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Anti-aging Research > Glycemic Index
Glycemic Index/Glycemic Load
News & Research:
Glycemic Index Reduces Plasma Uric Acid - Medscape, 1/13/16 -
"A low–glycemic index (GI) diet including foods such
as legumes, dairy products, and some fruits might help prevent the
development of gout or the occurrence of gout flares ... Reducing GI lowered
uric acid by 0.24 mg/dL when the percentage of carbohydrates was low and by
0.17 mg/dL when the percentage of carbohydrates was high (both P < .001).
Conversely, reducing the percentage of carbohydrates increased uric acid by
0.10 mg/dL when GI was high (P = .05) and had no significant effect when GI
was low. The largest effect was seen with reducing the GI while increasing
the percentage of carbohydrates, which reduced uric acid by 0.27 mg/dL (P <
.001), an effect maintained even after adjustment for changes in kidney
function, insulin sensitivity, and products of glycolysis"
Consuming highly refined carbohydrates increases risk of depression -
Science Daily, 8/5/15 - "progressively higher
dietary GI scores and consumption of added sugars and refined grains were
associated with increased risk of new-onset depression in post-menopausal
women. Greater consumption of dietary fiber, whole grains, vegetables and
non-juice fruits was associated with decreased risk"
Choice of protein- and carbohydrate-rich foods may have big effects on
long-term weight gain - Science Daily, 4/9/15 -
"diets with a high glycemic load (GL) from eating refined grains, starches,
and sugars were associated with more weight gain ... Increasing intakes of
red meat and processed meat were most strongly associated with weight gain
... Increasing intakes of yogurt, seafood, skinless chicken, and nuts were
most strongly associated with weight loss -- the more people ate, the less
weight they gained ... Increasing other dairy products, including full-fat
cheese, whole milk, and low-fat milk, did not significantly relate to either
weight gain or weight loss ... The fat content of dairy products did not
seem to be important for weight gain ... when people consumed more low-fat
dairy products, they actually increased their consumption of carbs, which
may promote weight gain"
Drop the cookie: Sweet, starchy foods 'probably' cause women’s cancer -
today.com, 9/10/13 - "AICR now estimates that most
cases of endometrial cancer (59 percent, or about 29,500 every year) could
be prevented in the U.S. if women were active for at least 30 minutes a day
and maintained a healthy body weight ... Estrogen is one known cause and
women who take hormones, as in hormone replacement therapy, are usually
given a form of progesterone, also, to protect against endometrial cancer
... Women who are obese have two to three times the rate of endometrial
cancer .. There were eight studies showing coffee lowers the risk ... The
team also found at least six studies that indicate glycemic load affects the
risk ... The bottom line is you want to eat whole grains instead of refined
grains and sugary foods"
Excess sugar linked to cancer - Science Daily, 2/1/13 -
"Dr Garcia Jimenez's laboratory was studying how
cells in the intestine respond to sugars and signal to the pancreas to
release insulin, the key hormone that controls blood sugar levels. Sugars in
the intestine trigger cells to release a hormone called GIP that enhances
insulin release by the pancreas ... the ability of the intestinal cells to
secrete GIP is controlled by a protein called β-catenin, and that the
activity of β-catenin is strictly dependent on sugar levels ... high (but
not normal) sugar levels induce nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and leads
to cell proliferation"
Starchy, high carbohydrate diet associated with recurrence of colon cancer
- Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "Recent studies have
shown that colorectal cancer survivors whose diet and activity patterns lead
to excess amounts of insulin in the blood have a higher risk of cancer
recurrence and death from the disease. High insulin levels can be produced
by eating too many starchy and sugar-laden foods ... They found that
participants with the highest dietary levels of glycemic load and
carbohydrate intake had an 80 percent increased risk of colon cancer
recurrence or death compared with those who had the lowest levels ... we
theorize that factors including a high glycemic load may stimulate the
body's production of insulin"
news about the glycemic index of rice - Science Daily, 7/9/12 -
"Research analyzing 235 types of rice from around
the world has found its glycemic index (GI) varies from one type of rice to
another with most varieties scoring a low to medium GI ... The study found
that the GI of rice ranges from a low of 48 to a high of 92, with an average
of 64 ... Rice varieties like India's most widely grown rice variety,
Swarna, have a low GI and varieties like Doongara and Basmati from Australia
have a medium GI ... Low GI diets can reduce the likelihood of developing
Type 2 diabetes, and are also useful for helping diabetics better manage
their condition ... Low GI foods are those measured 55 and less, medium GI
are those measured between 56 and 69, while high GI measures 70 and above"
Glycemic index foods at breakfast can control blood sugar throughout the day
- Science Daily, 3/30/12 - "Mattes' research
specifically focused on the advantages of having almonds, a low glycemic
index food, with the morning meal. In his study, published last year in the
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, participants who ate a breakfast
containing whole almonds experienced longer feelings of fullness and had
lower blood glucose concentrations after breakfast and lunch, compared to
those who did not have a low-glycemic breakfast"
diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in
overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 -
"Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in
slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other
high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated
with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of
inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive
protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as
cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by
about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ...
a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood
levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key
role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well
as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver
disease and hardening of the arteries"
AMD-like lesions delayed in mice fed lower glycemic index diet - Science
Daily, 11/14/11 - "The dietary glycemic index (DGI)
measures the rate at which glucose is delivered to the bloodstream after
consuming carbohydrates. Higher GI foods including white bread and white
potatoes trigger a rapid delivery of glucose that pushes the body to work
overtime to absorb, whereas lower GI foods, like whole grain bread and
fruits and vegetables, initiate a slower release of glucose that is more
easily processed by cells ... Compared to the mice on the lower GI diet,
mice on the higher GI diet demonstrated elevated accumulations of debris
known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the whole retina,
particularly in the cells of the RPE. The RPE plays a crucial role in
maintaining vision and its dysfunction results in the gradual central vision
loss that is the hallmark of AMD. AGE accumulation has also been linked to
tissue damage in other age-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and
Eating the Wrong Kind of Carbohydrates Increases Heart Disease Risk -
U.S. News and World Report, 4/12/10 - "women who ate
the most "high-glycemic" carbohydrates—which cause quick spikes in blood
sugar levels—had more than twice the risk of having heart disease as those
who ate the least. (The study didn't find the same association in men.)
What's interesting, though, is that it was the type of carbs, not the
amount, that had the health impact. "High consumption of carbohydrate from
high-glycemic foods, rather than overall quantity of carbohydrate consumed,
appears to influence the risk of developing heart disease in women,""
Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 -
"Doctors have known for decades that foods like
white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a
high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ...
Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic
index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of
foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction
in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be
traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the
riskiest of the risk factors,""
Glycemic Breakfast May Increase Benefits Of Working Out - Science Daily,
4/15/09 - "Overall, fat oxidation was higher in the
LGI treatment than in the HGI treatment (P < 0.05) during the post-breakfast
and exercise periods. Following lunch, fullness scores were higher in the
LGI trial than in the HGI trial (P < 0.05). The authors concluded that
consuming a LGI breakfast increases fat oxidation during subsequent exercise
and improved satiety during recovery in sedentary females. As such,
individuals trying to shed fat may consider choosing LGI foods eaten prior
to when they exercise"
Scientists Discover Why A Low GI Meal Makes You Feel Full - Science
Daily, 3/18/09 - "Eating a meal with a low GI
(glycaemic index) increases gut hormone production which leads to
suppression of appetite and the feeling of fullness"
Glycemic Diets Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar, Review Suggests -
Science Daily, 1/2/0/09 - "Clinicians measured
hemoglobin A1c levels, which give a picture of a person's blood glucose
control over several weeks or months. The reviewers found that levels
decreased by 0.5 percent with a low GI diet, noting that the findings were
significant, both statistically and clinically"
Glycemic Stability May Be Important Key To Recovery From Critical Illness
- Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "We found that patients
with wide fluctuation were significantly more likely to die in the intensive
care unit and the hospital than those who experience low glycemic
Strategies for Improving Post-Prandial Glucose, Lipids, and More -
Medscape, 1/29/08 - "The amount and type of
carbohydrate consumed with a meal is a major determinant of the
post-prandial glucose excursion. The glycemic index of a food is defined
as the incremental increase in the area under the post-prandial glucose
curve after ingestion of 50 g of a specific food compared with that noted
after ingestion of 50 g of oral glucose. A meal such as white bread and
jelly with a glycemic index of 80 will result in a 2-fold higher incremental
increase in glucose compared with an isocaloric meal of whole-grain bread
and peanut butter with a glycemic index of 40. Most studies show that diets
rich in high-glycemic-index, low-fiber foods independently increase the risk
of both CV disease and type 2 diabetes ... Excess intake of processed
carbohydrates sets up a vicious cycle whereby the transient spikes in blood
glucose and insulin early after a meal trigger reactive hypoglycemia and
hunger. The chronic consumption of a diet high in processed
carbohydrates leads to excess visceral fat, which increases both insulin
resistance and inflammation and predisposes to diabetes, hypertension, and
CV disease. In contrast, restriction of refined carbohydrates will
improve the post-prandial levels of both glucose and triglycerides and can
reduce intra-abdominal fat, particularly in individuals with insulin
resistance ... Recent studies show that 1 to 2 tablespoons of vinegar, when
added to a meal containing high-glycemic-index foods such as white bread or
white rice, will both: 1) lower post-prandial glucose by 25% to 35% (Fig.
5), and 2) increase post-meal satiety by more than 2-fold. Thus the
addition of vinegar to a standard meal can not only improve the meal-induced
oxidant stress by blunting the post-prandial glucose excursion, but also can
increase and prolong satiety, which should help to reduce food cravings and
lower caloric intake over the subsequent 2 to 4 h" - See
apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com
- 4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations. I've been
popping 4 of these with meals for years and more and more research keeps
backing me up. If 1 to 2 tablespoons is correct you could get by with
just two tablets.
Sugar and Alzheimer's: Are They Linked? - WebMD, 12/7/07 -
"The brains of the sugar-fed mice had about twice as
many plaque deposits as the mice fed regular water"
Diets With High
Glycemic Index May Raise Cataract Risk - Medscape, 11/30/07 -
"Glycemic load, a food's glycemic index multiplied
by the total available carbohydrate content, was used to gauge both
carbohydrate quantity and quality ... each standard deviation increase in
dietary glycemic index was associated with a 19% increase in the risk of
cortical cataract. Subjects in the highest glycemic index quartile were 77%
more likely to develop cataract than those in the lowest quartile"
High-Carb Diet, Bigger Prostate Tumor? - WebMD, 11/27/07
Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/27/07 -
"A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white
rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in
mice ... Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called
hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with
High-glycemic Index Carbohydrates Associated With Risk For Developing Type 2
Diabetes In Women - Science Daily, 11/26/07 -
"Our results indicate that black women can reduce their risk of diabetes by
eating a diet that is high in cereal fiber ... In another study ... Women
who consumed more carbohydrates overall were more likely to develop
diabetes--when they were split into five groups based on carbohydrate
intake, those in the group consuming the most (about 337.6 grams per day)
had a 28 percent higher risk than those in the group consuming the least
(about 263.5 grams per day). Women who ate diets with a higher glycemic
index and who ate more staples such as bread, noodles and rice specifically
also had an increased risk. Women who ate 300 grams or more of rice per day
were 78 percent more likely to develop diabetes than those who ate less than
200 grams per day"
Limiting Refined Carbohydrates May Stall AMD Progression - Science
Daily, 10/8/07 - "Our data showed those people in
the high-glycemic-index group were at greater risk of AMD progression,
especially those already in the late stages ... Participants who consumed
the most refined carbohydrates were 17 percent more likely to develop
blinding AMD than the group that consumed the least"
Thought: Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse - Science News,
9/29/07 - "In the study, mice that chowed down on a
type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did
animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did
accumulate lots of excess fat"
Quick-burning Carbs May Cause Fatty Liver: Low-glycemic Diet Protected Mice
- Science Daily, 9/21/07 - "After six months, the
mice weighed the same. However, mice on the low-glycemic index diet were
lean, with normal amounts of fat in throughout their bodies. Mice on the
high-glycemic index diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies,
blood and livers"
Starchy diet 'may damage liver' - BBC News, 9/21/07 -
""High-glycaemic" foods - rapidly digested by the
body - could be causing "fatty liver", increasing the risk of serious
illness ... After six months on the diet, the mice weighed the same, but
those on the high GI diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their
bodies, blood and livers"
Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin - Science
Daily, 9/5/07 - "Study participants who consumed two
or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had significantly higher fasting
blood levels of insulin as compared to participants who did not report
consuming any such beverages, regardless of age, sex, weight, smoking
status, or other dietary habits ... Higher fasting levels of insulin mean
these study participants are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes ...
consumption of 100 percent fruit juice was not significantly related to any
of our measures of insulin resistance"
Right Breakfast Bread Keeps Blood Sugar In Check All Day - Science
Daily, 9/5/07 - "It is known that a
carbohydrate-rich breakfast with low GI can moderate increases in blood
sugar after lunch. But my results show that low GI in combination with the
right amount of so-called indigestible carbohydrates, that is, dietary fiber
and resistant starch, can keep the blood-sugar level low for up to ten
hours, which means until after dinner ... people with great fluctuations in
their levels of blood sugar run a greater risk of having a generally lower
Study links low-GI kids' breakfast to less calories - Nutra USA, 9/4/07
- "The children ate on average 61 kcal less over the
days they were given the low-GI breakfast, compared with the days when they
ate a high-GI breakfast"
High-Sugar Foods May Affect Eyesight - WebMD, 7/13/07 -
"People with the diets highest on the glycemic index
were the most likely to have advanced AMD in at least one eye"
Between Carbohydrate Quality And Vision Loss Is Strengthened By New Data
- Science Daily, 7/11/07 - "the risk for AMD may be
diminished by improving dietary carbohydrate quality, as defined by dietary
glycemic index. This may be achieved by relatively simple dietary
alterations, such as replacing white bread with whole grain bread"
Low-Glycemic Load Diet May Work for Dieters With Certain Insulin Response
Patterns - Science Daily, 5/16/07
Biology Dictates Diet Success - WebMD, 5/15/07 -
"The low-glycemic-load diet was effective for a lot
of the individuals who were high-insulin secretors and who previously had
challenges losing weight and keeping it off"
Low-Glycemic-Index Diet Slows AMD Progression - Medscape, 5/8/07 -
"age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ...
consumption of highly refined carbohydrates can lead to up to a 17%
increased risk of AMD progression"
Low Glycaemic Index Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women
- Doctor's Guide, 4/25/07
Study Examines Calorie Restriction and Glycemic Load - Doctor's Guide,
4/10/07 - "Unlike several other long-term studies,
which have reported greater weight loss with low GL diets at six months but
no differences by 12 months, our data show no significant short-term or
- Low glycemic diet may
help stay slim - MSNBC, 10/27/06 -
"normal-weight women who ate a diet with a
relatively high glycemic index gained more weight, more fat, and more
padding around the middle over a six-year period than women who ate a low
glycemic index diet"
Bread Consumption Linked To Higher Risk Of Most Common Kidney Cancer -
Science Daily, 10/20/06 - "A significant direct
association was observed for bread consumption (OR=1.94) for the highest
compared to the lowest quintile of intake ... By contrast, decreasing risk
was associated with increasing intake of poultry, processed meat, and all
vegetables, both raw and cooked ... The association between elevated cereal
intake (bread, pasta and rice) "may be due to the high glycemic index of
Loss of Central Vision with Age May Be Linked to Quality of Dietary
Carbohydrates - Doctor's Guide, 6/6/06 -
"Women who consumed diets with a relatively high
dietary glycemic index had greater risk of developing signs of early
age-related macular degeneration when compared with women who consumed diets
with a lower dietary glycemic index"
- High Glycemic Index
Diet May Increase Risk of Developing AMD - Medscape, 4/18/06 -
"The age-adjusted model showed more than a 2-fold increase in risk for ARM
for the third tertile of dietary GI"
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Popular Diets - Medscape, 1/24/06 -
"The impact of GI and GL on efforts to prevent and
treat obesity remains to be determined"
Carbohydrate-rich diets may improve insulin control - Nutra USA, 1/11/06
- "Although an increasing body of evidence would
suggest merit in adopting high-carbohydrate, low-GI diets, the charge that
high-GI diets result in insulin resistance is unproven on the basis of
current experimental data"
Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study - Diabetes Care.
2005;28(12):2832-2838 - "our results demonstrate a
remarkable degree of consistency in finding a lack of association of
glycemic index, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake with measures of
insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiposity"
Biggest Loser: Weight Loss May Depend On Where Calories Come From -
Science Daily, 12/8/05
Low-Glycemic Load Diet Facilitates Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with
High Insulin Secretion - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/05 -
"The regulation of body weight is, at least in part,
influenced by how much insulin a person secretes in response to a load of
glucose, as well as by how sensitive that person is to insulin's
Reducing GI does not boost effects of low-calorie diet - Nutra USA,
10/26/05 - "although the new trial confirmed the
benefit of lowering glycaemic index on insulin sensitivity, it did not
impact the subjects' weight"
- High Glycemic Index
or High Carbohydrate Diet May Not Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance -
Medscape, 6/6/05 - "Habitual intake of diets with a
high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of
total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the
probability of having insulin resistance ... intake of dietary fiber was
inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
Weight Watchers Diet Produces Same Results With or Without Emphasis on
Low-Glycaemic Index - Doctor's Guide, 6/6/05 -
"both groups lost an average of 5% of their initial body weight ... However,
those who followed the low-glycemic diet had better satiety and less hunger
and craving, the key problems that are the downfall of many dieters"
- This article doesn't mention fat loss. You can have the same loss in
pounds yet have different percentages of lean muscle/fat loss as in the next
- Clearing up the confusion
over carbs - MSNBC, 6/3/05 -
"Both groups lost weight, and there was no
difference in their weight loss or calorie intake. It should be noted,
however, that the women who ate low GI foods lost more than twice as much
body fat as women eating mainly high GI foods"
- Healthy Carbs,
Fats for Weight Loss - WebMD, 11/23/04 - "eating
a so-called low-glycemic diet may overcome the body's natural tendency to
slow metabolism when calories are restricted. A low-glycemic diet emphasizes
healthy fats and carbohydrates"
- Sick of
Low-Carb Diets? Try Low-GI - WebMD, 8/26/04 -
"The animals on the high-GI diet were gaining more weight with same amount
of food, and we had to cut their food back increasingly over time to keep
them at the same weight ... But what was really interesting to us was that
even though they maintained the same weight because they got less food, the
high-GI group in both rats and mice doubled their body fat and had a
reduction ... in muscle mass, which is exactly what you don't want"
Foods Linked to Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/3/04 -
"the future risk of colorectal cancers is nearly
three times higher in women who eat the most high glycemic-load foods
compared with those who eat lesser amounts"
Breakfast Boosts Lunchtime Hunger - WebMD, 11/3/03 -
"A new study provides evidence favoring foods with low-glycemic indexes (GI)
such as whole-grain breakfast cereals including oatmeal, bran cereal, and
muesli (a Swedish tradition). It shows that foods with low GI's can keep us
feeling full and that these foods may have an important role in weight loss
and obesity management"
- Focusing on Fiber? -
Dr. Weil, 9/22/03 - "If you’ve tried but failed to
lower your cholesterol with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, the problem
may have been the carbohydrates you were eating. Refined carbohydrates
(those that are high on the glycemic index, a system of ranking foods by
their effect on blood sugar) can cause rapid increases in blood sugar,
prompting the pancreas to release insulin, which in turn signals the liver
to pump more triglycerides into the bloodstream"
Dietary Experts Debate Carbohydrates - Intelihealth, 9/2/03 -
"Blood sugar levels may shoot twice as high after a high-GI meal as after a
low one, and that unleashes metabolic havoc: The body responds with a surge
of insulin, which prompts it to quickly store the sugar in muscle and fat
cells. The high sugar also inhibits another hormone, glucagon, which
ordinarily tells the body to burn its stored fuel ... Blood sugar plunges.
So much is stored so fast that within two or three hours, levels may be
lower than they were before the meal. Suddenly, the body needs more fuel.
But because glucagon is still in short supply, the body does not tap into
its fat supply for energy. The inevitable result? Hunger ... After one year,
the low-GI volunteers had dropped seven pounds of pure fat. The others had
put on four"
- Glycemic Index:
New Way to Count Carbs? - WebMD, 8/20/03 -
"Foods with a high glycemic index (and therefore a higher number) cause a
sudden and drastic jump in blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic foods are more
easily absorbed in the body and raise blood sugar more gradually ... The
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition lists any food under 55 as a
low-glycemic food and any food more than 70 as high glycemic"
- New Diet
Approach May Fight Child Obesity - WebMD, 8/12/03 -
"a reduced-glycemic-load diet that emphasizes foods with a low to moderate
glycemic index and allows children to eat until they're full was more
effective than a traditional low-fat, calorie-restricted diet in helping
obese children shed pounds and slow the
progression of insulin resistance, a risk factor for diabetes ... Complex
carbohydrates, such as whole-grain bread and cereals, brown rice, and
vegetables, are foods with a low to moderate glycemic index"
Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affected By Diet - Doctor's Guide, 2/27/03
- "Although patients were advised to maintain an
identical energy intake with the different diets, there was significant
weight loss on the low glycaemic index diet compared with weight gain on the
high sucrose diet"
- What is hyperinsulimia? How
is it controlled? What are the tests? What is Glucophage? - Dr. Weil,
9/3/02 - "People with the genetic tendency to
metabolic syndrome can avoid it by getting regular exercise and by
minimizing consumption of high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods"
Cracking the Fat Riddle - Time Magazine, 9/2/02 -
"the food pyramid is due for an overhaul in
2003—although no one is yet willing to give any details. If Harvard's
Willett has his way, the pyramid will make a greater distinction between the
fats and carbs
we should and shouldn't eat. Willett, unlike the USDA, does not lump most
carbohydrates at the pyramid's base or all fats at the pyramid's
eat-sparingly pinnacle. In fact, Willett places good fats—those from
vegetables and fish—at the base and good carbohydrates—from whole-grain
versions of bread and pasta—side by side at the base. Carbohydrates with a
high glycemic load join saturated fats at the top"
- Glycemic Index
Helpful in Food Selection - Medscape, 5/8/02 -
"11 healthy men were randomly allocated to 5 weeks of a low- or high-glycemic
index (LGI or HGI) diet separated by a 5-week washout period in a
crossover design. Compared with the HGI diet, the LGI diet resulted in lower
postprandial plasma glucose and insulin profiles and areas under the curve,
lower plasma triacylglycerol excursion after lunch, decreased total fat mass
by approximately 700 g, and a tendency to increase lean body mass without
changing body weight. Decreased leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and
hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA quantities in the subcutaneous abdominal
adipose tissue accompanied decreased fat mass"
Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load And Certain Foods Linked To Breast Cancer
- Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01 - "Consumption of foods
that are associated with a high glycemic index, such as white bread,
increased breast cancer risk: odds ratio 1.3. In contrast, pasta, which is
associated with a medium glycemic index, did not seem to influence breast
cancer risk: odds ratio 1.0 ... glycemic index and glycemic load show
"moderate, direct associations" with breast cancer risk. This suggests that
hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance might contribute to the risk of
developing breast cancer"
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of
Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults - J Am
Geriatr Soc. 2015 Oct;63(10):1991-2000 - "Dietary GI and
GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical
features, with particular age-dependent considerations"
glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's
Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun 24 -
"We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing
odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth vs. first
quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically
significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added
sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for
the fifth vs. first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029).
Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was
significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined
grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression"
load and coronary heart disease in a Mediterranean population: The EPIC Greek
cohort study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Dec 11 -
"High adherence to MD with low/moderate GL was
associated with lower risk of CHD incidence (HR = 0.61, CI: 0.39-0.95) and
mortality (HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-96)"
of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load with Endometrial Cancer Risk Among
Chinese Women - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Dec 12:1-9 -
"Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increasing quartiles of intake
were 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, and 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-4.0] for dietary
GL (Ptrend = 0.02) and 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-2.0) for dietary GI (Ptrend
= 0.02). High intake of staples, especially rice, was positively associated with
glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the
EPIC-Italy study - Int J Cancer. 2014 Nov 18 - "The
adjusted HR of colorectal cancer for highest vs. lowest GI quartile was 1.35;
95% CI 1.03-1.78; p trend 0.031. Increasing high GI carbohydrate intake was also
significantly associated with increasing colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI
1.04-2.03; p trend 0.034); while increasing low GI carbohydrate was associated
with reducing risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p trend 0.033). High dietary GI,
and high GI carbohydrate, were associated with increased risks of cancer at all
colon sites (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.88, HR 1.80;95% CI 1.22-2.65, respectively);
whereas high GI carbohydrate and high GL, were associated with increased risk of
proximal colon cancer (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.18-3.16, HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.08-3.74,
glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to all-cause and cause-specific
mortality in a Japanese community: the Takayama study - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct
20:1-8 - "Diets with a high glycaemic index (GI) or
glycaemic load (GL) have been hypothesised to increase the risk of diabetes, CVD
and some cancers. In the present study, the associations of dietary GI and GL
with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality were prospectively
examined in a general population in Japan, where white rice is the main
contributor of dietary GI and GL ... Dietary intake was assessed using a
validated FFQ ... In men, dietary GI was found to be significantly inversely
associated with the risk of all-cause and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular
mortality; the hazard ratios (HR) for the highest v. lowest quartile were 0.80
(95 % CI 0.68, 0.95) and 0.64 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.84), respectively. Dietary GL was
found to be significantly inversely associated with the risk of all-cause,
cancer, and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality; the HR for the highest v.
lowest quartile were 0.71 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.86), 0.71 (95 % CI 0.52, 0.99) and
0.64 (95 % CI 0.48, 0.87), respectively. The results obtained for the GL derived
from white rice, but not from other foods, closely mirrored those obtained for
overall GL. In women, dietary GI was found to be significantly positively
associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality; the HR for the highest v.
lowest quartile was 1.56 (95 % CI 1.15, 2.13)"
Glycemic Index, and Weight Loss in Free-Living Individuals: Practical
Implications - J Am Coll Nutr. 2014 Oct 10:1-10 -
"The results indicate that in a free-living population of men and women, weight
loss is associated with energy intake reduction. Potato intake did not cause
weight gain and following either a high- or low-GI dietary prescription was
difficult for free-living subjects, emphasizing the complex nature of changing
Glycemic Load is Associated With Increased Risk of Colon Cancer - Nutr
Cancer. 2014 Mar 10 - "GL was assessed using a
self-administered food frequency questionnaire ... odds ratios (ORs) for colon
cancer increased significantly with increasing GL: compared to the bottom
quartile of GL, the ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were
1.38 (1.06, 1.80), 1.67 (1.30, 2.13), and 1.61 (1.25, 2.07), respectively ...
the association was more pronounced among older participants [ORs (95% CI) for
the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.35 (0.91, 2.00), 1.87 (1.29, 2.71),
2.02 (1.39, 2.95), respectively] than among younger participants [ORs were 1.46
(1.02, 2.10), 1.53 (1.09, 2.15), and 1.35 (0.96, 1.91), respectively"
glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men
and women: the Japan public health center-based prospective study - Nutr J.
2013 Dec 27;12(1):165 - "Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of
carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise
the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population ... We observed 27,769 men and
36,864 women (45-75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public
Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic
load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire ... The dietary
glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women:
the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest
quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was
implied to be stronger among women with BMI < 25 than the women with BMI >= 25.
The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes
among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio
comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28;
P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first
and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced
risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower
total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI,
0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively)"
Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and
nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults - Br J
Nutr. 2013 May 9:1-11 - "In conclusion, we found
independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and
central obesity in British adults"
a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2
diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr.
2013 Jan 30 - "24 prospective cohort studies
identified by August 2012 ... the GL was positively associated with RR of
T2D of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.61) for a 100-g increment in GL ... After we
accounted for several sources of heterogeneity, findings from prospective
cohort studies that related the GL to T2D appear robust and consistently
indicate strong and significantly lower T2D risk in persons who consume
Habitually Higher Dietary Glycemic Index During Puberty Is Prospectively
Related to Increased Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger Adulthood
- Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan 24 - "A higher dietary GI
was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (P(trend) = 0.03),
ALT (P(trend) = 0.02), and GGT (P(trend) = 0.04). After adjustment for sex,
adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as
protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted
tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16-2.60), 2.47 (2.26-2.71), and 2.59
(2.35-2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and
whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers ... Our data
indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely
affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood"
Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to risk of diabetes-related
cancers: a meta-analysis - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 18:1-14 -
"Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic
load (GL) have been hypothesised to increase the risks of certain cancers by
increasing blood glucose or insulin concentrations ... We searched Pubmed,
EMBASE and MEDLINE databases up to September 2011 and reference lists of
relevant articles ... In a comparison of the highest and lowest categories,
the pooled RR of DRC were 1.07 (95 % CI 1.04, 1.11; n 30) for GI and 1.02
(95 % CI 0.96, 1.08; n 33) for GL. In an analysis of site-specific cancer
risks, we found significant associations for GI in relation to breast cancer
(RR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.11; n 11) and colorectal cancer (RR 1.08; 95 % CI
1.00, 1.17; n 9 studies). GL was significantly associated with the risk of
endometrial cancer (RR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.37; n 5). In conclusion, the
findings of the present study suggest a modest-to-weak association between a
diet that induces a high glucose response and DRC risks"
glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European
Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) - Am J Clin Nutr.
2012 Jul 3 - "The glycemic potential of a diet is
associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment
breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting
insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether
this effect differs by BC phenotype ... The objective was to investigate the
relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate
intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into
Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) ... Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not
related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were
significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative
(ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1)
(95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89;
P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor
(PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1)
(95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15,
2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with
ER-positive BC was observed"
load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: Meta-analyses of
prospective studies - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jun 6 -
"Fourteen studies were identified, involving 229,213 participants and more than
11,363 cases. The pooled RRs of CVDs risk for the highest vs lowest categories
of GL and GI were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.36) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.22)
respectively. Both the risk estimates of GL and GI for women (GL: RR = 1.35, 95%
CI: 1.18-1.55; GI: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.06-1.34) were higher than men (GL: RR =
1.10, 95% CI: 0.95-1.28; GI: RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.94-1.17) ... High GL and GI
were associated with significant increased risk of CVDs, specifically for women"
Low-Glycemic Load Diet Reduces Serum C-Reactive Protein and Modestly Increases
Adiponectin in Overweight and Obese Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 21 -
"Among participants with high-body fat mass (>32.0% for
males and >25.0% for females), the low-GL diet reduced CRP (P = 0.02) and
marginally increased adiponectin (P = 0.06). In conclusion, carbohydrate
quality, independent of energy, is important. Dietary patterns emphasizing
low-GL foods may improve the inflammatory and adipokine profiles of overweight
and obese individuals"
added PGX®, a novel functional fibre, on the glycaemic index of starchy foods
- Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 10:1-4 - "Healthy subjects (n 10)
consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of
GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2.5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved
in 250 ml water ... PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P <
0.001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2.5 g dose and 30 % for the 5
g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively.
Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water
at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common
foods" - See
Natural Factors, WellBetX
PGX with Mulberry, 180 Capsules at iHerb.
glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men
- Metabolism. 2011 Jul 29 - "During the study, 133
participants developed diabetes. Age- and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios
across the GI quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.62, 1.50, 1.68, and 1.80; and
those of GL were 1.00 (reference), 1.07, 1.48, 0.95, and 0.98. The hazard ratio
for the highest GI quintile was significantly greater than that for the lowest
quintile. The influence of GI was more pronounced in the lowest insulin
resistance subgroups. GI and pancreatic B-cell function were independently
associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus; participants with low
B-cell function and the highest tertile of GI had the highest risk of diabetes.
Dietary GI is associated with the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged Japanese
men. GI and B-cell function were independently associated with incidence of
Consumption of Vegetable, Fruit, Grain, and High Glycemic Index Foods on
Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 -
"Here we further investigate such potential
relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate
cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest
quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were
inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer [adjusted odds
ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96; P trend = 0.02], as was higher
consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P
trend = 0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods
were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR = 1.64, 95% CI:
1.05, 2.57; P trend = 0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific
foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets
high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of
aggressive prostate cancer"
Nutrition Is Associated with the 5-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease
- J Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "participants in the 4th
quartile of mean dietary GI intake compared with those in the first quartile
(reference) had a 55% increased likelihood of having eGFR < 60 mL⋅min(-1)⋅1.73
m(-2) [multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.07-2.26); P-trend = 0.01].
After multivariable adjustment, participants in the 4th quartile of dietary
cereal fiber intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a
50% reduced risk of incident moderate CKD (P-trend = 0.03). Higher baseline
consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate (e.g.
cookies) yielded a 3-fold higher risk of incident CKD (P-trend = 0.01). In
summary, we observed a novel link between high cereal fiber intake and reduced
incidence of moderate CKD and this was supported by the cross-sectional
association with dietary GI. Conversely, our data suggest that higher intake of
energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate, potentially through acute
hyperglycemia, could impair renal function"
Effect of a
low glycaemic index diet on blood glucose in women with gestational
hyperglycaemia - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov 19 -
"Diet GI on control (58, 95% CI: 56,60) was
significantly higher than on low-GI (49, 95% CI: 47,51; p=0.001). Glycaemic
control improved on both diets, but more postprandial glucose values were within
target on low-GI (58.4% of n=1891) than control (48.7% of n=1834; p<0.001). SMBG
post-breakfast was directly related to pre-pregnancy BMI in the control, but not
the low-GI group (BMI*diet interaction; p=0.021). Participants accepted the
study foods and were willing to consume them post-intervention ... A low-GI diet
was feasible and acceptable in this sample and facilitated control of
postprandial glucose. A larger study is needed to determine the effect of a
low-GI diet on maternal and infant outcomes"
Glycemic Load Is a Predictor of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Older Adults - J
Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Participants in the highest quartile
of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76%
greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher
carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss
(P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet
was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total
carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying
biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss"
quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "glycemic load (GL), glycemic
index (GI) ... During a mean follow-up of 10 y, 915 incident diabetes cases were
documented. Dietary GL was associated with an increased diabetes risk after
adjustment for age, sex, established diabetes risk factors, and dietary factors
[hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.54; P lt 0.001]. GI
tended to increase diabetes risk (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P equals 0.05).
Dietary fiber was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR: 0.92; 95% CI:
0.85, 0.99; P lt 0.05), whereas carbohydrate intake was associated with
increased diabetes risk (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32; P lt 0.05). Of the
carbohydrate subtypes, only starch was related to increased diabetes risk [HR:
1.25 (1.07, 1.46), P lt 0.05]. All associations became slightly stronger after
exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: Diets high in GL, GI, and starch
and low in fiber were associated with an increased diabetes risk. Both
carbohydrate quantity and quality seem to be important factors in diabetes
prevention. Energy misreporting contributed to a slight attenuation of
Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a
Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010
Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore
was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a
novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added
to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood
glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching
significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5
and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose
with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM])
100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the
GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0
+/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6,
respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly
effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner"
- See PGX at Amazon.com.
load, glycemic index and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of
Swedish women - Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 3 - "In
analyses stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)
status of the breast tumors, we observed statistically significant positive
associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load with
risk of ER+/PR- breast cancer; the multivariate relative risks comparing
extreme quintiles were 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-1.94; p for
trend = 0.04] for carbohydrate intake, 1.44 (95% CI = 1.06-1.97; p for trend
= 0.01) for glycemic index and 1.81 (95% CI = 1.29-2.53; p for trend =
0.0008) for glycemic load. No associations were observed for ER+/PR+ or
ER-/PR- breast tumors. These findings suggest that a high carbohydrate
intake and diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load may increase the
risk of developing ER+/PR- breast cancer"
Index, Retinal Vascular Caliber, and Stroke Mortality - Stroke. 2008 Oct
23 - "high glycemic index (GI) and low cereal fiber
(CF) ... Persons consuming food in the highest GI tertile and lowest CF
tertile had a 5-fold increased risk of stroke death ... High-GI and low-CF
diets predict greater stroke mortality and wider retinal venular caliber.
The association between a high-GI diet and stroke death was partly explained
by GI effects on retinal venular caliber, suggesting that a high-GI diet may
produce deleterious anatomic changes in the microvasculature"
glycemic index and the risk of age-related macular degeneration - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1104-10 - "a higher mean
dietary glycemic index was associated with an increased 10-y risk of early
AMD in a comparison of quartiles 1 and 4 [relative risk (RR): 1.77; 95% CI:
1.13, 2.78; P for trend = 0.03]. Conversely, a greater consumption of cereal
fiber (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.04; P for trend = 0.05) and breads and
cereals (predominantly lower glycemic index foods such as oatmeal) (RR:
0.67; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.02; P for trend = 0.03) was associated with a reduced
risk of incident early AMD ... A high-glycemic-index diet is a risk factor
for early AMD-the recognized precursor of sight-threatening late AMD.
Low-glycemic-index foods such as oatmeal may protect against early AMD"
Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1793-801 - "Overall, both
GL and GI were significantly associated with a greater risk of colorectal
(summary RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.44 and RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.34,
respectively) and endometrial (RR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62 and RR = 1.22;
95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) cancer than of breast and pancreatic cancer"
The glycemic index and cardiovascular disease risk - Curr Atheroscler
Rep. 2007 Dec;9(6):479-85 - "dietary GI and/or
glycemic load independently predict cardiovascular disease, with relative
risk ratios of 1.2 to 1.7 comparing highest and lowest quintiles. In
randomized controlled trials in overweight subjects, diets based on low-GI
carbohydrates have produced better cardiovascular-related outcomes than
conventional low-fat diets. Taken together, the findings suggest that health
professionals may be able to improve cardiovascular outcomes by recommending
the judicious use of low- GI/glycemic load foods"
The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled
trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no
effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):114-25 - "In subjects with
T2DM managed by diet alone with optimal glycemic control, long-term HbA(1c)
was not affected by altering the GI or the amount of dietary carbohydrate.
Differences in total:HDL cholesterol among diets had disappeared by 6 mo.
However, because of sustained reductions in postprandial glucose and CRP, a
low-GI diet may be preferred for the dietary management of T2DM"
Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in
older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):126-31 -
"These findings do not support a relation between
dietary GI or GL and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults"
Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2
Diabetes in US Black Women - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2304-9
- "Increasing cereal fiber in the diet may be an
effective means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a disease that has
reached epidemic proportions in black women"
Prospective Study of Dietary Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load,
and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-aged Chinese Women -
Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2310-6 - "High
intake of foods with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, especially
rice, the main carbohydrate-contributing food in this population, may
increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese women"
Dietary glycemic load, added sugars, and carbohydrates as risk factors for
pancreatic cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Nov;86(5):1495-501 - "Glycemic load and added sugars
were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. The risk
increased with higher intakes of total sugars, fructose, and sucrose, and
the association with fructose was significant when the highest and lowest
quartiles were compared (relative risk: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.80; P for
trend = 0.046). A significant association was found with fruit and juices
intake (1.37; 1.02, 1.84; P for trend = 0.04) but not with soda intake.
Statistical evidence of a significant interaction with body mass index was
present only for sucrose intake (P = 0.04). A comparison of the highest and
lowest quartiles of sucrose intake in overweight or obese participants gave
a relative risk of 1.46 (0.95-2.25; P for trend = 0.04), but the comparison
was not significant in normal-weight participants"
Carbohydrate nutrition, glycemic index, and the 10-y incidence of cataract
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1502-8 - "poorer
dietary carbohydrate quality, reflected by high GI, predicted incident
Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk - Ann Oncol. 2007
Oct 19 - "Compared with the lowest tertile, the ORs
in subsequent tertiles were 1.68 and 1.73 for GI, and 1.76 and 2.17 for GL.
The OR for highest tertile of GI compared with lowest one was 1.70 for
papillary and 1.57 for follicular thyroid cancer. The ORs for GL were 2.17
for papillary and 3.33 for follicular thyroid cancer ... Our study shows
that high dietary levels of GI and GL are associated with thyroid cancer
Breakfast glycemic index affects subsequent daily energy intake in
free-living healthy children - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):980-987 -
"At all ages, among children who consumed their next
meal in the early postprandial phase (after 3-4 h), children with a lower
GI(br) consumed more calories throughout the remainder of the day than did
children with a higher GI(br), independent of major dietary confounders"
Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with
high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk
of diabetes in the Whitehall II study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):988-994 - "At baseline, dietary GI and GL
were associated inversely with HDL cholesterol, and GI was associated
directly with triacylglycerols. Dietary GI and GL were related inversely to
fasting glucose and directly to 2-h postload glucose ... The proposed
protective effect of low-dietary GI and GL diets on diabetes risk could not
be confirmed in this study"
Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an
Italian prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):1160-1166 - "The relative risk (RR) of
breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57
(95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P
for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not
associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from
high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status
and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was
confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and
who had normal BMI (ie, <25)"
Dietary carbohydrate and the progression of age-related macular
degeneration: a prospective study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1210-1218 - "The
latter gives an estimate that 7.8% of new advanced AMD cases would be
prevented in 5 y if people consumed the low-dGI diet"
Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and ovarian cancer risk: a prospective
cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10):1076-81 -
"Glyacemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) .. GI
and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were not associated with ovarian
cancer risk in the total cohort. GL was positively associated with a 72%
increase in risk of ovarian cancer"
Beneficial effects of a 5-week low-glycaemic index regimen on weight control
and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight non-diabetic subjects - Br
J Nutr. 2007 Jul 9;:1-11 - "Mean body weight
decrease was significant in the LGI group ( - 1.1 (sEM 0.3) kg, P = 0.004)
and was significantly greater than in the HGI group ( - 0.3 (sEM 0.2) kg, P
= 0.04 between groups). Hunger sensation scales showed a trend towards a
decrease in hunger sensation before lunch and dinner in the LGI group when
compared with the HGI group (P = 0.09). No significant increase in insulin
sensitivity was noticed. The LGI diet also decreased total cholesterol by
9.6 % (P < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol by 8.6 % (P = 0.01) and both
LDL-:HDL-cholesterol ratio (10.1 %, P = 0.003) and total:HDL-cholesterol
ratio (8.5 %, P = 0.001) while no significant changes were observed in the
Association between dietary glycemic index and age-related macular
degeneration in nondiabetic participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease
Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):180-8 -
"Compared with eyes in the first quintile of dGI, eyes in the fourth and
fifth quintiles had a significantly or suggestively higher risk of large
drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascularization. The
multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest quintile were
1.42 (1.09, 1.84), 1.78 (0.81, 3.90), and 1.41 (0.95, 2.08), respectively,
of which only the odds ratio for large drusen was significant. A significant
positive relation between dGI and severity of AMD was also noted (P for
trend < 0.001). There was a 49% increase in the risk of advanced AMD
(geographic atrophy plus neovascularization) for persons with a dGI higher
than the sex median"
High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of
cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up
study - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 3;50(1):14-21 -
"Dietary glycemic load (mean = 100; SD = 17) was
associated with increased risk of CVD, adjusted for CVD risk factors and
dietary variables, with a hazard ratio (HR) for the highest against lowest
quartile of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 2.09; p(trend) =
0.03). Similar results were observed for dietary glycemic index with a
corresponding HR of 1.33"
Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease in
middle-aged and older Swedish men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Jun;85(6):1521-1526 - "glycemic index (GI) and
dietary glycemic load (GL) ... Dietary GI and dietary GL were not associated
with ischemic cardiovascular disease or mortality, but dietary GL was
associated with a greater risk of hemorrhagic stroke"
The effect of a 12-week low glycaemic index diet on heart disease risk
factors and 24 h glycaemic response in healthy middle-aged volunteers at
risk of heart disease: a pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21 -
"only the low GI group lost weight ... This pilot
study provides some evidence that consuming a low GI diet in addition to
weight loss and healthy eating may reduce cardiovascular risk"
Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women
- N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1991-2002 -
"During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 1994 new cases of coronary
heart disease. After multivariate adjustment, the relative risk of coronary
heart disease comparing highest and lowest deciles of the
low-carbohydrate-diet score was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to
1.18; P for trend=0.19). The relative risk comparing highest and lowest
deciles of a low-carbohydrate-diet score on the basis of the percentage of
energy from carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat was 0.94 (95% CI,
0.74 to 1.19; P for trend=0.52), whereas the relative risk on the basis of
the percentage of energy from intake of carbohydrates, vegetable protein,
and vegetable fat was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.88; P for trend=0.002). A
higher glycemic load was strongly associated with an increased risk of
coronary heart disease (relative risk comparing highest and lowest deciles,
Relations of glycemic index and glycemic load with plasma oxidative stress
markers - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):70-6 -
"Chronic consumption of high-GI foods may lead to chronically high oxidative
stress. A low-GI diet, not a low-carbohydrate diet, appears to be beneficial
in reducing oxidative stress"
Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and risk of endometrial cancer: a
prospective cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct;8(7):912-9 -
"Our data suggest that diets with high glycaemic
index or high glycaemic load may be associated with endometrial cancer risk
overall, and particularly among obese women, premenopausal women and
postmenopausal women who use hormone replacement therapy"
Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, Fiber, Simple Sugars, and Insulin
Resistance: The Inter99 study - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1397-1403
- "Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic
index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total
carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability
of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was
inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (low-glycaemic index) diet induces weight loss
and preserves lean body mass in obese healthy subjects: results of a 24-week
study - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):290-3 -
"after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg
(98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p </= 0.0001). There was a significant 15% decrease in
fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p </= 0.0001) and a decrease in lean body mass
The beneficial effect of a diet with low glycaemic index on 24 h glucose
profiles in healthy young people as assessed by continuous glucose
monitoring - Br J Nutr. 2005 Feb;93(2):179-82 -
"The present study provides important data on how a
simple adjustment to the diet can improve glucose profiles that, if
sustained in the long term, would be predicted from epidemiological studies
to have a favourable influence on CVD"
Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart
disease risk factors during weight loss
- JAMA. 2004 Nov 24;292(20):2482-90 - "Reduction in
glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity,
cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus"
Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes
- Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov;27(11):2701-6 - "Reducing
dietary GI while maintaining a high carbohydrate intake may reduce the risk
of type 2 diabetes. One way to achieve this would be to substitute white
bread with low-GI breads"
Meta-analysis of the health effects of using the glycaemic index in
meal-planning - Br J Nutr. 2004 Sep;92(3):367-81 -
"Results of the present meta-analysis support the
use of the GI as a scientifically based tool to enable selection of
carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce total cholesterol and to improve
overall metabolic control of diabetes"
Glycemic index and glycemic load in endometrial cancer - Int J Cancer.
2003 Jun 20;105(3):404-7 - "Our study supports the
hypothesis of a direct association between GI and
endometrial cancer risk"
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