: -4.1 +/- 11.5 nmol/L, +31. 6 +/- 19.8 nmol/L and +42.6 +/- 18.9 nmol/L respectively"
  • Predicted Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Apr 8 - "prospectively evaluated the association between predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and RCC risk among 72 051 women and 46 380 men in the period from 1986 to 2008 ... The multivariable hazard ratios between extreme quintiles of predicted 25(OH)D score were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.32 to 0.80) in women, 0.59 (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.94) in men, and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.39 to 0.75; P trend < .001) in the pooled cohorts. An increment of 10ng/mL in predicted 25(OH)D score was associated with a 44% lower incidence of RCC (pooled HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.74) ... Higher predicted plasma 25(OH)D levels were associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of RCC in men and women"
  • Effect of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, adiponectin, leptin and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients - Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 27 - "The present study was designed to evaluate long term impact of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, glucose homeostasis, adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ... Group 1 received oral daily supplementation with vitamin D at a dose of 1000 U/day for 12 months. Group 2 received matching placebo capsules ... Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was evaluated using SphygmoCor ... After 12 months, AI decreased significantly during the treatment period in patients received vitamin D (p < 0.0001) and did not change in placebo group. Glucose homeostasis parameters, leptin as well as leptin adiponectin ratio did not change in both groups. 25 OH Vit D level significantly increased (p = 0.022) and circulating adiponectin marginally increased (p = 0.065) during 12 month treatment period in active treatment and did not change in placebo group"
  • Non-linear association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a community-based nested case-control study - Diabet Med. 2013 Mar 18 - "Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured for 761 participants (aged 20-83 years) in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study ... Odds ratios for Type 2 diabetes were obtained from conditional logistic regression models for tertiles of serum 25(OH)D concentrations [tertile-1: 2.82-11.02 (reference), tertile-2: 11.03-21.80, and tertile-3: ≥ 21.82 ng/ml] ... Unadjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of diabetes were 0.73 (0.74-1.13), 0.54 (0.34-0.85) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios were 0.47 (0.25-0.90) and 0.43 (0.23-0.82), respectively. Below the cutoff of ~ 10 ng/ml the risk of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes increased dramatically"
  • Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy in a Population with Endemic Vitamin D Deficiency - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr 4 - "Vitamin D (vD) deficiency in pregnancy is a global health problem and the amount of vD supplementation to prevent vD deficiency is controversial.  Objective: Determine effectiveness and safety of prenatal 2000 IU and 4000 IU/day compared with 400 IU/day vD3 supplementation in a RCT in population where vD deficiency is endemic ... Arab women were randomized at 12-16 weeks of gestation to 400, 2000 and 4000 IU/day vD3 which were continued to delivery ... Vitamin D supplementation of 2000 and 4000 IU/day appeared safe in pregnancy and 4000 IU/day was most effective in optimizing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in mothers and their infants"
  • Vitamin D reduces deposition of advanced glycation end-products in the aortic wall and systemic oxidative stress in diabetic rats - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 20 - "Vitamin D may have an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) such as Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications via oxidative stress-mediated pathways ... Untreated diabetes was associated with significantly elevated CML levels in the aortic wall (19.5+/-3.3 vs 10.2+/-4.7ng/mL), increased liver OSI (6.8+/-1.9 vs 3.1+/-0.7), and reduced serum TAC (0.4+/-0.1 vs 0.8+/-0.3mmol Trolox/L), in comparison with the control group. Cholecalciferol significantly blocked the accumulation of CML in the aortic wall (10.4+/-8.4 vs 19.5+/-3.3ng/mL), decreased liver OSI (4.2+/-1.4 vs 6.8+/-1.9), and improved serum TAC (1.0+/-0.2 vs 0.4+/-0.1mmol Trolox/L), compared with the untreated diabetic group"
  • Strong associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 27 - "ESTHER study, which is a German population-based cohort aged 50-74 y at baseline. Deaths were recorded during 9.5 y of follow-up (median) ... The overall mortality [HR (95% CI)] of subjects with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L] or vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D concentrations from 30 to 50 nmol/L) was significantly increased [1.71 (1.43, 2.03) and 1.17 (1.02, 1.35), respectively] compared with that of subjects with sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations (>50 nmol/L)]. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality [1.39 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.89)], cancer mortality [1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.88)] and respiratory disease mortality [2.50 (95% CI: 1.12, 5.56)]. The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with all-cause mortality proved to be a nonlinear inverse association with risk that started to increase at 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;202:100-7 - "One case-control study, ten cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies with a total of 31 424 participants were analysed. Lower vitamin D levels were found in people with depression compared with controls (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23-0.97) and there was an increased odds ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories in the cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.0-1.71). The cohort studies showed a significantly increased hazard ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.40-3.49)"
  • Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Compared with matched controls, patients with NAFLD have significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels, suggesting that low 25(OH)D status might play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD"
  • High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome - Endocr J. 2013 Feb 13 - "performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D(3) levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram ... The mean 25(OH)D(3) level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 +/- 9.0 vs. 39.7 +/- 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D(3) level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D(3) level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D(3) levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D(3) showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D(3) groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome"
  • Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "The objective was to determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/d and whether subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with improved markers of insulin sensitivity and resistance and reduced inflammation ... fasting insulin (-6.5 compared with +1.2 μU/mL for placebo; P = 0.026), HOMA-IR (-1.363 compared with +0.27 for placebo; P = 0.033)" - Note:  The fasting insulin was 7.7 lower (difference between -6.5 and +1.2).
  • Decreased Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Are Associated With Increased Risk of Progression to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 7 - "In a historical prospective cohort study of subjects from the Clalit Health Services database, which includes information on nearly 4 million people, diabetes-free subjects aged 40-70 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) measurements available were followed up for 2 years to assess the development of IFG and diabetes in five 25-OHD subgroups: ≥25, 25.1-37.5, 37.6-50, 50.1-75, and >75 nmol/L ... The odds of transitioning from normoglycemia to IFG, from normoglycemia to diabetes, and from IFG to diabetes in subjects with a 25-OHD level ≤25 nmol/L were greater than those of subjects with a 25-OHD level >75 nmol/L [odds ratio 1.13 (95% CI 1.03-1.24), 1.77 (1.11-2.83), and 1.43 (1.16-1.76), respectively] ... Vitamin D deficiency appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of IFG and diabetes"
  • Association of vitamin D deficiency with incidence of type 2 diabetes in high-risk Asian subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "tested the hypothesis that baseline 25(OH)D is associated with the incidence of T2D in high-risk subjects for up to 5 y of follow-up, independently of obesity, baseline IR, and β cell function ... Of the participants, 10.5% had a serum 25(OH)D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 51.6% had an insufficiency (10.0-19.9 ng/mL), and 38.0% had a sufficiency (≥20 ng/mL), and the incidence of T2D at 32.3 +/- 15.6 mo (+/-SD) declined accordingly: 15.9%, 10.2%, and 5.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, lifestyles, family history, season, parathyroid hormone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, the participants with 25(OH)D deficiency had an increased risk of T2D independently of BMI, HOMA2-IR, and IGI; the HRs were 2.06 for 25(OH)D 10-19.9 ng/mL compared with ≥20 ng/mL (95% CI: 1.22, 3.49) and 3.23 for 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL compared with ≥20 ng/mL (95% CI: 1.66, 6.30)"
  • Vitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: A 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Jan 15 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has deleterious consequences on health outcomes. In elderly or postmenopausal women, it may exacerbate osteoporosis ... Patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/L have increased bone turnover, bone loss, and possibly mineralization defects compared with patients with levels >50 nmol/L. Similar relationships have been reported for frailty, nonvertebral and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, with poorer outcomes at <50 nmol/L. Conclusion The ESCEO recommends that 50 nmol/L (i.e. 20 ng/mL) should be the minimal serum 25-(OH)D concentration at the population level and in patients with osteoporosis to ensure optimal bone health. Below this threshold, supplementation is recommended at 800 to 1000 IU/day. Vitamin D supplementation is safe up to 10 000 IU day (upper limit of safety) (resulting in an upper limit of adequacy of 125 nmol/L 25-(OH)D). Daily consumption of calcium- and vitamin D-fortified food products (e.g. yoghurt or milk) can help improve vitamin D intake. Above the threshold of 50 nmol/L, there is no clear evidence for additional benefits of supplementation. On the other hand, in fragile elderly subjects who are at elevated risk for falls and fracture, the ESCEO recommends a minimal serum 25-(OH)D level of 75 nmol/L (i.e. 30 ng/mL), for the greatest impact on fracture"
  • Vitamin D status and the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in cardiac surgery - Eur Heart J. 2013 Jan 12 - "We aimed to investigate the association of pre-operative 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in cardiac surgical patients ... Of the study cohort, 38.0% had deficient 25(OH)D values (<30 nmol/L) and additional 32.3% had insufficient values (30-49.9 nmol/L), whereas only 3.1% had values >100 nmol/L. The incidence of MACCE was 11.5%. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the odds ratio of MACCE at deficient, inadequate, and high 25(OH)D levels was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-3.79], 1.73 (95% CI: 1.01-2.96) and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.12-4.89), respectively, compared with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L. A U-shaped association with circulating 25(OH)D was also present for duration of mechanical ventilatory support and intensive care unit stay. Multivariable-adjusted 6- and 12-month mortality were higher in patients with deficient 25(OH)D levels compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L"
  • Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated Fat loss in overweight and obese college students with very-low calcium consumption: a randomized controlled trial - Nutr J. 2013 Jan 8;12(1):8 - "to receive either an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal/d) supplemented with 600 mg elemental calcium and 125 IU vitamin D3 or energy restriction alone for 12 weeks. Repeated measurements of variance were performed to evaluate the differences between groups for changes in body weight, BMI, body composition ... A significantly greater decrease in fat mass loss was observed in the calcium + D group (-2.8+/-1.3 vs.-1.8+/-1.3 kg; P=0.02) than in the control group, although there was no significant difference in body weight change (P>0.05) between groups. The calcium + D group also exhibited greater decrease in visceral fat mass and visceral fat area"
  • Vitamin D and risk of death from vascular and non-vascular causes in the Whitehall study and meta-analyses of 12 000 deaths - Eur Heart J. 2012 Dec 20 - "examined associations of plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study of older men living in the UK and included findings in meta-analyses of similar studies identified by a systematic search reporting on vascular and all-cause mortality ... 13-year follow-up ... After adjustment for age and seasonality, higher concentrations of 25(OH)D were inversely and approximately linearly (log-log scale) associated with vascular and non-vascular mortality throughout the range 40-90 nmol/L. After additional adjustment for prior disease and cardiovascular risk factors, a doubling in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with 20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9-30%] lower vascular and 23% (95% CI: 14-31%) lower non-vascular mortality. In meta-analyses of prospective studies, individuals in the top vs. bottom quarter of 25(OH)D concentrations had 21% (95% CI: 13-28%) lower vascular and 28% (95% CI: 24-32%) lower all-cause mortality"
  • Vitamin D reduces left atrial volume in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease - Am Heart J. 2012 Dec;164(6):902-909.e2 - "Left atrial enlargement, a sensitive integrator of left ventricular diastolic function, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ... left atrial volume index (LAVi) ... One hundred ninety-six patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL/min per 1.73m(2)), mild to moderate left ventricular hypertrophy, and preserved ejection fraction were randomly assigned to 2 μg of oral paricalcitol or matching placebo for 48 weeks ... Over the study period, there was a significant decrease in LAVi (-2.79 mL/m(2), 95% CI -4.00 to -1.59 mL/m(2)) in the paricalcitol group compared with the placebo group (-0.70 mL/m(2) [95% CI -1.93 to 0.53 mL/m(2)], P = .002). Paricalcitol also attenuated the rise in levels of brain natriuretic peptide (10.8% in paricalcitol vs 21.3% in placebo, P = .02) ... Forty-eight weeks of therapy with an active vitamin D analog reduces LAVi and attenuates the rise of BNP. In a population where only few therapies alter cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality, these post hoc results warrant further confirmation"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of major osteoporotic fractures in older U.S. adults - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov 26 - "The study used a pooled cohort of 4749 men and women ages 65 years and older from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) and NHANES 2000-2004 ... Serum 25OHD was a significant linear predictor of major osteoporotic fracture and significant quadratic predictor of hip fracture in the total sample and among those with less than 10 years of follow-up, but it was not related to risk of either fracture type among those with > 10 years of follow-up. Major osteoporotic fracture risk was increased by 26-27% for each SD decrease in serum 25OHD among those with less than 10 years of follow-up. Serum 25OHD was significantly related to risk of major osteoporotic fractures as a group and to hip fracture alone in this cohort of older US adults from NHANES III and NHANES 2000-2004. However, the predictive utility of serum 25OHD diminished after ten years. In addition, the relationship appeared to be linear when major osteoporotic fracture risk was considered but quadratic when hip fracture risk was assessed"
  • Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 11:1-7 - "Participants aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D3 (n 32), 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D2 (n 31) or placebo (n 32) daily for 25 weeks beginning at the end of summer ... After 25 weeks, participants randomised to D2 and placebo had a significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations over the winter months compared with vitamin D3-supplemented participants (both P < 0.001). Supplementation with vitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 but produced a 9 (95 % CI 1, 17) nmol/l greater decline in the 25(OH)D3 metabolite compared with placebo (P < 0.036). Overall, total serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 21 (95 % CI 14, 30) nmol/l lower in participants receiving vitamin D2 compared with those receiving D3 (P < 0.001), among whom total serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained unchanged"
  • Vitamin D as a protective factor in multiple sclerosis - Neurology. 2012 Nov 20;79(21):2140-5 - "2 population-based biobanks with 291,500 samples from 164,000 persons collected since 1975 in the northern half of Sweden were used ... This study supports the presence of an association between high 25(OH)D levels during the years preceding disease onset and a decreased risk of MS. In the very limited material with samples drawn in early pregnancy, where month-of-birth effects were controlled for, we found no association between gestational 25(OH)D levels and MS risk in the offspring. Decreasing 25(OH)D levels in the population may contribute to explain the increasing MS incidence that is suggested from epidemiologic studies"
  • Vitamin D mitigates age-related cognitive decline through the modulation of pro-inflammatory state and decrease in amyloid burden - J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Oct 25;9(1):244 - "Our results show that: (1) aged rats demonstrated significant learning and memory impairment overall compared to younger animals. However, the age-related decline in learning and memory was ameliorated by the supplementation of vitamin D. No vitamin D effect on learning and memory was seen in the young animals; 2) the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta is significantly increased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is significantly decreased in the aged rats compared to the young animals; but this age-related change in inflammatory state was mitigated by vitamin D supplementation. No effects of vitamin D were seen on the IL-1beta and IL-10 expression in the young rats; (3) vitamin D increased Abeta clearance and decreased amyloid burden in the aged rats while no significant difference was seen between the young animal groups"
  • The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vertebral fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes - Endocr J. 2012 Oct 13 - "After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, men with a serum 25(OH)D concentration of less than 20 ng/ml were associated with an increased risk of vertebral fractures (OR 7.87; 95% CI 1.69-36.71), but not women. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels below 20 ng/ml were associated with an increased vertebral fracture risk in men with type 2 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Neurology. 2012 Sep 25;79(13):1397-405 - "Thirty-seven studies were included; 8 contained data allowing mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores to be compared between participants with vitamin D <50 nmol/L to those with values ≥50 nmol/L. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies that compared the WMD for MMSE but an overall positive effect for the higher vitamin D group (1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 1.9; I(2) = 0.65; p = 0.002). The small positive effect persisted despite several sensitivity analyses. Six studies presented data comparing Alzheimer disease (AD) to controls but 2 utilized a method withdrawn from commercial use. For the remaining 4 studies the AD group had a lower vitamin D concentration compared to the control group (WMD = -6.2 nmol/L, 95% CI -10.6 to -1.8) with no heterogeneity (I(2) < 0.01; p = 0.53) ... These results suggest that lower vitamin D concentrations are associated with poorer cognitive function and a higher risk of AD"
  • A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women - Nutr J. 2012 Sep 22;11(1):78 - "In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38+/-8.1 years, BMI 29.8+/-4.1 kg/m2) were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 mug per day as cholecalciferol) and placebo (25 mug per day as lactose) for 12 weeks ... Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events--a 16-year follow-up study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Aug 8 - "At baseline, mean age was 50 years ... Compared with vitamin D replete women, women with low 25(oh)D-levels had significantly higher BMI and triglycerides; lower HDL and hip-waist ratio, and less education. More were smokers among the vitamin D deficient (47% vs. 38%). A primary end-point was experienced by 118 (15%) with vitamin D deficiency and by 125 (10%) of the vitamin D replete. Hazard ratio (HR) was 1.49 (95% ci: 1.16-1.92; p=0.002) in the vitamin D deficient. Adjusted HR: 1.32 (1.02-1.71; p=0.03). In total, 135 women died; of these, 65 (8%) of the vitamin d deficient and 70 (6%) in the vitamin D replete group; unadjusted HR: 1.44 (1.02-2.01; p=0.04) for vitamin D deficiency"
  • Arterial Stiffness and Vitamin D Levels: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul 5 - "The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) is an independent cross-sectional correlate of central arterial stiffness in a normative aging study population ... Vitamin D levels are inversely associated with increased arterial stiffness in a normative aging population, irrespective of traditional risk factor burden. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of this association and to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation can reduce arterial stiffness"
  • Vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU/d for 1 y) eliminates differences in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D between African American and white men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 3 - "African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes and cardiovascular disease and are significantly more likely to have suboptimal concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The results of epidemiologic and observational studies suggest that there is a link between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders, which underscores the importance of maintaining healthy concentrations of 25(OH)D ... More than 90% of African Americans had serum concentrations of 25(OH)D <32 ng/mL, and approximately two-thirds had serum concentrations <20 ng/mL. Furthermore, there were significant disparities in serum concentrations of 25(OH)D between African American and white men. Supplementation with 4000 IU/d for 1 y eliminated any significant differences in circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D between African American and white men"
  • Lower serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher relapse risk in multiple sclerosis - Neurology. 2012 Jun 13 - "There is increasing evidence that vitamin D can be protective against the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it may also be beneficial for the clinical course of the disease ... Exacerbation risk decreased significantly with higher serum vitamin D levels: respective relative exacerbation rates for the medium and high-level category as compared to the low-level category were 0.7 and 0.5 (p value for trend: p = 0.007). The association between 25-OH-D concentrations and exacerbation rate was log linear without a threshold. With each doubling of the serum 25-OH-D concentration the exacerbation rate decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval 8%-42%, p = 0.008)"
  • The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 13 - "Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were lowest in participants with frailty, intermediate in participants with pre-frailty and highest in participants without frailty. The odds of frailty in the lowest quartile of serum 25(OH)D was 1.94 times the odds in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.44). Mortality was positively associated with frailty, with the risk among participants who were frail and had low serum 25(OH)D being significantly higher than those who were not frail and who had high concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (hazards ratio 2.98; 95% CI: 2.01-4.42)"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Mortality From Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Disease, and Premature Mortality from All-Cause in United States Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jun 1 - "the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included 13,131 participants (6,130 men, 7,001 women) ≥35 years old at baseline (1988 to 1994) and followed through December 2000 ... Multivariate-adjusted Cox model indicated that subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml had 2.06 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 4.25) of HF death than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001). In addition, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for premature death from all causes were 1.40 (1.17 to 1.68) in subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml and 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) in those with serum 25(OH)D levels of 20 to 29 ng/ml compared to those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001, test for trend). In conclusion, adults with inadequate serum 25(OH)D levels have significantly higher risk of death from HF and all CVDs and all-cause premature death"
  • Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study ... The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors"
  • Low Dietary Vitamin D Predicts 34-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program - Stroke. 2012 May 24 - "The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based cohort study of 8006 Japanese-American men in Hawaii who were 45 to 68 years old at the baseline examination in 1965 to 1968 ... 34 years of follow-up ... Age-adjusted rates of incident stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile compared with the highest (all stroke: 6.38 versus 5.14 per 1000 person-years follow-up, P=0.030; thromboembolic stroke: 4.36 versus 3.30, P=0.033). Using Cox regression, adjusting for age, total kilocalories, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pack-years smoking, physical activity index, serum cholesterol, and alcohol intake, those in the lowest quartile had a significantly increased risk of incident stroke (all stroke hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47; P=0.038; thromboembolic stroke hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.59; P=0.044) with the highest as the reference. We found no significant associations between dietary vitamin D and hemorrhagic stroke"
  • Vitamin D with Calcium Reduces Mortality: Patient Level Pooled Analysis of 70,528 Patients from Eight Major Vitamin D Trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May 17 - "Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium ... The IPD analysis yielded data on 70,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin D was given with calcium (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98). The number needed to treat with vitamin D plus calcium for 3 yr to prevent one death was 151. Trial level meta-analysis (24 trials with 88,097 participants) showed similar results, i.e. mortality was reduced with vitamin D plus calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06)"
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Predicts the Onset of Mobility Limitation and Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Health ABC Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 May 9 - "Participants with 25(OH)D <50 and 50 to <75 nmol/L were at greater risk of developing mobility limitation (HR (95% CI): 1.29 (1.04-1.61) and 1.27 (1.05-1.53), respectively) and mobility disability (HR (95% CI): 1.93 (1.32-2.81) and 1.30 (0.92-1.83), respectively) over 6 years of follow-up compared with participants with 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L"
  • Higher Vitamin D Dietary Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A 7-Year Follow-up - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr 13 - "Women who developed AD (n = 70) had lower baseline vitamin D intakes (mean, 50.3 +/- 19.3 μg/wk) than nondemented (n = 361; mean intake = 59.0 +/- 29.9 μg/wk, p = .027) or those who developed other dementias (n = 67; mean intake = 63.6 +/- 38.1 μg/wk, p = .010). There was no difference between other dementias and no dementia (p = .247). Baseline vitamin D dietary intakes were associated with the onset of AD (adjusted odds ratio = 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.98-0.99], p = .041) but not with other dementias (p = .071). Being in the highest quintile of vitamin D dietary intakes was associated with a lower risk of AD compared with the lower 4 quintiles combined (adjusted odds ratio = 0.23 [95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.67], p = .007) ... Higher vitamin D dietary intake was associated with a lower risk of developing AD among older women"
  • Vitamin D-Related Genetic Variation, Plasma Vitamin D, and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Nested Case-Control Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Apr 12 - "The association of vitamin D status with prostate cancer is controversial; no association has been observed for overall incidence, but there is a potential link with lethal disease ... Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of lethal prostate cancer (highest vs lowest quartile: odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.24 to 0.76)"
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Increased Risk of the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome at Five Years: Results from a National, Population-Based Prospective Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 22 - "metabolic syndrome (MetS) ... waist circumference (WC) ... Compared with those in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (≥34 ng/ml), MetS risk was significantly higher in people with 25(OH)D in the first (<18 ng/ml) and second (18-23 ng/ml) quintiles; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.41 (1.02-1.95) and 1.74 (1.28-2.37), respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with 5-yr WC (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.01), fasting glucose (P < 0.01), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P < 0.001) but not with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.29), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.70), or blood pressure (P = 0.46).Conclusions:In Australian adults, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with increased MetS risk and higher WC, serum triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance at 5 yr"
  • Vitamin D Levels Predict All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Subjects With the Metabolic Syndrome: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study - Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar 7 - "Most subjects (92%) had suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D (<75 nmol/L), with 22.2% being severely deficient (<25 nmol/L) ... After full adjustment, including the metabolic syndrome components, those with optimal 25(OH)D levels showed a substantial reduction in all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.25 [95% CI 0.13-0.46]) and cardiovascular disease mortality (0.33 [0.16-0.66]) compared with those with severe vitamin D deficiency"
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Increased Mortality in Female Nursing Home Residents - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Feb 8 - "We examined 961 study participants (age 83.7 +/- 6.1 yr). Median 25(OH)D concentration was 17.5 (interquartile range 13.7-25.5) nmol/liter, and 93% of our cohort had 25(OH)D levels below 50 nmol/liter. During a mean follow-up time of 27 +/- 8 months, 284 patients died. Compared with the fourth quartile (25[OH]D >25.5 nmol/liter), the age-adjusted HR (with 95% confidence interval) was 1.49 (1.07-2.10) in the first 25(OH)D quartile (25[OH]D <14.0 nmol/liter), and this association remained significant after multivariate adjustments (HR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.40)"
  • Association Between Visceral Obesity and Sarcopenia and Vitamin D Deficiency in Older Koreans: The Ansan Geriatric Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Feb 8 - "Greater visceral fat and lower muscle mass were associated with lower 25(OH)D levels in elderly Korean men, suggesting that screening for vitamin D deficiency may be appropriate in older Koreans with visceral obesity or sarcopenia. Sarcopenic obesity as defined according to prespecified criteria did not have an additive association with 25(OH)D levels"
  • Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 9:1-8 - "We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in women. Healthy premenopausal overweight and obese women (n 77; mean age 38 (sd 8.1) years) were randomly allocated to the vitamin D (25 μg/d as cholecalciferol) or the placebo group in a double-blind manner for 12 weeks ... The findings showed that supplementation with vitamin D3 can significantly improve HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I concentrations and LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratio, which remained significant in the multivariate model including anthropometric, dietary and physical activity measures"
  • Vitamin D Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Crohns Disease - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jul;81(4):205-10 - "Results: IL-10 levels were significantly lower in patients with vitamin D insufficiency compared with the vitamin D replete group (mean and SE 2.48 +/- 0.51 v 6.77 +/- 2.49 pg/mL, p < 0.001). There were, however, no differences in serum TNF-alpha or CRP levels based on vitamin D status. The use of a vitamin D supplement at a low dose (200 IU) did not significantly influence IL-10 levels. Conclusion: Circulating levels of IL-10, but not TNF-alpha, were significantly lower in CD patients with inadequate serum 25(OH)D. This suggests that poor vitamin D status may be linked to reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in this group"
  • Association between plasma 25-OH vitamin D and testosterone levels in men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jan 2 - "A small randomized controlled trial suggested that vitamin D might increase the production of testosterone in men, which is supported by experimental studies in animals and a cross-sectional study showing positive associations between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone and concordant seasonal variation of both biomarkers ... 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free testosterone levels ... The shapes of the dose-response curves indicate that the association between 25(OH)D and total and free testosterone is linear at lower levels of 25(OH)D (below approximately 75-85 nmol/l), reaching a plateau at higher levels"
  • Intermittent high-dose vitamin D corrects vitamin D deficiency in adolescents: a pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 21 - "There were no adverse events. Compliance was high. This suggests that 300 000 IU vitamin D3 orally 6-monthly may safely and effectively correct vitamin D deficiency in adolescents"
  • Effect of vitamin d supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Dec;59(12):2291-300 - "Supplemental vitamin D with daily doses of 800 to 1,000 IU consistently demonstrated beneficial effects on strength and balance. An effect on gait was not demonstrated, although further evaluation is recommended"
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Nov 15 - "Mean plasma 25(OH)D was lower in cases versus controls (61.3 vs. 64.5 nmol/L, P=0.005). In logistic regression models, plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with odds of pancreatic cancer. Participants in quintiles two through five had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) of 0.79 (0.56-1.10), 0.75 (0.53-1.06), 0.68 (0.48-0.97), and 0.67 (0.46-0.97); P-trend=0.03), respectively, compared to the bottom quintile. Compared to those with insufficient levels (25[OH]D<50 nmol/L), ORs were 0.75 (0.58-0.98) for subjects with relative insufficiency (25[OH]D 50-<75 nmol/L) and 0.71 (0.52-0.97) for those with sufficient levels (25[OH]D≥75 nmol/L). No increased risk was noted in subjects with 25(OH)D ≥100 nmol/L, as suggested in a prior study. In subgroup analyses, ORs for the top versus bottom quartile of 25(OH)D were 0.72 (0.48-1.08) for women, 0.73 (0.40-1.31) for men, and 0.73 (0.51-1.03) for Whites ... Low circulating 25(OH)D may predispose individuals to the development of pancreatic cancer"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Supplementation and Relation to Cardiovascular Health - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Nov 7 - "Serum vitamin D measurements for 5 years and 8 months from a large academic institution were matched to patient demographic, physiologic, and disease variables. The vitamin D levels were analyzed as a continuous variable and as normal (≥30 ng/ml) or deficient (<30 ng/ml). Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling were performed. Of 10,899 patients, the mean age was 58 +/- 15 years, 71% were women (n = 7,758), and the average body mass index was 30 +/- 8 kg/m(2). The mean serum vitamin D level was 24.1 +/- 13.6 ng/ml. Of the 10,899 patients, 3,294 (29.7%) were in the normal vitamin D range and 7,665 (70.3%) were deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with several cardiovascular-related diseases, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes (all p <0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was a strong independent predictor of all-cause death (odds ratios 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.901 to 3.662, p <0.0001) after adjusting for multiple clinical variables. Vitamin D supplementation conferred substantial survival benefit (odds ratio for death 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.277 to 0.534, p <0.0001)"
  • Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Nov 2 - "In univariate analyses free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E2 and LH higher (P<0.05) in men with deficient vitamin D (25(OH)D<50nmol/L). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T, and negatively with E2 and LH in age and centre adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, deficient vitamin D was significantly associated with compensated [relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03] and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P<0.001).Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation"
  • The association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased aortic stiffness - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Oct 20 - "Subjects in the bottom 25(OH)D quartile (<20 ng ml(-1)) showed the highest aortic PWV (9.04 m s(-1)), compared with 2nd-4th quartile (8.07 m s(-1), 7.93 m s(-1) and 7.70 m s(-1), respectively; P for trend <0.0001). The association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV remained significant after adjustment for age, gender and other potential confounders; subjects in the first 25(OH)D quartile had adjusted odds ratio 2.04 (1.26-3.30) for having aortic PWV 9 m s(-1) (top quartile) in multiple regression. In conclusion, we found a clear significant and independent negative association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV. Subjects with lowest vitamin D status showed the highest arterial stiffness"
  • Vitamin D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Among US Men: Results From the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - Urology. 2011 Oct 17 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated with the presence of moderate-severe UI (POR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and at least 1 LUTS (POR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 2.0)"Association Between Vitamin D and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 29 - "Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before October 2010 with no restrictions ... The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80), respectively. There was no heterogeneity among studies of vitamin D intake (P = .19) or among studies of blood 25(OH)D levels (P = .96). A 10 ng/mL increment in blood 25(OH)D level conferred an RR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.89) ... Vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in this meta-analysis"
  • Vitamin D intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "After age, physical activity, and other factors were controlled for, women who reported a total intake of ≥800 IU vitamin D/d had a prevalence OR for depressive symptoms of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.89; P-trend < 0.001) compared with women who reported a total intake of <100 IU vitamin D/d. In analyses limited to women without evidence of depression at baseline, an intake of ≥400 compared with <100 IU vitamin D/d from food sources was associated with 20% lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 3 (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.95; P-trend = 0.001). The results for supplemental vitamin D were less consistent, as were the results from secondary analyses that included as cases women who were currently using antidepressant medications ... Overall, our findings support a potential inverse association of vitamin D, primarily from food sources, and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women"
  • Association of Kidney Function, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Circulating Markers of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD - Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jul 29 - "25(OH)D deficiency is related independently to impaired mGFR. Both mGFR decrease and 25(OH)D deficiency are associated with abnormal levels of circulating MBD biomarkers"
  • Low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with total adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension in Caucasian children and adolescents - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 13 - "Higher 25(OH)D3 was significantly associated with a reduced presence of MetS. Obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, IR, and MetS were all associated with an increased odds of having low 25(OH)D3 levels, after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for SD score (SDS)-BMI, elevated blood pressure and MetS remained significantly associated with low vitamin D status. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for those in the lowest (< 17 ng/mL) compared with the highest tertile (> 27 ng/mL) of 25(OH)D3 for hypertension was 1.72 (1.02-2.92), and for MetS it was 2.30 (1.20-4.40). A similar pattern of association among 25(OH)D3, high blood pressure and MetS was observed when models were adjusted for waist circumference. No correlation was found between 25(OH)D3 concentrations and either FMD or cIMT. Conclusions: Low 25(OH)D3 levels in Caucasian children are inversely related to total adiposity, MetS and hypertension"
  • Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 6:1-8 - "Higher vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as a protective 'seasonal stimulus' against influenza, and there are suggestions for associations with other aspects of respiratory health ... the prevalence of respiratory infections had a strong seasonal pattern in the opposite direction to the pattern for 25(OH)D concentrations. Each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 7 % lower risk of infection (95 % CI 3, 11 %) after adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle and socio-economic factors. For FEV1 and FVC, each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with 8 (95 % CI 3, 13) ml and 13 (95 % CI 7, 20) ml higher volume, respectively, after controlling for covariates. Associations of 25(OH)D with FEV1 and FVC were only slightly attenuated after further adjustment for infection and other respiratory illness. In conclusion, vitamin D status had a linear relationship with respiratory infections and lung function"
  • Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-6 - "because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low ( < 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low ( < 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.5 (95 % CI 0.3, 0.9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)2D ( ≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.3 (95 % CI 0.1, 0.7)) than those in the lowest quartile ( < 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies"
  • An estimate of the global reduction in mortality rates through doubling vitamin D levels - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 6 - "Increasing serum 25(OH)D levels is the most cost-effective way to reduce global mortality rates, as the cost of vitamin D is very low and there are few adverse effects from oral intake and/or frequent moderate UVB irradiance with sufficient body surface area exposed"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Northern Manhattan Study - Stroke. 2011 Jun 30 - "After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and renal function, serum phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product were associated with a greater burden of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with increased intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness in those with plaque, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D contributed in a robust manner to the variance in both. These results confirm and extend data on the association of low vitamin D levels with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis"
  • High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with low incidence of stress fractures - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 22 - "There was approximately half the risk of stress fracture in the top compared to bottom quintile of serum 25(OH)D concentration (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, p < 0.01). The range of serum 25(OH)D in the lowest quintile was 1.5-19.7 (Mean 13.9) ng/ml, while in the highest it was 39.9-112 (Mean 49.7) ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "Vitamin D supplementation of 4,000 IU/day for pregnant women was safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regardless of race while the current estimated average requirement was comparatively ineffective at achieving adequate circulating 25(OH)D, especially in African Americans"
  • Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH)D and clinical fracture risk in a multiethnic Cohort of women: The Women's health initiative (WHI) - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "In multivariable models, higher 25(OH)D levels as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a lower risk of fracture in White women: (20- < 30 ng/mL), OR = 0.82; (0.59, 1.16) and (>30.0 ng/mL), OR = 0.55; (0.34, 0.89), p trend = 0.02. In contrast, higher 25(OH)D (>20 ng/mL) as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a higher risk of fracture in Black women, OR = 1.45; (1.06, 1.98), p trend = 0.043. Higher 25(OH)D (>30.0 ng/mL) was associated with higher fracture risk in Asian women after adjusting for DBP, OR = 2.78; (0.99, 7.88), (p trend = 0.04). There was no association between 25(OH)D and fracture in Hispanic or American Indian women. Our results suggest divergent associations between 25(OH)D and fracture by race/ethnicity. The optimal level of 25(OH)D for skeletal health may differ in White and Black women"
  • Diet, Environmental Factors, and Lifestyle Underlie the High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Adults in Scotland and Supplementation Reduces the Proportion That Are Severely Deficient - J Nutr. 2011 Jun 22 - "In regions with low UVB exposure, dietary and supplement intake may be much more important than previously thought and consideration should be given to increasing the current recommended dietary allowance of 0-10 μg/d for adults in Scotland"
  • Low Serum Vitamin D Is Associated with High Risk of Diabetes in Korean Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Jun 22 - "Compared to individuals with a sufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration ≥75 nmol/L, the OR (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus were 1.73 (1.09-2.74), 1.30 (0.91-1.84), and 1.40 (0.99-1.98) for serum 25(OH)D concentrations <25, 25 to <50, and 50 to <75 nmol/L, respectively, after multiple adjustments (P-trend < 0.0001). Furthermore, the serum 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.061; P = 0.001) and positively associated with QUICKI (β = 0.059; P = 0.001) in overweight or obese participants. In conclusion, a low serum vitamin D concentration is associated with a high risk of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults and the concentration is inversely associated with insulin resistance in those who are overweight or obese"
  • Associations between vitamin D and cardiovascular outcomes; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 23 - "The mean age of participants was 56.84+/-11.17 years and 244 (48.6%) were women. The median (IQ: 25-75) of serum 25-OH-D was 14.1ng/ml (9.6-29ng/ml) and 306 (61%) of participants had serum 25-OH-D<15g/ml. Median serum 25-OH-D was lower in cases (12.5 vs. 18.1, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio of serum 25-OH-D<10ng/ml for having CVD outcomes was 2.90 compared with 25-OH-D≥15 (95% confidence interval"
  • Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "After multivariate adjustment for age and other CVD risk factors, a higher total vitamin D intake (from foods and supplements) was associated with a decreased risk of CVD in men but not in women; the relative risks (95% CIs) for a comparison of participants who met the Dietary Reference Intake of vitamin D (≥600 IU/d) with participants whose vitamin D intake was <100 IU/d were 0.84 (0.72, 0.97; P for trend = 0.009) for men and 1.02 (0.89, 1.17; P for trend = 0.12) for women"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and various cardiometabolic risk factors in US children and adolescents based on assay-adjusted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from NHANES 2001-2006 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "The likelihood of having MetSyn was significantly higher in the first tertile of serum 25(OH)D than in the third tertile of 25(OH)D (odds ratio: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.65; P < 0.01). Waist circumference (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (P = 0.001) were inversely related and HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001) was directly related with serum 25(OH)D. No association was observed between 25(OH)D and C-reactive protein (P = 0.18) ... On the basis of assay-adjusted data, serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors regardless of obesity. In children, given the negative outcomes associated with poor vitamin D status and MetSyn, consideration of vitamin D supplementation in reversing cardiometabolic risk factors appears to be warranted"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons. A population-based study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 May 20 - "Among the participants, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 37.0%. The mean 25OHD level was 53.3 nmol/l. 47.8% had 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. There was a significantly increased risk for the metabolic syndrome in the subjects with serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l, compared to subjects with levels over 50 nmol/l [odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.94]. After adjustment for confounders, age, sex, season, years of education, alcohol use, total activity, smoking and PTH the OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.68). The association between vitamin D deficiency and the metabolic syndrome was mainly determined by the components low HDL and (high) waist circumference"
  • Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations - Menopause. 2011 May 17 - "Plasma vitamin D3 concentration was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.003). Monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a significantly greater plasma HDL-C concentration (57.9 mg/dL) than did those in the low vitamin D3 group (47.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001). Although the difference was not significant (P = 0.120), the monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a decreased total plasma cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio compared with those in the low vitamin D3 group (5.4 and 6.2, respectively), potentially putting them at lower risk of atherosclerosis development"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index in cancer - Nutr J. 2011 May 16;10(1):51 - "Obese cancer patients (BMI >=30 kg/m2) had significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D as compared to non-obese patients (BMI <30 kg/m2). BMI should be taken into account when assessing a patient's vitamin D status and more aggressive vitamin D supplementation should be considered in obese cancer patients"
  • Effect of Vitamin D Nutritional Status on Muscle Function and Strength in Healthy Women Aged over Sixty-Five Years - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 - "25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml were found to be associated with better lower extremity muscle function and strength. Forty- six % of participants had 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml. Women with 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml scored higher on the muscle function tests (11.2+/-0.9 vs.10.0+/-2.1; p<0.003) and had stronger knee extensor (13.4+/-2.7 vs.11.6+/-2.5 Kg.; p<0.03) and hip abductor (8.3+/-2.7 vs. 7.3+/-3.1 Kg; p<0.04) muscles; strength of their hip flexors tended to be higher but did not reach significantly different values (17.0+/-3.3 vs. 15.4+/-2.8 Kg.; 0.1>p>0.05). Negative correlation was observed between iPTH and muscle function (r= -0.436; p<0.02). Conclusion: 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml are needed for a better muscle function and strength. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status in adults aged ≥ 65 years would allow correcting hypovitaminosis D and improve muscle function and strength"
  • Biology of gait control: Vitamin D involvement - Neurology. 2011 Apr 6 - "Adverse neuromuscular events have been described in case of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in gait stability. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) and serum 25OHD concentration in adults aged 65 years and older ... A total of 16.6% (n = 68) of subjects had severe 25OHD insufficiency, 70.3% (n = 289) moderate insufficiency, and 13.1% (n = 54) normal concentrations. In the full adjusted and the stepwise backward linear regression models, high STV (worse performance) was associated with severe 25OHD insufficiency (p = 0.028 and p = 0.044, respectively), high CoM motion (p = 0.031 and p = 0.014, respectively), and low lower limb proprioception score (p = 0.017 and p = 0.008, respectively). The stepwise backward regression model also showed that high STV was associated with female gender (p = 0.041) ... Low serum 25OHD concentrations were associated with high STV reflecting a disturbed gait control. This association could be explained by a possible action of vitamin D on different components involved in gait control"
  • Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Mar 23 - "Of the 239 enrolled patients, 179 (75%) were 25(OH)D deficient and 50 (21%) were insufficient, for a total of 96% of patients with abnormally low 25(OH)D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium Intake, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes After 5 Years: Results from a national, population-based prospective study (The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study) - Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar 23 - "Those who developed diabetes had lower serum 25OHD (mean 58 vs. 65 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and calcium intake (mean 881 vs. 923 mg/day; P = 0.03) compared with those who remained free of diabetes. Each 25 nmol/L increment in serum 25OHD was associated with a 24% reduced risk of diabetes (odds ratio 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.92]) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, ethnicity, season, latitude, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, dietary magnesium, hypertension, serum triglycerides, and FPG. Dietary calcium intake was not associated with reduced diabetes risk. Only serum 25OHD was positively and independently associated with HOMA-S at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Higher serum 25OHD levels, but not higher dietary calcium, were associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes in Australian adult men and women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Interaction of BMI with vitamin D and insulin sensitivity - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Mar 24 - "The correlation of serum 25OHD with ISI was much stronger in the overweight group (r = 0.5271, P < 0.0001) than in the normal weight group (r = 0.2836, P = 0.002). The correlation remained significant in the overweight group (r = 0.3620, P = 0.002), but not in normal weight group after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, season of study, ethnicity and exercise. Nonlinear regression analysis revealed that when serum 25OHD concentration was > 40 ng mL(-1) , the association between serum 25D concentrations and insulin sensitivity plateaued. Conclusions  We observed stronger associations of serum 25OHD with insulin sensitivity in overweight than normal weight subjects, suggesting that overweight subjects with hypovitaminosis D may benefit more from vitamin D replacement than normal weight subjects. Furthermore, the optimal serum 25OHD concentration for insulin sensitivity is about 40 ng mL(-1) . As more than 60% of the US population is overweight and hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in overweight subjects, hypovitaminosis D has a large population attributable risk for type 2 diabetes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741 - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 21 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients"
  • THE INFLUENCE OF BODY-MASS INDEX AND RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM ACTIVITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D AND ADIPONECTIN IN CAUCASIAN MEN - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 14 - "Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with higher adiponectin levels, particularly when BMI was high"
  • Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar 4 - "We observed inverse associations of colorectal cancer risk with dietary vitamin D (summary RR per 100 IU/day=0.95 95%CI: (0.93-0.98); 10 studies; range of intake (midpoints) = 39-719 IU/day) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (RR per 100 IU/l=0.96 (0.94-0.97); 6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l), but not with total vitamin D (5 studies). Supplemental (2 studies; range=0-600 IU/day) and total (4 studies; range=79-732 IU/day) vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. We did not observe statistically significant associations between FokI, PolyA, TaqI, Cdx2 and ApaI VDR polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. The BsmI polymorphism was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk (RR=0.57 (0.36-0.89) for BB vs. bb, 8 studies)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and hypertension rates - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Mar;13(3):170-7 - "Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension ... Patients were categorized into quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: ideal (≥40 ng/mL), adequate (30-39 ng/mL), deficient (15-29 ng/mL), and severely deficient (<15 ng/mL). Prevalence rates of hypertension and odds ratios were calculated for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency. A total of 2722 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 24%. Hypertension rates were 52%, 41%, 27%, and 20% in 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, 30 to 39 ng/mL, and ≥40 ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency were 2.7 (1.4-5.2), 2.0 (1.5-2.6), and 1.3 (1.2-1.6) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, and 30 to 39 ng/mL, respectively, compared with the ≥40 ng/mL group. This study demonstrates increased rates of hypertension in individuals who tested for lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D starting at levels <40 ng/mL. This retrospective analysis raises the question of whether supplementing to optimal vitamin D levels can prevent or improve hypertension"
  • Relation of Vitamin D Level to Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 22 - "Low cardiorespiratory fitness and low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but whether low 25(OH)D is independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults is not known ... Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to Vo(2max) (r = 0.29, p = 0.0001), even after adjusting for relevant predictors (e.g., age, gender, and body mass index). There was also a significant interaction between 25(OH)D level and self-reported hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p <0.02). With each SD increase in 25(OH)D, Vo(2max) increased by 2.6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.0001) when MVPA was low (16 hours/week) and 1.6 ml/kg/min (p <0.0004) when MVPA was moderate (35 hours/week) but only 0.01 ml/kg/min (p = 0.9) when MVPA was high (64 hours/week). In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels predict Vo(2max) in adults; the effect is greatest in those with low levels of physical activity"
  • Vitamin D(3) Supplementation for 16 Weeks Improves Flow-Mediated Dilation in Overweight African-American Adults - Am J Hypertens. 2011 Feb 10 - "A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists ... Following 16 weeks of placebo (n = 23; mean age 31 +/- 2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D(3) (n = 22; mean age 29 +/- 2 years), serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) increased from 38.2 +/- 3.0 to 48.7 +/- 3.2 nmol/l and 34.3 +/- 2.2 to 100.9 +/- 6.6 nmol/l, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8 +/- 1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3 +/- 0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005 +/- 0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08 +/- 0.04 %/s(-1), area under the curve (AUC) × 10(3)) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005 +/- 0.002 cm and -0.02 +/- 0.02 %/s(-1), AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo"
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;128(6):1414-24 - "The summary relative risk (SRR) and (95% confidence interval) for a 10 ng/ml increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 0.85 (0.79; 0.91) for colorectal cancer (2,630 cases in 9 studies); 0.89 (0.81;0.98) for breast cancer (6,175 cases in 10 studies); and 0.99 (0.95;1.03) for prostate cancer (3,956 cases in 11 studies). For breast cancer, case-control studies (3,030 cases) had major limitations and obtained SRR of 0.83 (0.79; 0.87) whereas SRR of prospective studies (3,145 cases) was 0.97 (0.92; 1.03). For colorectal and breast cancer, differences between cases and controls in the season of blood draw or in overweight/obesity or physical inactivity could not explain the results. In conclusion, a consistent inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal cancer was found. No association was found for breast and prostate cancer"
  • Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 2 - "randomly allocated to 3 groups to consume plain yogurt drink (PY; containing no vitamin D and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (DY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink (DCY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 250 mg Ca/250 mL) twice per day for 12 wk ... Fasting serum glucose (FSG) ... percentage fat mass (FM) ... In both the DY and DCY groups, mean serum 25(OH)D(3) improved (+32.8 +/- 28.4 and +28.8 +/- 16.1 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), but FSG [-12.9 +/- 33.7 mg/dL (P = 0.015) and -9.6 +/- 46.9 mg/dL (P = 0.035), respectively], Hb A(1c) [-0.4 +/- 1.2% (P < 0.001) and -0.4 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001), respectively], HOMA-IR [-0.6 +/- 1.4 (P = 0.001) and -0.6 +/- 3.2 (P < 0.001), respectively], waist circumference (-3.6 +/- 2.7 and -2.9 +/- 3.3, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and body mass index [in kg/m(2); -0.9 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.001) and -0.4 +/- 0.7 (P = 0.005), respectively] decreased significantly more than in the PY group. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in serum 25(OH)D(3) and FSG (r = -0.208, P = 0.049), FM (r = -0.219, P = 0.038), and HOMA-IR (r = -0.219, P = 0.005)"
  • Prediabetes and Prehypertension in Healthy Adults Are Associated With Low Vitamin D Levels - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 31 - "The odds ratio for comorbid PreDM and PreHTN in Caucasian men (n = 898) and women (n = 813) was 2.41 (P < 0.0001) with vitamin D levels ≤76.3 versus >76.3 nmol/L after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS This study strengthens the plausibility that low serum vitamin D levels elevate the risk for early-stage diabetes (PreDM) and hypertension (PreHTN)"
  • Associations Between Concentrations of Vitamin D and Concentrations of Insulin, Glucose, and HbA1c Among Adolescents in the United States - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 27 - "Adjusted concentrations of insulin were ~24% lower among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D ≥75 nmol/L than among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D <50 nmol/L (P = 0.003). Concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with concentrations of glucose only among Mexican American male subjects (P = 0.007)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Association between serum vitamin D deficiency and knee osteoarthritis - Int Orthop. 2010 Dec 30 - "These findings indicate a significant association between serum 25-OHD deficiency and knee OA in patients aged < 60 years and suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in any patient with symptoms suggestive of knee OA particularly at the initial stage of disease"
  • Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: a meta-analysis - J Hypertens. 2010 Dec 28 - "Of the 18 studies included in the meta-analysis, 4 were prospective studies and 14 were cross-sectional studies. The pooled odds ratio of hypertension was 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.84] for the highest versus the lowest category of blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. In a dose-response meta-analysis, the odds ratio for a 40 nmol/l (16 ng/ml) (approximately 2 SDs) increment in blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.90)"
  • Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 22 - "D3 is approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentrations and produces 2- to 3-fold greater storage of vitamin D than does equimolar D2 ... Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency"
  • Joint effects of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure on breast cancer risk: results from the French E3N cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Dec 2 - "Dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes were not associated with BC risk; however, in regions with the highest UVRd, postmenopausal women with high dietary or supplemental vitamin D intake had a significantly lower BC risk as compared to women with the lowest vitamin D intake (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54 - 0.85, and HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36 - 0.90 respectively)"
  • Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Frailty Status in Older Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec;95(12):5266-5273 - "At baseline, there was a U-shaped association between 25(OH)D level and odds of frailty with the lowest risk among women with levels 20.0-29.9 ng/ml (referent group). Compared with this group, the odds of frailty were higher among those with levels <15.0 ng/ml [multivariable odds ratio (MOR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.82], those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.54), and those with levels ≥30 ng/ml (MOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.63). Among 4551 nonfrail women at baseline, the odds of frailty/death (vs. robust/intermediate) at follow-up appeared higher among those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.49), but the CI overlapped 1.0. The odds of death (vs. robust/intermediate/frail at follow-up) was higher among those with levels <15.0 ng/ml (MOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.88) and those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.75), although the latter association did not quite reach significance. Conclusion: Lower (<20 ng/ml) and higher (≥30 ng/ml) levels of 25(OH)D among older women were moderately associated with a higher odds of frailty at baseline. Among nonfrail women at baseline, lower levels (<20 ng/ml) were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident frailty or death at follow-up"
  • Role of vitamin D in arterial hypertension - Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010 Nov;8(11):1599-608 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and may contribute to arterial hypertension. The antihypertensive effects of vitamin D include suppression of renin and parathyroid hormone levels and renoprotective, anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective properties. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which are used to classify the vitamin D status, are an independent risk factor for incident arterial hypertension. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces systolic blood pressure by 2-6 mmHg ... vitamin D might be useful for the treatment of arterial hypertension as well as other chronic diseases. Therefore, we recommend that testing for and treating vitamin D deficiency in patients with arterial hypertension should be seriously considered"
  • Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Nov 23 - "The skeletal muscle and brain have a vitamin D receptor and the central nervous system has a capacity to activate vitamin D. Low vitamin D status has been linked to poor performance in neurocognitive testing in elderly. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with muscle weakness, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and a lower motor neuron-induced muscle atrophy ... Correcting vitamin D deficiency and preventing vitamin D deficiency in children and adults should be a high priority for healthcare professionals to reduce risk for a wide variety of neurological disorders. Children and adults should take at least 400 international unit IU and 2000 IU vitamin D/day, respectively, to prevent vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency"
  • Vitamin D and Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly U.S. Population - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Nov 2 - "The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of cognitive impairment in participants who were 25(OH)D insufficient (≥50 < 75 nmol/L), deficient (≥25 < 50 nmol/L), and severely deficient (<25 nmol/L) in comparison with those sufficient (≥75 nmol/L) were 0.9 (0.6-1.3), 1.4 (1.0-2.1), and 3.9 (1.5-10.4), respectively (p for linear trend = .02). Log-transformed levels of 25(OH)D were also significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment (p = .02). Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population"
  • Dietary intake of vitamin D and cognition in older women: A large population-based study - Neurology. 2010 Nov 16;75(20):1810-6 - "Compared to women with recommended weekly vitamin D dietary intakes (n = 4,802; mean age 80.4 +/- 3.8 years), women with inadequate intakes (n = 794; mean age 81.0 +/- 3.8 years) had a lower mean SPMSQ score (p < 0.001) and more often had an SPMSQ score <8 (p = 0.002). We found an association between weekly vitamin D dietary intake and SPMSQ score (β = 0.002, p < 0.001). Inadequate weekly vitamin D dietary intakes were also associated with cognitive impairment (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.42 with p = 0.002; full adjusted odds ratio = 1.30 with p = 0.024)"
  • A randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin d on muscle strength and mobility in older women with vitamin d insufficiency - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Nov;58(11):2063-8 - "Vitamin D therapy was observed to increase muscle function in those who were the weakest and slowest at baseline. Vitamin D should be given to people with insufficiency or deficiency to improve muscle strength and mobility"
  • Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Bladder Cancer - Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 26 - "lower 25(OH)D was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (versus ≥50 nmol/L; <25 nmol/L: OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03-2.91; 25 to <37.5 nmol/L: OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.14; 37.5 to <50 nmol/L: OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02; P trend = 0.04). Similarly, increased risks for the lowest vitamin D category were observed when season-specific quartiles were used (Q1 versus Q4: OR, 1.63"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Coronary Artery Calcification in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26 - "Vitamin D deficiency independently predicts prevalence and development of coronary calcification, a marker of coronary artery plaque burden, in individuals with type 1 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D deficiency prevalence and cardiovascular risk in Israel - Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct 18 - "The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (vitamin D levels <30 ng mL(-1) ) for the entire study population was surprisingly high for men and women (79.2% and 77.5%, respectively) ... Vitamin D deficiency is associated with CVD and other risk factors in this Israeli study population. The prevalence of the deficiency in Israel is similar to the prevalence found in less sunny regions"
  • Racial disparity in death from colorectal cancer: does vitamin D deficiency contribute? - Cancer. 2010 Oct 13 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated significantly with CRC mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.11-4.00), and the effect of race was decreased (HR, 1.60"
  • Association of facial skin aging and vitamin D levels in middle-aged white women - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Sep 30 - "Adjusting for age and season of blood collection, women with lower photodamage scores were associated with a 5-fold increased odds of being vitamin D insufficient (OR 5.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 23). Low scores for specific photodamage parameters including erythema/telangiectasias, hyperpigmentation, and wrinkling were also significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Our results suggest an association between skin aging and 25(OH)D levels"
  • Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study from the French E3N Cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep;19(9):2341-50 - "We found a decreased risk of breast cancer with increasing 25(OH) vitamin D(3) serum concentrations (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.96; P trend = 0.02) among women in the highest tertile. We also observed a significant inverse association restricted to women under 53 years of age at blood sampling [odds ratio (T(3) versus T(1)), 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.98; P trend = 0.04]. In premenopausal women, the risk was also decreased, although not significantly"
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentration and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in women - Diabetes Care. 2010 Sep;33(9):2021-3 - "After adjusting for matching factors and diabetes risk factors, including BMI, higher levels of plasma 25-OHD were associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. The odds ratio for incident type 2 diabetes in the top (median 25-OHD, 33.4 ng/ml) versus the bottom (median 25-OHD, 14.4 ng/ml) quartile was 0.52 (95% CI 0.33-0.83). The associations were consistent across subgroups of baseline BMI, age, and calcium intake"
  • Oral vitamin D replacement is effective in chronic liver disease Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Aug 27 - "25[OH]D was suboptimal in 101/158 (64%), including severe deficiency in 24 patients (15%). Vitamin D deficiency occurred in liver disease of all aetiologies, including patients with only mild liver disease. 25[OH]D increased by 60.0% (19.11+/-13.20nmol/l) in patients with deficiency after vitamin D replacement and decreased by 25.2% (-18.33+/-12.02nmol/l) in non-treated initially replete patients over a median of 4 months ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency improves with oral vitamin D supplementation and levels fall without supplementation. Chronic liver disease patients are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency regardless of etiology or severity"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Midgestation Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Severe Preeclampsia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug 18 - "Vitamin D may be important in the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia ... Midgestation maternal 25(OH)D concentration was lower in women who subsequently developed severe preeclampsia compared with controls [median (interquartile range), 75 (47-107) nmol/liter vs. 98 (68-113) nmol/liter; P = 0.01]. Midgestation maternal 25(OH)D of less than 50 nmol/liter was associated with an almost 4-fold odds of severe preeclampsia (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-8.65) compared with midgestation levels of at least 75 nmol/liter. Adjustment for known confounders strengthened the observed association (adjusted odds ratio, 5.41; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-14.52). Conclusion: Maternal midgestation vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of severe preeclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency may be a modifiable risk factor for severe preeclampsia"
  • Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: a community-based prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 18 - "An approximately 50% higher total mortality rate was observed among men in the lowest 10% (<46 nmol/L) and the highest 5% (>98 nmol/L) of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations compared with intermediate concentrations. Cancer mortality was also higher at low plasma concentrations (multivariable-adjusted HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.38) and at high concentrations (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46, 4.78). For cardiovascular death, only low (HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.96) but not high (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.69, 2.54) concentrations indicated higher risk ... Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality. Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency and Prognosis in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma - J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 16 - "event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) ... 25(OH)D insufficient patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) had inferior EFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.04) and OS (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.13); 25(OH)D insufficient patients with T-cell lymphoma also had inferior EFS (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.61) and OS (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.41). There were no associations with EFS for the other NHL subtypes. Among patients with DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma, higher 1,25(OH)(2)D levels were associated with better EFS and OS, suggesting that any putative tumor 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity did not explain the 25(OH)D associations. CONCLUSION 25(OH)D insufficiency was associated with inferior EFS and OS in DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma. Whether normalizing vitamin D levels in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future trials"
  • Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Risk: A Pooled Case-Control Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 22 - "In the pooled analysis, higher circulating 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased colorectal adenoma risk (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.84). The observed inverse association was stronger among participants who used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs regularly (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.56). Inverse associations between 25(OH)D(3) and colorectal adenoma did not differ substantially by other risk factors or by adenoma characteristics. These findings support the hypothesis that greater vitamin D exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal adenoma and suggest that it may do so more strongly in combination with antiinflammatory agents"
  • Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "Serum 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely correlated with four assessments within the spatial working memory (SWM) test parameter (SWM between errors (r=-0.166; P=0.003); SWM between errors 8 boxes (r=-0.134; P=0.038); SWM strategy (r=-0.246; P<0.0001); and SWM total errors (r=-0.174; P<0.003)). When subjects were stratified on the basis of tertiles (T) of serum 25(OH)D (<47.6 (T(1)); 47.6-85.8 (T(2)); and >85.8 (T(3)) nmol/l), fewer errors in SWM test scores occurred in subjects in the third T when compared with the first T (P<0.05-0.084). Stratification by sex showed that these differences between tertiles strengthened (P<0.001-0.043) in the females, but the differences were not significant (P>0.6) in males.Conclusions:Vitamin D insufficiency, but not deficiency, is widespread in the older population of several European countries. Low vitamin D status was associated with a reduced capacity for SWM, particularly in women"
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with sudden cardiac death, combined cardiovascular events, and mortality in haemodialysis patients - Eur Heart J. 2010 Aug 5 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D of</= 25 nmol/L] had a 3-fold higher risk of SCD compared with those with sufficient 25(OH)D levels >75 nmol/L [HR: 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-6.40]. Furthermore, CVE and all-cause mortality were strongly increased (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.18-2.69, and HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22-2.47, respectively), all persisting in multivariate models. There were borderline non-significant associations with stroke and fatal infection while MI and deaths due to heart failure were not meaningfully affected. Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with SCD, CVE, and mortality, and there were borderline associations with stroke and fatal infection"
  • Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure - South Med J. 2010 Jul 8 - "From 244 retrieved papers, four RCTs involving 429 participants met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Vitamin D supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 2.44 mm Hg (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.86, -0.02), but not diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: -0.02, 95% CI: -4.04, 4.01) compared with calcium or placebo. Subgroup analysis suggested that the change of blood pressure did not vary markedly across the dose of vitamin D supplementation, study length, or intervention. CONCLUSIONS:: Oral vitamin D supplementation may lead to a reduction in systolic blood pressure but not diastolic blood pressure"
  • Vitamin d and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons - Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jul 12;170(13):1135-41 - "The multivariate adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of substantial cognitive decline on the MMSE in participants who were severely serum 25(OH)D deficient (levels <25 nmol/L) in comparison with those with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D (>/=75 nmol/L) was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.19-2.00). Multivariate adjusted random-effects models demonstrated that the scores of participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient declined by an additional 0.3 MMSE points per year more than those with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. The relative risk for substantial decline on Trail-Making Test B was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.03-1.51) among those who were severely 25(OH)D deficient compared with those with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. No significant association was observed for Trail-Making Test A. CONCLUSION: Low levels of vitamin D were associated with substantial cognitive decline in the elderly population studied over a 6-year period, which raises important new possibilities for treatment and prevention"
  • Independent and joint effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium on ovarian cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study - Eur J Cancer. 2010 Jun 18 - "We observed a significant inverse association between calcium and ovarian cancer risk. Relative risk (estimated as odds ratio, OR) comparing the highest quartile to the lowest quartile was significantly decreased; 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.85, P-trend 0.004]. Even though a comparable association between 25-OHD and ovarian cancer did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.26-1.24, P-trend 0.07), having sufficient (>75nmol/L) serum 25-OHD levels compared to insufficient serum 25-OHD was associated with a significantly decreased risk of ovarian cancer (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12-0.91, p-value 0.03)"
  • Vitamin D levels and mortality in type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Jul 6 - "All-cause mortality was increased in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency; HR [95% CI] 1.96 [1.29-2.98] ... Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality; HR 1.95 [1.11-3.44]"
  • Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Jun 23 - "Of 1,679 potentially relevant articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. In pooled analysis, vitamin D therapy (200-1,000 IU) resulted in 14% (relative risk (RR)=0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79-0.93; I(2)=7%) fewer falls than calcium or placebo (number needed to treat =15). The following subgroups had significantly fewer falls: community-dwelling (aged <80), adjunctive calcium supplementation, no history of fractures or falls, duration longer than 6 months, cholecalciferol, and dose of 800 IU or greater. Meta-regression demonstrated no linear association between vitamin D dose or duration and treatment effect. Post hoc analysis including seven additional studies (17 total) without explicit fall definitions yielded smaller benefit (RR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87-0.98) and more heterogeneity (I(2)=36%) but found significant intergroup differences favoring adjunctive calcium over none (P=.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D treatment effectively reduces the risk of falls in older adults"
  • Serum vitamin D levels and severe asthma exacerbations in the Childhood Asthma Management Program study - J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Jun 8 - "insufficient vitamin D status was associated with a higher odds of any hospitalization or emergency department visit (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9; P = .01)"
  • Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1255-60 - "Influenza A occurred in 18 of 167 (10.8%) children in the vitamin D(3) group compared with 31 of 167 (18.6%) children in the placebo group [relative risk (RR), 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.04]. The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.79; P = 0.006) and who started nursery school after age 3 y (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.78; P = 0.005). In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D(3) compared with 12 children receiving placebo (RR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.73; P = 0.006)"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and frailty in older Americans - J Intern Med. 2010 Apr 28 - "Nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized US residents collected between 1988 and 1994. Results. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum concentration <15 ng mL(-1), was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the odds of frailty amongst whites and a fourfold increase in the odds of frailty amongst non-whites. This association persisted after sensitivity analyses adjusting for season of the year and latitude of residence, intended to reduce misclassification of persons as 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient or insufficient. Conclusion. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with frailty amongst older adults"
  • A cross-sectional study of vitamin D deficiency among immigrants and norwegians with psychosis compared to the general population - J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Apr 6 - "An alarmingly high percentage of immigrants and Norwegians with psychotic disorders have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. This has important clinical implications as it suggests possible beneficial effects of vitamin D medication/heliotherapy within this group"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women and Men - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May 5 - "Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressed mood was defined as CES-D of 16 or higher ... Women with 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/liter compared with those with higher levels experienced increases in CES-D scores of 2.1 (P = 0.02) and 2.2 (P = 0.04) points higher at, respectively, 3- and 6-yr follow-up. Women with low vitamin D (Vit-D) had also significantly higher risk of developing depressive mood over the follow-up (hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.2; P = 0.005). In parallel models, men with 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/liter compared with those with higher levels experienced increases in CES-D scores of 1.9 (P = 0.01) and 1.1 (P = 0.20) points higher at 3- and 6-yr follow-up. Men with low Vit- D tended to have higher risk of developing depressed mood (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-2.8; P = 0.1). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms in older persons. The strength of the prospective association is higher in women than in men"
  • Prevention of colorectal cancer with vitamin D - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 5 - "On a molecular level, vitamin D suppresses CRC development and growth by affecting cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis ... Maintaining serum concentrations of calcidiol above 32 ng/ml (80 nmol/l) in individuals whose serum calcidiol level is low may help prevent CRC as well as osteoporosis, fractures, infections, and cardiovascular disease. Daily calcidiol intake of 1000 International Units can increase serum vitamin D to sufficient levels in most elderly persons and, based on available data, may substantially lower the incidence of CRC with minimal risks"
  • Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar 10 - "Influenza A occurred in 18 of 167 (10.8%) children in the vitamin D(3) group compared with 31 of 167 (18.6%) children in the placebo group [relative risk (RR), 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.04]. The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.79; P = 0.006) and who started nursery school after age 3 y (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.78; P = 0.005). In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D(3) compared with 12 children receiving placebo (RR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.73; P = 0.006)"
  • Widespread Vitamin D Deficiency in Urban Massachusetts Newborns and Their Mothers - Pediatrics. 2010 Mar 22 - "Overall, 58.0% of the infants and 35.8% of the mothers were vitamin D deficient"
  • Taking vitamin D with the largest meal improves absorption and results in higher serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D - J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Feb 8 - "Taking vitamin D with the largest meal improves absorption and results in about a 50% increase in serum levels of 25OHD"
  • Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk in a general population. The Tromso study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Feb 25 - "During a mean 11.7 years of follow up 1359 (19.0 %) participants died. In multivariate regression models there was a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.62), among non-smoking participants in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile when compared to participants in the highest quartile"
  • Vitamin D Status and Its Relation to Muscle Mass and Muscle Fat in Young Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb 17 - "Percent muscle fat was significantly lower in women with normal serum 25OHD concentrations than in women with insufficient levels and deficient levels (3.15 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.90 +/- 1.9; P = 0.038). Conclusions: We found that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased fat infiltration in muscle in healthy young women"
  • Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study - Neurology. 2010 Jan 5;74(1):27-32 - "Cognitive impairment was defined as a Pfeiffer Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire (SPMSQ) score <8 ... Compared with women with serum 25(OH)D concentrations > or =10 ng/mL (n = 623), the women with 25(OH)D deficiency (n = 129) had a lower mean SPMSQ score (p < 0.001) and more often had an SPMSQ score <8 (p = 0.006). There was no significant linear association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and SPMSQ score (beta = -0.003, 95% confidence interval -0.012 to 0.006, p = 0.512). However, serum 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with cognitive impairment (crude odds ratio [OR] = 2.08 with p = 0.007; adjusted OR = 1.99 with p = 0.017 for full model; and adjusted OR = 2.03 with p = 0.012 for stepwise backward model). CONCLUSIONS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was associated with cognitive impairment in this cohort of community-dwelling older women"
  • Association of vitamin D status with serum androgen levels in men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Dec 29 - "Men with sufficient 25(OH)D levels (>/=30 mug/l) had significantly higher levels of testosterone and FAI and significantly lower levels of SHBG when compared to 25(OH)D insufficient (20-29.9 mug/l) and 25(OH)D deficient (<20 mug/l) men (p<0.05 for all). In linear regression analyses adjusted for possible confounders, we found significant associations of 25(OH)D levels with testosterone, FAI, and SHBG levels (p<0.05 for all). 25(OH)D, testosterone, and FAI levels followed a similar seasonal pattern with a nadir in March (12.2 mug/l, 15.9 nmol/l, and 40.8, respectively) and peak levels in August (23.4 mug/l, 18.7 nmol/l, and 49.7, respectively) (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion: Androgen levels and 25(OH)D levels are associated in men and reveal a concordant seasonal variation"
  • Vitamin D: What is an adequate vitamin D level and how much supplementation is necessary? - Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Dec;23(6):789-95 - "Vitamin D modulates fracture risk in two ways: by decreasing falls and increasing bone density. Two most recent meta-analyses of double-blind randomised controlled trials came to the conclusion that vitamin D reduces the risk of falls by 19%, the risk of hip fracture by 18% and the risk of any non-vertebral fracture by 20%; however, this benefit was dose dependent. Fall prevention was only observed in a trial of at least 700IU vitamin D per day, and fracture prevention required a received dose (treatment dose*adherence) of more than 400IU vitamin D per day. Anti-fall efficacy started with achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 60nmoll(-1) (24 ngml(-1)) and anti-fracture efficacy started with achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 75nmoll(-1) (30ng ml(-1)) and both endpoints improved further with higher achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Founded on these evidence-based data derived from the general older population, vitamin D supplementation should be at least 700-1000IU per day and taken with good adherence to cover the needs for both fall and fracture prevention. Ideally, the target range for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be at least 75nmoll(-1), which may need more than 700-1000IU vitamin D in individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency or those overweight"
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services - Neurology. 2009 Nov 25 - "Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was associated with all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease, stroke (with and without dementia symptoms), and MRI indicators of cerebrovascular disease. These findings suggest a potential vasculoprotective role of vitamin D"
  • Inverse association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels and non-melanoma skin cancer in elderly men - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Nov 18 - "Men in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (>30 ng/mL) had 47% lower odds of NMSC (95% CI: 0.30-0.93, p = 0.026) compared to those in the lowest quintile. Our results suggest that a diagnosis of NMSC is not a surrogate for adequate 25(OH)D levels or increased UV exposure, and high 25(OH)D levels may be associated with a reduced risk of NMSC"
  • Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Nov;71(5):666-72 - "After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, arterial hypertension, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate and waist-to-hip ratio, the HRs remained significant for all-cause [1.97 (1.08-3.58; P = 0.027)] and for cardiovascular mortality [5.38 (2.02-14.34; P = 0.001)]"
  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep 28:1-7 - "In conclusion, improving vitamin D status in insulin resistant women resulted in improved IR and sensitivity, but no change in insulin secretion. Optimal vitamin D concentrations for reducing IR were shown to be 80-119 nmol/l, providing further evidence for an increase in the recommended adequate levels"
  • Vitamin D, Calcium Shown to Reduce Mortality - Medscape, 9/17/09 - "Vitamin D and calcium have been shown to help lower mortality risk among older people, but the benefits are not necessarily explained by a reduced risk for hip fracture ... When given with vitamin D, calcium reduced mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [0.81–0.97]; P < .01), whereas studies involving vitamin D alone showed no significant reduction in mortality"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and mortality - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Aug 25 - "Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is linked to excess mortality"
  • Effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, joint pain, and fatigue in women starting adjuvant letrozole treatment for breast cancer - Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 Aug 5 - "Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency may contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms and bone loss observed in women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) ... After 16 weeks of letrozole, more women with 25OHD levels >66 ng/ml (median level) reported no disability from joint pain than did women with levels <66 ng/ml (52 vs. 19%; P = 0.026). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in post-menopausal women initiating adjuvant AI. Vitamin D3 supplementation with 50,000 IU per week is safe, significantly increases 25OHD levels, and may reduce disability from AI-induced arthralgias"
  • 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D_{3} Interacts with Curcuminoids to Stimulate Amyloid-β Clearance by Macrophages of Alzheimer's Disease Patient - J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 May 11 - "1,25D3 strongly stimulated Abeta phagocytosis and clearance while protecting against apoptosis. Certain synthetic curcuminoids in combination with 1,25D3 had additive effects on phagocytosis in Type I but not Type II macrophages. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of 1,25D3 and curcuminoids in macrophages. The 1,25D3 genomic antagonist analog MK inhibited 1,25D3 but not curcuminoid effects, suggesting that 1,25D3 acts through the genomic pathway. In silico, 1,25D3 showed preferential binding to the genomic pocket of the vitamin D receptor, whereas bisdemethoxycurcumin showed preference for the non-genomic pocket. 1,25D3 is a promising hormone for AD immunoprophylaxis because in Type I macrophages combined treatment with 1,25D3 and curcuminoids has additive effects, and in Type II macrophages 1,25D3 treatment is effective alone. Human macrophages are a new paradigm for testing immune therapies for AD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.comand curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Threshold for effects of vitamin D deficiency on glucose metabolism in obese female African American adolescents - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun 23 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in obese, AA female adolescents and may promote insulin resistance. Our data suggests that a 25(OH)D concentrations </=15 ng/mL may be the threshold by which vitamin D deficiency confers negative effects on insulin sensitivity"
  • Association of Plasma Vitamin D Levels with Adiposity in Hispanic and African Americans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun 23 - "Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with baseline BMI, SAT, and VAT in Hispanic and African Americans, but were not associated with five year change in adiposity"
  • Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All-Cause Mortality in Older U.S. Adults - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Jun 22 - "In noninstitutionalized older adults, a group at high risk for all-cause mortality, serum 25(OH)D levels had an independent, inverse association with CVD and all-cause mortality"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2009 Jun 6 - "Serum 25(OH)D was the common contributor to physical fitness indices (androidal fat mass, lean mass, balance, handgrip strength) in healthy postmenopausal women"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer - BJU Int. 2009 Apr 4 - "The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32-100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar 31:1-6 - "Women reporting use of vitamin D-containing supplements had higher vitamin D status, however, vitamin D insufficiency was still evident even in the face of supplement use. Given the potential consequences of hypovitaminosis D on health outcomes, vitamin D supplementation, perhaps at higher doses than currently available, is needed to improve maternal vitamin D nutriture" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency in Older Men - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan 27 - "Vitamin D deficiency is common in older men, and is especially prevalent in obese, sedentary men living at higher latitudes. Use of vitamin D supplements at levels reported here did not result in adequate vitamin D nutrition"
  • Vitamin D Beyond Bones in COPD: Time to Act - Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Jan 22 - "As current respiratory treatments in COPD fail to reverse disease progression, interventional trials that may exploit the broader potential of vitamin D, are warranted"
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Markers of the Insulin Resistant Phenotype in Nondiabetic Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "Among adults without diabetes, vitamin D status was inversely associated with surrogate fasting measures of insulin resistance. These results suggest that vitamin D status may be an important determinant for type 2 diabetes mellitus"
  • High-dose oral vitamin D(3) supplementation in the elderly - Osteoporos Int. 2008 Dec 20 - "Sixty-three elderly participants were randomized to three regimens of vitamin D supplementation: a 500,000-IU loading dose; the loading dose plus 50,000 IU/month; or 50,000 IU/month ... Large loading doses of vitamin D(3) rapidly and safely normalize 25OHD levels in the frail elderly. Monthly dosing is similarly effective and safe, but takes 3-5 months for plateau 25OHD levels to be reached"
  • Vitamin d, respiratory infections, and asthma - Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009 Jan;9(1):81-7 - "Emerging evidence indicates that vitamin D-mediated innate immunity, particularly through enhanced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP-18), is important in host defenses against respiratory tract pathogens. Observational studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of respiratory infections. This increased risk may contribute to incident wheezing illness in children and adults and cause asthma exacerbations. Although unproven, the increased risk of specific respiratory infections in susceptible hosts may contribute to some cases of incident asthma. Vitamin D also modulates regulatory T-cell function and interleukin-10 production, which may increase the therapeutic response to glucocorticoids in steroid-resistant asthma"
  • Differences in vitamin D status as a possible contributor to the racial disparity in peripheral arterial disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1469-1477 - "Differences in vitamin D status as a possible contributor to the racial disparity in peripheral arterial disease"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency An Important, Common, and Easily Treatable Cardiovascular Risk Factor? - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Dec 9;52(24):1949-1956 - "Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general population. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Epidemiologic studies have associated low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is simple, safe, and inexpensive. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to firmly establish the relevance of vitamin D status to cardiovascular health. In the meanwhile, monitoring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and correction of vitamin D deficiency is indicated for optimization of musculoskeletal and general health"
  • Vitamin D and Prevention of Colorectal Adenoma: A Meta-analysis - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov;17(11):2958-69 - "Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenomas: the OR was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.56-0.87] for high versus low circulating 25(OH)D. The highest quintile of vitamin D intake was associated with an 11% marginally decreased risk of colorectal adenomas compared with low vitamin D intake (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). For recurrent adenomas, there was a decreased risk of 12% (95% CI, 0.72-1.07) among individuals with high versus low vitamin D intake. The inverse associations appeared stronger for advanced adenoma [OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90 for serum 25(OH)D and OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95 for vitamin D intake], but the number of studies was small"
  • Role of vitamin D treatment in glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome - Fertil Steril. 2008 Oct 16 - "Treatment with the vitamin D(3) analogue (alphacalcidol) could be of value in the management of PCOS"
  • Vitamin D and glucose metabolism in chronic kidney disease - Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2008 Nov;17(6):566-72 - "Vitamin D therapy holds promise for improving health outcomes in chronic kidney disease. Improved glucose metabolism is one potential mechanism through which vitamin D may exert beneficial effects"
  • Chemotherapy is linked to severe vitamin D deficiency in patients with colorectal cancer - Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008 Oct 2 - "Chemotherapy is associated with a significant increase in the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency. Patients with colorectal cancer, especially those receiving chemotherapy, should be considered for aggressive vitamin D replacement strategies"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Sep 2 - "180 women (Indian Asian, Middle Eastern, Black and Caucasian) were recruited at 27 weeks gestation and randomised into three treatment groups: a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D, a daily supplement of 800 IU vitamin D from 27 weeks until delivery and a no treatment group ... The final maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher in the supplemented group (daily dose (median) 42 (IQR 31-76) nmol/l, stat dose (median 34 (IQR 30-46) nmol/l vs. median 27 (IQR 27-39) nmol/l in the no treatment; p<0.0001) and significantly fewer women with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the supplemented group ... Single or daily dose improved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels significantly. However, even with supplementation, only a small percentage of women and babies were vitamin D sufficient. Further research is required to determine the optimal timing and dosing of vitamin D in pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy - Ann Oncol. 2008 Aug 18 - "The OR for subjects in the three highest deciles of consumption compared with those in the lowest ones combined was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.90). Intake of vitamin D >3.57 mug or 143 IU appeared to have a protective effect against breast cancer. The inverse association was consistent across strata of menopausal status ... This study adds to the existing evidence that vitamin D intake in inversely associated with breast cancer risk"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk for hip fractures - Ann Intern Med. 2008 Aug 19;149(4):242-50 - "Low serum 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations are associated with a higher risk for hip fracture" - [Nutra USA]
  • Association of vitamin D deficiency with heart failure and sudden cardiac death in a large cross-sectional study of patients referred for coronary angiography - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug 5 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Low levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are associated with prevalent myocardial dysfunction, deaths due to heart failure and SCD"
  • Oral active vitamin D is associated with improved survival in hemodialysis patients - Kidney Int. 2008 Jul 16 - "Our study shows that hemodialysis patients receiving oral active vitamin D had a survival advantage inversely related to the vitamin dose"
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Predict Stroke in Patients Referred to Coronary Angiography - Stroke. 2008 Jul 17 - "Low levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are independently predictive for fatal strokes, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation is a promising approach in the prevention of strokes"
  • Vitamin D3 induces autophagy of human myeloid leukemia cells - J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 15 - "These findings extend our understanding of the action of vitamin D3 in antineoplastic effects and the role of Beclin1 in regulating multiple cellular cascades, and suggest a potentially promising strategy with a significantly better antileukemia effect"
  • Vitamin D status and response to treatment in post-menopausal osteoporosis - Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jun 13 - "The adjusted odds ratio for incident fractures in vitamin D deficient as compared to vitamin D repleted women was 1.77 ... Optimal vitamin D repletion seems to be necessary to maximize the response to anti-resorbers in terms of both BMD changes and anti-fracture efficacy"
  • Protective role of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against oxidative stress in nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2699-706 - "1,25-VD can protect nonmalignant prostate cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death by elimination of ROS-induced cellular injuries through transcriptional activation of G6PD activity. The antioxidative effect of vitamin D strengthens its roles in cancer chemoprevention and adds to a growing list of beneficial effects of vitamin D against cancer" - I've gone to the vitamin D 2000 IU at Amazon.com.
  • Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Predict Fatal Cancer in Patients Referred to Coronary Angiography - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May 7 - "After adjustment for possible confounders, the Cox proportional hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the fourth 25(OH)D quartile was 0.45 (0.22-0.93) when compared with the first quartile and the hazard ratio per increase of 25 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 0.66 (0.49-0.89)"
  • Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Predict Fatal Cancer in Patients Referred to Coronary Angiography - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May 7 - "our data suggest that low levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk of fatal cancer in patients referred to coronary angiography and that the maintenance of a sufficient vitamin D status might therefore be a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and the Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease. Results from NHANES 2001 to 2004 - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Apr 16 - "After multivariable adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, physical activity level, and laboratory measures, the prevalence ratio of PAD for the lowest, compared to the highest, 25(OH)D quartile (<17.8 and >/=29.2 ng/mL, respectively) was 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.74). For each 10 ng/mL lower 25(OH)D level, the multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio of PAD was 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of PAD"
  • Vitamin D, calcium combo may cut exercise-related stress fractures - Nutra USA, 4/25/08 - "randomly assigned the recruits to receive daily supplements of 2,000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D, and the other group received a placebo ... Women receiving the vitamin-mineral combination were 20 per cent less likely to experience the fractures" - [Abstract]
  • Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases incidence of stress fractures in female navy recruits - J Bone Miner Res. 2008 May;23(5):741-9 - "randomized them to 2000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D/d or placebo ... found a 21% lower incidence of fractures in the supplemented versus the control group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D2 or vitamin D3? - Rev Med Interne. 2008 Apr 10 - "several studies have showed that serum level of 25(OH)D is increased more effectively with vitamin D3 than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 has shorter plasma half-life and a lower affinity for the vitamin D binding protein, the hepatic vitamin D hydroxylase and the vitamin D receptor"
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Associated with Falls Among Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly - J Bone Miner Res. 2008 Apr 14 - "The rate of falls was significantly higher in the lowest quartile of 25-OH-D level in women (P=0.02), and in women with 25-OH-D insufficiency (P=0.001). Women also showed significant declines in all three fall-related physical performance tests"
  • Calcitriol as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer: role of anti-inflammatory activity - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V74-80 - "Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, inhibits the growth and development of several cancers ... We conclude that calcitriol exerts several anti-inflammatory actions in prostate cells, which contribute to its potential as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in PCa"
  • Vitamin D toxicity, policy, and science - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V64-8 - "The clinical trial evidence shows that a prolonged intake of 250 mug (10,000 IU)/d of vitamin D(3) is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects in almost all individuals in the general population; this meets the criteria for a tolerable upper intake level"
  • Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V39-44 - "Current research has shown that the actual dietary requirement during pregnancy and lactation may actually be as high as 6000 IU/d"
  • Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V28-33 - "The major cause of vitamin D deficiency globally is an underappreciation of sunlight's role in providing humans with their vitamin D(3) requirement. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and those that do have a very variable vitamin D content. Recently it was observed that wild caught salmon had between 75% and 90% more vitamin D(3) compared with farmed salmon. The associations regarding increased risk of common deadly cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disease with living at higher latitudes and being prone to vitamin D deficiency should alert all health care professionals about the importance of vitamin D for overall health and well being"
  • Vitamin D endocrine physiology - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V25-7 - "Vitamin D(3) inputs from all sources required to sustain such a level amount to 3600-4200 IU/d. Daily oral intakes as high as 10,000 IU are safe"
  • Associations Between Vitamin D Status and Pain in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Mar 5 - "Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with significant back pain in older women but not men. Because vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain are fairly prevalent in older adults, these findings suggest it may be worthwhile to query older adults about their pain and screen older women with significant back pain for vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency in southern Arizona - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):608-13 - "Despite residing in a region with high chronic sun exposure, adults in southern Arizona are commonly deficient in vitamin D deficiency, particularly blacks and Hispanics"
  • Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels - Diabet Med. 2008 Feb 13 - "Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by 14 mmHg compared with placebo ... Vitamin D insufficiency is common in patients with Type 2 diabetes during winter in Scotland. A single large dose of oral vitamin D2 improves endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiency"
  • Optimal vitamin D status attenuates the age-associated increase in systolic blood pressure in white Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):136-41 - "systolic blood pressure (SBP) ... SBP is inversely associated with serum vitamin D concentrations in nonhypertensive white persons in the United States" - Note:  SBP is the upper number.
  • VITAMIN D2 IS AS EFFECTIVE AS VITAMIN D3 IN MAINTAINING CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec 18 - "1,000 IU of vitamin D2 daily was as effective as 1,000 IU of vitamin D3 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and did not negatively influence serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Therefore, vitamin D2 is equally as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining 25-hydroxyvitamin D status" - That contradicts other studies.  I'd err on the safe side.  See:
    • Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91 - "Vitamin D(2) potency is less than one third that of vitamin D(3). Physicians resorting to use of vitamin D(2) should be aware of its markedly lower potency and shorter duration of action relative to vitamin D(3)"
  • Effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on hip bone mineral density and calcium-related analytes in elderly ambulatory Australian women: a 5-year randomized controlled trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec 18 - "Addition of vitamin D to calcium has long term beneficial effects on bone density in elderly women living in a sunny climate, probably mediated by a long term reduction in bone turnover rate"
  • Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Jan;11(1):7-12 - "vitamin D deficiency may be a contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease potentially through associations with diabetes or hypertension"
  • Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency - Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Jan;9(1):107-118 - "The recent discovery - in a randomised, controlled trial - that daily ingestion of 1100 IU of colecalciferol (vitamin D) over a 4-year period dramatically reduced the incidence of non-skin cancers makes it difficult to overstate the potential medical, social and economic implications of treating vitamin D deficiency. Not only are such deficiencies common, probably the rule, vitamin D deficiency stands implicated in a host of diseases other than cancer. The metabolic product of vitamin D is a potent, pleiotropic, repair and maintenance, secosteroid hormone that targets > 200 human genes in a wide variety of tissues, meaning it has as many mechanisms of action as genes it targets. A common misconception is that government agencies designed present intake recommendations to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency. They did not. Instead, they are guidelines to prevent particular metabolic bone diseases ... As a prolonged 'vitamin D winter', centred on the winter solstice, occurs at many temperate latitudes, </= 5000 IU (125 mug) of vitamin D/day may be required in obese, aged and/or dark-skinned patients to maintain adequate levels during the winter, a dose that makes many physicians uncomfortable"
  • Dose response to vitamin D supplementation among postmenopausal African American women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1657-62 - "Supplementation with 50 mug/d (2000 IU/d) oral vitamin D(3) is sufficient to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations to >50 nmol/L in almost all postmenopausal African American women. However, higher doses were needed to achieve concentrations >75 nmol/L in many women in this population"
  • Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Nov 21 - "Research strongly supports the view that efforts to improve vitamin D status would have significant protective effects against the development of cancer. The clinical research community is currently revising recommendations for optimal serum levels and for sensible levels of sun exposure, to levels greater than previously thought. Currently, most experts in the field believe that intakes of between 1000 and 4000 IU will lead to a more healthy level of serum 25(OH)D, in the range of 75 nmol/L that will offer significant protect effects against cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, ovary, lungs, and pancreas. The first randomized trial has shown significant protection against breast cancer, and other clinical trials will follow and ultimately lead to improved public health policies and significantly fewer cancers"
  • Optimal vitamin d status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - Drugs Aging. 2007;24(12):1017-29 - "Vitamin D deficiency [as defined by a serum 25(OH)D level of <50 nmol/L (<20 ng/mL)] is pandemic. This deficiency is very prevalent in osteoporotic patients. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, increasing the risk of fracture. Unlike osteoporosis, which is a painless disease, osteomalacia causes aching bone pain that is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia or chronic pain syndrome or is simply dismissed as depression. Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, increasing the risk of falls and fractures, and should be aggressively treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D. Vitamin D sufficiency can be sustained by sensible sun exposure or ingesting at least 800-1000IU of vitamin D(3) daily"
  • Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1420-1425 - "Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) ... higher vitamin D concentrations, which are easily modifiable through nutritional supplementation, are associated with longer LTL, which underscores the potentially beneficial effects of this hormone on aging and age-related diseases"
  • Vitamin D therapy in clinical practice. One dose does not fit all - Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;61(11):1894-9 - "Vitamin D therapy with conventional treatment improves serum levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D but still leaves some patients with significant insufficiency and therefore the same dose of vitamin D is not appropriate for all"
  • s vitamin D deficiency to blame for the asthma epidemic? - J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct 3 - "higher vitamin D intake by pregnant mothers reduces asthma risk by as much as 40% in children 3 to 5 years old"
  • Efficacy of different doses and time intervals of oral vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium in elderly nursing home residents - Osteoporos Int. 2007 Sep 14 - "Daily vitamin D was more effective than weekly, and monthly administration was the least effective"
  • Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Sep;18(7):775-82 - "The adjusted RR of breast cancer for women consuming >800 IU/day versus <400 IU/day total vitamin D was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.77-1.03). RRs were stronger among women with negative than positive ER or PR status. The association of high vitamin D intake with breast cancer was strongest in the first 5 years after baseline dietary assessment (RR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94 compared with lowest-intake group), and diminished over time"
  • Vitamin D levels and early mortality among incident hemodialysis patients - Kidney Int. 2007 Aug 8 - "Compared to patients with the highest 25D or 1,25D levels who received therapy, untreated deficient patients were at significantly increased risk for early mortality"
  • Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jul 25 - "Our results suggest that the inverse association between UV exposure and NHL risk may be mediated by the vitamin D pathway"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "Our data provide additional support for the inverse association between vitamin D and colorectal and, in particular, colon cancer risk"
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity - Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul 9 - "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients"
  • Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European postmenopausal women - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jul 12 - "In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 79.6% and 32.1% when considering cut-offs of 80 and 50 nmol/L, respectively and when considering patients aged less than 65 years, the prevalence reached 86% (cut-off of 80 nmol/L) and 45% (cut-off of 50 nmol/L)"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "we observed a non-statistically significant inverse association between higher plasma 25(OH)D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer and a statistically significant inverse association for colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile: odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24 to 0.89; P(trend) = .005). After pooling the results from the HPFS and NHS, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased risks of both colorectal cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.05; P(trend) = .01) and colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.54"
  • Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):251-9 - "A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance"
  • Correlation between vitamin D(3) deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Jul 2 - "Total prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) was found in 70.6% of pregnant women ... These results show that a positive correlation of 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations with insulin sensitivity and vitamin D deficiency could be a confirmative sign of insulin resistance"
  • Vitamin D and Parkinson's disease--a hypothesis - Mov Disord. 2007 Mar 15;22(4):461-8 - "We hypothesize, based upon several lines of evidence, that documented chronically inadequate vitamin D intake in the United States, particularly in the northern states and particularly in the elderly, is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of PD. This hypothesis implies that dietary aid for prevention and therapy for PD is possible"
  • Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1586-91 - "Improving calcium and vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduces all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women"
  • Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 5 - "Vitamin D intake of >800 IU/day appears to be associated with a small decrease in risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women"
  • Association Between Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 Through 1994 - Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 May;125(5):661-669 - "The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for early AMD among participants in the highest vs lowest quintile of serum vitamin D was 0.64 ... This study provides evidence that vitamin D may protect against AMD"
  • Calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain - Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):893-902 - "Calcium plus cholecalciferol supplementation has a small effect on the prevention of weight gain, which was observed primarily in women who reported inadequate calcium intakes"
  • Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):509-19 - "women who took combined vitamin K and vitamin D plus calcium showed a significant and sustained increase in both BMD and BMC at the site of the ultradistal radius"
  • Low Vitamin D Status Despite Abundant Sun Exposure - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr 10 - "sample of adults in Honolulu, HI, (latitude 21 degrees ) ... These data suggest that variable responsivity to UVB radiation is evident among individuals, causing some to have low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure"
  • Vitamin d and reduced risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):422-9 - "We found strong evidence to support the hypothesis that vitamin D could help prevent breast cancer. However, our results suggest that exposure earlier in life, particularly during breast development, maybe most relevant"
  • Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain - Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Mar 22 - "Chronic low back pain (LBP) is an extremely common problem in practice ... Patients with LBP had significantly lower 25 OHD levels (p < 0.05) and significantly higher PTH (p < 0.05) and ALP (p < 0.001) than controls"
  • Vitamin D and outcomes in chronic kidney disease - Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007 Mar;16(2):77-82 - "Data currently suggests that the administration of vitamin D confers a survival benefit to patients on dialysis. There is no clear mechanism, however, to explain this association"
  • The Effects of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Markers of Inflammation in Non-diabetic Adults - Diabetes Care. 2007 Feb 2 - "Among participants with IFG at baseline those who took combined calcium-vitamin D supplements had a lower rise in FPG at 3 years compared to those on placebo"
  • Role of ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin d in prevention of ovarian cancer - Am J Prev Med. 2006 Dec;31(6):512-4 - "Solar UVB irradiance was inversely associated with incidence rates of ovarian cancer in this study, adding new evidence to the theory that vitamin D might play a role in the prevention of ovarian cancer"
  • Risk assessment for vitamin D - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):6-18 - "The UL established by the FNB for vitamin D (50 mug, or 2000 IU) is not based on current evidence and is viewed by many as being too restrictive, thus curtailing research, commercial development, and optimization of nutritional policy ... the absence of toxicity in trials conducted in healthy adults that used vitamin D dose >/=250 mug/d (10 000 IU vitamin D(3)) supports the confident selection of this value as the UL"
  • Calcitriol and genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway: potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer - J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):205S-10S - "the combination of calcitriol and genistein is an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of PCa"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis - JAMA. 2006 Dec 20;296(23):2832-8 - "high circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of multiple sclerosis"
  • Two randomized vitamin D trials in ambulatory patients on anticonvulsants: Impact on bone - Neurology. 2006 Dec 12;67(11):2005-14 - "In ambulatory adults on antiepileptic drugs, high-dose vitamin D therapy substantially increased bone mineral density at several skeletal sites"
  • Vitamin D status and cancer: new insights - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Jan;10(1):6-11 - "Sun exposure and indicators of high vitamin D status were found to be associated with improved survival for cutaneous melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lung, breast, prostate and colon. Therapeutic trials of vitamin D are especially prominent in the treatment of prostate cancer"
  • How to select the doses of vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis - Osteoporos Int. 2006 Dec 7 - "The dose of vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis should be no less than 700-800 IU per day ... Today, desirable serum 25(OH)D levels of at least 75 nmol/l may only be reached in about one third of US older individuals and even fewer European older individuals"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults - Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;14(12):1032-1040 - "In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and carotid artery intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Nov;65(5):593-597 - "The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (i.e. 25(OH)D </= 37.5 nmol/l) was higher in diabetic patients (34.0 vs 16.4%, P < 0.001) than in controls. Among diabetic patients, those with hypovitaminosis D (n = 130) had a marked increase in common carotid IMT (1.10 +/- 0.15 vs 0.87 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001) when compared with their vitamin d-sufficient counterparts (n = 260). These patients also had significantly higher haemoglobin A1c, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations. In multivariate regression analysis, low 25(OH)D concentrations independently predicted carotid IMT (P < 0.001) in people with type 2 diabetes after adjustment for classical risk factors, diabetes duration, HbA1c, calcium, renal function tests, inflammatory markers, use of medications, and presence of the metabolic syndrome"
  • Vitamin d status in a rural postmenopausal female population - J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Oct;25(5):395-402 - "Approximately two-thirds of this rural population fell below 80 nmol/L, a value considered to be the lower end of the optimal range. Based on the slope of 25(OH)D on supplement dose observed in these women, it would require an additional vitamin D input of nearly 2000 IU/d to reach the goal of an RDA for vitamin D, i.e., to bring 97.5% of the cohort to levels of 80 nmol/L or higher"
  • A system for improving vitamin D nutrition in residential care - Med J Aust. 2006 Aug 21;185(4):195-8 - "Vitamin D(3) 100 000 IU given orally 3 monthly is a practical, safe, effective and inexpensive way to meet the vitamin D(3) requirements of aged-care residents"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants in Iowa - Pediatrics. 2006 Aug;118(2):603-10 - "Vitamin D deficiency, including severe deficiency, was common among breastfed infants in Iowa who did not receive preformed vitamin D. Deficiency occurred mostly during winter but was not completely absent during summer ... Vitamin D supplementation should be provided to all breastfed infants"
  • Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):18-28 - "For all endpoints, the most advantageous serum concentrations of 25(OH)D begin at 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL), and the best are between 90 and 100 nmol/L (36-40 ng/mL). In most persons, these concentrations could not be reached with the currently recommended intakes of 200 and 600 IU vitamin D/d for younger and older adults, respectively ... An intake for all adults of >/=1000 IU (40 mug) vitamin D (cholecalciferol)/d is needed to bring vitamin D concentrations in no less than 50% of the population up to 75 nmol/L"
  • Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women - Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar;29(3):650-6 - "A combined daily intake of >1,200 mg calcium and >800 IU vitamin D was associated with a 33% lower risk of type 2 diabetes with RR of 0.67 (0.49-0.90) compared with an intake of <600 mg and 400 IU calcium and vitamin D, respectively"
  • A positive dose-response effect of vitamin D supplementation on site-specific bone mineral augmentation in adolescent girls: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled 1-year intervention - J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Jun;21(6):836-44 = "Bone mineral augmentation in the femur was 14.3% and 17.2% higher in the groups receiving 5 and 10 microg of vitamin D, respectively, compared with the placebo group, but only 10 mug increased lumbar spine BMC augmentation significantly"
  • Evaluating vitamin D status. Implications for preventing and managing osteoporosis and other chronic diseases - Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Feb 17 - "recent review articles indicate that current reference ranges for serum 25-OH-vitamin D are too low. An appropriate lower normal limit may be between 50-100 nmol/l (20-40 ng/ml). Standard supplement dosages may fail to provide concentrations above this range"
  • Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial - Arch Intern Med. 2006 Feb 27;166(4):424-30 - "Long-term dietary cholecalciferol-calcium supplementation reduces the odds of falling in ambulatory older women by 46%, and especially in less active women by 65%"
  • Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in osteoporotic hip fracture patients in London - Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Dec;21(12):1891-4 - "This study confirms almost universal vitamin D inadequacy among 103 patients admitted to hospital with hip fracture in London, although the prevalence of inadequacy is slightly lower than that seen in a similar study carried out in Glasgow"
  • Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study - Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):36-43
  • Low Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - Horm Metab Res. 2005 Nov;37(11):680-683 - "Mean levels of both 25OHD (3) and 1,25-(OH) (2)D (3) were significantly lower in patients compared to controls ... These findings suggest that vitamin D (3) may be an important pathogenic factor in type 1 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D: important for prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular heart disease, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers - South Med J. 2005 Oct;98(10):1024-7 - "Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of many common cancers, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, and type I diabetes"
  • The High Prevalence of Inadequate Serum Vitamin D Levels and Implications for Bone Health - Curr Med Res Opin. 2005; 21 (4): 579-585 - "Vitamin D toxicity has not been reported from excessive sunlight exposure, and has only been associated with dietary intake when daily doses exceed 10 000 IU (250 µg) ... Vitamin D is of paramount importance for mineral homeostasis and skeletal health, and maintaining adequate vitamin D nutrition is an essential component of management strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Nevertheless, inadequate serum vitamin D is currently a highly prevalent, global health issue, especially among elderly adults and osteoporosis patients"
  • Should older people in residential care receive vitamin d to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1881-8 - "Older people in residential care can reduce their incidence of falls if they take a vitamin D supplement for 2 years even if they are not initially classically vitamin D deficient"
  • Low-Dose Vitamin D Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Reduces Falls and Hip Fractures in Women after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005 Jul 27;20(3):187-192 - "48 patients received 1,000 IU ergocalciferol daily ... Vitamin D treatment accounted for a 59% reduction in falls ... There were increases in the relative number and size of type II muscle fibers and improved muscle strength in the vitamin D-treated group"
  • Vitamin d for health and in chronic kidney disease - Semin Dial. 2005 Jul-Aug;18(4):266-75 - "In addition to its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, vitamin D is now being recognized as important for maintaining maximum muscle strength and for the prevention of many chronic diseases, including type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, and many common cancers"
  • Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community-dwelling women: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study - Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005 Apr;17(2):125-32 - "female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction in severe falls"
  • Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64 - "Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention"
  • Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1232S-9S - "Higher doses than the current US recommendation (600 IU) of vitamin D in the elderly (age >/= 65 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health (800-1000 IU/d)"
  • Vitamin D and calcium deficits predispose for multiple chronic diseases - Eur J Clin Invest. 2005 May;35(5):290-304 - "calcium and vitamin D deficits increase the risk of malignancies, particularly of colon, breast and prostate gland, of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis), as well as of metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome, hypertension)"
  • Failure of High-Dose Ergocalciferol to Correct Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis - Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Apr 28 - "In the 33 CF adults who also completed the recommended second course of 800,000 IU of ergocalciferol over two months, none demonstrated correction of their deficiency" - I threw this in because ergocalciferol is vitamin D(2), with is not absorbed as well as vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol).  If your taking supplements containing the D(2), you might want to change.
  • Pilot Study: Potential Role of Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) in Patients With PSA Relapse After Definitive Therapy - Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(1):32-6 - "Fifteen patients were given 2,000 IU (50 mug) of cholecalciferol daily and monitored prospectively every 2-3 mo. In 9 patients, PSA levels decreased or remained unchanged after the commencement of cholecalciferol. This was sustained for as long as 21 mo. Also, there was a statistically significant decrease in the rate of PSA rise after administration of cholecalciferol (P = 0.005) compared with that before cholecalciferol. The median PSA doubling time increased from 14.3 mo prior to commencing cholecalciferol to 25 mo after commencing cholecalciferol. Fourteen of 15 patients had a prolongation of PSA doubling time after commencing cholecalciferol. There were no side effects reported by any patient"
  • Why we should offer routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and childhood to prevent multiple sclerosis - Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):608-18 - "Prevention of MS by modifying an important environmental factor (sunlight exposure and vitamin D level) offers a practical and cost-effective way to reduce the burden of the disease in the future generations"
  • Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels indicative of vitamin d sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin d - J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):317-22 - "The current adult recommendations for vitamin D, 200-600 IU/d, are very inadequate when one considers that a 10-15 min whole-body exposure to peak summer sun will generate and release up to 20,000 IU vitamin D-3 into the circulation ... Recent studies reveal that current dietary recommendations for adults are not sufficient to maintain circulating 25(OH)D levels at or above this level, especially in pregnancy and lactation"
  • The effects of postmenopausal Vitamin D treatment on vaginal atrophy - Maturitas. 2004 Dec 10;49(4):334-7 - "The mean physical findings score in Vitamin D treatment (VDT) group was significantly lower than the mean physical findings score in the group without treatment ... As maturation indices: in VDT group, superficial cells proportion was significantly higher and basal, parabasal cells proportion was lower than in the group without treatment"
  • Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1678S-88S - "Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic among both children and adults in the United States. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes rickets among children but also precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis among adults and causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of deadly cancers, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus"
  • Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1706S-9S - "For typical older individuals, supplemental oral intakes of approximately 1300 IU/d are required to reach the lower end of the optimal range"
  • Vitamin D requirements: current and future - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1735S-9S - "Upper levels of vitamin D intake were set at 50 mug/d (2000 IU/d) for all ages. Some individuals would require higher levels than these to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations for optimal calcium absorption. So much new information on vitamin D and health has been collected since the requirements were set in 1997 that this nutrient is likely the most in need of revised requirements"
  • Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91 - "Vitamin D(2) potency is less than one third that of vitamin D(3). Physicians resorting to use of vitamin D(2) should be aware of its markedly lower potency and shorter duration of action relative to vitamin D(3)"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency and fracture risk - Endocrinology & Diabetes. 11(6):353-358, December 2004 - "There is a growing body of evidence for the alarming prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among healthy adolescents, adults, and elders"
  • Vitamin D in Australia. Issues and recommendations - Aust Fam Physician. 2004 Mar;33(3):133-8 - "In cases of established vitamin D deficiency, supplementation with 3000-5000 IU per day for at least 1 month is required to replete body stores"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease. A Single Center Observational Study - Am J Nephrol. 2004 Sep 22;24(5):503-510 - "In the group undergoing maintenance hemodialyis, we found that 97% of the patients had vitamin D levels in the suboptimal range ... vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with CKD and may play a role in the development of hyperparathyroidism"
  • Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients - Nutr J. 2004 Jul 19;3(1):8 - "winter wellbeing/depression scores improved with both doses of vitamin D"
  • Supplementation with oral vitamin d3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: a randomized controlled open-label prospective trial - J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Aug;19(8):1221-30 - "Supplementation with oral vitamin D(3) and calcium during winter prevents seasonal changes in bone turnover and bone loss in healthy adults. It seems conceivable that annually recurring cycles of low vitamin D and mild secondary hyperparathyroidism during the winter months contributes, at least in part and over many years, to age-related bone loss. Supplementation with low-dose oral vitamin D(3) and calcium during winter may be an efficient and inexpensive strategy for the primary prevention of bone loss in northern latitudes"
  • Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):108-13 - "Low serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations may be associated with PD independently of BMD. Given the high prevalence of PD and vitamin D deficiency, these findings may have important public health implications"
  • Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency among healthy adolescents - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Jun;158(6):531-7 - "Seventy-four patients (24.1%) were vitamin D deficient"
  • Why the optimal requirement for Vitamin D(3) is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults - J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90:575-9 - "If 70nmol/L is regarded as a minimum desirable target 25(OH)D concentration, then current recommendations of 15mcg per day do not meet the criterion of an RDA"
  • Vitamin D deficiency: new perspectives on an old disease - Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2/04 - "Even though vitamin D deficiency has been thought to be obsolete in developed countries such as the United States, recent data suggest that this diagnosis may exist in epidemic proportions. Chronic vitamin D deficiency may be associated with a susceptibility to hypertension, multiple sclerosis, and various malignancies, problems beyond the more commonly recognized skeletal manifestations"  - See vitamin D3 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;79(3):362-71 - "Vitamin D deficiency is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia ... Studies in both human and animal models add strength to the hypothesis that the unrecognized epidemic of vitamin D deficiency worldwide is a contributing factor of many chronic debilitating diseases ... The recommended adequate intakes for vitamin D are inadequate, and, in the absence of exposure to sunlight, a minimum of 1000 IU vitamin D/d is required to maintain a healthy concentration of 25(OH)D in the blood" - See vitamin D3 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and prostate cancer prevention and treatment - Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;14(9):423-30 - "The association between either decreased sun exposure or vitamin D deficiency and the increased risk of prostate cancer at an earlier age, and with a more aggressive progression, indicates that adequate vitamin D nutrition should be a priority for men of all ages"
  • Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in elderly women in Italy: clinical consequences and risk factors - Osteoporos Int. 2003 Jul 11 - "Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common among elderly Italian women ... Hypovitaminosis D is associated with worsening of the ability to perform activities of daily living and higher hip fracture prevalence. This finding should lead to an urgent population-based strategy to remedy this condition"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Masquerading as Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 2 - Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, 6/03 - "Phenytoin and phenobarbitone are well known to cause vitamin D deficiency by decreasing intestinal absorption and increasing metabolism of 25 (OH) D in liver ... vitamin D deficiency can mimic PHP-II and therefore before considering this rare diagnosis vitamin D deficiency must be excluded"
  • Oral vitamin D3 decreases fracture risk in the elderly - J Fam Pract. 2003 Jun;52(6):431-5 - "Despite a seemingly large dose averaging 800 IU per day, this regimen is a safe, cheap (<$2 per year), and effective therapy for primary prevention of fractures"
  • Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence? - Br J Nutr 2003 May;89(5):552-572 - "European children and young adults often have circulating 25(OH)D levels in the insufficiency range during wintertime. Elderly subjects have mean 25(OH)D levels in the insufficiency range throughout the year. In institutionalized subjects 25(OH)D levels are often in the deficiency range. There is now general agreement that a low vitamin D status is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Moreover, vitamin D insufficiency can lead to a disturbed muscle function. Epidemiological data also indicate a low vitamin D status in tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, hypertension, and specific types of cancer. Some intervention trials have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin D or its metabolites is able: (i) to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients; (ii) to improve blood glucose levels in diabetics; (iii) to improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The oral dose necessary to achieve adequate serum 25(OH)D levels is probably much higher than the current recommendations of 5-15 &mgr;g/d."
  • Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 2/03 - "Women consuming 12.5 µg vitamin D/d from food plus supplements had a 37% lower risk of hip fracture (RR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94) than did women consuming < 3.5 µg/d. Total calcium intake was not associated with hip fracture risk (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.34 for 1200 compared with < 600 mg/d). Milk consumption was also not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (P for trend = 0.21)"
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