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Home > Health Conditions > Colon Cancer

Colon Cancer

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  • Metformin Has Positive Therapeutic Effects in Colon Cancer and Lung Cancer - Am J Med Sci. 2017 Sep;354(3):246-251 - "Metformin (MF), a diabetic drug, has antineoplastic activity as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and prostate cancer. MF is thought to work via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and activation of p53 and liver kinase B1 via adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase ... For CC, the MF group noted fewer deaths (48% versus 76%, P < 0.001), recurrences (4% versus 19%, P = 0.002), metastases (23% versus 46%, P = 0.001), better 5-year survival rates (57% versus 37%, P = 0.004), overall survival years (5.7 versus 4.1, P = 0.007) and greater carcinoembryonic antigen decrease (72% versus 47%, P = 0.015). MF was associated with improved 5-year survival rates (29% versus 15%, P = 0.023) and overall survival years (3.4 versus 1.8, P < 0.001) in LC" - See metformin at IAS.
  • New research on probiotics in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer - Science Daily, 9/13/17 - "These results suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome with probiotics may become a new preventative or therapeutic strategy for patients at risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated CRC ... The active probiotic also reduced inflammation induced by the carcinogen plus DSS, as indicated by suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (i.e., those encoding KC, interleukin (IL)-22, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-1?) and reduced cytokine concentrations in plasma (i.e., KC, IL-22, and IL-6). The active probiotic also counteracted an increase in immature myeloid cells induced by the carcinogen" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Intestinal Microbiota Is Altered in Patients With Colon Cancer and Modified by Probiotic Intervention - Medscape, 8/30/17 - "Our results show promise for potential therapeutic benefits in CRC by manipulation of the microbiota" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Grape-based compounds kill colon cancer stem cells in mice - Science Daily, 6/19/17 - "The combination of resveratrol and grape seed extract is very effective at killing colon cancer cells ... The incidence of tumors was suppressed in the mice consuming the grape compounds alone by 50 percent, similar to the rate in the group consuming the diet with sulindac" - See Best Naturals Grape Seed Extract 400 mg Veggie Capsule, 120 Count and Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Slows Colon Cancer Progression - Medscape, 6/7/17 - "in the high-dose group (n = 69), the median PFS, which was the primary endpoint, was 13.1 months, compared with 11.2 months for the low-dose group (n = 70). That translated into a 31% reduced relative risk for disease progression in the high-dose group ... Patients in the high-dose group received a loading dose of 8000 IU/day of vitamin D3 orally for 2 weeks followed by 4000 IU/day. Those in the low-dose group received a standard vitamin D3 dose of 400 IU/day ... The disease control rate in the high-dose group was 96% vs 84% in the low-dose group" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 Intake and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies - Nutr Cancer. 2017 Jun 1:1-9 - "Dose-response meta-analysis based on five eligible studies showed that for each additional 3 and 5 mg of vitamin B6 intake, the risk would decrease by 11% (RR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.81-0.98) and 17% (RR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.71-0.97), respectively" - See Best Naturals Vitamin B-6 25 mg 250 Tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Polyphenols Inhibit Colorectal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane-Treated F344 Rats - Nutr Cancer. 2017 Mar 21:1-9 - "In studying the cancer-preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, we previously demonstrated that dietary administration of polyphenon E (PPE) inhibited the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated F344 rats ... In the control group, 83% of rats developed colorectal tumors. Dietary PPE treatment significantly increased the plasma and colonic levels of tea polyphenols, and decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor size. Histological analysis indicated that PPE significantly decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma, and the multiplicity of adenocarcinoma as well as the multiplicity of adenoma. PPE treatment significantly decreased plasma levels of proinflammatory eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4. It also decreased β-catenin nuclear expression, induced apoptosis, and increased expression levels of RXRα, β, and γ in adenocarcinomas" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 8 - "Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk ... Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60"
  • Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:5137505 - "Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer ... The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group" - See berberine at Amazon.com.
  • Plant compounds give '1-2' punch to colon cancer - Science Daily, 7/22/16 - "The combination of two plant compounds that have medicinal properties -- curcumin and silymarin -- holds promise in treating colon cancer ... The combination of phytochemicals inhibited colon cancer cells from multiplying and spreading. In addition, when the colon cancer cells were pre-exposed to curcumin and then treated with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • People with low serum folate levels have higher risk of colorectal adenoma/advanced colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence in China - J Int Med Res. 2016 Jun 29 - "colorectal adenoma (CRA) ... advanced CRA (A-CRA) ... Higher serum folate levels may be protective against CRA and/or A-CRA" - See methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice - Nutrients. 2016 May 12;8(5) - "Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo ... the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone" - See IP-6 products at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin Active in Reducing Colorectal Polyp Recurrence - Medscape, 4/22/16 - "they took patients who underwent resection of polyps/adenomas, and they randomly assigned them to receive a placebo or low-dose metformin, 250 mg daily. The treatment lasted for 1 year ... there was a significant reduction in the number of polyps/adenomas in the metformin-treated group: 38% of patients had recurrent adenomas compared with 57% in the placebo group" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Resveratrol Treatment Inhibits Proliferation of and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells - Med Sci Monit. 2016 Apr 4;22:1101-8 - "These findings suggest that resveratrol treatment can be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee consumption linked to decreased risk of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 4/1/16 - "The data showed that even moderate coffee consumption, between one to two servings a day, was associated with a 26 percent reduction in the odds of developing colorectal cancer after adjusting for known risk factors. Moreover, the risk of developing colorectal cancer continued to decrease to up to 50 percent when participants drank more than 2.5 servings of coffee each day. The indication of decreased risk was seen across all types of coffee, both caffeinated and decaffeinated"
  • Identification of pinostilbene as a major colonic metabolite of pterostilbene and its inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Mar 18 - "Pterostilbene (PTE) is a resveratrol derivative mainly found in blueberries, and it has been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in multiple animal models ... Our results demonstrated that PIN is a major metabolite of PTE in the colon of mice fed with PTE, and PIN may play important roles in the anti-colon cancer effects elicited by orally administered PTE" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules.
  • Broccoli ingredient has positive influence on drug efficacy - Science Daily, 3/15/16 - "The enzyme AKR1C3 is a biochemical actor in several metabolic pathways in the human body. It is also central in the efficacy of a cancer drug that is currently still in development and clinical testing. This drug, called PR-104A, is administered in an inactive form and is converted into its active form inside the cancer cells by the AKR1C3 present there. The researchers therefore used cell culture to investigate whether the broccoli ingredient increased the efficacy of PR-104A. Their hypothesis was confirmed: when the scientists pre-treated the colon cancer cells with sulforaphane, less than a third of the usual dose of PR-104A was enough to kill the cancer cells. "Since cancer drugs generally have strong side-effects, any approach that reduces the dose of medication while maintaining efficacy is always welcome," says Sturla" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphene suppresses growth of colon cancer-derived tumors via induction of glutathione depletion and microtubule depolymerization - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Feb 26 - "Cruciferous vegetables harbor a number of isothiocyanates that have been recognized for their cancer-related properties. Of these, sulforaphene (a naturally occurring derivative of sulforaphane) has received little attention in studies of colon cancer and its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated ... These findings demonstrate that sulforaphene may contribute to the anti-tumor effects of cruciferous vegetables that contain sulforaphene and other isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil supplementation during chemotherapy increases posterior time to tumor progression in colorectal cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Dec 23:1-7 - "Thirty individuals never submitted to chemotherapy were randomized into supplemented group (SG), which received 2 g/day of fish oil (0.6 g/day of EPA and DHA) for 9 wk or control group (CG), which received neither fish oil nor placebo ... Time to tumor progression was significantly longer in SG [S593 days (±211.5)] vs. CG [330 days" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association between magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women - Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Sep 21 - "After adjustment for potential confounding variables, an inverse association was observed in the highest quintile of total magnesium intake compared to the lowest quintile for risk of CRC (HR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.94, p trend < 0.0001) and colon cancer (HR 0.80" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Supplementation and Quality of Life in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: A 24-Month Follow-Up Study - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Sep 18 - "Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine fish oil supplementation in relation to QoL, recurrence, and all-cause mortality. An increase in fish oil supplementation over 24 mo postdiagnosis was associated with an increase in the physical component score of the 12-item Medical Outcomes Short Form (β = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.10-4.76)" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin use and risk of colorectal adenoma after polypectomy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Sep 16 - "Compared to patients not receiving diabetes medications (n=1,578), metformin-only use (n=457) was associated with lower adenoma recurrence risk (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=0.76" - See metformin at IAS.
  • A dose-response meta-analysis reveals an association between vitamin B12 and colorectal cancer risk - Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep 16 - "Every 4.5 μg/d increment in total and dietary vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (total intake: RR=0.963; 95 % CI 0.928, 0.999; dietary intake: RR=0.914; 95 % CI 0.856, 0.977). The inverse association between vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was also significant when vitamin B12 intake was over a dosage threshold, enhancing the non-linear relationship" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Powdered cranberry combats colon cancer in mice - Science Daily, 8/18/15 - "Cranberry extracts may also afford protection toward other cancers, but it seems reasonable to look at colon cancer ... her team generated three powdered cranberry extracts: a whole fruit powder, an extract containing only the cranberry polyphenols, and one containing only the non-polyphenol components of the fruit ... The researchers mixed the cranberry extracts into the meals of mice with colon cancer ... After 20 weeks, the mice given the whole cranberry extract had about half the number of tumors as mice that received no cranberry in their chow. The remaining tumors in the cranberry-fed mice were also smaller. Plus, the cranberry extracts seemed to reduce the levels of inflammation markers in the mice ... There may be some synergy between polyphenol and non-polyphenol constituents ... This is approximately equivalent to a cup a day of cranberries if you were a human instead of a mouse ... she's not sure someone could get the same benefits from juice, which lacks some of the components in the skin of the cranberry" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin inhibits cancer stem cell phenotypes in ex vivo models of colorectal liver metastases, and is clinically safe and tolerable in combination with FOLFOX chemotherapy - Cancer Lett. 2015 May 12 - "Here, we utilised patient-derived colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to assess whether curcumin may provide added benefit over 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in cancer stem cell (CSC) models ... Curcumin alone and in combination, significantly reduced spheroid number in CRLM CSC models, and decreased the number of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)/CD133(-)). Addition of curcumin to oxaliplatin/5-FU enhanced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a proportion of patient-derived explants, whilst reducing expression of stem cell-associated markers ALDH and CD133" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Oral milk thistle extract stops colorectal cancer stem cells from growing tumors - Science Daily, 4/20/15 - "It's very simple: tumors from mice that were initially fed silibinin had fewer cancer stem cells, were smaller, had lower metabolisms and showed decreased growth of new blood vessels. Importantly, when these cancer stem cells from tumors in mice fed silibinin were re-injected into new mice, we found these stem cells had lost their potential to repopulate even in the absence of silibinin exposure" - See silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • Synergistic anti-cancer activity of Capsaicin and 3,3'-Diindolylmethane in human colorectal cancer - J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Apr 15 - "The present study suggests capsaicin and DIM work synergistically to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer through modulating transcriptional activity of NF-κB, p53 and target genes associated with apoptosis" - See capsaicin supplements at Amazon.com and diindolylmethane at Amazon.com.
  • Circulating Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Mar 26 - "a nested case-control study using 274 colorectal cases and 274 controls ... plasma 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely associated with odds of colorectal cancer (quartile 4 [Q4] versus quartile 1 [Q1]: OR (95% CI): 0.45 (0.25-0.81) ... In this cohort of healthy women, we found a significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and risk of incident colorectal cancer, and a borderline significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and colorectal cancer mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin, vitamin D3 show impressive promise in preventing colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 3/24/15 - "Not only did the combination of the two improve outcomes in animal studies, but the dual-compound effect was dramatically better than either option alone. Even better, these impressive results required only modest amounts of metformin and Vitamin D3, making concerns about side effects from mega-dosing entirely moot ... Few colon neoplasias developed in the animals receiving moderate doses of metformin-vitamin D combination ... On average, there was also a 40 percent decrease in the development of polyps in all animals receiving both drugs in combination compared to the control groups" - See metformin at IAS and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2015 Feb 3:1-7 - "Higher levels were associated with prolonged survival in categorical variable analysis: adequate vs. deficient, hazard ratio = 0.61 ... A majority of newly diagnosed Stage IV CRC patients are vitamin D-deficient. Our data suggest that higher 25(OH)D levels are associated with better overall survival" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Association of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs with Colorectal Cancer by Subgroups in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Jan 22 - "In stratified analysis, high use of any type of NSAIDs (4+days/week for 4+ years) was statistically significantly associated with a lower risk of CRC across all subgroups stratified by sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, screening and dietary factors. There was a suggestion of stronger associations among men, obese individuals, and heavier drinkers; however, none of these tests for interaction reached statistical significance. The associations were almost identical for subjects with higher overall CRC risk scores (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49-0.79) and those with lower risk scores (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.88)"
  • Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study - Nutr J. 2015 Jan 15;14(1):8 - "Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87)"
  • Vitamin D Linked to Lower Colorectal Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/16/15 - "people with high amounts of 25-hydroxy vitamin D had a lower risk of getting colorectal tumors that have a large number of immune cells. The authors say this suggests there’s an interaction between vitamin D and the immune system that may work to prevent colorectal cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Boost Colon Cancer Survival: Study - WebMD, 1/12/15 - "We found that patients who had vitamin D levels at the highest category had improved survival and improved progression-free survival, compared with patients in the lowest category ... Those patients survived one-third longer than patients with low levels of vitamin D -- an average 32.6 months, compared with 24.5 months" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma: The colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo - Int J Cancer. 2014 Dec 10 - "colorectal adenoma (CRA) ... High coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CRA, with a multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of coffee intake of 0.67"
  • Curcumin Combined with Oxaliplatin Effectively Suppress Colorectal Carcinoma in vivo Through Inducing Apoptosis - Phytother Res. 2014 Nov 24 - "Combinatorial administration of curcumin and oxaliplatin evidently inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer in nude mice, which was significantly more effective than either agent alone" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic chemopreventive effects on colorectal neoplasia in rats and mice - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Nov 21 - "These findings show that combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic effects against the development of early colon neoplasia. They suggest that the combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin may represent a novel strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer" - See metformin at IAS and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the EPIC-Italy study - Int J Cancer. 2014 Nov 18 - "The adjusted HR of colorectal cancer for highest vs. lowest GI quartile was 1.35; 95% CI 1.03-1.78; p trend 0.031. Increasing high GI carbohydrate intake was also significantly associated with increasing colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04-2.03; p trend 0.034); while increasing low GI carbohydrate was associated with reducing risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p trend 0.033). High dietary GI, and high GI carbohydrate, were associated with increased risks of cancer at all colon sites (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.88, HR 1.80;95% CI 1.22-2.65, respectively); whereas high GI carbohydrate and high GL, were associated with increased risk of proximal colon cancer (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.18-3.16, HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.08-3.74, respectively)"
  • Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies - Int J Cancer. 2014 Oct 21 - "In total, 24 papers were included in the meta-analyses. We observed inverse associations for colorectal cancer risk and multivitamin (U-NU: RR=0.92; 95%CI: 0.87,0.97) and calcium supplements (U-NU: RR=0.86; 95%CI: 0.79,0.95; H-L: RR=0.80; 95%CI: 0.70,0.92; DR: for an increase of 100 mg/day, RR=0.96; 95%CI: 0.94,0.99)"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D, Dairy Products, and Mortality Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors: The Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort - Medscape, 10/20/14 - "In multivariate analysis, post-diagnosis total calcium intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] for those in the highest relative to the lowest quartiles, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.98; Ptrend = .02). An inverse association with all-cause mortality was also observed for postdiagnosis milk intake (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94; Ptrend = .02), but not for vitamin D intake"
  • Laxative Type Might Influence Colon Cancer Risk, Study Finds - WebMD, 10/8/14 - "people who used fiber-based laxatives at least four days a week for four years were 56 percent less likely to develop colorectal cancer than those who didn't use them ... In contrast, people who used non-fiber laxatives five or more times a year had a 49 percent increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Luteolin Induces Apoptosis in BE Colorectal Cancer Cells by Downregulating Calpain, UHRF1, and DNMT1 Expressions - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Sep 10:1-8 - "We conclude from these results that targeting calpain, UHRF1, and DNMT1 using luteolin could be an interesting way to prevent and/or treat colorectal cancers" - See luteolin products at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Sep 5 - "FuOx-resistant (chemo-resistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were utilized for this study. While EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (a) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation and sphere-forming frequency, (b) increasing sphere disintegration, (c) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (d) decreasing pro-inflammatory metabolites in mice. Additionally, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and risk of colorectal cancer in the prostate, Lung, colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial - Int J Cancer. 2014 Aug 23 - "vitamin D binding protein (DBP) ... We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ... Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p-trend 0.01)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Statin Use After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Survival: A Population-Based Cohort Study - J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 4 - "Overall, statin use after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with reduced colorectal cancer-specific mortality (fully adjusted HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.84). A dose-response association was apparent; for example, a more marked reduction was apparent in colorectal cancer patients using statins for more than 1 year (adjusted HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79). A reduction in all-cause mortality was also apparent in statin users after colorectal cancer diagnosis (fully adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.84)"
  • Let the Sun Shine: Vitamin D in CRC - Medscape, 7/14/14 - "The investigators found strong associations between plasma 25-OHD concentration and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (P = .008) and all-cause mortality (P = .003). Adjusted hazards ratios were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.90) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.89), respectively (highest vs lowest 25-OHD tertile), particularly in stage II disease (hazard ratio, 0.44; P = .004 for CRC-specific mortality)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Vitamin D Concentration Influences Survival Outcome After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer - J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul 7 - "We found strong associations between plasma 25-OHD concentration and CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause mortality (P = .003). Adjusted HRs were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.90) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.89), respectively (highest v lowest 25-OHD tertile), particularly in stage II disease (HR, 0.44; P = .004 for CRC-specific mortality). We detected gene-environment interactions between 25-OHD concentration and rs11568820 genotype for CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause (P = .022) mortality, number of protective alleles (P = .004 and P = .018, respectively), and GAGC haplotype at the VDR locus for all-cause mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Predicted 25(OH)D score and colorectal cancer risk according to vitamin D receptor expression - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jun 11 - "vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression ... Multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of predicted 25(OH)D scores were 0.48 (0.30-0.78) for VDR-negative tumor and 0.56 (0.42-0.75) for VDR-positive tumor" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Improved Survival in Cancer Patients With High Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/1/14 - "overall survival for colorectal and breast cancer patients in the highest quartile of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels was significantly better than it was for those in the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D levels ... Overall survival was also significantly better for lymphoma patients in the highest 25(OH)D quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile ... Considering that vitamin D deficiency is widespread around the world, our suggestion is to ensure everyone has sufficient levels of this important nutrient — that is, circulating 25(OH)D levels — greater than 75 nmol/L ... when investigators compared 25(OH)D levels in the range of 40 to 70 nmol/L to levels <19 nmol/L, they found that a 10-nmol/L increase in circulating vitamin D levels upon cancer diagnosis was associated with a 4% reduction in all-cause mortality among all cancer patients in whom a dose-response relationship was assessed" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Associations between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of metachronous colorectal adenoma - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Apr 16 - "No relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and overall odds for metachronous lesions was observed, with ORs (95 % CIs) of 0.80 (0.60-1.07) and 0.81 (0.60-1.10) for participants in the second and third tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.17). However, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and odds of proximal metachronous adenoma, with an OR (95 % CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98) for individuals in the highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D compared with those in the lowest (p-trend = 0.04). While there was no relationship overall between 1,25(OH)2D and metachronous distal lesions, there was a significantly reduced odds for women, but not men, in the highest 1,25(OH)2D tertile compared with the lowest (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.27-1.03; p-trend = 0.05; p-interaction = 0.08). The observed differences in associations with proximal and distal adenomas could indicate that delivery and activity of vitamin D metabolites in different anatomic sites in the colorectum varies, particularly by gender" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in chinese adults - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Apr;66(3):351-61 - "Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively ... This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota - Int J Cancer. 2014 Mar 19 - "We tested the effectiveness of substituting EPA-FFA, for other dietary fats, in preventing inflammation and cancer in the AOM-DSS model of CAC ... EPA-FFA diet strongly decreased tumor multiplicity, incidence and maximum tumor size in the promotion and initiation arms. Moreover EPA-FFA, in particular in the initiation arm, led to reduced cell proliferation and nuclear β-catenin expression, whilst it increased apoptosis ... Taken together, our data suggest that EPA-FFA is an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention in CAC" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • High Dietary Glycemic Load is Associated With Increased Risk of Colon Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Mar 10 - "GL was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire ... odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer increased significantly with increasing GL: compared to the bottom quartile of GL, the ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.38 (1.06, 1.80), 1.67 (1.30, 2.13), and 1.61 (1.25, 2.07), respectively ... the association was more pronounced among older participants [ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.35 (0.91, 2.00), 1.87 (1.29, 2.71), 2.02 (1.39, 2.95), respectively] than among younger participants [ORs were 1.46 (1.02, 2.10), 1.53 (1.09, 2.15), and 1.35 (0.96, 1.91), respectively"
  • Total calcium intake and colorectal adenoma in young women - Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Feb 22 - "Total calcium intake appears to reduce occurrence of colorectal adenoma; however, the dose necessary for prevention in young women is unclear ... analysis among 41,403 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II ... Compared with 1,001-1,250 mg/day of calcium intake, ≤500 mg/day was suggestive of a modest increase in occurrence of adenoma (multivariable RR = 1.21, 95 % CI 0.90-1.61); there were also suggestions of an increased risk with >500 to ≤700 mg/day of calcium. The association between ≤500 mg/day of calcium intake and adenoma was stronger for multiple (RR = 2.27, 95 % CI 1.38, 3.72), large (≥1 cm) (RR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.27, 3.21), and high-risk adenoma (≥1 cm or mention of villous histology/high-grade dysplasia) (RR = 1.76, 95 % CI 1.13, 2.72)"
  • Curcumin suppresses proliferation of colon cancer cells by targeting CDK2 - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Feb 18 - "Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric found in Southeast Indian food, is one of the most popular phytochemicals for cancer prevention ... From these results, we identified CDK2 as a direct target of curcumin in colon cancer cells" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed promise in fight against bowel cancer - Science Daily, 2/1414 - "Our research also showed that in laboratory studies grape seed taken orally significantly reduced inflammation and tissue damage caused by chemotherapy in the small intestine, and had no harmful effects on non-cancerous cells. Unlike chemotherapy, grape seed appears to selectively act on cancer cells and leave healthy cells almost unaffected ... The research showed grape seed extract: ... showed no side effects on the healthy intestine at concentrations of up to 1000mg/kg; ... significantly decreased intestinal damage compared to the chemotherapy control; ... decreased chemotherapy-induced inflammation by up to 55% ... increased growth-inhibitory effects of chemotherapy on colon cancer cells in culture by 26%" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • The prognostic value of metformin for cancer patients with concurrent diabetes- a systematic review and meta-analysis - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014 Jan 27 - "A literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMbase and SciVerse Scopus databases ... metformin was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in cancer patients with concurrent diabetes, particularly for breast (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.55, 0.88; P=0.003), colorectal (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59, 0.84; P<0.001), ovarian (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.30, 0.64; P<0.001) and endometrial cancer (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.32, 0.73; P=0.001). In addition, metformin was associated with lower risks of cancer-specific mortality" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Cruciferous Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 16 - "Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates ... Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases ... Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity < 0.001]. Broccoli in particular exhibited protective benefits against colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Some Gut Bacteria May Affect Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 12/6/13 - "Because of the potentially modifiable nature of the gut bacteria, our findings may have implications for CRC prevention ... The researchers found decreased microbiome community diversity in patients with CRC , compared with that of healthy participants(P = .02). In an analysis by taxa, patients with CRC had lower relative abundances of Clostridia, at 68.6% compared with 77.8% in people without CRC. In contrast, patients with CRC carried a higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium (31.9% vs 11.7% for control patients) ... A higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium was associated with increased CRC risk (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 4.11 ... Actinobacteria Atopobium (OR, 14.36; 95% CI, 2.78 - 74.30; P < .001) and the Bacteriodetes Porphyromonas (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.75 - 15.25; P = .001) were also associated with CRC risk" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Microbes in the Gut Help Determine Risk of Tumors - Science Daily, 11/5/13 - "Known risk factors for developing colorectal cancer include consuming a diet rich in red meat, alcohol consumption, and chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract ... mice given the microbiota of the tumor-bearing mice had more than two times as many colon tumors as the mice given a healthy microbiota ... In all these [mouse] models the inflammation is critical, but so is the change in the communities ... We liken it to a feed-forward type mechanism where the inflammation is changing the community and the community is inducing inflammation. They make each other worse to the point that you have higher rates of tumor formation" -  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Association between zinc intake and risk of digestive tract cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 10 - "PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to April 2013 ... The pooled relative risk (RR) of overall digestive tract cancers for the highest versus lowest categories of zinc intake was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96; p = 0.013). Comparing the highest with lowest categories, higher zinc intake was significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.92; p = 0.002), while zinc intake was not statistically associated with gastric cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.64-1.29; p = 0.581) or esophageal cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.44-1.17; p = 0.187). However, subgroup analyses showed that zinc intake was significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk and gastric cancer risk in Asia, but not in America and Europe" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model - Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 21 - "Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Panax pseudoginseng - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax"
  • Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Nutr Cancer. 2013 Sep 20 - "A total of 68,109 Washington residents aged 50-76 completed a questionnaire between 2000-2002 and were followed for CRC through 2008 (n = 488). Persons using fish oil supplements on 4+ days/wk for 3+ yr experienced 49% lower CRC risk than nonusers (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.26-1.00; P trend = 0.06). The association between fish oil use and decreased CRC risk was primarily observed for men (P interaction = 0.02; P trend men = 0.02; P trend women = 0.88) and for colon cancer (P difference = 0.05; P trend colon = 0.03; P trend rectum = 0.87). Although dark fish and total EPA + DHA intake were not associated with CRC risk overall, these associations varied by genetic risk (P interaction = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively), with inverse associations observed among low-moderate genetic risk groups and positive associations observed among high risk groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-Diabetic Medications and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Sep 16 - "Meta-analysis of observational studies showed an 11% reduction in CRC risk associated with metformin use (n=9 studies; OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99), whereas TZD use was not associated with CRC risk (n=5 studies; OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.05). Conversely, a trend towards higher CRC risk was observed with sulfonylurea (n=7 studies; OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.26) and insulin (n=9 studies; OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.94) use, although these associations were not statistically significant" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Scientists learn how soy foods protect against colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/5/13 - "lifelong exposure to genistein, a bioactive component in soy foods, protects against colon cancer by repressing a signal that leads to accelerated growth of cells, polyps, and eventually malignant tumors ... the scientists modeled lifetime exposure to soy by feeding pregnant rats and their offspring a diet containing soy protein isolate and a diet that contained genistein compound. At seven weeks of age, offspring rats were exposed to a carcinogen, and they continued eating either the soy protein or the genistein diet until they were 13 weeks old ... At that time, the researchers inspected the colons of rats in both soy groups and compared them to rats in a control group, noting the number and severity of tiny abnormal growths in each ... Genistein decreased the expression of three genes and repressed this signaling process that is associated with abnormal cell growth and cancer development" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Aug 4 - "61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai ... Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk"
  • Red, Processed Meats Tied to Increased Risk for CRC Death - Medscape, 7/3/13 - "survivors with consistently high intakes (median of about 4 servings/week or higher) before and after diagnosis had a 79% higher risk for CRC-specific mortality (relative risk, 1.79) than those with intakes consistently below the median ... Men and women who consistently ate the most red and processed meat before and after diagnosis had a statistically significant higher risk of death as a result of CRC, compared with those who consistently ate the least red and processed meat"
  • A cohort study of metformin exposure and survival in patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Jun 10 - "Adult stage I-III colorectal cancer patients diagnosed 2001-2006 were identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Use of metformin and other anti-diabetic medications was determined from a linked national prescription claims database ... High intensity exclusive metformin use was associated with a significant reduction in colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.44" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Physical activity and other lifestyle factors in relation to the prevalence of colorectal adenoma: a colonoscopy-based study in asymptomatic Koreans - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jun 11 - "1,526 asymptomatic subjects who underwent a colonoscopy were enrolled. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and smoking data were obtained using a questionnaire ... higher levels of physical activity were associated with a significantly decreased risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.40-0.79). This inverse association was stronger for the risk of high-risk adenomas (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.21-0.73) than for low-risk adenomas (OR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.43-0.89). The negative relation of physical activity was significant for distal colon adenomas (OR = 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.95) and the adenomas with multiple locations (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.21-0.72)"
  • Prevention of Familial Adenomatous Polyp Development in APC(min) Mice and Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in F344 Rats by ω-3 Fatty Acid Rich Perilla Oil - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65 Suppl 1:54-60 - "The present study explored the preventive effects of perilla oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in rodent models of colon tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed diets containing 5% corn oil or 10 or 20% perilla oil ... Dietary perilla oil produced a dose-dependent inhibition of AOM-induced colonic ACF formation (by 35-53%, P < 0.01-0.005) and reduced the number of foci with ≥4 crypts/focus (by 38-50%, P < 0.01-0.001) in F344 rats. Dietary perilla oil significantly inhibited development of small intestinal (>69%, P < 0.0001) and colon tumors (>52%, P < 0.03) in APC(min) mice. Administration of perilla oil produced lower levels of type-2 prostaglandins (38-53%) from COX-activities in polyps of APC(min) mice. These observations demonstrate that dietary perilla oil rich in ω-3 fatty acids possesses preventive activity against intestinal neoplastic lesions, both in FAP in genetically-predisposed tissues, as well as against chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon" - See perilla oil products at iHerb.
  • Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 30 - "We used data from the large population-based Scandinavian cohort HELGA consisting of 108,000 Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian persons, of whom 1,123 developed colorectal cancer during a median of 11 years of follow-up. Detailed information on daily intake of whole-grain products, including whole-grain bread, crispbread, and breakfast cereals, was available, and intakes of total whole grains and specific whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated ... Intake of whole-grain products was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer per 50-g increment (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.94; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.89, 0.99), and the same tendency was found for total whole-grain intake (IRR pr. 25-g increment, 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.88, 1.01). Intake of whole-grain wheat was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer (IRR for highest versus lowest quartile of intake, 0.66; 95 % CI, 0.51, 0.85), but no statistical significant linear trend was observed (p for trend: 0.18). No significant association was found for whole-grain rye or oats"
  • Association between physical activity and mortality in colorectal cancer: A Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 12 - "conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies ... The analyses showed that patients who participated in any amount of PA before diagnosis had a RR of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.87, p<0.001) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality, compared with patients who did not participate in any PA. Those who participated in high PA before diagnosis (vs. low PA) had a RR of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87, p=0.002). Similarly, patients who participated in any PA after diagnosis had a RR of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.58-0.95, p=0.02) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality, compared with patients who did not participate in any PA. Those who participated in high PA after diagnosis (vs. low PA) had a RR of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47-0.92, p=0.01). Similar inverse associations of pre-diagnosis PA or post-diagnosis PA were found for all-cause mortality"
  • Soy-based compound may reduce tumor cell proliferation in colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 4/11/13 - "The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely driven by cellular signaling in the Wnt pathway, a network of proteins critical to cellular growth ... the research team treated colon cancer cell lines with genistein and found that it inhibited cell growth and blocked Wnt signaling hyperactivity ... Genistein is a natural product with low toxicity and few side effects and our research shows that it may be beneficial in treating colorectal cancer" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 9 - "Eight studies on heme iron intake and six studies on zinc intake met the inclusion criteria. The summary RR of CRC for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.14 (95 % CI = 1.04-1.24) for heme iron and 0.83 (95 % CI = 0.72-0.94) for zinc, respectively ... This meta-analysis suggests a significant positive dose-response association of heme iron intake and a significant inverse dose-response association of zinc intake with risk of CRC"
  • Resveratrol and Quercetin in Combination Have Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells and Repress Oncogenic microRNA-27a - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Apr;65(3):494-504 - "Resveratrol and quercetin (RQ) in combination (1:1 ratio) previously inhibited growth in human leukemia cells. This study investigated the anticancer activity of the same mixture in HT-29 colon cancer cells. RQ decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up to 2.25-fold and increased the antioxidant capacity by up to 3-fold in HT-29 cells (3.8-60 μg/mL), whereas IC50 values for viability were 18.13, 18.73, and 11.85 μg/mL, respectively. RQ also induced caspase-3-cleavage (2-fold) and increased PARP cleavage. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors are overexpressed in colon and other cancers and regulate genes required for cell proliferation survival and angiogenesis" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements and risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar 26 - "Participants include 75,137 western Washington residents aged 50-76 who completed the mailed VITAL questionnaire between 2000 and 2002. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin was ascertained by questions about supplement use during the 10-year period prior to baseline, and participants were followed for CRC through 2008 ... Persons reporting use of glucosamine + chondroitin on 4+ days/week for 3+ years had a non-statistically significant 45 % lower CRC risk than non-users" - See glucosamine products at Amazon.com and chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: A large case-control study in Italy - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 27 - "A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects' usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of FRAP (Ferric Reducing-Antioxidant Power), TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), and TRAP (Total Radical-trapping Antioxidant Parameter) ... TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC, and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving by coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 25:1-13 - "These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoid intake and risk of colorectal adenomas in a cohort of male health professionals - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 1 - "Among 29,363 men who reported having a lower bowel endoscopy between 1986 and 2006, 3,997 cases of colorectal adenoma were identified in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants completed food frequency questionnaires every 4 years ... Total β-carotene and dietary β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes and the total carotenoid score were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma risk. The odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) comparing the highest versus lowest quintile of intake were 0.78 (0.69-0.88) for total β-carotene, 0.72 (0.64-0.81) for dietary β-carotene, 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for lycopene, 0.86 (0.76-0.96) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 0.87 (0.77-0.97) for the total carotenoid score. Associations for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin intakes were null" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • As colorectal cancer gets more aggressive, treatment with grape seed extract is even more effective, study shows - Science Daily, 1/16/13 - "the more GSE inhibits their growth and survival. On the other end of the disease spectrum, GSE leaves healthy cells alone entirely ... We've known for quite a while that the bioactive compounds in grape seed extract selectively target many types of cancer cells. This study shows that many of the same mutations that allow colorectal cancer cells to metastasize and survive traditional therapies make them especially sensitive to treatment with GSE ... 60 percent of patients diagnosed have already reached the advanced stage of the disease" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamin intakes and incidence of colorectal cancer: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "Women's Health Initiative Observational Study ... Vitamin B-6 and riboflavin intakes from diet and supplements were associated with a decreased risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Associations of B vitamin intake were particularly strong for regional disease and among women drinkers who consumed alcohol infrequently. Our study provides new evidence that the increased folate intake during the early postfortification period may have been associated with a transient increase in CRC risk"
  • Selenium and colorectal adenomas risk: a meta-analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Nov;64(8):1153-9 - "Selenium, as an important component of some antioxidants, has been suggested to have protective effects against colorectal adenomas. This meta-analysis examined the association between selenium level in blood and risk of colorectal adenomas. Data from 7 studies (3 cross-sectional studies, 3 case-control studies, 1 nested case-control study) published before December 2011 was included in this meta-analysis ... There was a significant inverse correlation between selenium level and colorectal adenomas risk according to fixed-effects model. The overall OR of highest selenium level to lowest for colorectal adenomas is 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55-0.81)" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Studies on the chemopreventive effect of carnitine on tumorigenesis in vivo, using two experimental murine models of colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Nov;64(8):1279-87 - "Carnitine supplementation resulted in significantly increased tissue carnitine and acylcarnitine levels. Carnitine inhibited the development of precancerous lesions and macroscopic colonic tumors in AOM-treated mice" - See carnitine products at iHerb.
  • Starchy, high carbohydrate diet associated with recurrence of colon cancer - Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "Recent studies have shown that colorectal cancer survivors whose diet and activity patterns lead to excess amounts of insulin in the blood have a higher risk of cancer recurrence and death from the disease. High insulin levels can be produced by eating too many starchy and sugar-laden foods ... They found that participants with the highest dietary levels of glycemic load and carbohydrate intake had an 80 percent increased risk of colon cancer recurrence or death compared with those who had the lowest levels ... we theorize that factors including a high glycemic load may stimulate the body's production of insulin"
  • Green tea found to reduce rate of some GI cancers - Science Daily, 10/31/12 - "the investigators surveyed women enrolled in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based study of approximately 75,000 middle-aged and older Chinese women ... regular tea consumption, defined as tea consumption at least three times a week for more than six months, was associated with a 17 percent reduced risk of all digestive cancers combined. A further reduction in risk was found to be associated with an increased level of tea drinking. Specifically, those who consumed about two to three cups per day (at least 150 grams of tea per month) had a 21 percent reduced risk of digestive system cancers ... For all digestive system cancers combined, the risk was reduced by 27 percent among women who had been drinking tea regularly for at least 20 years ... For colorectal cancer, risk was reduced by 29 percent among the long-term tea drinkers. These results suggest long-term cumulative exposure may be particularly important ... Tea contains polyphenols or natural chemicals that include catechins like EGCG and ECG. Catechins have antioxidant properties and may inhibit cancer by reducing DNA damage and blocking tumor cell growth and invasion" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 10 - "We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000 ... In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (~2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary and Supplemental Folate and the Risk of Left- and Right-Sided Colorectal Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Oct 4 - "Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate may lower the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) although studies have been inconsistent and some have indicated differences in the effects of naturally occurring dietary folate and the synthetic form of this vitamin, folic acid. Most studies to date have considered CRC as a single disease; however, cancers that develop on the left and right sides of the colorectum display important phenotypic differences, suggesting they may also have different risk factors. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Western Australia to examine the relationship between intake of both natural dietary folate and supplements containing folic acid and the risk of left- and right-sided CRC ... There was no association between natural dietary folate intake and risk of either left-or right-sided CRC. Supplement use similarly had no significant effect on right-sided CRC. However, long-term supplement users (4+ yr) were at lower risk of left-sided CRC than those who had not taken supplements (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) and there was a significant trend in risk reduction as duration of use increased" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk ... On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • New study sheds light on cancer-protective properties of milk - Science Daily, 10/3/12 - "lactoferricin4-14 (Lfcin4-14), a milk protein with known health effects, significantly reduces the growth rate of colon cancer cells over time by prolonging the period of the cell cycle before chromosomes are replicated. In a new study, investigators report that treatment with Lfcin4-14 reduced DNA damage in colon cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light ... Our data suggest that the effects of Lfcin4-14 in prolonging the cell cycle may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of milk"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes, metformin use, and colon cancer: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan - Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Jul 9 - "Even though diabetes patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving examinations that could lead to the detection of colon cancer, they had a significantly higher risk (24%) of this cancer after adjustment. Metformin users had a significantly lower risk (27%) of colon cancer. While comparing patients with diabetes for <1, 1-3, and ≥3 years to non-diabetes individuals, the adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.308 (1.020-1.679), 1.087 (0.900-1.313), and 1.185 (1.055-1.330), respectively. The higher risk among those with diabetes for <1 year suggested a possible reverse causality or a link with prediabetes. However, diabetes still might play some role in colon cancer development among those with diabetes for ≥3 years. The duration of metformin use showed an inverse trend, with a significant relative risk of 0.643 (0.490-0.845) in users for ≥3 years, when compared to non-users. In addition, metformin may reduce colon cancer risk associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (a surrogate for smoking)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • The Synergistic Apoptotic Interaction of Panaxadiol and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2012 May 8 - "Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant ... Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20 µm) for 48 h. When PD (10 and 20 µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30 µm), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20 µm of PD with 20 and 30 µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p < 0.01). The synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which demonstrated that PD and EGCG bound in two different sites of the annexin V protein. Data from this study suggested that apoptosis might play an important role in the EGCG-enhanced antiproliferative effects of PD on human colorectal cancer cells" - See ginseng at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inhibits Mouse MC-26 Colorectal Cancer Cell Liver Metastasis Via Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E(2) -Dependent Cell Motility - Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb 2 - "Treatment with 5% (w/w) EPA-FFA was associated with a reduced MC-26 mouse CRC cell liver tumour burden compared with control animals (median liver weight 1.62g versus 1.03g; P < 0.034). Administration of 5% EPA-FFA was also linked to a significant increase in tumour EPA incorporation and lower intra-tumoral PGE(2) levels (with concomitant increased production of PGE(3) ). Liver tumours from 5% EPA-FFA treated mice demonstrated decreased bromodeoxyuridine-positive CRC cell proliferation and reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 expression at the invasive edge of tumours. A concentration-dependent reduction in MC-26 CRC cell Transwell® migration following EPA-FFA treatment (50-200µM) in vitro was rescued by exogenous PGE(2) (10µM) and PGE(1) -alcohol (1µM). Conclusions:  EPA-FFA inhibits MC-26 CRC cell liver metastasis. EPA incorporation is associated with a 'PGE(2) to PGE(3) switch' in liver tumours. Inhibition of PGE(2) -EP4 receptor-dependent CRC cell motility likely contributes to the anti-neoplastic activity of EPA" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Regular use of vitamin and mineral supplements could reduce the risk of colon cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 2/3/12 - "Rats fed a high-fat plus low-fibre diet and exposed to carcinogens developed pre-cancerous lesions; whereas, rats undergoing similar treatment, but provided with daily multivitamin and mineral supplements, showed a significant (84%) reduction in the formation of pre-cancerous lesions and did not develop tumours ... The authors conclude that "multivitamin and mineral supplements synergistically contribute to the cancer chemopreventative potential"
  • Fish Oil Supplement Alters Markers of Inflammatory and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Feb 1 - "The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk ... Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of PUFAs and colorectal polyp risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "n-6 PUFAs were not associated with adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps in either men or women. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in women only, with an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.97) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest quintile of intake (P-trend = 0.01). Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with an increased risk of hyperplastic polyps in men (P-trend = 0.03), which was not seen in women" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Preoperative Probiotics Decrease Postoperative Infectious Complications of Colorectal Cancer - Am J Med Sci. 2011 Dec 23 - "The preoperative oral bifid triple viable probiotics minimize the postoperative occurrence of infectious complications, with possible mechanisms attributed to the maintenance of the intestinal flora and restriction of bacterial translocation from the intestine. It was representative of the enhancement of systemic/localized immunity and concurrent attenuation of systemic stress response" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Repeated measurements of serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "Previous cohort studies examining the association of serum antioxidant levels and risk of colorectal cancer have used a single (baseline) measurement only. In the present study, we assessed the association of serum levels of eight antioxidant nutrients in relation to risk of colorectal cancer, using repeated measurements ... Serum antioxidants measured at baseline generally showed no association with risk of colorectal cancer, although serum β-carotene at baseline showed a non-significant inverse association with colon cancer alone. Furthermore, using the repeated measurements of β-carotene, the average of all measurements was inversely associated with risk of both colorectal and colon cancer: HRs for highest vs lowest tertile 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96, and 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.88, respectively. No associations were seen with other antioxidant nutrients in the repeated measure analyses" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • High-Fiber Diet Linked to Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/11/11 - "Total fiber intake, as well as fiber from whole grains and from cereals, was most strongly linked with a reduction in colorectal cancer risk ... The evidence was weaker for fiber from fruits, vegetables, and legumes"
  • Health risk from eating well-done meat may be underestimated - Science Daily, 11/1/11 - "the incidence of intestinal tumours increased from 31 per cent to 80 per cent in "human-like" mice who consumed substances from meat crust (i.e. the surface formed during heat-treatment) ... Heat-processing of food can lead to the formation of carcinogenic substances. The formation of carcinogenic substances -- so-called food mutagens -- usually occurs at high temperatures when frying or grilling"
  • Dietary patterns may be linked to increased colorectal cancer risk in women - Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "High red meat intake, fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood ... C-peptide is a marker of insulin secretion that can be measured in a person's blood. High levels of insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth ... Colon cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin ... women who most often consumed high amounts of red meat, fish and sugar-sweetened beverages and low amounts of high-fat dairy, coffee and whole grains had a 35 percent increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 30:1-12 - "Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50.3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465.5 (sem 1290.4) v. 4950.9 (sem 1689.3) mm3, P < 0.001)" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Low-Dose Dietary Resveratrol Has Differential Effects on Colorectal Tumorigenesis in Adiponectin Knockout and Wild-Type Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "Obesity is associated with a decrease in the antiinflammatory hormone, adiponectin, and increases in the circulating concentrations of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. These changes contribute to colon tumorigenesis. Resveratrol increases adiponectin production in adipocytes and attenuates the development of colon cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that adiponectin is an integral component of the mechanism by which resveratrol antagonizes colorectal tumorigenesis. To investigate this, we induced tumorigenesis in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6 mice through combined azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatment during which mice were fed a high-fat, lard-based diet, or the same diet containing 20 mg/kg resveratrol. After 14 wk on diet, Wt mice gained more weight and, on a percentage basis, had higher fat mass and lower lean mass than KO mice. Resveratrol tended to attenuate this response in male Wt mice. Resveratrol also tended to reduce aberrant crypt foci development and decrease circulating interleukin 6 and insulin concentrations in male but not female Wt mice. Taken together, resveratrol improved overall health of obese Wt but not KO mice as hypothesized with a differential sex response" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on human colon cancer cells: a side by side comparison - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Sep 20 - "Cell viability tests indicated that IC50s of pterostilbene were 2~5-fold lower than those of resveratrol in all three cancer cells. Pterostilbene was also more potent in inhibiting colony formation of all three cancer cells. Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) co-staining assay and western blotting analysis showed pterostilbene had stronger apoptosis-inducing effects, which was evidenced by the higher percentage of annexin V positive cells and higher levels of cleaved caspae-3 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins in cancer cells treated with pterostilbene than resveratrol. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis demonstrated that intracellular levels of pterostilbene were 2~4-fold higher than those of resveratrol after treatments with individual compounds at the same concentration. Overall, our results demonstrated that pterostilbene had more potent inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells than resveratrol, which may be associated with the superior bioavailability of pterostilbene to resveratrol" - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of metformin on the survival of colorectal cancer patients with diabetes mellitus - Int J Cancer. 2011 Sep 12 - "Metformin use has been associated with decreased cancer risk and mortality ... We identified 595 patients who were diagnosed both CRC and diabetes mellitus. Patients were compared by two groups; 258 diabetic patients taking metformin and 337 diabetic patients not taking metformin ... After a median follow-up of 41 months, there were 71 total deaths (27.5%) and 55 CRC-specific deaths (21.3%) among 258 patients who used metformin, compared with 136 total deaths (40.4%) and 104 CRC-specific deaths (30.9%) among 337 patients who did not use metformin. Metformin use was associated with decreased overall mortality (P=0.018) and CRC-specific mortality (P=0.042) by univariate analysis. After adjustment for clinically relevant factors, metformin use showed lower risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.084-1.934; P=0.016) and CRC-specific mortality (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.026-2.061; P=0.035) in CRC patients with diabetes. Metformin use in CRC patients with diabetes is associated with lower risk of CRC-specific and overall mortality" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Association Between Vitamin D and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 29 - "Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before October 2010 with no restrictions ... The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80), respectively. There was no heterogeneity among studies of vitamin D intake (P = .19) or among studies of blood 25(OH)D levels (P = .96). A 10 ng/mL increment in blood 25(OH)D level conferred an RR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.89) ... Vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in this meta-analysis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Confirmation that vitamin D acts as a protective agent against the advance of colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/16/11 - "A study conducted by VHIO researchers confirms that a lack of vitamin D increases the aggressiveness of colon cancer ... In light of these findings, chronic vitamin D deficiency represents a risk factor in the development of more aggressive colon tumours. Patients in the initial stages of colon cancer, the time when the VDR still has a substantial presence in the cells, could benefit from being treated with vitamin D3. However, this would not be useful in the advanced stages of the disease when the presence of the VDR is very much reduced" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Cooked Green Vegetables, Dried Fruit, Legumes, and Brown Rice Associated With Fewer Colon Polyps - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "Eating legumes at least three times a week and brown rice at least once a week was linked to a reduced risk of colon polyps by 33 percent and 40 percent respectively ... Results also show that consuming cooked green vegetables once a day or more, as compared to less than five times a week, was associated with a 24 percent reduction in the risk of rectal/colon polyps. Consuming dried fruit three times a week or more, versus less than once a week, was associated with a 26 percent reduced risk"
  • S-allylmercaptocysteine effectively inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions - Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 30 - "S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has been demonstrated as a suppressive agent against some tumors. The effects of SAMC on the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated here. The viabilities and migrations of CRC cells SW480, SW620, Caco-2 treated with SAMC were measured by MTT, scratch-wound, and transwell assays. The in vivo anticancer effect of SAMC against luciferase-expressing SW620 xenografts in mice was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology observation. The apoptosis of SAMC-treated CRC cells was examined by Western blotting. The results demonstrate that SAMC could effectively suppress the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. The anticancer effect of SAMC was related to the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis as well as necrosis of cancer cells. Oral administration of SAMC in the quantity/concentration used had no apparent toxic side effect on the vital organs of the experimental mice. Taken together, the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells can be significantly suppressed by SAMC treatment under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. SAMC may thus be a promising candidate for CRC chemotherapy" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Colon cleansing has no benefit but many side effects including vomiting and death, doctors say - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "while these reports show little evidence of benefit, there is an abundance of studies noting side effects following the use of cleansing products including cramping, bloating, nausea, vomiting, electrolyte imbalance and renal failure ... Some herbal preparations have also been associated with aplastic anemia and liver toxicity ... organizations such as the National Board for Colon Hydrotherapy and others who promote colon cleansing require hygienists to have little more than a high school diploma"
  • High folate intake may reduce risk of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "We found that all forms and sources of folate were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer ... A research team investigated the association between folate intake and colorectal cancer among 99,523 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort; a total of 1,023 participants were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2007 ... The study also addressed concerns that the intake of high levels of folate frequently consumed in the U.S. -- as a result of the recent increase in the use of folate-containing supplements and mandatory folate fortification of food -- may actually increase risk of cancer. No increased risk of colorectal cancer was found for the highest intake levels, suggesting that the high levels of this vitamin Consumed by significant numbers of Americans should not lead to increased incidence rates of this cancer in the population" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Boswellic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human colorectal cancer in orthotopic mouse model by downregulating inflammatory, proliferative, invasive, and angiogenic biomarkers - Int J Cancer. 2011 Jun 23 - "We found that the oral administration of AKBA (50-200 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the growth of CRC tumors in mice, resulting in decrease in tumor volumes than those seen in vehicle-treated mice without significant decreases in body weight. In addition, we observed that AKBA was highly effective in suppressing ascites and distant metastasis to the liver, lungs, and spleen in orthotopically-implanted tumors in nude mice. When examined for the mechanism, we found that markers of tumor proliferation index Ki-67 and the microvessel density CD31; were significantly downregulated by AKBA treatment. We also found that AKBA significantly suppressed NF-κB activation in the tumor tissue and expression of pro-inflammatory (COX2), tumor survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, IAP-1, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (ICAM-1, MMP-9) and angiogenic (CXCR4 and VEGF) biomarkers. When examined for serum and tissue levels of AKBA, a dose-dependent increase in the levels of the drug was detected, indicating its bioavailability. Thus, our findings suggest that this boswellic acid analogue can inhibit the growth and metastasis of human CRC in vivo through downregulation of cancer-associated biomarkers" - See boswellia at Amazon.com.
  • Strong Evidence Links Meat to Higher Risk for Colon Cancer - Medscape, 5/30/11 - "For red and processed meat, the findings from 10 new studies were added to the 14 studies that were evaluated in the 2007 report. From these 24 studies, the panel confirmed that there is convincing evidence that both red and processed meat can increase the risk for colorectal cancer ... The WCRF/AICR recommend that the consumption of red meat be limited to 500 g/week, which is roughly the equivalent of 5 or 6 medium portions of beef, lamb, or pork. They also recommend that processed meat be avoided ... According to their data, if 3.5 ounces of red meat are consumed every day (24.5 ounces per week), the risk for colorectal cancer will be 17% higher than if no red meat is consumed. If the amount of red meat consumed is doubled (7.0 ounces every day; 49 ounces per week), the risk is 34% higher. However, the evidence found that there was very little increase in risk for individuals who ate less than 18 ounces of red meat per week ... The cancer risk associated with processed meat, which includes ham, bacon, pastrami, hot dogs, and sausages, was much higher. Consuming 3.5 ounces every day (24.5 ounces per week) was associated with a risk that is 36% higher than the risk of consuming no processed meat. As with red meat, the higher the rate of consumption, the higher the risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Yogurt consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in the italian EPIC cohort - Int J Cancer. 2011 May 23 - "Yogurt intake was inversely associated with CRC risk. For the energy-adjusted model, HR for CRC in the highest vs. lowest tertile of yogurt intake was 0.62 (95%CI, 0.46-0.83). In the full model adjusted for energy, simple sugar, calcium, fiber, animal fat, alcohol, and red meat intake, as well as body mass index, smoking, education and physical activity, HR was 0.65 (95%CI, 0.48-0.89) in the highest vs. lowest tertile. The protective effect of yogurt was evident in the entire cohort, but was stronger in men, although there was no interaction of sex with the yogurt-CRC association (P-interaction 0.20, fully-adjusted model). In this prospective study, high yogurt intake was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk, suggesting that yogurt should be part of a diet to prevent the disease" - Note:  I started a web page on just yoghurt instead of putting the yoghurt articles on my Pro-biotics page.  I also put my yoghurt recipe there.  I nearly live on that stuff because I have trouble swallowing after my neck cancer surgery six and a half years ago.
  • Folic acid supplementation not associated with colon cancer: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 5/9/11 - "New research analysing data from the three largest trials of folic acid and the risk of colon cancer has suggested that supplementation has no effect on the risk of developing the disease ... Interestingly, we observed a potential beneficial effect of folic acid supplements on overall mortality" - [Abstract]
  • Foods and Food Groups Associated With the Incidence of Colorectal Polyps: The Adventist Health Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 4:1 - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits ... Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. <5/wk = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) and dried fruit (OR 3+ times/wk vs. <1 time/wk = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.99). Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps"
  • Canola oil protects against colon cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "canola oil inhibited the average number of tumors per rat by 58 percent compared to one of the other two control diets in the experiment, and inhibited the size of the tumors that occurred by 90 percent ... canola oil inhibited the average number of tumors per rat by 58 percent compared to one of the other two control diets in the experiment, and inhibited the size of the tumors that occurred by 90 percent ... studies have indicated that if consumers use canola as household cooking oil, it could push their ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acids to about 3 to 1. That's very desirable. Humans need Omega-6 fatty acids, too, but they typically consume way too much of them in countries such as the United States ... It should be less than 4 to 1. But in a typical American diet, when we use other oil and butter, our ratio is 10 to 1 or higher. We consume a lot more Omega-6 than Omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741 - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 21 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients"
  • Pterostilbene ‘more potent than resveratrol’ for colon health: Study - Nutra USA, 3/21/11 - "the chemopreventive effect of pterostilbene was more potent than resveratrol and was associated with a decreased inflammation as well as modulation of the antioxidant signaling pathways in the colons of mice" - [Abstract] - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • Pterostilbene ‘more potent than resveratrol’ for colon health: Study - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 23;59(6):2725-33 - "Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties ... Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model" - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin's Effects on Intestinal Polyp Multiplicity and Macrophage Number in the Apc(Min/+) Mouse - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Mar 1:1 - "Numerous in vitro studies argue for quercetin's chemopreventive potential in colon cancer; however, experimental studies in rodents are limited. Macrophages play a role in tumorigenesis, but the effects of quercetin on macrophage infiltration in colon cancer is unknown. We examined the effects of quercetin on intestinal polyp multiplicity and macrophage number in Apc(Min/+) mice ... These data suggest that quercetin can reduce polyp number and size distribution in the Apc(Min/+) mouse and that these effects may be related to a reduction in macrophage infiltration" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Reduces Risk for Colon Polyps, Resulting in Less Colon Cancer - Medscape, 3/9/11 - "reanalyzed data collected in 20 clinical trials that reported on physical activity levels (obtained mainly from questionnaires) in individuals who had undergone sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (both symptomatic and screening). Most studies did not specify the reason for undergoing the procedure ... Together, these trials involved more than 250,000 individuals ... Overall, there was a significant inverse association between physical activity and colon polyps (fixed-effect relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.91; random-effects RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.92) ... "Our meta-analysis found the effect was stronger, though not significantly so, for large or advanced adenomas than for the overall effect," they add ... The risk reduction (RR, 0.83) was "largely unchanged" when the analysis was restricted to the 18 studies in which the results for adenomatous polyps were separated from all polyps (i.e., hyperplastic, malignant polyps), they report"
  • Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar 4 - "We observed inverse associations of colorectal cancer risk with dietary vitamin D (summary RR per 100 IU/day=0.95 95%CI: (0.93-0.98); 10 studies; range of intake (midpoints) = 39-719 IU/day) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (RR per 100 IU/l=0.96 (0.94-0.97); 6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l), but not with total vitamin D (5 studies). Supplemental (2 studies; range=0-600 IU/day) and total (4 studies; range=79-732 IU/day) vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. We did not observe statistically significant associations between FokI, PolyA, TaqI, Cdx2 and ApaI VDR polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. The BsmI polymorphism was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk (RR=0.57 (0.36-0.89) for BB vs. bb, 8 studies)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pterostilbene Is More Potent than Resveratrol in Preventing Azoxymethane (AOM)-Induced Colon Tumorigenesis via Activation of the NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2)-Mediated Antioxidant Signaling Pathway - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 28 - "Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties ... Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model"
  • Vitamin D linked to colon cancer protection: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/7/11 - "for every 10 nanograms per milliliter increase in 25(OH)D levels the associated risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 15 percent, while the risk of breast cancer was associated with an 11 percent decrease. However, when the researchers restricted their analysis to prospective studies only, the breast cancer risk was decreased by only 3 percent, whereas data from case-control studies indicated a risk reduction of 17 percent" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;128(6):1414-24 - "The summary relative risk (SRR) and (95% confidence interval) for a 10 ng/ml increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 0.85 (0.79; 0.91) for colorectal cancer (2,630 cases in 9 studies); 0.89 (0.81;0.98) for breast cancer (6,175 cases in 10 studies); and 0.99 (0.95;1.03) for prostate cancer (3,956 cases in 11 studies). For breast cancer, case-control studies (3,030 cases) had major limitations and obtained SRR of 0.83 (0.79; 0.87) whereas SRR of prospective studies (3,145 cases) was 0.97 (0.92; 1.03). For colorectal and breast cancer, differences between cases and controls in the season of blood draw or in overweight/obesity or physical inactivity could not explain the results. In conclusion, a consistent inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal cancer was found. No association was found for breast and prostate cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Folate intake and risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma: modification by time - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 26
  • Chemopreventive Effects of Dietary Canola Oil on Colon Cancer Development - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan 24:1 - "Dietary canola oil significantly (P < 0.05) decreased colonic tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to dietary corn oil in rats. Fatty acid analysis showed that corn oil group had higher levels of ω-6 fatty acid levels, whereas the canola oil groups exhibited higher levels of ω-3 fatty acids from the colon and serum samples of rats. For the mechanistic study, COX-2 expression in the colon samples from the canola oil group was significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the corn oil group. Taken together, dietary canola oil may be chemopreventive for colon tumor development in Fischer rats as compared to possibly by increasing ω-3 fatty acid levels and decreasing COX-2 levels"
  • Folic acid and prevention of colorectal adenomas: A combined analysis of randomized clinical trials - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 17 - "Observational data suggest that lower folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, implying that folate may be useful as a chemopreventive agent. We conducted a combined analysis of three large randomized trials of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of metachronous adenomas in patients with an adenoma history. Participants included 2,632 men and women with a history of adenomas randomized to either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/day of folic acid or placebo, and who had a follow-up endoscopy 6 to 42 months after randomization ... The RR comparing folic acid vs. placebo was 0.98 (95% CI=0.82-1.17) for all adenomas and 1.06 (95% CI=0.81-1.39) for advanced lesions. Folic acid was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of any adenoma among subjects in the lowest quartile of baseline plasma folate (≤11 nmol/L) and no effect among individuals in the highest quartile (>29 nmol/L, p for trend = 0.17). There was a non-significant trend of decreasing risk of any adenoma associated with folic acid supplements with increasing alcohol intake. During the early follow-up reported here, more deaths occurred in the placebo group than in the folic acid group (1.7% vs. 0.5%, p=.002)"
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - "engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). When this engineered bacterial strain was fed to mice, the researchers found that the composition of the mice's fat tissue was significantly altered ... One type, called t10, c12 CLA, has been shown to be associated with decreased body fat in humans and other animals. t10, c12 CLA also has the ability to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells and induce their death. However, this type of CLA is only produced by certain types of bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes -- a skin bacterium that can cause acne ... In this study, an enzyme-encoding gene from P. acnes was transferred to the Lactobacillus strain allowing it to produce t10, c12 CLA ... CLA has already been shown to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that often accompanies obesity. Therefore, increasing levels of CLA in the liver by ingestion of a probiotic strain is of therapeutic relevance ... The same group of researchers previously found that microbially produced CLA was able to reduce the viability of colon cancer cells by 92%"
  • Dietary Supplementation of Lutein Reduces Colon Carcinogenesis in DMH-Treated Rats by Modulating K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin Proteins - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Dec 2:1 - "The results showed a significant increase in protein expression for K-ras and β-catenin in tumors of DMH-treated rats. Simultaneously, we detected changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and PKB in DMH-treated animals. Lutein given in the diet (0.002%), before (prevention) and after (treatment) DMH administration, diminished the number of tumors by 55% and 32%, respectively. Moreover, lutein significantly decreased in tumors the expression of K-ras (25%) and β-catenin (28%) and the amount of pPKB (32%), during the prevention, and 39%, 26%, and 26% during the treatment stage, respectively. This study demonstrates the chemoprotective effect of lutein against colon cancer by modulating the proliferative activity of K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Antitumor Activity of Capsaicin on Human Colon Cancer Cells in Vitro and Colo 205 Tumor Xenografts in Vivo - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 17 - "capsaicin induced cytotoxic effects in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) but decreased the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) in colo 205 cells. Data from Western blotting analysis indicated that the levels of Fas, cytochrome c, and caspases were increased, leading to cell apoptosis. Capsaicin decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in colo 205 cells was also done through the activations of caspase-8, -9 and -3. In vivo studies in immunodeficient nu/nu mice bearing colo 205 tumor xenografts showed that capsaicin effectively inhibited tumor growth. The potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of capsaicin suggest that capsaicin might be developed for the treatment of human colon cancer" - See capsaicin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • NSAIDs cause stem cells to self-destruct, preventing colon cancer, study finds - Science Daily, 11/1/10
  • Soy food and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 24 - "Energy-adjusted intakes of soy foods (dry weight) and isoflavones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men and postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03, p for trend = 0.03) for soy foods and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.10, p for trend = 0.051) for isoflavones in men. The corresponding values for postmenopausal women were 0.60 (95% CI 0.29-1.25, p for trend = 0.053) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.33-1.40, p for trend = 0.049)"
  • Racial disparity in death from colorectal cancer: does vitamin D deficiency contribute? - Cancer. 2010 Oct 13 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated significantly with CRC mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.11-4.00), and the effect of race was decreased (HR, 1.60" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via nrf2 - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):947-57 - "Treatment with allicin resulted in HCT-116 apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, decreased levels of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), increased levels of bax and increased capability of releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Allicin also induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to the nuclei of HCT-116 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Clinical Pharmacology of Resveratrol and Its Metabolites in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Cancer Res. 2010 Sep 14 - "Consumption of resveratrol reduced tumor cell proliferation by 5% (P = 0.05). The results suggest that daily p.o. doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g produce levels in the human gastrointestinal tract of an order of magnitude sufficient to elicit anticarcinogenic effects. Resveratrol merits further clinical evaluation as a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Even very low dose of regular aspirin wards off bowel cancer, study finds - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "After a year, taking daily low dose aspirin was associated with a 22% reduced risk of developing bowel cancer, and the magnitude of the reduction in risk was cumulative, rising to 30% after five years ... taking NSAIDs of any kind did not influence the risk of death from any cause nor did it increase bowel cancer survival"
  • Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep 2 - "Relative risks (RRs) ... Adjusted RRs comparing the highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56-0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53-0.87, <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80-1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed >/=30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC ... CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large European cohort study show that higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk"
  • Metformin Might Prevent Colorectal, Lung Cancers - Medscape, 9/3/10 - "The chance observation that diabetes patients taking metformin have a 40% reduced risk for cancer triggered intense research interest in this old off-patent drug ... After about 10% of the mouse lifespan — about 12 weeks — with the highest dose in the drinking water, we found a 33% reduction in tumor multiplicity and a 34% reduction in tumor size in the mice. In mice that did not get metformin, 100% got tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumors ... metformin might prevent tumors by reducing levels of insulin and IGF-1" - See my Insulin and Aging page.  There are a lot of studies pointing toward insulin being a major cause of aging and caner.  See metformin at IAS.
  • Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study - Br J Cancer. 2010 Aug 24;103(5):730-4 - "wholegrain (WG) products ... Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77-0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50 g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined to intake of WG bread in particular. No consistent associations between total or individual WG product consumption and colon or rectal cancer risk were observed in women"
  • More support for vitamin D’s colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/10 - "In people using NSAIDs, the potential risk reduction of higher vitamin D levels was increased to 66 per cent" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Risk: A Pooled Case-Control Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 22 - "In the pooled analysis, higher circulating 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased colorectal adenoma risk (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.84). The observed inverse association was stronger among participants who used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs regularly (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.56). Inverse associations between 25(OH)D(3) and colorectal adenoma did not differ substantially by other risk factors or by adenoma characteristics. These findings support the hypothesis that greater vitamin D exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal adenoma and suggest that it may do so more strongly in combination with antiinflammatory agents" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Aug 1 - "Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively) ... The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer"
  • Gut bacteria could be key indicator of colon cancer risk - Science  Daily, 6/29/10 - "a shift in the balance between the "good" bacteria and the "bad" bacteria that populate our gut could be a harbinger of colon cancer ... We think something happens to tip the balance away from the beneficial bacteria and in favor of microbes that make toxic metabolites and are detrimental to our health ... By pinpointing these bacterial culprits, we can not only identify people at risk, but also suggest that they include the good bacteria in their diet .. And what a great way to address colon cancer -- you could know your risk and lower it by eating your yogurt every day" - Note:  Dannon claims that only their Activia brand reaches the gut.  see:
    • Activia by Dannon - "Specialists at Dannon® selected Bifidus Regularis™ for Activia® because it survives passage through the digestive tract, arriving in the colon as a living culture. Once there, it plays a beneficial role in your intestinal ecosystem"
  • Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):701-9 - "There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08-0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37-0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC"
  • Prevention of colorectal cancer with vitamin D - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 5 - "On a molecular level, vitamin D suppresses CRC development and growth by affecting cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis ... Maintaining serum concentrations of calcidiol above 32 ng/ml (80 nmol/l) in individuals whose serum calcidiol level is low may help prevent CRC as well as osteoporosis, fractures, infections, and cardiovascular disease. Daily calcidiol intake of 1000 International Units can increase serum vitamin D to sufficient levels in most elderly persons and, based on available data, may substantially lower the incidence of CRC with minimal risks" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces rectal polyp number and size in familial adenomatous polyposis - Gut. 2010 Mar 26 - "Treatment with EPA-FFA for 6 months was associated with a mean 22.4% (95% CI 5.1% to 39.6%) reduction in polyp number (p=0.012) and a 29.8% (3.6% to 56.1%) decrease in the sum of polyp diameters (p=0.027). Global polyp burden worsened over 6 months in the placebo group (-0.34) unlike the EPA-FFA group (+0.09, difference 0.42 (0.10-0.75), p=0.011) ... EPA-FFA has chemopreventative efficacy in FAP, to a degree similar to that previously observed with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. EPA holds promise as a colorectal cancer chemoprevention agent with a favourable safety profile" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies - JAMA. 2010 Mar 17;303(11):1077-83 - "Omitting 1 study that contributed substantially to the heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B(6) intake yielded a pooled RR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 49% for every 100-pmol/mL increase (approximately 2 SDs) in blood PLP levels (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69)"
  • Omega 3 curbs precancerous growths in those prone to bowel cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/17/10 - "randomly assigned to six months of treatment with 2 g daily of a new highly purified form of the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) EPA. The other 27 were given the same amount of a dummy treatment (placebo) ...number of polyps increased by almost 10% among those treated with the placebo, but fell by more than 12% among those treated with the EPA capsules, representing a difference of almost 22.5% ... Similarly, polyp size increased by more than 17% among those in the placebo group but fell by more than 12.5% in those taking the EPA capsules, representing a difference of just under 30% ... the effects of EPA were similar to those produced by celecoxib, which is used to help curb the growth of new and existing polyps in patients with FAP ... celecoxib has been associated with harmful cardiovascular side effects in older patients" - See See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may decrease colon cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 3/15/10 - "Intakes of the mineral of at least 327 milligrams per day were found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 52 per cent, compared to intakes less than 238 milligrams per day, while no benefits were observed in women" - [Abstract] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • High Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 17 - "When adjusted for potential confounders, the hazard ratio and 95% CI in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with the lowest quintile in men were 0.65 (95% CI, 0.40-1.03) for CRC (P-trend = 0.04), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26-0.89) for colon cancer (P-trend = 0.01), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47-2.02) for rectal cancer (P-trend = 0.93)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Synergistic role of curcumin with current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):842-6 - "Despite the use of surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal carcinoma develop recurrent disease, highlighting the need for improved therapies. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the major active ingredient of turmeric (curcuma longa) with no discernable toxicity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion, and progression stages in carcinogen-induced rodent models. In a Phase I clinical trial, curcumin has been found to be extremely well tolerated and effective ... Existing data suggest that curcumin in combination with chemotherapy is a superior strategy for treatment of gastrointestinal cancer" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPAR{gamma} - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood ... Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/22/10 - "They discovered that those with the highest blood levels of vitamin D had a nearly 40% decrease in colorectal cancer risk than those with the lowest levels" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "The researchers randomized 411 participants to the placebo group or to receive an antioxidant compound -- specifically selenomethionnine 200 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin A 6,000 IU, vitamin C 180 mg and vitamin E 30 mg ... individuals who consumed antioxidants had a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel ... It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of colon cancer - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "Patients who consumed more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer. Compared to the lowest quartile, fat intake in the highest quartile was linked with a 39 percent reduced risk of cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Soy component may be key to fighting colon cancer - Science Daily, 11/24/09
  • Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 24 - "The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer"
  • Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):544-53 - "the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep 7:1-8 - "We concluded that flavonols, specifically quercetin, obtained from non-tea components of the diet may be linked with reduced risk of developing colon cancer" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea slashes heart disease death - Nutra USA, 9/8/09 - "Compared to people who drank less than one cup a day, seven or more cups of green tea a day may reduce the risk of dying from heart disease by a whopping 75 per cent ... Additionally, a reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer mortality of 31 per cent was observed for people who drank more than seven cups of green a day, compared to people who frank less than three cups a day" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Consumption and Mortality among Japanese Elderly People: The Prospective Shizuoka Elderly Cohort - Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;19(10):732-739 - "The multivariate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD mortality compared those who consumed seven or more cups per day with those who consumed less than one cup per day, were 0.24 (0.14-0.40), 0.30 (0.15-0.61), and 0.18 (0.08-0.40) for total participants, men, and women, respectively. Although green tea consumption was not inversely associated with cancer mortality, green tea consumption and colorectal cancer mortality were inversely associated with a moderate dose-response relationship" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Natural Compounds, Chemotherapeutic Drugs May Become Partners In Cancer Therapy - Science Daily, 9/7/09 - "New research shows that chlorophyllin -- a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, the green pigment found in most plants -- may be 10 times more potent at killing colon cancer cells than hydroxyurea, a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in cancer treatment" - See chlorophyllin products at iHerb.
  • More omega-3, less omega-6 for colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/09 - "the dietary total omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk ... Compared to women with the lowest ratio, women with the highest ratio of omega-6 to -3 had a relative risk 95 per cent higher" - [Abstract]
  • A prospective study of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese women - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Aug;18(8):2283-91 - "The dietary total n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with women in the lowest quintile group, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for the second [RR, 1.52; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.00-2.32], third (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.41-3.45), fourth (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.99-2.75), and fifth (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54) quintile groups. Arachidonic acid was associated with colorectal cancer risk with elevated RRs of 1.20(Q2-Q1) (95% CI, 0.87-1.64), 1.44(Q3-Q1) (95% CI, 1.05-1.98), 1.61(Q4-Q1) (95% CI, 1.17-2.23), and 1.39(Q5-Q1) (95% CI, 0.97-1.99; P(trend) = 0.03) with increasing dietary quintile"
  • Aspirin May Help Treat Colon Cancer - WebMD, 8/10/09 - "Certain patients with colorectal cancer who begin regular aspirin use after the disease develops may greatly improve their odds of survival ... Patients with colorectal cancer who started regular aspirin use for the first time after diagnosis had a 47% lower risk of colorectal cancer death and 32% lower risk of overall death than nonusers of aspirin ... The survival advantage was seen only in those with Cox-2-positive tumors. Most colorectal tumors are Cox-2-positive"
  • Curcumin sensitizes human colorectal cancer to capecitabine by modulation of cyclin D1, COX-2, MMP-9, VEGF and CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic mouse model - Int J Cancer. 2009 May 26 - "Because of the poor prognosis and the development of resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs, the current treatment for advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is ineffective. Whether curcumin (a component of turmeric) can potentiate the effect of capecitabine against growth and metastasis of CRC was investigated ... In nude mice, the combination of curcumin and capecitabine was found to be more effective than either agent alone in reducing tumor volume (p = 0.001 vs. control; p = 0.031 vs. capecitabine alone), Ki-67 proliferation index (p = 0.001 vs. control) and microvessel density marker CD31. The combination treatment was also highly effective in suppressing ascites and distant metastasis to the liver, intestines, lungs, rectum and spleen. This effect was accompanied by suppressed expression of activated NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1,c-myc, bcl-2, bcl-xL, cIAP-1, COX-2, ICAM-1, MMP-9, CXCR4 and VEGF). Overall, our results suggest that curcumin sensitizes CRC to the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of capecitabine by suppressing NF-kappaB cell signaling pathway" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Understanding The Anticancer Effects Of Vitamin D3 - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "the active form of vitamin D3 directly activates the CST5 gene in human colon cancer cell lines, increasing levels of cystatin D protein. Functionally, cystatin D was shown to inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells lines in vitro and when they were xenotransplanted into mice. As knocking down expression of cystatin D in human colon cancer cell lines rendered them unresponsive to the antiproliferative effects of the active form of vitamin D3, the authors conclude that CST5 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene and that it mediates a large proportion of the anticancer effects of the active form of vitamin D3" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Folate linked to lower colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 7/6/09 - "A possible explanation for the contradictory results of studies with the vitamin and colorectal cancer may be the difference between the synthetic and natural forms of the vitamin. “The fact that folic acid, which is not a naturally occurring form of the vitamin, is used by food and pharmaceutical industries for fortification and supplementation is potentially of importance,” wrote Tufts University’s Mason in Nutrition Reviews ... On passage through the intestinal wall, folic acid is converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the naturally circulating form of folate. However, some studies have suggested that oral doses of folic acid in high doses may overwhelm this conversion pathway, leading to measurable levels of folic acid in the blood ... There has been some concern that this oxidized, non-substituted form of folate might feasibly be detrimental because it is not a naturally occurring co-enzymatic form of the vitamin" - [Abstract]
  • Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "Cases were more frequently found to have a family history of CRC among first-degree relatives, to consume more alcohol, to be more likely current smokers and less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than the controls. In the overall data for men and women combined, multivariate ORs (95% confidence interval (CI), P for trend) comparing the highest vs the lowest quartile of dietary folate intake were: 0.47 (0.32-0.69, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.42 (0.26-0.69, < 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.48 (0.28-0.81, 0.007) for rectal cancer. An inverse association was also found in women with dietary folate intake: 0.36 (0.20-0.64, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.34 (0.16-0.70, 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.30 (0.12-0.74, 0.026) for rectal cancer, but not in men. In addition, the total folate intake of women was strongly associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; P for trend=0.04). ... We found a statistically significant relationship between higher dietary folate intake and reduced risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. A significant association is indicated between higher total folate intake and reduced risk of rectal cancer in women"
  • Fruit and veg may slash colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 5/11/09 - "Over 8.8 years of follow-up ... the highest average intakes of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 14 per cent reduction in colorectal cancer risk, and a 24 per cent reduction in the risk of colon cancer" - [Abstract]
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1441-52 - "After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone"
  • B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 5/5/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin B6 from dietary and supplements may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by over 20 per cent (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev., Vol. 17, pp. 171-182)"
  • Prospective study of plasma vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer in men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Apr;18(4):1197-202 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; P(trend) = 0.01), respectively"
  • Olive Skins Provide Natural Defense Against Colon Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/8/09
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 1 - "After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers"
  • Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 31 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, vitamin B6 may protect against colorectal cancer independent of other one-carbon metabolites and inflammatory biomarkers"
  • Effects of resveratrol analogs on cell cycle progression, cell cycle associated proteins and 5fluoro-uracil sensitivity in human derived colon cancer cells - Int J Cancer. 2009 Jan 13 - "Thus, acetylated derivatives of resveratrol have retained the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of the parental molecule and thus deserve to be tested as chemosensitizers in animal models" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of dietary flaxseed on intestinal tumorigenesis in apc(min) mouse - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):276-83 - "COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the colon samples from the flaxseed meal group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the corn meal group. Dietary flaxseed may be chemopreventive for intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice possibly by increasing omega -3 fatty acid levels, lignans, and decreasing COX-1 and COX-2 levels"
  • Selenium, folate, and colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):165-78 - "High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer"
  • Calcium May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "older men and women who got the most calcium from food and supplements had a 16% lower risk of colorectal and other cancers of the digestive system than those who got the least calcium"
  • Effect of a Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol on Colon Microbiota, Inflammation and Tissue Damage in a DSS-Induced Colitis Rat Model - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Feb 19 - "Resveratrol increased lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as well as diminished the increase of enterobacteria upon DSS treatment. Resveratrol significantly protected the colonic mucosa architecture, reduced body weight loss, diminished the induced anemia and reduced systemic inflammation markers, colonic mucosa prostaglandin E(2), cycloxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase and nitric oxide levels. In addition, the expression of 2,655 genes in distal colon mucosa related to important pathways was varied. These results reinforce the concept of resveratrol as a dietary beneficial compound in intestinal inflammation at doses possibly attainable with resveratrol-enriched nutraceuticals" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Cranberry extracts may prevent colon cancer: Lab study - Nutra USA, 2/13/09 - "These findings are important because they demonstrate that the F-κB signalling pathway provides a potential mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer and that the anti-inflammatory properties of crude cranberry extract or quercetin can be used to modulate this pathway" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • People Who Exercise Lower Their Risk Of Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "people who exercised the most were 24 percent less likely to develop the disease than those who exercised the least"
  • Soy Consumption Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 1/29/09 - "For each 5-g/day increment in dietary intake of soy as measured by dry weight (equivalent to approximately 1 oz [28.35 g] tofu/day), there was an 8% reduction in risk ... Compared with women in the lowest tertile of soy intake, those in the highest tertile had a multivariate relative risk (RR) of 0.67 ... were similar for soy protein and isoflavone intakes"
  • Protective Effect of Fish Consumption on Colorectal Cancer Risk. Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Eastern Europe - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Jan 26;53(3-4):295-302 - "The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Colorectal Adenomas - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 17 - "The odds ratio for upper tertile intake compared with lower was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51-0.86) for total fruits, 0.64 (95% CI = 0.47-0.87) for berries, 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56-0.92) for fruit juice, and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58-0.96) for green vegetables. This study provides additional evidence that high total fruit intake and certain fruit and vegetable intakes may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • Vitamin D Can Alter Color Cancer Cells In Many Ways, Through One Pathway - Science Daily, 11/17/08 - "Vitamin D can tame the rogue cell by adjusting everything from its gene expression to its cytoskeleton" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium May Only Protect Against Colorectal Cancer In Presence Of Magnesium - Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "supplementation of calcium only reduced the risk of adenoma recurrence if the ratio of calcium to magnesium was low and remained low during treatment. "The risk of colorectal cancer adenoma recurrence was reduced by 32 percent among those with baseline calcium to magnesium ratio below the median in comparison to no reduction for those above the median"
  • Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11 - "control colorectal cancer (CRC) ... Grape seed extract (GSE) ... Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29, and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all 3 cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all 3 cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and Prevention of Colorectal Adenoma: A Meta-analysis - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov;17(11):2958-69 - "Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenomas: the OR was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.56-0.87] for high versus low circulating 25(OH)D. The highest quintile of vitamin D intake was associated with an 11% marginally decreased risk of colorectal adenomas compared with low vitamin D intake (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). For recurrent adenomas, there was a decreased risk of 12% (95% CI, 0.72-1.07) among individuals with high versus low vitamin D intake. The inverse associations appeared stronger for advanced adenoma [OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90 for serum 25(OH)D and OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95 for vitamin D intake], but the number of studies was small" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea extracts for the prevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas: a pilot study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov;17(11):3020-5 - "The incidence of metachronous adenomas at the end-point colonoscopy was 31% (20 of 65) in the control group and 15% (9 of 60) in the GTE group (relative risk, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.99; P < 0.05). The size of relapsed adenomas was also smaller in the GTE group than in the control group (P < 0.001). No serious adverse events occurred in the GTE group. CONCLUSION: GTE is an effective supplement for the chemoprevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chemotherapy is linked to severe vitamin D deficiency in patients with colorectal cancer - Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008 Oct 2 - "Chemotherapy is associated with a significant increase in the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency. Patients with colorectal cancer, especially those receiving chemotherapy, should be considered for aggressive vitamin D replacement strategies" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Can Fruits, Vegetables Cut Colon Cancer Risk? - WebMD, 9/11/08 - "Based on those answers, the researchers concluded that men who ate the most fruits and vegetables were 26% less likely to develop colorectal cancer than men who ate the least ... No decrease in risk associated with fruit and vegetable consumption was seen for women"
  • New Evidence On Folic Acid In Diet And Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 9/1/08 - "folate depletion caused increased DNA damage and a cascade of other biological changes linked to an increased cancer risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Levels Tied to Colorectal Cancer Survival - Medscape, 7/14/08 - "Compared with patients with the lowest levels, those with the highest had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.52 for overall mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Up Colon Cancer Survival - WebMD, 6/18/08 - "patients with colon cancer who were among the top 25% in levels of vitamin D before being diagnosed were less likely to die during the study period than those who were among the 25% with the lowest levels of the vitamin" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com
  • Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1793-801 - "Overall, both GL and GI were significantly associated with a greater risk of colorectal (summary RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.44 and RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.34, respectively) and endometrial (RR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62 and RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) cancer than of breast and pancreatic cancer"
  • Does Folic Acid Supplementation Prevent or Promote Colorectal Cancer? Results from Model-Based Predictions - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jun 6 - "Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental"
  • Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis through ROS-Dependent Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 4 - "Results of the present study provide evidence demonstrating the antitumor effect of trans-resveratrol via a ROS-dependent apoptosis pathway in colorectal carcinoma" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of aqueous green tea extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric and colon tissues - Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 May-Jun;14(3):30-3 - "Our data suggest that green tea may support the medical treatment of stomach and colon cancer" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 linked to lower colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 5/16/08 - "In terms of fish intake, the highest average intake was associated with a 40 per cent reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, this link was relevant for both colon and rectal cancers" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • A 22-year Prospective Study of Fish, n-3 Fatty Acid Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May;17(5):1136-43 - "Fish intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk [multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) for highest versus lowest category, 0.60 (0.40-0.91); P(trend) = 0.01]. The inverse association was observed for both colon and rectal cancers. Our findings for n-3 fatty acids were similar to those for fish; the multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) of total colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of n-3 fatty acids was 0.74 (0.57-0.95; P(trend) = 0.01) ... Our results from this long-term prospective study suggest that intakes of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish may decrease the risk for colorectal cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of postoperative omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes and immunomodulations in colorectal cancer patients - World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr 21;14(15):2434-2439 - "Patients in the FO group trended to need a shorter postoperative hospital stay (17.45 +/- 4.80 d vs 19.62 +/- 5.59 d, P = 0.19) ... Postoperative supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids may have a favorable effect on the outcomes in colorectal cancer patients undergoing radical resection by lowering the magnitude of inflammatory responses and modulating the immune response" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D And Calcium Influence Cell Death In The Colon, Researchers Find - Science Daily, 4/13/08 - "We were pleased that the effects of calcium and vitamin D were visible enough in this small study to be significant and reportable"
  • Folate and MTHFR: risk of adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Mar 6 - "Low dietary folate intake has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and adenoma recurrence. A C/T transition at position 677 in the gene encoding methlylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been reported to interact with folate intake to modulate colorectal adenoma recurrence or cancer risk ... In general, no statistically significant associations were found between quartile of folate intake (dietary or total) and adenoma recurrence ... No significant interaction was noted for total folate and MTHFR genotype, though an increased risk of recurrence noted for the MTHFR CT genotype was statistically significant only for those individuals with below median intake of total folate"
  • Aspirin Associated With Reduced Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "men who reported regular aspirin use (at least 2 times per week) had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those who were not regular aspirin users (multivariate RR, 0.79) ... However, men reporting 6 to 14 standard aspirin tablets per week had a multivariate RR of 0.72, and those consuming more than 14 tablets per week experienced a multivariate RR of 0.30" - Note: A RR of 0.79 is a 21% reduction, a RR of 0.30 is a 70% reduction.
  • Vitamin D Appears to Cut Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 12 ng/mL, a level of at least 33 ng/mL or more was associated with a 50% reduction in the risk for incident colorectal cancer ... vitamin D intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day would confer an appropriate balance between protection against colorectal cancer and adverse events related to hypervitaminosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Regular, Long-Term Aspirin Use Reduces Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 1/23/08 - "the benefit of aspirin was not apparent until after more than five years of use. The greatest reduction in risk was observed at cumulative doses of more than 14 standard tablets (325 mg) per week, which is higher than normally recommended. The benefit of aspirin use appears to diminish less than four years after stopping use and is not evident after four to five years of discontinued use"
  • Recreational Physical Activity and Cancer Risk in Subsites of the Colon (the Nord-Trondelag Health Study) - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):183-8 - "Overall, we found an inverse association between recreational physical activity and colon cancer risk, but subsite analyses showed that the association was confined to cancer in the transverse and sigmoid colon. The adjusted HR, comparing people who reported high versus no physical activity, was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.78) for cancer in the transverse colon and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.31-0.75) for cancer in the sigmoid colon. The corresponding HR for cancer mortality was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.14-0.76) for the transverse colon and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.15-0.56) for the sigmoid colon. For rectal cancer, there was no association with physical activity in these data"
  • Vitamin B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 1/17/08 - "High vitamin B6 intakes were reported to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 19 per cent. The protective effect was found to be higher among 55-year-old individuals (1,001 cases compared to 1,010 controls)" - [Abstract]
  • Dietary vitamin b6 intake and the risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):171-82 - "Moderately strong inverse and dose-dependent associations in the whole sample were found between CRC risk and the intake of dietary and total vitamin B6 in all three models [model III: odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-0.98; P for trend = 0.03; OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.07; P for trend = 0.12]. In addition, meta-analyses of published studies showed inverse associations between vitamin B6 and CRC (combined relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96; test for overall effect P = 0.01; combined odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75; test for overall effect P < 0.00001)"
  • Childhood Dairy Intake Linked to Colon Cancer - oncologystat.com, 12/19/07 - "Those who reported high levels of dairy during childhood were about 3 times more likely to develop colon cancer than those with low intake. A high intake was considered 2 or more cups a day, with a low intake being half a cup or less"
  • Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1722-9 - "High childhood total dairy intake was associated with a near-tripling in the odds of colorectal cancer [multivariate odds ratio: 2.90 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.65); 2-sided P for trend = 0.005] compared with low intake, independent of meat, fruit, and vegetable intakes and socioeconomic indicators"
  • Elevated Insulin, Glucose Raise Risk of Polyp Recurrence - Medscape, 12/10/07 - "patients with elevated insulin or glucose at the time of adenoma removal are at increased risk for recurrent adenoma ... Levels of glucose that produced the increased risk in this study were actually not very high, 99 mg/dL, which is right at the border of what we would describe as impaired fasting glucose ... the odds ratio for a recurrent polyp with advanced histology or large size was 2.43 at a fasting glucose level above 99 mg/dL ... These results "fit with the theory that insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia promote the development of colorectal neoplasia,""
  • Chemoprevention, Naturally: Findings On Plant-derived Cancer Medicines - Science Daily, 12/6/07 - "rats fed a diet containing Polyphenon E, a standardized green tea polyphenol preparation, are less than half as likely to develop colon cancer ... After 34 weeks, rats that received Polyphenon E developed 55 percent fewer tumors compared to the control rats that did not receive Polyphenon E. Moreover, the tumors were 45 percent smaller in rats treated with green tea extract" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin and Folic Acid for the Prevention of Recurrent Colorectal Adenomas - Gastroenterology. 2007 Oct 10 - "In total, 99 (22.8%) of 434 patients receiving aspirin had a recurrent adenoma compared with 121 (28.9%) of 419 patients receiving placebo (relative risk, 0.79"
  • Grape Powder Blocks Genes Linked To Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/07 - "The Wnt pathway has been linked to more than 85 percent of sporadic colon cancers, which is the most common form of colon cancer ... Wnt signaling in the patients taking 80 grams of grape powder was significantly reduced ... Eighty grams of grape powder equal a half glass of wine or 1 pound of grapes, which is equivalent to three dietary servings of grapes, according to the USDA"
  • Mesalamine, Folic Acid Each Cut Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease - oncologystat.com, 10/24/07 - "Patients who took at least 1 mg of folic acid daily also had about a 90% cut in their CRC incidence during follow-up, compared with the controls" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 to cut colon cancer: meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 10/25/07 - "the highest consumption of fish oil was associated with 12 per cent reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds inactivates the PI3-kinase/PKB pathway and induces apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line - Cancer Lett. 2007 Oct 6 - "grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ... GSPE (10-100mug/ml) significantly inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in CaCo2 cells, but did not alter viability in the normal colon cell line (NCM460). The increased apoptosis observed in GSPE-treated CaCo2 cells correlated with an attenuation of PI3-kinase (p110 and p85 subunits) and decreased PKB Ser(473) phosphorylation. GSPE might thus exert its beneficial effects by means of increased apoptosis and suppression of the important PI3-kinase survival-related pathway" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin enhances the effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in mediating growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by modulating EGFR and IGF-1R - Int J Cancer. 2007 Oct 4 - "inclusion of curcumin to the conventional chemotherapeutic agent(s)/regimen could be an effective therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fruits, Veggies Don’t Cut Colon Cancer - WebMD, 9/25/07 - "Overall, a higher intake of fruits and vegetables does not strongly reduce your risk of colon cancer"
  • CLA isomers show promise against colon cancer - study - Nutra USA, 9/24/07 - "We have demonstrated that diets containing 0.1 per cent c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo - J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Oct;18(10):650-7 - "diets containing 0.1% c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo. However, in vitro, only c9,t11 but not t10,c12 inhibited colon cancer cell migration and MMP-9 activity" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D for Cancer Prevention? - WebMD, 9/5/07 - "The 2,000-IU daily dose of vitamin D suggested by the reviewers is currently considered the "tolerable upper limit" for vitamin D ... a projected 50% reduction in colon cancer incidence would require a universal intake of 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D3 ... A similar reduction in breast cancer incidence would require 3,500 IU per day"
  • Study Shines More Light On Benefit Of Vitamin D In Fighting Cancer - Science Daily, 8/21/07 - "For the first time, we are saying that 600,000 cases of breast and colorectal cancer could be prevented each year worldwide, including nearly 150,000 in the United States alone ... The serum level recommended by the study would correspond to intake of 2000 International Units per day of vitamin D3 for a meaningful reduction in colorectal cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Colon Cancer on curcumin and Vectibix - Johns Hopkins, 8/14/07 - "University of Texas researchers treated some human colorectal cancer cells with neurotensin, with and without curcumin. They confirmed that neurotensin started a chain reaction of chemicals that can increase the growth of cancer and also the migration of cancer cells and that curcumin blocked the process ... Curcumin appears to do this by blocking the biochemical signals sent by neurotensin that contribute to colon cancer cell growth and migration (the spread of cancer to other body sites)" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibition Of Tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice by a Combination of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Fish Oil - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Aug 16 - "The effect of a combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with fish oil on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice fed a high-fat diet was investigated in the present study. The combined treatment of EGCG and fish oil for 9 weeks reduced the tumor number by 53% as compared to controls while neither agent alone had a significant effect. Apoptosis was significantly increased in all treatment groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Compounds That Color Fruits And Veggies May Protect Against Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 8/19/07 - "In animal studies, rats induced with colon cancer cells were fed a daily diet of anthocyanin extracts either from bilberries and chokeberries, which are most often used as flavorings or to make jams and juices. The dietary addition of the anthocyanin extracts reduced signs of colon tumors by 70 and 60 percent, respectively, when compared to control rats"
  • Green tea may stop colon cancer in its tracks - study - Nutra USA, 8/9/07 - "At the age of eight weeks, the mice were divided into two groups - one to receive water or a green tea solution (0.6 per cent) as the only beverage source for a further four to eight weeks ... consumption of the green tea solution significantly inhibited the formation of new tumours in the colon" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea selectively targets initial stages of intestinal carcinogenesis in the AOM-ApcMin mouse model - Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul 17 - "green tea specifically targets initial stages of colon carcinogenesis; the time of administration of green tea is pivotal for effective chemoprevention. Beverage levels of GT are not likely to inhibit the progress of any large adenomas or adenocarcinomas existing prior to the tea administration"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "Our data provide additional support for the inverse association between vitamin D and colorectal and, in particular, colon cancer risk"
  • Mistletoe in Supportive Care for Colorectal and Pancreatic Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 7/12/07 - "Use of a fermented mistletoe extract (MEx; Iscador®) in long-term supportive care in hospitals and private practices demonstrated significant survival benefit and improvements in quality of life for patients with surgically treated primary, nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma and for patients with all-stages pancreatic carcinoma, when combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy or passive aftercare in two multicentre, controlled, retrospective, epidemiological, observational, cohort studies"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "we observed a non-statistically significant inverse association between higher plasma 25(OH)D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer and a statistically significant inverse association for colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile: odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24 to 0.89; P(trend) = .005). After pooling the results from the HPFS and NHS, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased risks of both colorectal cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.05; P(trend) = .01) and colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.54" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Different omega-3 may offer different colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 7/11/07 - "Increased intake of EPA was associated with a 41 per cent reduction in risk, while DHA was associated with a 37 per cent reduction in risk, comparing highest against lowest average intakes" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul 15;166(2):181-95 - "Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated with increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (highest vs. lowest quartile of intake: odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.80; p < 0.0005 for trend) and of eicosapentaenoic (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.75; p < 0.0005 for trend) and docosahexaenoic (odds ratio = 0.63" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Fights Colon Cancer - WebMD, 7/10/07 - "The findings support a number of previous studies that link vitamin D to colon cancer protection, to protection against breast and ovarian cancer, to protection against pancreatic cancer, and to overall reduction of cancer risk" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Intake of Vitamin B-6 Is Associated with Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2007 Jul;137(7):1808-1814 - "We observed a significant inverse association between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer in men. Compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariate hazard ratio (95% [CI]) in the highest quartile of intake was 0.69"
  • Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 8 - "Dietary fiber was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but its relation to replacement hormone use and other factors affected its inverse association in women"
  • Prospective cohort study of green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in women - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun;16(6):1219-23 - "The multivariate relative risk of CRC was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.88) for women who reported drinking green tea regularly at baseline compared with nonregular tea drinkers" - I read that as a 37% reduction in risk.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com. - Ben
  • Diet May Influence Survival After Treatment For Stage III Colon Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/4/07
  • Life Long Vegetarian Diet Reduces The Risk Of Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 5/22/07 - "a vegetarian diet is associated with reduced risk of CRC if started very early in life"
  • Aspirin May Stop Colon Cancer - WebMD, 5/10/07 - "people who took a full-dose aspirin tablet every day for at least five years had as much as a 74% lower risk of colon cancer 10 to 14 years later. In the U.S."
  • Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer - Cancer Lett. 2007 Apr 18 - "Overwhelming in vitro evidence and completed clinical trials suggests that curcumin may prove to be useful for the chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population-based prospective cohort of Japanese men and women - Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 20 - "We observed a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of developing invasive colon cancer among women. Compared with those who almost never consumed coffee, women who regularly consumed 3 or more cups of coffee per day had a RR of 0.44 ... In men, no significant decrease was observed in any colorectal cancer site"
  • Berries May Help Prevent Cancer - WebMD, 3/26/07
  • Blueberries tackle bowel cancer - BBC News, 3/26/07 - "The key ingredient, pterostilbene, is a natural antioxidant and mops up highly reactive molecules called free radicals that can trigger cancer growth ... Rats given a cancer-causing agent but then fed pterostilbene had far fewer pre-cancers in their bowels than other rats ... The blueberry compound also reduced inflammation and the rate of cell division in the bowel"
  • Fruit May Sway Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/20/07 - "The group that had the lowest risk of having an adenoma was the group that ate a lot of fruit and avoided meat, basically"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study - Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12;96(3):510-3 - "Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake"
  • Vitamin D Backed For Cancer Prevention In Two New Studies - Science Daily, 2/8/07 - "Two new vitamin D studies using a sophisticated form of analysis called meta-analysis, in which data from multiple reports is combined, have revealed new prescriptions for possibly preventing up to half of the cases of breast cancer and two-thirds of the cases of colorectal cancer in the United States ... The serum level associated with a 50 percent reduction in risk could be maintained by taking 2,000 international units of vitamin D3 daily plus, when the weather permits, spending 10 to 15 minutes a day in the sun" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Prolonged effect of calcium supplementation on risk of colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jan 17;99(2):129-36 - "placebo or 1200 mg of elemental calcium daily for 4 years ... During the first 5 years after randomized treatment ended, subjects in the calcium group still had a substantially and statistically significantly lower risk of any adenoma than those in the placebo group (31.5% versus 43.2%"
  • Calcium May Reduce Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/16/07 - "Patients with a history of nonmalignant polyps took either 1,200 milligrams of calcium in supplement form or a placebo daily for four years ... Calcium use was associated with a 17% lower relative risk for polyp recurrence"
  • Colorectal cancer protective effects and the dietary micronutrients folate, methionine, vitamins b6, B12, C, e, selenium, and lycopene - Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(1):11-21 - "a diet containing the dietary micronutrients involved in DNA methylation (folate, methionine, and vitamins B6 and B12) and some of those with antioxidant properties (selenium and vitamins E and C) may have a role to play in lowering colorectal cancer risk and also that such protection can be achieved by dietary means alone"
  • More support omega-3 may protect against colorectal cancer - Nutra USA, 11/22/06 - "A diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 85 per cent"
  • Low Folate Diets Found To Increase Risk Of Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/06 - "None of the mice fed a control diet developed tumours whereas 1 in 4 mice on the folate-deficient diet developed at least one tumour"
  • Soy, Fish May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/14/06 - "men who ate the most fish -- and that was five or more servings per week of fish -- compared to the least fish -- less than one time per week -- had a 40% lower risk of developing colorectal cancer"
  • Calcium again linked to lower colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 11/8/06 - "the relative risk of colorectal cancer for the highest calcium intake group was 40 per cent lower compared to the lowest intake group"
  • Grape Seed Extract Halts Cell Cycle, Checking Growth Of Colorectal Tumors In Mice - Science Daily, 10/29/06 - "documented a 44 percent reduction of advanced colorectal tumors in the animals, and also revealed, for the first time, the molecular mechanism by which grape seed extract works to inhibit cancer growth" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon grape seed extracts.
  • Red Wine vs. Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/24/06 - "3% of red wine drinkers had such abnormal growths, compared with nearly 9% of white wine drinkers and almost 10% of teetotalers ... they suggest that a compound found in grapes and red wine – the antioxidant resveratrol -- may cut the odds of getting abnormal colon growths that can become cancerous"
  • Resveratrol in red wine could cut colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 10/23/06 - "Drinking more than three glasses of red wine a week could cut the risk of colorectal cancer by almost 70 per cent ... the active component in wine that may be behind the apparent benefits is most likely resveratrol"
  • Grape Seed Extract vs. Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/19/06 - "The cancer cells treated with grape seed extract were more likely to halt their normal growth cycle and die, compared to those not treated with the extract"
  • Flavonoids linked to colorectal cancer protection - Nutra USA, 8/9/06 - "A diet rich in certain flavonoids, from eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by over 40 per cent, says a large observational study from Italy"
  • Chemical in Curry May Cut Colon Cancer - WebMD, 8/2/06 - "Each of the patients then received 480 milligrams of curcumin and 20 milligrams of quercetin three times a day for six months ... The results showed that treatment with the curry and onion compounds reduced the average number of polyps by 60%, and decreased their size by 50%" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Exercise Improves Survival Rates For Colon Cancer Survivors - Science Daily, 7/14/06
  • Vitamin B6 May Help Prevent Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/06 - "There was an inverse association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer, with the relative risk (RR) for the highest quintile vs the lowest quintile being 0.66 ... Vitamin B6 may have a role in colorectal cancer prevention through reduction of oxidative stress and synthesis of a form of folate required for DNA repair, synthesis, and methylation"
  • Moderate Alcohol Consumption Protects Against Colorectal Adenoma - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/06 - "Non-drinkers had a 40% higher risk of adenoma than those in the moderate (1-2 drinks and 2-6 drinks per week) groups. Those drinking 7 or more alcoholic beverages per week had 150% higher risk of adenoma than the moderate groups"
  • Lowering Colon Cancer Risk? - Dr. Weil, 5/2/06
  • More support that dairy could reduce colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 3/8/06 - "A diet rich in dairy products could cut the risk of colorectal cancer by half, an effect that is not due solely to calcium"
  • More support for magnesium against colon cancer - Nutra USA, 1/31/06 - "The hazard ratio, a measure of the risk, was statistically 25 per cent lower for the volunteers with the highest intake of magnesium (more than 356 mg per day)"
  • Epidemiology of Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Recent Findings - Medscape, 1/9/06 - "In vitro, animal and clinical studies strongly indicate that vitamin D may have anticancer benefits, including against progression (such as metastasis) in colorectal cancer and possibly other cancers. Thus improving vitamin D status could be potentially beneficial against either incidence or mortality, or both ... Current recommended intakes of vitamin D (for example, 400 IU/day) may be too low to provide maximal benefits, though the precise optimal dose remains unestablished"
  • High-fat dairy food and conjugated linoleic acid intakes in relation to colorectal cancer incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):894-900 - "For CLA, the multivariate rate ratio of colorectal cancer in a comparison of the 2 extreme quartiles of intake was 0.71 ... These prospective data suggest that high intakes of high-fat dairy foods and CLA may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer" - [Food Navigator]
  • Selenium supplementation and colorectal adenomas: An analysis of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial - Int J Cancer. 2005 Oct 10 - "In addition to being associated with a reduced risk of incident CRC [colorectal cancers], selenium supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced risk of prevalent adenomas, but only among subjects with either a low baseline selenium level or among current smokers" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon selenium products.
  • High-Dose Aspirin Prevents Colon Cancer - WebMD, 8/23/05
  • Long-Term, Regular Aspirin Use Associated With Significant Reduction in Colorectal Cancer Risk Among Women - Doctor's Guide, 8/23/05 - "Among women who regularly used aspirin (2 or more standard [325-mg] tablets per week), there was a 23% reduced relative risk for colorectal cancer compared with nonregular users. However, significant risk reduction was not observed until more than 10 years of use"
  • Calcium Supplements May Help Prevent Polyps - WebMD, 7/19/05 - "people who took calcium had about a 25% lower risk of developing polyps in their colon"
  • Fish may protect against colorectal cancer - Nutra USA, 6/15/05 - "People eating less than 14g of fish a day were 40 per cent more likely to develop the cancer than those eating more than 50g per day"
  • Vitamin B6 May Help Prevent Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/05 - "those in the highest quintile had a 34% lower risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate rate ratio"
  • Moderate Exercise Reduces Risk of Colon Cancer Recurrence - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/05 - "disease-free survival was 49% lower in patients who engaged in 18 to 27 MET-hours/week of physical activity, compared with those who exercised less than 3 MET-hours/week. "This is equivalent to a 2 to 3 mph walk a day, 6 days a week, running fast 2 times a week or playing tennis 3 a week,""
  • Aspirin May Prevent Colon Cancer Recurrence - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/05 - "Recurrence-free survival was 55% lower in aspirin users than non-users (95% CI, 0.21-0.96), disease-free-survival was 54% lower (95% CI 0.23-0.95), and overall survival was 51% lower"
  • Aspirin, COX-2 Inhibitors Effective as Adjuvant Therapy in Stage III Colon - Medscape, 5/16/05 - "The chemotherapy provides about 35% improvement in survival compared with surgery alone for that stage of colon cancer, Dr. Fuchs said in an interview. In comparison, aspirin or the two cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors produced a reduction in risk of recurrence and death that was about 50% beyond what was achieved by chemotherapy after surgery"
  • Vitamin B-6 May Help People Avoid Colon Cancer - WebMD, 5/3/05 - "The risk of colorectal cancer was 44% lower for the women with the highest blood level of vitamin B-6 compared with women with the lowest level of vitamin B-6"
  • Calcium Supplements Keep on Working Even After They Are Stopped - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/05 - "People at high risk of colon cancer appear to reduce the risk of developing polyps while taking calcium supplements and continue to benefit for as long as 5 years after they stop taking them"
  • Statins Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 4/18/05 - "long-term use of calcium supplements protects against the development of potentially precancerous colon polyps for years after you stop taking them"
  • Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women - JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9 - "a high magnesium intake may reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer in women"
  • Selenium May Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/16/04 - "participants with the highest blood levels of selenium were 34% less likely to develop a new adenoma compared with those with the lowest selenium blood levels"
  • Calcium More Protective Against Some Polyps - WebMD, 6/15/04 - "The calcium group had 18% fewer noncancerous polyps and 35% fewer advanced polyps ... compared with the placebo group ... her study suggests that total calcium intake over 1,200 mg daily is necessary for colon protection -- and that a high-fiber diet with modest levels of fat will boost the protective effects"
  • New findings on soy and cancer prevention - Nutra USA, 5/13/04
  • Folate and colorectal neoplasia: relation between plasma and dietary markers of folate and adenoma recurrence - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;79(4):691-697 - "A lower recurrence of colorectal adenomas was shown in subjects with higher intakes and plasma concentrations of folate. Additional markers involved in folate metabolism, including lower homocysteine and higher vitamin B-6 intake, were also associated with lower odds of recurrence"
  • Heme Iron and Zinc Have Opposite Effects on Colon Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 3/29/04 - "heme iron appears to raise the risk of proximal colon cancer while dietary zinc appears to lower the risk of both proximal and distal colon cancer"
  • 5 a day force, new evidence - Nutra USA, 2/11/04 - "High intakes of vegetables, fruits and wholegrain foods reduces the risk of rectal cancer by 28 per cent, 27 per cent and 31 per cent, respectively ... High fiber diet – more that 34 grammes a day reduced risk of rectal cancer by a staggering 66 per cent"
  • Aspirin Use May Prevent Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/2/04 - "Regularly taking aspirin -- more than two tablets a week -- reduced the risks of polyps by 25% ... while higher doses of aspirin (325 milligrams per day) may be necessary for optimal prevention of polyps, the risk of severe gastrointestinal bleeding remains a serious concern" - See Drugstore.com aspirin productsicon.
  • Effect of an omega-3 fatty acid containing lipid emulsion alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on growth of the colon cancer cell line Caco-2 - Eur J Nutr. 2003 Dec;42(6):324-31 - "FO has a potent antiproliferative effect on Caco-2 cells"
  • Diet, lifestyle may lower colon cancer risk - MSNBC, 1/23/04 - "One prime suspect now is insulin resistance. In this condition, higher levels of insulin circulate because the body is less responsive to it. Insulin and related growth factors seem to change cell processes in ways that promote the development of cancer"
  • Lycopene, ß-carotene, and colorectal adenomas -Am  J  of Clin Nutr, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1219-1224, 12/03 - "Our findings support the hypothesis that lycopene contributes to the protective effect of high tomato intakes against the risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • What Causes, Prevents Colon Polyps - WebMD, 12/9/03 - "Just take an aspirin, a multivitamin, and eat a bowl of fiber-packed cereal with some milk ... In this new report, vitamin D shines -- it's associated with a one-third reduced risk of serious colon polyps that often lead to cancer in men getting at least 645 IUs of this nutrient each day"
  • Calcium Intake Plus Vitamin D May Protect Against Colon Adenomas - Medscape, 12/2/03 - "Calcium supplementation reduces the rate of colon adenomas, but only if vitamin D levels are adequate"
  • Studies Associate Fish And Multivitamins With Reduced Risk For Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/03 - "Only fish consumption was associated with a reduction in risk ... Both processed meat and red meat consumption were associated with increased risk ... Duration of multivitamin use was associated with a decreased risk of rectal cancer"
  • An Aspirin a Day Does Not Reduce Colorectal Cancer Risk Among Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/03
  • Night Shifts May Raise Cancer Risk - WebMD, 6/3/03 - "Data from an ongoing study of almost 80,000 nurses already suggest that working nights increases a woman's risk of breast cancer ... a new analysis points to a similar association for colorectal cancer ... "The peak production of melatonin occurs at about 1 or 2 a.m." Exposure to light at night stops the production of melatonin" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon melatonin products.
  • 2 Studies Contradict Earlier Research Showing No Benefit of Fiber on Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 5/1/03 - "What's more consistent is the two newest findings, both published in the May 3 issue of The Lancet ... those eating a high-fiber diet -- upwards of 36 grams of fiber each day -- were 25% less likely to develop polyps than those eating fewer than 12 grams ... The other study, conducted on 520,000 people in 10 European countries and called the largest study ever, also initially found a 25% reduced rate in colorectal cancer in those eating high-fiber diets of about 35 grams daily compared with those eating less than 15 ... the protective effect was greatest on the left side of the colon, where most cancers originate ... Fiber is believed to help reduce risk in two ways: It keeps you regular to remove toxins from the intestines, and bacteria living in the gut feeds on it -- producing beneficial byproducts to keep the colon healthy"
  • Europe-Wide Study Finds Fibre Can Cut Colorectal Cancer Risk By Up To 40% - Doctor's Guide, 5/1/03 - "People consuming an average of 35 g fibre a day can cut their risk of colorectal cancer up to 40%, compared to people who consume an average of 15 g per day ... Protection was greatest for the left side of the colon, and least for the rectum ... foods supplying fibre also contribute many other nutrients and phytochemicals that have been linked to cancer protection, and which could account for the protective effects seen"
  • Selenium Reduces Risk of Some Cancers: FDA Approves Claim - New Hope Natural Media, 4/17/03 - "Companies that manufacture selenium supplements will now be permitted by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to claim that selenium supplements may reduce the risk of some cancers, according to a statement by the FDA. Although the FDA does not permit manufacturers to list specific types of cancer in the health claim, studies suggest selenium supplementation may reduce the risk of colon, prostate, lung, liver and esophageal cancers" - See iHerb and Vitacosticon selenium products.
  • Calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and risk of colorectal cancer in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort - Cancer Causes Control 2003 Feb;14(1):1-12 - "Total calcium intake (from diet and supplements) was associated with marginally lower colorectal cancer risk in men and women ... The association was strongest for calcium from supplements ... Total vitamin D intake (from diet and multivitamins) was also inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among men"
  • Red Meat + Fats + Pasta = Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/10/03 - "Women who ate the most Western foods had 50% more colon cancers than the women who ate the least Western foods"
  • Low Dietary Copper Increases Fecal Free Radical Production, Fecal Water Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Cytotoxicity in Healthy Men - J. Nutr. 133:522-527, 2/03 - "One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake ... Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.01) increased fecal free radical production"
  • Colon Cancer Rise Linked to Beef, Pork - WebMD, 11/15/02 - "a high intake of red meat -- including beef and pork -- doubled the risk of colorectal cancer. No rise was seen for those reporting increased consumption of other meats or seafood. Eating vegetables was associated with a reduction in risk ... People who ate lots of red meat and few vegetables were more than 2.5 times more likely to get colon cancer"
  • More Good News on Tea - WebMD, 9/27/02 - "The latest studies suggest tea might lower cholesterol, improve heart health, prevent rectal cancer in women, and reduce cell damage in smokers" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid Supplement Reduces Cell Proliferation In High Risk Colorectal Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/02 - "Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer could cut their risk dramatically with a daily supplement of 2 mg of folic acid" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin Lowers Colon Cancer Risk - Intelihealth, 4/8/02 - "A daily baby aspirin modestly reduces the risk of colon cancer by preventing the growth of ominous polyps ... the 80-milligram baby aspirin size taken daily reduces this risk by 19 percent ... the researchers found that 38 percent of those getting baby aspirin had new polyps, compared with 47 percent of people getting placeboes. However, little benefit was seen among those getting full-size aspirin. Their recurrence rate was 45 percent"
  • Baby Aspirin Lowers Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 4/8/02
  • Exposure To Sunlight Lowers Risks Of Four Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/02 - "exposure to sunlight contributes to non-melanoma skin cancer. "By contrast, several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against female breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world." ... Some studies have suggested an association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D and colorectal, prostate and female breast cancers"
  • Calcium Intake May Be Associated With Reduced Risk Of Colon Cancer - Intelihealth, 3/19/02 - "Men and women who included more than 700 to 800 mg of calcium in their diets each day had a 40% to 50% lower risk of distal colon cancer compared with participants taking less than 500 mg of calcium each day"
  • Well-Rounded Prevention May Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/4/02 - "Research suggests that aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the vitamin folate, and the mineral calcium, all may have a protective effect against colon cancer. Estrogen, too, may have a protective effect ... The best way to lower your risk of colon cancer is to reduce red meat intake, exercise regularly, stop smoking, and control your weight ... aspirin reduced the risk of colon cancer death by 40%, when taken 16 times per month or more. Similarly, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Clinoril (sulindac) significantly reduced polyps in high-risk people. Both aspirin and Clinoril can cause stomach bleeding, but the new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Celebrex may prevent colon polyps without this side effect ... The herb rosemary, the spice turmeric, the skin of red grapes, and green tea all have similar effects as the [nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug] Celebrex"
  • Very Low Fruit, Vegetable Consumption Produces Highest Colorectal Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 4/6/01 - "Sub-analysis showed that this association was due largely to fruit consumption ... We observed no association between colorectal cancer risk and the consumption of cereal fiber, even at amounts substantially greater than previously examined"
  • Canceling Cancer: New Cancer Prevention Strategies on the Horizon - WebMD, 3/26/01 - "Huerta and his team used a compound similar to vitamin D but with some different properties. Sure enough, this compound, which they call Ro 26-9114, reduced the growth of colon tumors in mice to a similar degree as regular vitamin D but without the problematic side effects"
  • Calcium Pills May Stave Off Colon Cancer - WebMD, 3/9/01 - "among patients who took calcium (for one year), the size and growth of the benign tumors -- as measured by pathologists who looked at tissue biopsies -- was reduced by 58%. In contrast, only a 26% reduction was seen in patients who did not take calcium . . . The protective effect of calcium was most pronounced among the patients on a low-fat diet and taking calcium: 73% of those patients had noticeable reductions in adenomas. In contrast, there were no differences in adenoma reductions between high-fat eaters in the calcium and no-calcium groups"
  • Vitamin A Reduces Risk Of Colorectal Adenoma - Doctor's Guide, 2/23/01 - "Higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, however, were significantly associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • Study: Fiber Doesn't Prevent Cancer - Intelihealth, 10/13/00 - "29 percent of those receiving the supplement (ispaghula husk, a compound similar to psyllium that is not part of the average diet) got at least one new tumor within three years. That compares with 20 percent of those given fake granules"

Other News:

  • Be kind to your colon with less-invasive screenings, panel advises - CNN, 6/30/16 - "The biggest change from prior guidelines is the panel's inclusion of two more ways to screen for the disease, including "virtual colonoscopies," like President Barack Obama underwent in 2010. Also called computed tomography (CT) colonography, the test uses special X-ray machines to examine the colon. The panel also added a $650 home test called Cologuard, which checks stool for elevated levels of altered DNA that could indicate cancer"
  • Big Difference in Colorectal Cancer on Right vs Left Side - Medscape, 5/19/16 - "Survival was significantly longer for patients with primary tumors that originated on the left side of the colon (in the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum) than for patients with primary tumors that originated on the right side of the colon (in the cecum and ascending colon)"
  • Cholesterol levels, not statins, influence colorectal cancer risk - Science Daily, 4/27/16 - "They confirmed findings from previous studies that showed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in statin users compared to non-users. However, they found that the difference in the risk of colorectal cancer was not significantly different between those patients who continued statin therapy and those who discontinued (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.22). Furthermore, for every 1 mmol/L (~38.6 mg/dl) increase in total cholesterol level, authors observed a 10 percent decreased risk of colorectal cancer ... Additionally, they observed that decreases in total serum cholesterol (>1 mmol/L) at least a year before the cancer diagnosis were associated with 1.25-fold and 2.36-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in users and nonusers, respectively"
  • Thyroid dysfunction, thyroid hormone replacement and colorectal cancer risk - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Apr 8;107(6) - "Long-term THR is associated with a decreased risk of CRC. Hyperthyroidism and untreated hypothyroidism are associated with modestly elevated risk of CRC"
  • Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 12 - "Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR=1.07, 95% CI=0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer"
  • FDA Approves Cologuard for Colorectal Cancer Screening - Medscape, 8/11/14 - "The test is intended to be used as an adjunctive screening test to detect colorectal neoplasia-associated DNA markers and the presence of occult hemoglobin in human stool. A positive test result may indicate the presence of CRC or premalignant colorectal neoplasia. The device is not meant to be a replacement for colonoscopy and is intended to be used in conjunction with colonoscopy and other test methods according to recognized screening guidelines ... The safety and effectiveness of Cologuard was established in a large clinical trial that screened 10,023 individuals and compared the performance of Cologuard to the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), a commonly used noninvasive screening test that detects blood in the stool ... Cologuard detected 92% of colorectal cancers and 42% of advanced adenomas, as compared with FIT screening, which detected 74% of cancers and 24% of advanced adenomas"
  • FDA Panel Unanimously Backs Cologuard Colorectal Cancer Test - Medscape, 3/27/14 - "The device is not meant to be a replacement for colonoscopy and is intended to be used in conjunction with colonoscopy and other test methods according to recognized screening guidelines"
  • New DNA stool test almost as good as dreaded colonoscopy | Cutting Edge - CNET News - CNET, 3/19/14 - "The colonoscopy found colon cancer in 65 patients and precancerous lesions in 757. The DNA test caught 60 of those 65, better than the 48 found using the FIT test. As for precancerous lesions, the stool sample tests were far less accurate -- the DNA test found only 42 percent of cases, while FIT found even fewer, just 24 percent"
  • Simple, at-home test will detect most colorectal cancers - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "The American Cancer Society and other professional organizations have recommended FIT as a screening tool for colorectal cancer since 2008, but there are still many people who don't know about it ... On average, the tests detected 79 percent, or about 4 of 5 cancers with only one round of testing. The tests were also highly specific: on average, 94 percent of people who did not have cancer tested negative with a single FIT ... By comparison, studies indicate that another at-home test called fecal occult blood test (also known as FOBT) detects only about 13 to 50 percent of cancers after a single round of testing" - Note:  Sounds a lot easier than the alternative and that might make more people get checked saving more lives.
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Risk - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Jan 15 - "A nested case-control study was conducted using EPIC's General Practice Research Database (1987-2002) ... The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of CRC were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72 to 0.98; P = .03) for or more years of ACE-I/ARB therapy and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.58 to 0.97; P = .03) for 5 or more years of exposure. The strength of this association increased with high-dose exposure (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.79; P = .003 for ≥3 years of high-dose exposure). Among patients receiving antihypertensive medications, the association with long-term therapy was no longer statistically significant for ≥5 years), but the benefit of high-dose therapy remained (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.89; P = .01 for ≥3 years of high-dose exposure)"
  • Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased prevalence of advanced colorectal polyps - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):22-5 - "An advanced polyp was detected in 14% of patients with MetS, compared to 5% of patients without MetS"
  • High homocysteine is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 13 - "Increased homocysteine was strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant capacities"
  • Insulin therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: An updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Oct 25 - "compared with non-insulin or metformin treatment, insulin treatment was associated with an increase of 37% in the risk of colorectal neoplasm among patients with type 2 diabetes" - Note:  Just one more study supporting the long list on my insulin and aging page.
  • Colonoscopy screening every ten years could prevent 40% of colorectal cancers - Science Daily, 9/18/13 - "Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in the nation ... The researchers estimated that if all participants in the study had undergone colonoscopies, 40% of colorectal cancers -- including 61% of distal cancers and 22% of proximal cancers -- would have been prevented ... Sigmoidoscopy alone is likely insufficient for reducing the incidence or death risk of colorectal cancer that originates in the upper colon ... People who get a clean bill of health after a colonoscopy have a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer for up to 15 years after the procedure"
  • How bacteria found in mouth may cause colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 8/14/13 - "gut microbes known as fusobacteria, which are found in the mouth, stimulate bad immune responses and turn on cancer growth genes to generate colorectal tumors ... fusobacteria are prevalent in human adenomas -- benign tumors that can become malignant over time -- suggesting that these microbes contribute to early stages of tumor formation. In a mouse model of colorectal cancer, these bacteria accelerated the formation of tumors by attracting immune cells called myeloid cells, which invade tumors and stimulate inflammatory responses that can cause cancer"
  • C-Reactive Protein, Lipid-soluble Micronutrients, and Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May 15 - "A positive association with overall risk of death was observed for CRP (HR for highest vs. lowest quintile: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04; Ptrend=0.01) whereas, inverse associations were generally observed for retinol and carotenoids (HRs for overall risk of death for the highest quintile ranging from 0.5-0.8) ... These observations are consistent with a direct relationship between circulating CRP and overall survival among colorectal cancer patients ... These results, if reproduced, suggest that reduction of inflammation should be explored as a potential complementary treatment strategy"
  • Meta-analyses of colorectal cancer risk factors - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 6 - "the published evidence and explored associations between risk factors and CRC incidence ... Significant risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease (RR = 2.93, 95 % CI 1.79-4.81); CRC history in first-degree relative (RR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.61-2.02); body mass index (BMI) to overall population (RR = 1.10 per 8 kg/m2 increase, 95 % CI 1.08-1.12); physical activity (RR = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.86-0.91 for 2 standard deviations increased physical activity score); cigarette smoking (RR = 1.06, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08 for 5 pack-years); and consumption of red meat (RR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.09-1.16 for 5 servings/week), fruit (RR = 0.85, 95 % CI 0.75-0.96 for 3 servings/day), and vegetables (RR = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.78-0.94 for 5 servings/day)"
  • Higher plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 - "participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
  • Half of Colorectal Cancers Linked to Obesity and Inactivity - Medscape, 2/26/13 - "increased body weight and decreased levels of physical activity are only associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer that tests negative for the biomarker CTNNB1. This subtype accounted for 54% of the cases tested ... Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with a significantly higher risk for CTNNB1-negative colorectal cancer (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for increments of 5 kg/m², 1.34; P trend < .0001). Physical activity was associated with a significantly lower risk for CTNNB1-negative colorectal cancer (multivariate HR for increments of 10 MET-h/week, 0.93; P trend = .044) ... The mechanism may involve insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF), which are the main suspects in the search for putative mediators of the causal link between obesity and colorectal cancer" - Note:  Seems like they could phrase it in English.  The way I read it, 54% of colon cancer patients were CTNNB1-negative.  Of that 54%, a higher BMI results in a 34% increase in odds of getting colon cancer and a higher fitness level results in a 7% decrease in getting colon cancer”
  • Statins and Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "In a retrospective analysis conducted in more than 2500 veterans with a history of colonoscopic polypectomy for adenomas, Siddiqui et al[87] showed a 49% reduction in the incidence of recurrent adenomas, and a 29% reduction in the incidence of advanced adenomas, associated with continuous statin use over 3 to 5 years. In a subsequent analysis of 231 individuals from the same population,[88] significantly fewer adenomas, of smaller size, were observed at follow-up colonoscopy in individuals who had achieved 30% or more reduction in LDL cholesterol level, compared with those who had not. This suggests that lipid lowering, rather than statin use per se, may be partly responsible for the effect of statins on adenoma development and progression.[88] An independent case-control study of 197 patients, also from a veterans population, found no association between statin use and adenoma recurrence over a median of 3.4 years.[89] Furthermore, a secondary analysis of data from 3 large colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trials, with a combined total of 2915 subjects, failed to show any association between statin use and the recurrence of any adenomas, multiple adenomas, or advanced adenomas.[90] The prevalence of self-reported statin use was, however, low (8.1%) across the 3 chemoprevention trials, limiting power for the post hoc analysis.[90] Statin users comprised a much larger proportion (37%) of participants in the Adenoma Prevention With Celecoxib (APC) trial.[91] However, in a secondary analysis of APC trial data, Bertagnolli et al[91] found no evidence to support a chemopreventive effect of statin use over 5 years of follow-up. On the contrary, statin use of more than 3 years was associated with a 39% increased risk of adenoma recurrence. Although these data are derived from an RCT, statin use was self-selected, and the patient population comprised only high-risk patients with a history of multiple or large adenomas, limiting the generalizability of the results. Nonetheless, this analysis represents a large prospective study of statin use and incident adenomas. Furthermore, assessment of the association between statin use and study end points was a planned secondary analysis"
  • Statins and colorectal cancer risk: a longitudinal study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jan 30 - "After multivariable adjustment, initiators of statins had a lower incidence rate of CRC as compared to initiators of glaucoma drugs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69-0.90]. In sex-stratified analyses we observed a protective effect in men (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.67-0.88) but not in women (HR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.82-1.1)"
  • Virtual colonoscopy without laxative equals standard OC in identifying clinically significant polyps - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "Computed tomographic colonography (CTC), also known as virtual colonoscopy, administered without laxatives is as accurate as conventional colonoscopy in detecting clinically significant, potentially cancerous polyps ... patients do not have to go through bowel cleansing before the exam, but instead begin a low fiber diet two days before the test. They also ingest a tagging agent the day before the exam, which mixes with residual material in the colon and can then be identified and removed digitally when radiologists interpret the scans ... laxative-free CTC exams detected clinically significant polyps 10 mm or larger with 91 percent accuracy compared to OC exams, which were 95 percent accurate. Statistically, there is no difference between these two number"
  • High blood sugar levels in older women linked to colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 11/29/11 - "The Einstein study involved women who were enrolled in the National Institutes of Health''''s landmark Women''''s Health Initiative study ... By the end of the 12-year period, 81 of the women had developed colorectal cancer. The researchers found that elevated baseline glucose levels were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk -- and that women in the highest third of baseline glucose levels were nearly twice as likely to have developed colorectal cancer as women in the lowest third of blood glucose levels ... obesity''''s impact on this cancer may be due to elevated glucose levels, or to some factor associated with elevated glucose levels"
  • Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer With Metformin Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A meta-analysis - Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2323-8 - "Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that metformin inhibits cancer cell growth and reduces cancer risk ... The analysis included five studies comprising 108,161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of colorectal neoplasm (relative risk [RR] 0.63 [95% CI 0.50-0.79]; P < 0.001). After exclusion of one study that investigated colorectal adenoma, the remaining four studies comprised 107,961 diabetic patients and 589 incident colorectal cancer cases during follow-up. Metformin treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer (0.63 [0.47-0.84]; P = 0.002)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Alcohol Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 9/18/11 - "Overall, the dose-risk analysis found a statistically significant 7% increased risk for colorectal cancer for 10 g per day of alcohol intake, which includes light alcohol consumers. According to the researchers, 1 drink is equivalent to 12 g of ethanol" - Note:  My problem with alcohol is that it increases free radicals which has to increase signs of aging like wrinkling.  It does decrease heart disease but it also increases breast cancer, etc.
  • High levels of 'good' cholesterol may cut bowel cancer risk - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and of 32 mg/dl in apoA reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% and 18%, respectively, after taking account of diet, lifestyle, and weight ... low HDL levels have been linked to higher levels of proteins involved in inflammation, while higher levels of proteins that dampen down the inflammatory response have also been linked to high HDL levels ... The pro inflammatory proteins boost cell growth and proliferation while curbing cell death, so HDL may alter the inflammatory process in some way"
  • Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor in relation to colorectal cancer progression - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 15;127(12):2758-67 - "Although obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Adiponectin is an adipokine that binds to 2 types of receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The plasma concentrations of adiponectin are reduced in obese individuals and adiponectin has been reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. Furthermore, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies ... AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 immunostaining was detected in 72 and 68% of human colorectal cancer tissue, respectively. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression levels were inversely related to T stage. The lowest AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression were detected in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. RT-PCR also showed the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in HCT116 and SW620. MTT assay and TUNEL assay demonstrated the tendency of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in both cell lines after full-length adiponectin treatment although statistically insignificant. Microarray analysis revealed several gene responses to full-length adiponectin, including upregulation of ENDOGL1 and MT1G. In conclusion, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 may be intimately related to the progression of colorectal cancer"
  • Lack of sleep found to be a new risk factor for colon cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/11 - "individuals who averaged less than six hours of sleep at night had an almost 50 percent increase in the risk of colorectal adenomas compared with individuals sleeping at least seven hours per night. Adenomas are a precursor to cancer tumors, and left untreated, they can turn malignant"
  • Telomere length affects colorectal cancer risk - Science Daily, 10/28/10 - "Patients with the longest telomeres -- those patients in the 95th percentile of telomere length -- were 30 percent more likely to develop colorectal cancer than those in the 50th percentile, the results showed. Overall, the individuals with the shortest and the longest telomere lengths were at an increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Higher bone mineral density is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal adenomas - Int J Cancer. 2010 Oct 14 - "patients in the highest tertile of total body BMD (>1.294 g/cm(2)) and in the middle tertile (≥1.167 to ≤1.294 g/cm(2)) compared to those with a total body BMD in the lowest tertile (<1.167 g/cm(2)) had a lower risk of colorectal adenomas (highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=0.29 (0.10-0.84); middle vs. lowest tertile: OR=0.26 (0.08-0.80); p-trend=0.02)"
  • Statin use associated with statistically significant reduction in colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "The relative risk was 0.88 (95% CI 0.84-0.93; n=22) and represents a 12% reduction in the odds of colorectal cancer among statin users ... the most common category of statins, lipophilic (which includes atorvastatin or Lipitor®), showed the greatest effect ... long-term use of statins is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including breast, prostate, lung, pancreas and liver"
  • New recommendations issued for use of cetuximab in colon cancer therapy - Science Daily, 7/16/10
  • Bacteria as a predicter of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 5/25/10 - "Several bacterial signatures were detected only in subjects with polyps, others only in subjects without polyps. Eubacterium ramulus was increased in the stools of subjects with polyps while Ruminococcus sp and a human intestine firmicute were increased in subjects without polyps. In tissue samples, Acidovorax sp. was found more frequently in subjects with polyps. Other bacterial signatures that differed between cases and controls were observed but did not match any know bacteria, suggesting unidentified and uncharacterized bacteria are also present"
  • Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Colorectal Adenoma: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study - Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 15 - "insulin resistance was associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma"
  • Alcohol And Smoking Are Key Causes For Bowel Cancer - Science Daily, 6/2/09 - "people who consume the largest quantities of alcohol (equivalent to > 7 drinks per week) have 60% greater risk of developing the cancer, compared with non-drinkers ... Smoking, obesity and diabetes were also associated with a 20% greater risk of developing bowel cancer - the same risk linked with consuming high intakes of red and processed meat"
  • Hormone Therapy Associated With Reduced Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "The combination of estrogen plus progestin, which women stopped taking in droves following the news that it may increase their risk of breast cancer, may decrease their risk of colorectal cancer ... Any use of estrogen therapy was associated with a 17 percent reduced risk in colorectal cancer. Among those who used estrogen, the largest reductions were seen among those who were current users (25 percent reduced risk) and users of ten or more years duration (26 percent reduced risk)"
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jan;18(1):196-203 - "evaluated colorectal cancer risk associated with the duration and recency of specific menopausal hormone therapy formulations (i.e., unopposed estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin) and regimens (i.e., sequential versus continuous estrogen plus progestin use) ... We observed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer among ever users of unopposed estrogen therapy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99). Among estrogen users, the largest reduced risk was observed for current users (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.54-1.05) and users of >/=ten years duration (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96). We found a reduced risk among users of estrogen plus progestin therapy (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02), with sequential regimen users (progestin <15 days per cycle) having the largest risk reduction (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.95). Past users of >/=5 years ago (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.98) had the largest risk reduction. In this study, estrogen plus progestin use, especially sequential regimen use, was associated with the largest overall reduction of colorectal cancer risk"
  • Metabolic Syndrome Ups Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/08 - "metabolic syndrome patients had a 75 percent higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to those without metabolic syndrome"
  • Simvastatin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and in tumor xenografts, and attenuates colitis-associated colon cancer in mice - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 2 - "colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) ... simvastatin could be a potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agent of CAC as well as de novo colon cancer"
  • Drug Combo Stops Recurrent Colon Polyps - WebMD, 4/15/08 - "A combination of the targeted anticancer agent DFMO and the antiarthritis drug sulindac reduces the risk of recurrent colon polyps by up to 95%"
  • High-dose NSAIDs May Prevent Colon Cancer - oncologystat.com. 2/5/08 - "people who took more than 2325 mg of aspirin weekly reduced colon cancer risk by 21%, compared to people who took less aspirin. Men who took 7 to 14 aspirins a week had a 28% decreased risk, and those who took more than 14 aspirins weekly had a 70% decrease in their risk of developing the disease. The advantages were only seen after 5 years of use, and taking less than 1½ pills weekly did not reduce the risk of developing the disease. The effect was also seen with the use of other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen"
  • Smoking Can Double Risk Of Colorectal Polyps - Science Daily, 2/1/08 - "Smokers have a two-fold increased risk of developing colorectal polyps"
  • Strong Link Between Obesity And Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 12/14/07 - "obese individuals (Body Mass Index* (BMI) >30 kg/m2) have a 20% greater risk of developing colorectal cancer compared with those of normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) ... carrying even a few excess kilos substantially increases the risk of colorectal cancer; for every 5 kg weight gain the risk of developing the cancer increases by 7%"
  • Diabetes May Increase Woman's Risk of Colorectal Cancer - oncologystat.com, 12/7/07 - "There was about a 50% increased risk of colorectal cancer in women with diabetes ... The researchers hypothesized that the elevated levels of insulin typically seen in people with type 2 diabetes may play a central role. Insulin stimulates the growth of normal colonic and carcinoma cells"
  • PET/CT Combination Can Highly Increase Detection Of Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 10/29/07
  • Insulin Linked to Colonic Polyps, Neoplasia - oncologystat.com, 10/23/07 - "those with poorly controlled diabetes, identified by a high serum level of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), were significantly more likely to have advanced colonic adenomatous polyps, compared with diabetic patients with better glycemic control ... patients with poorly controlled diabetes were more than sixfold as likely to have advanced polyps and nearly sixfold as likely to have right-sided polyps, compared with patients who had better glycemic control. The average number of polyps found in poorly controlled patients was 5.5; in better-controlled patients, the average was 2.5 polyps per patient. Results from a third study reported at the meeting showed that having three or more polyps was the strongest predictor of risk for recurrent advanced neoplasia in the colon"
  • The Association of Elevated HbA1c on the Behavior of Adenomatous Polyps in Patients with Type-II Diabetes Mellitus - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Oct 16 - "colonic adenomatous polyps (APs) ... univariate analysis (UA) ... UA demonstrated that patients with poorly controlled DM-2 had a significantly increased incidence of right-sided APs (P = 0.001), a greater number of APs (P < 0.005), more advanced APs (P < 0.005), a younger age of presentation (P = 0.001), a history of smoking (P = 0.05), and greater use of exogenous insulin (P = 0.01). Logistic regression, as measured by HbA1c, demonstrated that poorly controlled DM-2 independently predicted a greater prevalence of right-sided AP, a more advanced lesion at the time of presentation, a greater number of polyps, and greater use of exogenous insulin"
  • Removing Colon Polyps Cuts Death Risk - WebMD, 10/15/07 - "The researchers analyzed data on 2,602 men and women in the National Polyp Study, the landmark trial that showed that an initial colonoscopy during which the colon is cleared of precancerous polyps with regular follow-up exams significantly cut the risk of developing colon cancer by up 90% and of dying from the cancer by up to 92%"
  • Obesity Ups Women’s Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 10/15/07 - "Obesity more than doubles a woman’s risk of developing colon cancer or growths that can lead to colon cancer"
  • Low-Dose Aspirin Plus Statins Protects Against Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 10/4/07 - "Dr. Brenner's group observed a modest risk reduction of colorectal cancer among regular users of low-dose aspirin (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77). A stronger association was found with regular use of statins (OR 0.65). The strongest risk reduction was seen in subjects who used combination low-dose aspirin and statins (OR 0.63), especially if both drugs were used for at least 5 years (OR 0.38)"
  • ‘Western’ Diet Tied to Colon Cancer - WebMD, 8/14/07 - "Colon cancer recurrences or death were nearly 3.5 times more common among patients who most closely followed a Western diet than among patients who followed it the least"
  • Statins May Cut Colon Cancer Recurrence - Medscape, 7/26/07 - "Just 6 of 89 patients (6.7%) treated with any statin relapsed, as opposed to 43 of 269 (16%) patients with no statin use"
  • Women With Type 2 Diabetes at Increased Risk of Colorectal Adenomas - Doctor's Guide, 5/23/06 - "type 2 diabetics had up to a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of having any adenoma or advanced adenomas, which are precancerous polyps"
  • Diabetics Face Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/05 - "hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia promote the growth of colorectal cancer"
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer - Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jun;3(6):587-94 - "Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer"
  • Cholesterol Drugs May Prevent Colon Cancer - WebMD, 5/25/05 [Abstract] - "people who took cholesterol-lowering statin drugs for five years cut their colon cancer risk in half"
  • Anaemia as a symptom of right colon cancer - Tech Coloproctol. 2004 Nov;8 Suppl 1:s62-4 - "Iron deficiency anaemia is a common symptom of right colon cancer"
  • Red-Meat Eaters Risk Colon Cancer - WebMD, 1/11/05 - "Those who eat the most red meat -- beef and/or pork and/or processed meat products -- get colon cancer 30% to 40% more often than those who eat these foods only once in a while"
  • Gout Drug Prevents Colon Cancer - WebMD, 10/18/04 - "Zyloprim reduced risk of colon cancer by two-thirds"
  • Insulin May Increase Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 10/1/04 - "people with diabetes who had been taking insulin for three to five years had almost a threefold increase in colorectal cancer risk compared with those who did not take insulin ... The risk was even higher in people who took insulin for more than five years"
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