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Supplements that may increase dopamine:
Medications that may increase dopamine:
This is your brain on fried eggs: Brain, motivation and eating a high-fat
diet - Science Daily, 7/14/15 - "Fulton's study
is the first of its kind to show that, regardless of weight changes,
unrestrained intake of saturated fats can have negative effects on the
controls of motivation by the brain. "As we were able to control for changes
in body weight, hormones and glucose levels, we think that the fats may be
affecting the dopamine system by a direct action in the brain," Fulton said.
"We in fact have separate evidence that brain inflammation could be involved
in this process, as it is evoked by saturated high-fat feeding"
Omega-3 reduces ADHD symptoms in rats - Science Daily, 8/23/13 -
"The results show a clear improvement in
ADHD-related behaviour from supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a
faster turnover of the signal substances dopamine, serotonin and glutamate
in the nervous system ... The new findings indicate that ADHD has a
biological component and that the intake of omega-3 may influence ADHD
symptoms ... we have without a doubt found molecular changes in the brain
after rats with ADHD were given omega-3 ... We saw that the turnover of
dopamine and serotonin took place much faster among the male rats that had
been given omega-3 than among those that had not. For serotonin the turnover
ratio was three times higher, and for dopamine it was just over two and a
half times higher" -
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®) and its specific acylated flavonol
constituents increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the rat medial
prefrontal cortex: possible implications for the cognitive enhancing
properties of EGb 761® - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Aug;24 Suppl 1:S25-34 -
"As seen for isorhamnetin, the effect on
neurotransmitter levels seems not to be a general effect of flavonols but
rather to be a specific action of acylated flavonol glycosides which are
present in EGb 761®. The direct involvement of these two flavonol
derivatives in the increase of dopaminergic and cholinergic
neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be one of the underlying
mechanisms behind the reported effects of EGb 761® on the improvement of
cognitive function" - See
Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Protection from Carnosine in the
Striatum of MPTP-Treated Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 6 -
"The preintake of carnosine significantly attenuated MPTP-induced
glutathione loss, retained the activity of GPX and SOD, diminished oxidative
stress, and lowered inflammatory cytokines and nitrite levels as well as
suppressed iNOS activity (P < 0.05). MPTP treatment significantly suppressed
GPX mRNA expression and enhanced iNOS mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Carnosine
preintake significantly elevated GPX mRNA expression and declined iNOS mRNA
expression (P < 0.05). Preintake of carnosine also significantly improved
MPTP-induced dopamine depletion and maintained 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic
acid and homovanillic acid levels (P < 0.05). These results suggest that
carnosine could provide antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection for
the striatum against the development of Parkinson's disease" - See
carnosine products at Amazon.com.
|Neurotransmitters in Various Disorders:
News & Research:
Long-Term Cannabis Use May Blunt the Brain's Motivation System - Science
Daily, 7/1/13 - "Long-term cannabis users tend to
produce less dopamine, a chemical in the brain linked to motivation ... The
researchers used PET brain imaging to look at dopamine production in the
striatum of 19 regular cannabis users and 19 non-users of matching age and
sex ... The lowest dopamine levels were seen in users who meet diagnostic
criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence"
Feel-good hormone helps jog memory, finds study of seniors - Science
Daily, 11/8/12 - "Half of the test participants had
first taken a placebo and the remainder had taken Levodopa. This substance,
also known as L-DOPA, is able to reach the brain from the bloodstream, and
there it is converted into dopamine ... after six hours memory performance
changed. Test subjects with Levodopa recognised up to 20 per cent more
photos than the members of the comparison group. The ratio between the
amount of Levodopa taken and the body weight of the test subjects proved to
be decisive for an optimal dose" - Yeah but I think if I remember
correctly, you buildup a tolerance to Levodopa and it no longer works.
IAS sells it.
Dopamine impacts your willingness to work - Science Daily, 5/1/12 -
""go-getters" who are willing to work hard for
rewards had higher release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in areas of the
brain known to play an important role in reward and motivation, the striatum
and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, "slackers" who are
less willing to work hard for a reward had high dopamine levels in another
brain area that plays a role in emotion and risk perception"
Dopamine system in highly creative people similar to that seen in
schizophrenics, study finds - Science Daily, 5/18/10
Ritalin boosts learning by increasing brain plasticity - Science Daily,
3/7/10 - "Ritalin boosts both of these cognitive
abilities by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine deep
inside the brain. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers neurons use
to communicate with each other. They release the molecule, which then docks
onto receptors of other neurons. The research demonstrated that one type of
dopamine receptor aids the ability to focus, and another type improves the
Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761((R)) and its main constituent flavonoids and
ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal
cortex - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jan 25 - "A single
oral dose of EGb 761 (100 mg.kg(-1)) had no effect on monoamine levels.
However, following chronic (100 mg.kg(-1)/14 days/once daily) treatment, the
same dose significantly increased extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline
levels, while 5-HT levels were unaffected. Chronic treatment with EGb 761
showed dose-dependent increases in frontocortical dopamine levels and, to a
lesser extent, in the striatum. The extracellular levels of HVA and DOPAC
were not affected by either acute or repeated doses. Treatment with the main
constituents of EGb 761 revealed that the increase in dopamine levels was
mostly caused by the flavonol glycosides and ginkgolide fractions, whereas
bilobalide treatment was without effect. Conclusions and implications: The
present results demonstrate that chronic but not acute treatment with EGb
761 increased dopaminergic transmission in the PFC. This finding may be one
of the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of G. biloba in improving
cognitive function" - See
Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
a Shot of Dopamine Make Your Future Look Brighter? - Time Magazine,
Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of
high-calorie foods - Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Mar 3 -
"Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a
variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative
properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to
increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings ... After 6 weeks, there
was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in
appetite ratings were observed for the 2,000 mg/day group. The higher dose
group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to
food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex.
Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite
ratings ...These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of
citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted"
citicholine at Amazon.com.
Differential D1 and D5
Receptor Regulation and Degradation of the Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor -
Hypertension. 2008 Jan 2
Green Tea May Protect Brain Cells Against Parkinson's Disease - Science
Daily, 12/13/07 - "green tea polyphenols protect
dopamine neurons that increases with the amount consumed. They also show
that this protective effect is mediated by inhibition of the ROS-NO pathway,
a pathway that may contribute to cell death in Parkinson's" - See
green tea extract at Amazon.com.
Insulin's Brain Impact Links Drugs And Diabetes - Science Daily,
10/17/07 - "The researchers then restored insulin by
pulsing the hormone back into the brain of the diabetic animals and found
that the system returns to normal, indicating that the lack of insulin in
the striatum directly affected amphetamine action"
Antidepressant-Like Effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the Mouse Tail
Suspension Test - Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Sep;30(9):1758-62 -
"Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been known as a
component of traditional medicines that elicit various biological effects
such as anti-fatigue, immunomodulatory, and hypoglycemic actions. Since it
has been well-established that fatigue is closely related to depression, we
used the tail suspension test (TST) in mice to examine the
antidepressant-like effects of hot water extract (HWCS) and supercritical
fluid extract (SCCS) of CS ... these results suggest that SCCS may elicit an
antidepressant-like effect by affecting the adrenergic and dopaminergic
systems, but not by affecting the serotonergic system" - See
cordyceps at Amazon.com.
Brain Chemical May Be Key in Eating Disorders - WebMD, 9/6/05 -
"Dopamine is a chemical involved in weight, feeding
behaviors, reinforcement, and reward. Now they are reporting that women who
have recovered from eating disorders show abnormal levels of serotonin"
Dopamine May Play New Role in Depression - WebMD, 7/28/05 -
"Current antidepression treatments are mostly based
on the deficiency or imbalance of the brain chemicals serotonin and
norepinephrine ... This new study highlights the importance of the dopamine
- Study Links Low
Iron to ADHD - WebMD, 12/17/04 -
"Low iron levels in the brain are known to alter the
activity of dopamine, a chemical involved in controlling movement. The
researchers suggest that this could explain the observed link between iron
stores and ADHD"
- Sex, Sexuality, and
Serotonin - Medscape, 7/20/04 -
"From our study of the brain, we have some nice
evidence that elevated activity of dopamine is involved in that intense
sense of passion and arousal of romantic love. I also maintain in my book,
Why We Love, that we're going to find out sometime that norepinephrine is
also involved, largely because heightened activity of norepinephrine is also
associated with focused attention, elevated energy, motivation to win a
reward, elation, and 2 characteristics of romantic love -- obsessional
following and object imprinting ... low activity levels of serotonin are
going to be involved"
Reduction of Brain Dopamine Concentration With Dietary Tyrosine Plus
Phenylalanine Depletion - Am J Psychiatry 160:1887-1889, October 2003 -
"Healthy male subjects were scanned on two
occasions: once after receiving a balanced amino acid drink and once after
receiving a drink mixture from which tyrosine
and phenylalanine were omitted ...
Dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion increased [11C]raclopride
binding in the striatum by a mean of 6%. The change in [11C]raclopride
binding correlated significantly with the fall in the ratio of tyrosine and
phenylalanine to large neutral amino acids"
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs May Protect Against Parkinson's Disease
- Doctor's Guide, 11/14/02 -
"Studies show that NSAIDs
can reduce dopaminergic neuron degeneration in
Parkinsonian animal models"
Phosphatidylserine (PS) The Essential Brain Nutrient - Life Extension
Magazine, 9/02 -
"Among its list of functions,
phosphatidylserine stimulates the release of dopamine (a mood regulator
that also control physical sensations, and movement), increases the
production of acetylcholine (necessary for learning and memory), enhances
brain glucose metabolism (the fuel used for brain activity), reduces
cortisol levels (a stress hormone), and boosts the activity of nerve
growth factor (NGF), which oversees the health of cholinergic neurons"
Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of
Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 -
"The mood-improving action of testosterone is more
likely to be due to the direct action of testosterone on the brain-possibly
through raising the levels of dopamine, a very important "reward"
- Depression Linked
to Parkinson's - WebMD, 5/28/02 -
"About 1.4% (19) of the depressed people (about
1.4%) developed Parkinson's compared with
only 0.4% of the others ... the link may have a biological explanation,
known as the "serotonin hypothesis." Not only do people with Parkinson's
disease have lower levels of dopamine in the brain, studies have also shown
that the brains of these patients also have reduced levels of another brain
serotonin. Low levels of serotonin are known to
be a key factor in depression" -
Note: St. Johns wort is believed to increase
all three of the brain's primary chemicals, serotonin,
norepinephrine and dopamine.
- Seeing, Smelling
Food Triggers Drug-Like Effect on Brain - WebMD, 5/23/02 -
"the dopamine system can be triggered by food when
there is no pleasure associated with it, since the subjects don't eat the
Methamphetamines Kill Dopamine Transporters - Clinical Psychiatry News,
St. John's Wort: Effective, with Caveats - Nutrition Science News, 3/02
"Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 47
percent of those taking
St. John's wort improved compared with 40
percent of those taking the
sertraline ... Hyperforin increases the effectiveness of
norepinephrine, dopamine, L-glutamate, and gamma-amino butyric acid
(GABA), as well as serotonin. Researchers in
the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Frankfurt in Germany
concluded, "no other antidepressant compound exhibits a similar broad
Happily ever after? It's all in your head - CNN, 2/14/02 - See the
video. Claims that love is dependent on a cocktail of chemicals (dopamine,
PEA) and that
oxytocin is responsible for bonding and that
vasopressin is responsible for monogamy.
- Parkinson's Drugs
Not to Blame - WebMD, 1/22/02 -
"But people on Mirapex or Requip were not any more
likely to have daytime sleepiness. And they were no more likely to fall
asleep while driving compared with people not on these drugs. In fact,
sleepiness was not associated with any particular type of Parkinson's drug"
Augmentation Strategy Aids Treatment-Resistant Depression - Clinical
Psychiatry News, 11/01 -
"Pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, may be an
effective augmentation agent for patients with treatment-resistant
A New Natural Relaxant - Life Extension Magazine, 10/01 -
"Theanine also increases levels of dopamine, another
brain chemical with mood-enhancing effects"
Researchers Explore New Meds for Mood Disorders - Clinical Psychiatry
News, 10/01 -
"The dopamine system is an "underresearched area,""
Parkinson's Defense - Nutrition Science News, 5/01 -
"In vitro studies support the theory that vitamins C
and E suppress oxidative destruction of dopamine ... One approach has been
to increase internal dopamine levels by molecules that occur naturally in
the body, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and
cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline). Another strategy has been Co-Q10
therapy to prevent mitochondrial oxidative damage that occurs in PD patients
... CDP-Choline (citicholine) occurs in the body and is closely related to
choline, a nutrient in the B-vitamin family. Some evidence suggests
citicholine may enhance the effects of L-dopa, possibly by increasing
dopamine levels in the brain"
Caution in Treating PD Depression - Nutrition Science News, 5/01 -
"SAMe depletes dopamine and can produce PD-like
changes in animals ... Similarly, the herb kava (Piper methysticum) may
counter the effects of dopamine"
Improving Dopamine May Help Obese - Doctor's Guide, 2/5/01 -
"Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA,
norepinephrine and serotonin, as well as peptides and aminoacids, are
involved in the regulation of food intake ... Of particular interest is
dopamine since this neurotransmitter seems to regulate food intake by
modulating food reward via the meso-limbic circuitry of the brain. In fact,
drugs that block dopamine D2 receptors increase appetite and result in
significant weight gain, whereas drugs that increase brain dopamine
concentration are anorexigenic"
Brain dopamine and obesity - Lancet 2001;357:354-57 -
"Strategies aimed at improving dopamine function may
be beneficial in the treatment of obese individuals"
New study links obesity to brain receptors - CNN, 2/2/01 -
"What this new study seems to say is that obese
people don't have the normal amount of dopamine receptors in their brains"
Java Deters Parkinson's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/00 -
"there is evidence that coffee, which keeps dopamine
levels up, may help prevent Parkinson's disease in the first place"
Catecholamines Kick Out the Demons of Depression - Life Enhancement
Magazine, 7/99 - "the amino acid
phenylalanine converts to
tyrosine, which transforms to dopamine"
- St. John's wort continuing CME -
Nutrition Science News, 7/98 -
"Surprisingly, the extract was also shown to inhibit
the synaptosomal uptake of norepinephrine as well as dopamine with potencies
similar to those found with serotonin. The authors point out that while
other antidepressant drugs inhibit synaptosomal uptake of both serotonin and
norepinephrine (e.g. imipramine, desipramine) and others both dopamine and
norepinephrine (e.g. nomifensine, amineptine), no drug shows this action on
all three uptake systems."
- St. John's wort - The Natural Pharmacist -
"More recent research suggests that St. John's wort
inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine"
Depression Protocol - Life Extension Foundation -
"Tyrosine is used by the body to make the neurotransmitters dopamine,
norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which play a role in elevating mood and
keeping us alert; 500 to 1500 mg a day is recommended"
5-HTP : The Natural Way to Overcome Depression, Obesity, and Insomnia -
Dr. Murray -
"either L-tyrosine or D,L-phenylalanine used alone
produced improvements in mood comparable to those seen with antidepressant
drugs, but without the side effects (Table 2.7)." The reason appears to be
that tyrosine and phenylalanine have many roles in the body. Besides being
converted to dopamine and norepinephrine, they can be converted to other
substances that have stimulant and mood-elevating properties. Phenylalanine
(both in its D- and L-forms) increases the level of phenylethylamine (PEA),
while L-tyrosine increases the levels of PEA and two other
neurotrans-mitters, octopamine and tyramine. These compounds have stimulant
and mood-elevating properties, and depressed patients have been found to
have low levels of them."
- NADH - The Natural Pharmacist -
"NADH particularly plays a role in the production of
energy. It also participates in the production of L-dopa, which the body
turns into the important neurotransmitter dopamine"
Info and Studies - International Anti-aging Systems - "Actions of
selegiline at different dosages include; MAO-B inhibition, dopamine
re-uptake inhibition, reinforcement of defense against "oxidative stress",
and substitution for trophic factors"
- NADH, the supervitamin
body and mind energizer - by James South MA -
"The Birkmayers also found increased urinary
excretion of dopamine metabolites in the patients, indicating there was an
actual NADH induced increase in dopamine production"
|Neurotransmitter Regulation of Mood, Cognition, and Behavior
Stahl. Essential Psychopharmacology 1996 Foote. Psychopharmacology 1995.
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