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Home > Health Conditions > Osteoporosis


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  • Low Serum DHEAS Predicts Increased Fracture Risk in Older Men - the MrOS Sweden Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Mar 9 - "DHEAS levels were inversely associated with the risk of any fracture (hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.24), non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48) and hip fractures (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37) but not clinical vertebral fractures (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.26) in Cox regression models adjusted for age, BMI and prevalent fractures ... low serum DHEAS levels are a risk marker of mainly non-vertebral fractures in older men, of whom those with DHEAS levels below 0.60 µg/ml are at highest risk" - See Pure Encapsulations 7-KETO DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Urinary Citrate Positively Associated With Bone Strength, Health - Medscape, 10/11/16 - "Slight shifts of acid-base status toward a more acidic direction adversely affect bone status. A more alkaline diet rich in fruits and vegetables appears to counteract these shifts and has a long-term preventive medical importance for bone health"
  • Probiotics stop menopause-like bone loss in mice - Science Daily, 4/27/16 - "treated female mice twice a week with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ... A month after ovary removal, mice that were not treated with probiotic bacteria had lost half of their bone density. But the bone density in probiotic-treated mice stayed the same ... In mice that did not have their ovaries removed, probiotic treatment actually led to an increase in bone density" - Note: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is one of the bacterial in the Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA I take.
  • Micronutrients and the risk of hip fracture: Case-control study - Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 23 - "Vitamin D, and possibly vitamin K, has an established association to fracture risk. Other vitamins are, however, less studied ... Low vitamin A, C, and E concentrations are associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, possibly mediated through bone turnover mechanisms"
  • Effect of Hesperidin with and without a Calcium (Calcilock®) Supplement on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan 11 - "Citrus fruits contain unique flavanones. One of the most abundant of the flavanones, hesperidin, has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats ... Calcium plus hesperidin, but not hesperidin alone, improved bone calcium retention by 5.5%" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Low levels of vitamin D may increase risk of stress fractures in active individuals - Science Daily, 12/14/15 - "Based on these findings, we recommend a serum vitamin D level of at least 40 ng/mL to protect against stress fractures, especially for active individuals who enjoy participating in higher impact activities ... This correlates with an earlier study of 600 female Navy recruits who were found to have a twofold greater risk of stress fractures of the tibia and fibula with a vitamin D level of less than 20 ng/mL compared with females with concentrations above 40 ng/mL" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro - Nutrients. 2015 Nov 11 - "in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment ... PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease" - See pomegranate extract at Amazon.com.
  • Coenzyme Q Protects Against Age-Related Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich-Diets by Modulating Mitochondrial Mechanisms - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Jul 28 - "An age-dependent model of the periodontium was reproduced to evaluate the effect of life-long feeding on a low coenzyme Q10 dosage in n-6, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid or monounsaturated fatty acid-based diets on periodontal tissues of young and old rats. Results shown that exacerbated age-related alveolar bone loss previously associated to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet was attenuated by coenzyme Q10. Gene expression analysis suggests that involved mechanisms might be related to a restored capacity of mitochondria to adapt to aging in gingival cells from rats fed on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In particular, this could be due to an age-related increase of the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis and a better oxidative and respiratory balance in these animals" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fish-oil consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 18 - "Daily fish-oil consumption in late life was associated with lower fracture risk in men (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.91). Daily fish-oil consumption in midlife was associated with lower fracture risk in women (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98)" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of supplementation with alkaline potassium salts on bone metabolism: a meta-analysis - Osteoporos Int. 2015 Jan 9 - "The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the effects of supplemental potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) and potassium citrate (KCitr) on urinary calcium and acid excretion, markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) and to compare their effects with that of potassium chloride (KCl) ... Urinary calcium excretion was lowered by intervention with both KHCO3 (P = 0.04) and KCitr (P = 0.01), as was net acid excretion (NAE) (P = 0.002 for KHCO3 and P = 0.0008 for KCitr). Both salts significantly lowered the bone resorption marker NTX (P < 0.00001). There was no effect on bone formation markers or BMD. KHCO3 and KCitr lowered calcium excretion to a greater extent than did KCl" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  I take 1100 mg of potassium citrate per day with food to raise my acidic urine PH closer to neutral.  You shouldn't take that much with being under the supervision of a doctor though.  See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • New dietary supplement beats calcium, vitamin D for bone strength - Science Daily, 11/5/14 - "KoACT is a calcium-collagen chelate, a compound containing calcium and collagen that are bound together ... A group of 39 women were randomly divided into two groups, with the control group taking a capsule that was a mix of calcium and vitamin D. The other group took the calcium-collagen chelate ... The women taking the calcium-collagen chelate saw substantially less bone loss than the control group over a year's time. The group taking the calcium-collagen chelate, saw a loss of 1.23 percent in bone mineral density, while the control group saw a 3.75 percent loss" - See KoACT at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol boosts spinal bone density in men with metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 10/16/14 - "The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial assessed bone mineral density and signs of bone formation and resorption in 66 middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome. For a 16-week period, the men took either a 500-miligram dose of resveratrol, a 75-miligram dose of the compound or a placebo twice a day ... Men who took the higher dose of resveratrol had a 2.6 percent increase in lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density compared to men who had taken the placebo. The high resveratrol group also had a 16 percent increase in levels of the bone formation marker bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) compared to the control group" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Associations between the dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese: a case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 7:1-9 - "The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese ... The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for β-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51-0·63, P< 0·05)"
  • Resveratrol supplementation preserves long bone mass, microstructure, and strength in hindlimb-suspended old male rats - J Bone Miner Metab. 2014 Jan;32(1):38-47 - "Resveratrol has gained popularity as an "anti-aging" compound due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties ... The bone protective effects of resveratrol appeared to be mediated through increased osteoblast bone formation, possibly due to reduced inflammation. Based on the results, resveratrol supplementation appeared to provide a feasible dietary therapy for preserving the skeletal system during disuse and age-related bone loss" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Vit D in Menopause Linked to Big Reduction in Fracture - Medscape, 9/15/14 - "assessed 1620 women who were enrolled in the bone cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), funded by the US National Institutes of Health ... Most of the women (74.5%) were premenopausal or early menopausal, 7.2% were late perimenopausal, and 4.8% were postmenopausal, early in the course of the study, 2 years after enrolling ... The women had mean 25(OH)D levels at the 2-year visit of 21.6 ng/mL ... The mean age of the women at time of 25(OH)D measure was 48.5 years ... average follow-up of 9.5 years ... each 10-ng/mL increase in mean serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 25% lower nontraumatic fracture risk" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • The protective effect of lycopene intake on bone loss in ovariectomized rats - J Bone Miner Metab. 2014 Jul 5 - "Our findings suggest that lycopene intake significantly inhibits bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Melatonin makes old bones stronger, research shows - Science Daily, 5/26/14 - "gave twenty 22-month-old male rats (the equivalent of 60 year-old humans) melatonin supplements diluted in water for 10 weeks (the equivalent of six years in human years) ... there was a significant increase in both bone volume and density among the rats that had received melatonin supplements" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of long-term vitamin D insufficiency on fracture risk - Science Daily, 4/4/14 - "Study participants at baseline were 1044 Swedish women, all aged 75, with 715 attending at the 5-year follow up. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (nmol/l) were classified as low (<50), intermediate (50 ) and high (>75) ... the incidence of hip fractures within 10 years was significantly lower in those women who were vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/l) at baseline and maintained this level at 5 years. The proportion of women sustaining FRAX fractures was 26.2% and 30% in the group which had consistently high or intermediate 25OHD levels compared to 45.6 % in the group with consistently low levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Lower vitamin E serum levels are associated with osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Jul;31(4):455-60 - "In a multivariate linear model with BMD of the lumbar spine as a dependent variable, the vitamin E:lipid ratio was clearly related with BMD of the lumbar spine (F ratio = 6.30, p = 0.002). BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the highest tertile of the vitamin E:lipid ratio than in the lowest tertile ... These findings highlight that vitamin E may increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Dairy Food Intake, Peripheral Bone Structure and Muscle Mass in Elderly Ambulatory Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jan 20 - "elderly women aged 80-92 (mean 84.7) years, who were participants of the CAIFOS/CARES cohort and attended the 10-year follow-up ... Women were categorized according to tertiles of dairy intake: first tertile (≤1.5 servings/day), second tertile (1.5-2.2 servings/day) and third tertile (≥2.2 servings/day) ... compared to those in the first tertile of dairy intake, women in the third tertile had 5.7% greater total bone mass ... Our results suggest a positive association of dairy intake with appendicular bone mineralization and muscle mass in elderly women. Because many fractures in this age group are of the appendicular skeleton often associated with falls, dairy intake may be a modifiable lifestyle factor contributing to healthy ageing"
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice by Modulating Both Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoblastogenesis - Lipids. 2013 Dec 13 - "Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality ... Eight-week old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containing 0.5 % safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5 % CLA for 24 weeks ... In conclusion, CLA may prevent postmenopausal bone loss not only by inhibiting excessive bone resorption due to estrogen deficiency but also by stimulating new bone formation. CLA might be a potential alternative therapy against osteoporotic bone loss" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Dec 14 - "A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain ... Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B12 levels increase risk of fractures in older men - Science Daily, 12/10/13 - "the Gothenburg researchers studied 1,000 Swedish men, MrOS Sweden, with an average age of 75, and used various methods to analyze the blood concentrations of the B vitamins B12 and folate, which are found in our food naturally ... the risk of suffering a fracture six years later was higher among men who had low B12 levels at the beginning of the study than men with normal B12 levels. In the quartile with the lowest B12 content, the risk was elevated by approximately 70 percent compared with the others. The risk increase pertained primarily to fractures in the lumbar region, where the risk increase was up to 120 percent" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium + Vitamin D: Surprises From Long-term Follow-up - Medscape, 12/11/13 - "the analyses that were limited to adherent women who were taking at least 80% of their study pills compared with the women who were taking at least 80% of their placebo pills showed a statistically significant 29% reduction in the risk for hip fracture ... Also shown in the new report is that with longer-term follow-up, a statistically significant reduction in in situ breast cancer emerged -- a 13% reduction overall ... In terms of all cancers, among the women who had low baseline intake of vitamin D, there was a statistically significant 9% reduction in total cancer with supplementation, and also a marginally significant 9% reduction in all-cause mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Intake and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol in relation to fractures in elderly women and men: 2 cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 13 - "Two cohort studies, the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC; n = 61,433 women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n = 1138 men), were used ... A higher hip fracture rate was observed with lower intakes of α-tocopherol. Compared with the highest quintile of intake, the lowest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.67, 2.06). The HR of any fracture was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.28). α-Tocopherol-containing supplement use was associated with a reduced rate of hip fracture (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.93) and any fracture (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94). Compared with the highest quintile of α-tocopherol intake in ULSAM (follow-up: 12 y), lower intakes (quintiles 1-4) were associated with a higher rate of hip fracture (HR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.43, 7.76) and any fracture (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.88). The HR for hip fracture in men for each 1-SD decrease in serum α-tocopherol was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22) and for any fracture was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48)" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Oct 29:1-7 - "This suggests that greater protein intake benefits women especially those with lower Ca intakes. However, protein effects are not significant for short-term changes in bone density. Contrastingly, in men, higher protein intakes lead to greater bone loss at the trochanter"
  • Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 24 - "At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that began in December 2008 and ended in April 2011. It was 6 months in duration ... Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to 100 μ g vitamin D3/d does not" - Note:  100 micrograms is 4,000 IU.
  • Effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on osteoblast and osteoclast activity in estrogen-deficient osteoporosis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:960742 - "48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups ... Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Accelerated Aging of Bones - Science Daily, 7/10/13 - "collected samples of iliac crest bone cores from 30 participants, half of whom were deficient in vitamin D and showed early signs of osteomalacia ... while vitamin D-deficient subjects had less overall mineralization due to a reduction of mineralized bone, underneath the new non-mineralized surfaces, the existing bone was actually more heavily mineralized, and displayed the structural characteristics -- mature collagen molecules and mineral crystals -- of older and more brittle bone ... vitamin D deficiency increases both the initiation and propagation of cracks by 22- to 31-percent" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Could a Diet High in Fish and Flax Help Prevent Broken Hips? - Science Daily, 6/27/13 - "The study showed that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids from both plant and fish sources in those blood cells were associated with a lower likelihood of having fractured a hip ... The study also showed that as the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3s increased, so did the risk for hip fracture ... Inflammation is associated with an increased risk of bone loss and fractures, and omega-3 fatty acids are believed to reduce inflammation ... omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and omega-6 fatty acids seem to have both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects ... women who had the highest ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids had nearly twice the risk of hip fractures compared to women with the lowest ratios. The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that previous research has suggested should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, by increasing omega-3s, to improve overall health. The primary omega-6 fatty acid in the diet is linoleic acid, which composes about 99 percent of Americans' omega-6 intake and is found in corn, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Low-dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation for 12 months improves bone metabolism and prevents forearm bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 May 24 - "The participants (aged 50-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the MK-4 dose received: the placebo-control group (n = 24) and the 1.5-mg MK-4 group (n = 24). The baseline concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) were high in both groups (>5.1 ng/ml). After 6 and 12 months, the serum ucOC concentrations were significantly lower in the MK-4 group than in the control group. In the control group, there was no significant change in serum pentosidine concentrations. However, in the MK-4 group, the concentration of pentosidine at 6 and 12 months was significantly lower than that at baseline. The forearm BMD was significantly lower after 12 months than at 6 months in the control group. However, there was no significant decrease in BMD in the MK-4 group during the study period. These results suggest that low-dose MK-4 supplementation for 6-12 months improved bone quality in the postmenopausal Japanese women by decreasing the serum ucOC and pentosidine concentrations, without any substantial adverse effects" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at Amazon.com.  See the section in this article "MK4 versus MK7 for Bone Health".
  • Lower vitamin E serum levels are associated with osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Mar 28 - "BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the highest tertile of the vitamin E:lipid ratio than in the lowest tertile. The mean vitamin E:lipid ratio was significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (T score ≤-2.5) (3.0 +/- 0.6 μmol/mmol) than normal (neither osteoporotic nor osteopenic) postmenopausal women (T score >-1) (3.5 +/- 0.7 μmol/mmol) using multivariable-adjusted BMD. These findings highlight that vitamin E may increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may be as important to kids' bone health as calcium - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Lots of nutrients are key for children to have healthy bones. One of these appears to be magnesium ... Results showed that the amounts of magnesium consumed and absorbed were key predictors of how much bone children had. Dietary calcium intake, however, was not significantly associated with total bone mineral content or density" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc as a nutritional approach to bone loss prevention in an ovariectomized rat model - Menopause. 2013 Apr 8 - "Forty-eight female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control, zinc, ovariectomy (OVX), and OVX + zinc ... Reduction in zinc and copper levels was observed in the bone tissues and serum of the OVX group. Zinc administration restored these levels to normal. Electron microscopic studies revealed a looser structure and resorbed areas in ovariectomized rat cortical bone. Zinc administration restored bone tissue morphology ... These findings suggest that changes in cortical bone attributed to estrogen deficiency are arrested by zinc supplementation, which can be a sustainable approach to improving bone health" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Natural Probiotic for Osteoporosis? Building Healthy Bones Takes Guts - Science Daily, 2/14/13 - "inflammation in the gut can cause bone loss, though it's unclear exactly why ... the researchers fed the mice Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic known to reduce inflammation, a sometimes harmful effect of the body's immune response to infection ... the male mice showed a significant increase in bone density after four weeks of treatment. There was no such effect when the researchers repeated the experiment with female mice, an anomaly they're now investigating ... People tend to think of osteoporosis as just affecting postmenopausal women, but what they don't realize is that it can occur with other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes ... You don't want to put your child on medications that reduce bone remodeling for the rest of their life, so something natural could be useful for long-term treatment of bone loss that begins at childhood"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of major osteoporotic fractures in older U.S. adults - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov 26 - "The study used a pooled cohort of 4749 men and women ages 65 years and older from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) and NHANES 2000-2004 ... Serum 25OHD was a significant linear predictor of major osteoporotic fracture and significant quadratic predictor of hip fracture in the total sample and among those with less than 10 years of follow-up, but it was not related to risk of either fracture type among those with > 10 years of follow-up. Major osteoporotic fracture risk was increased by 26-27% for each SD decrease in serum 25OHD among those with less than 10 years of follow-up. Serum 25OHD was significantly related to risk of major osteoporotic fractures as a group and to hip fracture alone in this cohort of older US adults from NHANES III and NHANES 2000-2004. However, the predictive utility of serum 25OHD diminished after ten years. In addition, the relationship appeared to be linear when major osteoporotic fracture risk was considered but quadratic when hip fracture risk was assessed" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High physical fitness in young adulthood reduces the risk of fractures later in life in men: A nationwide cohort study - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov 26 - "Aerobic capacity and isometric muscle strength were measured in 435445 Swedish men that conscripted for military service from 1969-1978 ... When comparing men in the lowest and highest decile of physical fitness, the risk of a fracture was 1.8 times higher (95% CI = 1.6-2.1) and that of hip fracture was 2.7 times higher (95% CI = 1.6-4.7). The risk of fracture was also 1.4-1.5 times higher when comparing the extreme deciles of muscle strength (p < 0.001 for all). In a subcohort of 1009 twin pairs, up to 22% of the variation in physical fitness and 27-39% of the variation in muscle strength was attributable to environmental factors unique to one twin, e.g. physical activity. In conclusion, low aerobic capacity and muscle strength in young adulthood are associated with an increased risk of low-energy fractures later in life, while a low-energy fracture is associated with an increased risk of death already in middle-aged men"
  • The protective effect of calcium on bone mass in postmenopausal women with high selenium intake - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(9):743-8 - "Elevated selenium intake negatively affects bone mass measurements in postmenopausal women over the age of 51 but only if calcium intake is also less than 800 mg / day. When calcium intake is greater than 800 mg/day, selenium did not appear to affect bone mass"
  • Vitamin C prevents bone loss in animal models - Science Daily, 10/9/12 - "What this study shows is that large doses of vitamin C, when ingested orally by mice, actively stimulate bone formation to protect the skeleton. It does this by inducing osteoblasts, or premature bone cells, to differentiate into mature, mineralizing specialty cells." - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to dietary fatty acid intake, bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the Women's Health Initiative - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep 27 - "Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBC) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk ... A nested case-control study (n=400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study ... In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC a-linolenic acid [Hazard ratio (HR) Tertile 3 (T3): 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154)], eicosapentaenoic acid (HR T3: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181) and total n-3 PUFAs (HR T3: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (HR T3: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho=0.45, p<0.0001), total n-6 PUFAs (rho=0.17, p<0.0001) and linoleic acid (rho= 0.09, p<0.05). These results suggest that higher RBC a-linolenic acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Potassium citrate supplementation results in sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep 18 - "The dietary acid load created by the typical Western diet may adversely impact the skeleton by disrupting calcium metabolism ... 52 men and women (mean age 65.2 + 6.2 years) were randomly assigned to potassium citrate 60 mmol, 90 mmol or placebo daily with measurements of bone turnover markers, net acid excretion, and calcium metabolism including intestinal fractional calcium absorption and calcium balance obtained at baseline and six months. At six months, net acid excretion was significantly lower in both treatment groups compared to placebo and negative, meaning subjects' dietary acid was completely neutralized (-11.3 mmol/day, 60 mmol/day; -29.5 mmol/day, 90 mmol/day, P < 0.001 compared to placebo). At 6-months, 24-hour urine calcium was significantly reduced in persons taking potassium citrate 60 mmol (-46 +/- 15.9 mg/day) and 90 mmol (-59 +/- 31.6 mg/day) daily compared with placebo (p < 0.01). Fractional calcium absorption was not changed by potassium citrate supplementation. Net calcium balance was significantly improved in participants taking potassium citrate 90 mmol/day compared to placebo (142 +/- 80 mg/day, 90 mmol vs. -80 +/- 54 mg/day, placebo; p = 0.02). Calcium balance was also improved on potassium citrate 60 mmol/day, but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.18). Serum C-telopeptide decreased significantly in both potassium citrate groups compared to placebo (-34.6 +/- 39.1 ng/L, 90 mmol/d, p = 0.05; -71.6 +/- 40.7 ng/L, 60 mmol/day, p = 0.02) while bone specific alkaline phosphatase did not change. Intact parathyroid hormone was significantly decreased in the 90 mmol/day group (p = 0.01). Readily available, safe, and easily administered in an oral form, potassium citrate has the potential to improve skeletal health" - See potassium citrate products at iHerb.
  • Lack of sleep affects bone health and bone marrow activity - Science Daily, 9/18/12 - "Drs. Everson and Toth, together with Anne Folley present exciting results indicating that sleep deprivation in rats arrests new bone formation, decreases fat within the red marrow and increases platelet levels. If true in humans, and I expect that it may be, this work will have great impact on our understanding of the impact of sleep deprivation on osteoporosis and inability to repair bone damage as we age"
  • The Week in Bone Health | Breaking news on natural vitamin K2 MK-7 - betterbones.com, 6/25/12 - "Noted vitamin K expert Dr. Cees Vermeer led the European study which found that natural vitamin K2 as MK-7 (MenaQ 7 ®) significantly increases the strength of both the spine and the hip in postmenopausal women" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Habitual flavonoid intakes are positively associated with bone mineral density in women - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 May 1 - "The aim of this observational study was to examine the association between habitual intake of flavonoid sub-classes with bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of female twins. 3160 women from the TwinsUK adult twin registry participated in the study. Habitual intakes of flavonoids and sub-classes (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, polymers, flavonols, flavones) were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires using an updated and extended USDA database ... total flavonoid intake was positively associated with higher BMD at the spine but not at the hip ... total flavonoid intake was positively associated with BMD, with effects observed for anthocyanins and flavones at both the hip and spine supporting a role for flavonoids present in plant-based foods on bone health"
  • Effects of vitamin E on bone turnover markers among US postmenopausal women - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Feb 3 - "Increased oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from aging and declining estrogen levels can lead to increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, the two predominant isomers of vitamin E, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but their effects on bone metabolism have not been well studied in humans. We examined the associations between dietary and total (diet and supplements) alpha-tocopherol intake, serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels and their ratio, and bone turnover markers (BTMs) among postmenopausal women aged ≥45 years ... serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), a biomarker of bone formation, and urinary N-telopeptides/creatinine (uNTx/Cr), a biomarker of bone resorption ... Participants had a mean age of 65.5 +/- 0.6 years and over 45% used vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplements in the past month. Vitamin E supplement users had significantly lower serum gamma-tocopherol, higher serum alpha-tocopherol levels and higher ratio of serum alpha- to gamma-tocopherol than nonusers. High serum gamma-tocopherol levels and low ratio of serum alpha- to gamma-tocopherol were associated with increased BAP levels (P < 0.01 for both). There were no associations between any of the vitamin E variables and uNTx/Cr. In conclusion, we hypothesize that gamma-tocopherol may uncouple bone turnover, resulting in more bone formation than resorption. Vitamin E supplements in the form of alpha-tocopherol suppress serum gamma-tocopherol levels and may have negative effects on bone formation. Further research is needed to investigate the potential anabolic effect of gamma-tocopherol from food sources on bone" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • The multiple nutrient needs of bones: Review - Nutra USA, 10/26/11 - "According to the new review of the literature, the majority of studies concerning bone health have shown that “vitamin B complex and vitamins C, E, and K correlated positively with bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites and/or were associated with reduced risk of fracture, independent of BMD” ... Animal data has “confirmed” that vitamin E, and particularly the tocotrienol form of vitamin E, had anti-osteoporotic activities ... Biological plausibility does exist for vitamin K, since osteocalcin is a vitamin K-dependent protein and it is essential for the body to use calcium in bone tissue. Without adequate vitamin K, the osteocalcin remains inactive, and this not effective" - [Abstract]
  • Pro-bone and anti-fat effects of green tea and its polyphenol, epigallocatechin in rat mesenchymal stem cells in vitro - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 31 - "In conclusion, this is the first report of dual action of green tea polyphenol EGC in promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipocyte formation in MSCs. Our results provide scientific evidence to support the potential use of green tea in supporting the bone against degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Pycnogenol® on Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Jun 28 - "The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with low incidence of stress fractures - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 22 - "There was approximately half the risk of stress fracture in the top compared to bottom quintile of serum 25(OH)D concentration (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, p < 0.01). The range of serum 25(OH)D in the lowest quintile was 1.5-19.7 (Mean 13.9) ng/ml, while in the highest it was 39.9-112 (Mean 49.7) ng/ml" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH)D and clinical fracture risk in a multiethnic Cohort of women: The Women's health initiative (WHI) - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "In multivariable models, higher 25(OH)D levels as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a lower risk of fracture in White women: (20- < 30 ng/mL), OR = 0.82; (0.59, 1.16) and (>30.0 ng/mL), OR = 0.55; (0.34, 0.89), p trend = 0.02. In contrast, higher 25(OH)D (>20 ng/mL) as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a higher risk of fracture in Black women, OR = 1.45; (1.06, 1.98), p trend = 0.043. Higher 25(OH)D (>30.0 ng/mL) was associated with higher fracture risk in Asian women after adjusting for DBP, OR = 2.78; (0.99, 7.88), (p trend = 0.04). There was no association between 25(OH)D and fracture in Hispanic or American Indian women. Our results suggest divergent associations between 25(OH)D and fracture by race/ethnicity. The optimal level of 25(OH)D for skeletal health may differ in White and Black women"
  • Blueberries help lab rats build strong bones - Science Daily, 6/21/11 - "animals fed rations that contained 10 percent freeze-dried blueberry powder had significantly more bone mass than their counterparts whose rations were blueberry-free ... When the researchers exposed laboratory cultures of bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) to blood (serum) from the animals, the scientists found that serum from the blueberry-fed rats was associated with an increase in development of osteoblasts into mature, functional bone cells" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • High levels of vitamin D needed for bone density drugs to work, study shows - Science Daily, 6/6/11 - "To fully optimize a drug therapy for osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD), patients should maintain vitamin D levels above the limits recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) ... maintaining a circulating vitamin D level above 33 ng/ml is associated with a seven-fold greater likelihood of having a more favorable outcome with bisphosphonate therapy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Before you start bone-building meds, try dietary calcium and supplements, experts urge - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "For many people, prescription bone-building medicines should be a last resort ... adults who increase their intake of calcium and vitamin D usually increase bone mineral density and reduce the risk for hip fracture significantly ... I suspect that many doctors reach for their prescription pads because they believe it's unlikely that people will change their diets ... prescription bone-building medications are expensive, and many have side effects, including ironically an increase in hip fractures and jaw necrosis. They should be used only if diet and supplements don't do the trick ... For bone health, the researchers also encourage consuming adequate protein, less sodium, and more magnesium and potassium"
  • Belly fat puts women at risk for osteoporosis, study finds - Science Daily, 11/30/10
  • High-Protein Diet Limits Bone Resorption - Doctor's Guide, 10/19/10 - "The clinical takeaway message is that if you are a postmenopausal woman and dieting, if you can take 24% of your total calories as protein, and have adequate calcium and vitamin D, you can prevent the bone loss that is typically associated with weight loss"
  • Resveratrol prevents RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation of murine osteoclast progenitor RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of ROS production - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Sep 16 - "The bone protective effects of resveratrol have been demonstrated in several osteoporosis models while the underlying mechanism is largely unclear ... We postulate that the direct inhibitory effects of resveratrol on osteoclastogenesis are mediated via inhibition of ROS generation" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Science strengthens for olive extract’s bone benefits - Nutra USA, 9/14/10 - “Our data suggest that oleuropein, highly abundant in olive tree products included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, could prevent age-related bone loss and osteoporosis" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Oleuropein enhances osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis: the effect on differentiation in stem cells derived from bone marrow - Osteoporos Int. 2010 May 21 - "Our data suggest that oleuropein, highly abundant in olive tree products included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, could prevent age-related bone loss and osteoporosis" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 16 - "Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (intake above the current Recommended Dietary Allowance of 0.8 g protein/kg body weight) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. However, recent findings do not support the assumption that bone is lost to provide the extra calcium found in urine. Neither whole body calcium balance is, nor are bone status indicators, negatively affected by the increased acid load. Contrary to the supposed detrimental effect of protein, the majority of epidemiological studies have shown that long-term high-protein intake increases bone mineral density and reduces bone fracture incidence. The beneficial effects of protein such as increasing intestinal calcium absorption and circulating IGF-I whereas lowering serum parathyroid hormone sufficiently offset any negative effects of the acid load of protein on bone health"
  • T3 affects expression of collagen I and collagen cross-linking in bone cell cultures - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Aug 10 - "T3 increased mRNA expressions of procollagen-lysine-1,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (Plod2) and of lysyloxidase (Lox), both genes involved in post-translational modification of collagen. Moreover, it stimulated mRNA expression of BMP-1, the processing enzyme of the lysyloxidase-precursor and of procollagen. An increase in the collagen cross-link-ratio Pyr/deDHLNL indicates, that T3 modulated cross-link maturation in the MC3T3-E1 culture system. These results demonstrate that T3 directly regulates collagen synthesis and collagen cross-linking by up-regulating gene expression of the specific cross-link related enzymes, and underlines the importance of a well-balanced concentration of thyroid hormones for maintenance of bone quality" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Low calcium intake linked with increased risk of osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal women - Science Daily, 6/18/10 - "a significantly increased proportion of women (35.4%) who consumed a lower amount of calcium through intake from dairy sources, had a concurrent diagnosis of both hypertension and osteoporosis, compared with women who consumed a higher amount of calcium (19.3% p<0.001) ... Further statistical analyses revealed that a lower calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension or osteoporosis over time when compared with controls (Odds Ratio (OR) hypertension: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.12-1.82, osteoporosis: OR 1.46; CI: 1.15-1.85). Women who consumed a lower amount of calcium were shown to be most likely to develop both conditions over time compared with women consuming a higher amount of calcium (OR 1.60; CI: 1.09-2.34)"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and frailty in older Americans - J Intern Med. 2010 Apr 28 - "Nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized US residents collected between 1988 and 1994. Results. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum concentration <15 ng mL(-1), was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the odds of frailty amongst whites and a fourfold increase in the odds of frailty amongst non-whites. This association persisted after sensitivity analyses adjusting for season of the year and latitude of residence, intended to reduce misclassification of persons as 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient or insufficient. Conclusion. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with frailty amongst older adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary protein may reduce hip fractures in the elderly - Science Daily, 5/5/10 - "individuals who were in the lowest 25 percent of dietary protein intake had approximately 50 percent more hip fractures than those who consumed greater amounts of dietary protein (all within normal intakes). Those who suffered hip fractures consumed less than the 46 grams of dietary protein per day recommended for adults"
  • NASA studies find omega-3 may help reduce bone loss - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "In a series of cell-based studies, scientists documented that adding a specific omega-3 fatty acid to cells would inhibit the activation of factors that lead to bone breakdown. This was true in both typical cell cultures and those designed to mimic weightlessness. The inhibited factor is known as "nuclear factor kappa B" or NFκB. NFκB is involved in immune system behavior and the inflammation process. The activation of NFκB in different tissues can lead to bone and muscle loss" - See Nutra USA article below.  It was DHA, not EPA that worked. See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 linked to healthier, stronger bones: Rat study - Nutra USA, 5/7/10 - "According to findings of a new study with rats, DHA “appears to be a vital constituent of marrow” and enhances bone mineral content (BMC). The findings did not extend to EPA, however ... Scientists from NASA recently reported in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research that the omega-3 EPA may protect against bone loss during space flight" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Those who exercise when young have stronger bones when they grow old - 5/3/10 - "those who actively did sports, and also those who used to do sports, had greater bone density than those who had never done sports ... men who had stopped training more than six years ago still had larger and thicker bones in the lower leg than those who had never done sport ... The bones respond best when you're young, and if you train and load them with your own bodyweight during these years, it has a stimulating effect on their development"
  • Bone mineral content is positively correlated to n-3 fatty acids in the femur of growing rats - Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr 27:1-12 - "DHA accumulates in the osteoblast-rich and nerve-abundant periosteum of femur; DHA but not EPA appears to be a vital constituent of marrow and periosteum of healthy modelling bone; and both DHA and total n-3 PUFA strongly correlate to BMC" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Beer is a rich source of silicon and may help prevent osteoporosis - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "Silicon is present in beer in the soluble form of orthosilicic acid (OSA), which yields 50% bioavailability, making beer a major contributor to silicon intake in the Western diet. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), dietary silicon (Si), as soluble OSA, may be important for the growth and development of bone and connective tissue, and beer appears to be a major contributor to Si intake. Based on these findings, some studies suggest moderate beer consumption may help fight osteoporosis, a disease of the skeletal system characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue" - See Jarrow BioSil at iHerb (it says "Reduces Fine Lines and Wrinkles by 19%").  I put ten drops of it in my coffee every morning.
  • Benefits of calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures confirmed - Science Daily, 1/14/10 - "both calcium and vitamin D supplements on a daily basis reduces the risk of bone fractures, regardless of whether a person is young or old, male or female, or has had fractures in the past, a large study of nearly 70,000 patients from throughout the United States and Europe has found" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D: What is an adequate vitamin D level and how much supplementation is necessary? - Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Dec;23(6):789-95 - "Vitamin D modulates fracture risk in two ways: by decreasing falls and increasing bone density. Two most recent meta-analyses of double-blind randomised controlled trials came to the conclusion that vitamin D reduces the risk of falls by 19%, the risk of hip fracture by 18% and the risk of any non-vertebral fracture by 20%; however, this benefit was dose dependent. Fall prevention was only observed in a trial of at least 700IU vitamin D per day, and fracture prevention required a received dose (treatment dose*adherence) of more than 400IU vitamin D per day. Anti-fall efficacy started with achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 60nmoll(-1) (24 ngml(-1)) and anti-fracture efficacy started with achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 75nmoll(-1) (30ng ml(-1)) and both endpoints improved further with higher achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Founded on these evidence-based data derived from the general older population, vitamin D supplementation should be at least 700-1000IU per day and taken with good adherence to cover the needs for both fall and fracture prevention. Ideally, the target range for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be at least 75nmoll(-1), which may need more than 700-1000IU vitamin D in individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency or those overweight" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • New Evidence That Green Tea May Help Improve Bone Health - Science Daily, 9/16/09 - "The scientists exposed a group of cultured bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) to three major green tea components — epigallocatechin (EGC), gallocatechin (GC), and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) — for several days. They found that one in particular, EGC, boosted the activity of a key enzyme that promotes bone growth by up to 79 percent. EGC also significantly boosted levels of bone mineralization in the cells, which strengthens bones. The scientists also showed that high concentrations of ECG blocked the activity of a type of cell (osteoclast) that breaks down or weakens bones. The green tea components did not cause any toxic effects to the bone cells, they note" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Higher sea fish intake is associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women - Osteoporos Int. 2009 Aug 6 - "After adjusting for the potential confounders, we observed dose-dependent relations between sea fish intake and BMDs, BMCs, and osteoporosis risk; the mean BMDs were 3.2-6.8% higher, and BMCs 5.1-9.4% higher in the top quintile groups (Q5) of sea fish intake than in the bottom quintile (Q1) at the whole body and hip sites (p < 0.05); the odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) for osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5) in Q5 were 0.23 (0.08-0.66), 0.12 (0.03-0.59), and 0.06 (0.01-0.44) compared with those in Q1 at the whole body, total hip, and femur neck, respectively. No independent association between consumption of freshwater fish or shellfish and bone mass was observed ... Higher intake of sea fish is independently associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk among postmenopausal Chinese women" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea extracts linked to healthier bones: Study - Nutra USA, 8/6/09 - "EGC was found to stimulate bone mineralisation, while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of osteoclasts. The other catechins were found to have a significantly weaker effect ... “The present study illustrated that the tea catechins, EGC in particular, had positive effects on bone metabolism through a double process of promoting osteoblastic activity and inhibiting osteoclast differentiations" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Tea Catechins, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, and Gallocatechin Gallate, on Bone Metabolism - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 4 - "The present study illustrated that the tea catechins, EGC in particular, had positive effects on bone metabolism through a double process of promoting osteoblastic activity and inhibiting osteoclast differentiations" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Deficiency Reduces Bone Mineral Density in the Spine of Young Adult Rats: A Pilot Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Jun 9;54(3):218-226 - "These findings indicate that severe zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence may have important implications for future bone health, especially with regards to bone consolidation in the spine"
  • Review supports vitamin K's fracture reducing power - Nutra USA, 5/20/09 - "The most important findings in this review are that although supplementation with lower doses of vitamin K may be sufficient to reduce serum ucOC levels, supplementation with higher doses may be required for optimal bone health" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature - Nutr Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):221-8 - "randomized controlled trials (RCTs) ... The review of the reliable literature confirmed the effect of vitamin K(1) and vitamin K(2) supplementation on the skeleton of postmenopausal women mediated by mechanisms other than bone mineral density and bone turnover" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • A Stronger Backbone: DHEA Hormone Replacement Increases Bone Density In Older Women - Science Daily, 5/17/09 - "Taking a DHEA supplement combined with vitamin D and calcium can significantly improve spinal bone density in older women ... The effects of the treatment differed for men and women. After the first year, women in the test group experienced an approximate 2 percent increase in bone density, while women in the control group did not see an increase. After the second year when both groups took the DHEA supplement, women in the test group experienced an additional 2 percent increase for a total of approximately 4 percent, while women who switched from placebo to DHEA also experienced an approximate 2 percent increase ... The same treatment, however, did not offer similar benefits for older men" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Nonvertebral Fracture Prevention With Vitamin D May Be Dose-Dependent - Medscape, 3/31/09 - "A dose-response relationship between vitamin D and fracture reduction is supported by epidemiologic data showing a significant positive trend between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and hip bone density and lower extremity strength"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Associated With Reduced Fracture Risk in Older Adults - Doctor's Guide, 3/23/09 - "The authors then pooled the results of only the 9 trials in which participants received doses of more than 400 international units per day. At this dosage, vitamin D supplements reduced non-vertebral fractures by 20% and hip fractures by 18% ... A greater reduction in risk was also seen among trial participants whose blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D achieved a greater increase" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Alcohol Intake Associated With Bone Protection - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "In an epidemiological study of men and post-menopausal women primarily over 60 years of age, regular moderate alcohol intake was associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). Researchers at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (USDA HNRCA) at Tufts University found associations were strongest for beer and wine and, importantly, BMD was significantly lower in men drinking more than two servings of liquor per day"
  • Building Strong Bones: Running May Provide More Benefits Than Resistance Training, Study Finds - Science Daily, 2/27/09 - "both resistance training and high-impact endurance activities increase bone mineral density. However, high-impact sports, like running, appear to have a greater beneficial effect"
  • Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats - Menopause. 2009 Jan 29 - "Flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in the highest bone mineral density and peak load at the lumbar vertebrae, with no effect on bone mineral density or strength in the tibia and femur. Flaxseed and flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in significantly higher relative levels of alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and n-6/n-3 ratio in the lumbar vertebrae and tibia compared with all other groups" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient Supports Bone Health Over Time - Science Daily, 1/20/09 - "The results suggest there is a protective effect of carotenoids, particularly of lycopene, against bone loss in older adults. The researchers concluded that carotenoids may explain, in part, the previously observed protective effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on bone mineral density" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein Safely Improves Bone Formation in Osteopenic, Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 1/14/09 - "Usually, the drugs used in the management of osteopenia/osteoporosis have been classified as predominantly 'antiresorptive agents' or as 'bone-forming agents' but, on the basis of our results, genistein might represent the first therapy that overcomes this classification by combining a powerful bone-forming as well as an antiresorptive activity ... All postmenopausal women with bone loss would be ideal candidates for genistein aglycone treatment ... Genistein aglycone has a good safety profile, and in addition it is effective against climacteric syndrome (i.e., hot flushes and night sweats)"
  • Calcium And Vitamin D May Not Be The Only Protection Against Bone Loss - Science Daily, 12/3/08 - "Diets that are high in protein and cereal grains produce an excess of acid in the body which may increase calcium excretion and weaken bones ... When fruits and vegetables are metabolized they add bicarbonate, an alkaline compound, to the body ... bicarbonate had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion ... 171 men and women aged 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or doses of either: potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for three months. Researchers found that subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in calcium excretion, signaling a decrease in bone resorption"
  • Tea Drinking May Help Preserve Hip Structure in Elderly Women - Medscape, 10/29/08 - "The cross-sectional analysis revealed that mean total hip aBMD was 2.8% greater in tea drinkers ... Compared with non–tea drinkers, tea drinkers had a significantly higher aBMD at the total hip and trochanter sites but not at the femoral neck and intertrochanter sites" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C linked to Reduced Bone Loss in Older Men - WebMD, 9/19/08 - "If you don't have enough vitamin C, you don't make bones right. Collagen is the principal protein of bones, accounting for nearly half the volume. What the collagen does is prevent bones from coming apart" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium With or Without Vitamin D May Help Prevent Osteoporosis - Medscape, 8/27/08 - "For best therapeutic effect, we recommend minimum doses of 1200 mg of calcium, and 800 IU of vitamin D (for combined calcium plus vitamin D supplementation)"
  • Vitamin K good for young bones, too: study - Nutra USA, 7/17/08 - "These findings suggest that improvement in vitamin K status, and thus in the amount of active osteocalcin, might significantly improve bone health in children, even in those with arthritis" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium Alone Does Not Reduce Hip Fracture Risk - Science Daily, 6/29/08 - "a recent analysis of several studies found no reduction in risk of hip fracture with calcium supplementation ... Future studies of fracture prevention should focus on the best combination of calcium plus vitamin D, rather than on calcium supplementation alone"
  • Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to Calcium/Vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial - BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Jun 11;9(1):85 - "There were no ch-OSA related adverse events observed and biochemical safety parameters remained within the normal range ... Combined therapy of ch-OSA and Ca/Vit D3 had a potential beneficial effect on bone collagen compared to Ca/Vit D3 alone which suggests that this treatment is of potential use in osteoporosis" - See Jarrow BioSil at Amazon.com.  I take about 9 drops per day of it with my orange juice.
  • Vitamin D status and response to treatment in post-menopausal osteoporosis - Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jun 13 - "The adjusted odds ratio for incident fractures in vitamin D deficient as compared to vitamin D repleted women was 1.77 ... Optimal vitamin D repletion seems to be necessary to maximize the response to anti-resorbers in terms of both BMD changes and anti-fracture efficacy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Current Vitamin D Recommendations Fraction Of Safe, Perhaps Essential Levels For Children - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "The current recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin D for children is 200 International Units (IUs), but new research reveals that children may need and can safely take ten-times that amount ... Only children given the equivalent of 2,000 IUs a day of vitamin D increased 25-OHD levels from the mid-teens to the mid-thirties (ng/ml)--the level considered optimal for adults. None of the children in either trial showed any evidence for vitamin D intoxication"  - Seevitamin D at Amazon.com.  I've gone to the vitamin D 2000 IU at Amazon.com.  If you're worried about that being to high, just skip a day or two per week which most do anyway just by forgetting to take them.
  • Relationship of sex steroid hormones with bone mineral density in a nationally-representative sample of men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 May 14 - "Men in the lowest quartile of free estradiol had 70% increased odds (OR=1.69, 95% CI 0.95-2.98) of osteopenia compared with men in the highest quartile. Men in the lowest quartile of free testosterone had nearly four times the odds of osteopenia than those in the highest quartile (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.87-7.78). Lower concentrations of SHBG appeared protective against osteopenia (p-trend=0.01). Neither total testosterone nor total estradiol was associated with BMD, although men with clinically low estradiol (<20 ng/l) had lower BMD (0.930 g/cm(2), 95% CI 0.88-0.98) than men with normal-range estradiol (1.024 g/cm(2), 1.01-1.04; p=0.004"
  • Aggressive Vitamin D Treatment for Osteoporosis - Medscape, 5/19/08 - "Singh called the findings "alarming" and said that although many physicians believe vitamin D deficiency is not a problem, with 41% of study patients found to have a vitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL, "most likely that is not true," he said" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, calcium combo may cut exercise-related stress fractures - Nutra USA, 4/25/08 - "randomly assigned the recruits to receive daily supplements of 2,000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D, and the other group received a placebo ... Women receiving the vitamin-mineral combination were 20 per cent less likely to experience the fractures" - [Abstract]
  • Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases incidence of stress fractures in female navy recruits - J Bone Miner Res. 2008 May;23(5):741-9 - "randomized them to 2000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D/d or placebo ... found a 21% lower incidence of fractures in the supplemented versus the control group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2006 Mar 23;5:7 - "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone ... a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied ... although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Better Bone Density Test - Dr. Weil, 1/14/08 - "If you’re a woman at risk for osteoporosis, I strongly recommend that you have a DEXA scan ... In addition, I recommend that all women supplement with 500 to 700 mg of calcium citrate in two divided doses taken with meals ... For men, I now suggest aiming for 500 mg from all sources. (Because higher amounts have been linked to increased risks of prostate cancer, men generally should avoid supplemental calcium.) I also recommend that both men and women take 1,000 IU of vitamin D3"
  • Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on bone mineral density, bone markers, and body composition in older adults: the DAWN trial - Osteoporos Int. 2007 Dec 15 - "Among older healthy adults, daily administration of 50 mg of DHEA has a modest and selective beneficial effect on BMD and bone resorption in women, but provides no bone benefit for men"
  • Soy isoflavone intake increases bone mineral density in the spine of menopausal women: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec 4 - "Isoflavone intervention significantly attenuates bone loss of the spine in menopausal women. These favorable effects become more significant when more than 90mg/day of isoflavones are consumed. And soy isoflavone consumption for 6 months can be enough to exert beneficial effects on bone in menopausal women"
  • Optimal vitamin d status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - Drugs Aging. 2007;24(12):1017-29 - "Vitamin D deficiency [as defined by a serum 25(OH)D level of <50 nmol/L (<20 ng/mL)] is pandemic. This deficiency is very prevalent in osteoporotic patients. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, increasing the risk of fracture. Unlike osteoporosis, which is a painless disease, osteomalacia causes aching bone pain that is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia or chronic pain syndrome or is simply dismissed as depression. Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, increasing the risk of falls and fractures, and should be aggressively treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D. Vitamin D sufficiency can be sustained by sensible sun exposure or ingesting at least 800-1000IU of vitamin D(3) daily" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Tea drinking is associated with benefits on bone density in older women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1243-1247 - "In the cross-sectional analysis, total hip aBMD was 2.8% greater in tea drinkers (x: 806; 95% CI: 797, 815 mg/cm(2)) than in non-tea drinkers (784; 764, 803 mg/cm(2)) (P < 0.05). In the prospective analysis over 4 y, tea drinkers lost an average of 1.6% of their total hip aBMD (-32; -45, -19 mg/cm(2)), but non-tea drinkers lost 4.0%" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Drinking Tea May Slow Bone Loss - WebMD, 10/8/07 - "A new study shows elderly women who drank tea had higher bone density in their hips and less bone loss than women who didn't drink tea ... Previous studies have suggested that phytochemicals in tea, such as flavonoids, may be responsible for the protective effect against bone loss due to their estrogen-like properties"
  • New Proof of Genistein's Efficacy and Safety for Osteopenia and Osteoporosis Published in Annals of Internal Medicine - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/07 - "85% of the women taking genistein showed a gain in bone density ... In addition, women taking genistein with calcium and vitamin D achieved a gain in bone density of approximately 3% per year over baseline and 6% per year over those taking the placebo"
  • Soy Compound May Bolster Women's Bones - WebMD, 6/18/07 - "After two years, the DEXA scans showed increases in bone mineral density in women taking genistein"
  • Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):509-19 - "women who took combined vitamin K and vitamin D plus calcium showed a significant and sustained increase in both BMD and BMC at the site of the ultradistal radius"
  • Not just calcium and vitamin d: other nutritional considerations in osteoporosis - Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007 Feb;9(1):85-92 - "Other nutritional considerations include nutrients such as vitamin B-12 and vitamin K that may reduce fracture risk by increasing bone mineral density as well as the improvement of bone microarchitecture. Diets high in fruits and vegetables contribute nutrients such as magnesium associated with bone health and may also produce an alkaline environment, reducing calcium excretion and thus improving bone density"
  • Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar 28 - "Isoflavone intervention significantly inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation"
  • n-3 Fatty acids are positively associated with peak bone mineral density and bone accrual in healthy men: the NO2 Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):803-7 - "The results showed that n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, are positively associated with bone mineral accrual and, thus, with peak BMD in young men" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women - Osteoporos Int. 2007 Feb 8 - "Vitamin K(2) helps maintaining bone strength at the site of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women by improving BMC and FNW, whereas it has little effect on DXA-BMD" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Beware of Bone Boosters? - Dr. Weil, 2/8/07 - "I also worry about using bisphosphonates on a long-term basis because of new evidence showing that they can lead to very serious problems. Dentists have been observing that some patients on these drugs are at risk of developing an untreatable condition called osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Osteonecrosis means death of bone tissue. ONJ can cause chronic pain and disfigurement. Symptoms include toothache, jaw pain, loosening of teeth, recurrent infection of the soft tissue of the jaw, and exposed bone"
  • Vitamin link to bone loss probed - BBC News, 11/14/06 - "Increased amounts of homocysteine in the blood may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis ... Individuals who have a poor dietary intake of B-vitamins tend to have high homocysteine levels"
  • Potassium citrate supplements linked to thicker bones - Nutra USA, 10/12/06 - "Taking potassium citrate supplements could boost bone mineral density by similar amounts as observed with pharmaceuticals ... At the end of the study, women taking the potassium citrate supplement are reported to have a significant, one per cent increase in BMD in the vertebrae of the lower back (lumbar spine), compared to baseline ... However, the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine of women taking the potassium chloride supplement (none alkaline) was found to have significantly decreased after one year of supplementation, by about one per cent" - See iHerb potassium citrate products.
  • CLA continues to offer possibilities for bone health - Nutra USA, 10/2/06 - "After 10 weeks of either diet, it was found that the CLA-fed mice had higher bone mineral density (BMD) in specific bone regions than corn oil (CO)-fed mice. This increased BMD was tied to a reduced activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) ... the CLA-fed mice also had significantly lower fat mass and increased muscle mass, compared to CO-fed mice" - See CLA products at iHerb.
  • Study Suggests Vitamin K Deficiency as an Osteoporosis Risk Factor - Doctor's Guide, 9/22/06 - "one of the early effects of declining estrogen is the impairment of vitamin K function in bone even before any bone loss that could be attributed to menopause can be measured ... Our study suggests that the generally accepted level of vitamin K in healthy women is inadequate to maintain bone health just at the onset of menopause" - See iHerb vitamin K products.
  • Soy Isoflavones Protect Postmenopausal Women From Bone Loss - Medscape, 7/14/06 - "There was a significant, linear dose-related response for isoflavones vs placebo in terms of bone density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but not at the trochanter"
  • Strong support for vitamin K’s bone health benefits - Nutra USA, 6/27/06 - "Supplementation of vitamin K (MK-4) resulted in reductions in hip fractures of 77 per cent, vertebral fracture of 60 per cent, and all non-vertebral fractures of 81 per cent"
  • Increasing Dietary and Supplemental Calcium - Medscape, 6/16/06 - "Postmenopausal women, as reported in many studies, tend to have average serum 25(OH)D values ranging from 50 to 55 nmol/L (20 to 22 ng/mL)[8,10] and are therefore absorbing the calcium they ingest with reduced efficiency ... raising serum 25(OH)D from the typical postmenopausal range up to 75 nmol/L resulted in a 33% reduction in all osteoporotic fractures combined"
  • Soy isoflavones attenuate bone loss in early postmenopausal Chinese women : A single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Nutr. 2006 Jun 8 - "There is a significantly dose-dependent effect of soy isoflavones on attenuating bone loss at the spine and femoral neck possibly via the inhibition of bone resorption in non-obese postmenopausal Chinese women with high Kuppermann Scale"
  • Evaluating vitamin D status. Implications for preventing and managing osteoporosis and other chronic diseases - Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Feb 17 - "recent review articles indicate that current reference ranges for serum 25-OH-vitamin D are too low. An appropriate lower normal limit may be between 50-100 nmol/l (20-40 ng/ml). Standard supplement dosages may fail to provide concentrations above this range" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia - J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006 Apr;32(2):230-4 - "After 48 weeks of treatment, the mean percentage change of lumbar BMD in the vitamin K(2) group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group" - See iHerb vitamin K products.
  • Women with Osteoporosis May Need More Vitamin D - Healthwell, 3/16/06 - "More than half of American women receiving drug therapy for osteoporosis are deficient in vitamin D ... The new research suggests that many women with osteoporosis are using drugs to treat a problem that could be helped simply by getting sun more often or by taking a nutritional supplement"
  • Bone care: It's still basic - USA Today, 3/5/06 - "the postmenopausal women in the study weren't typical. Most who were assigned to take supplements also got lots of calcium and vitamin D in their diets, so adding pills didn't make much difference. And many who were assigned placebos also took supplements on their own, something researchers allowed ... It's not surprising there was a blunted response ... The National Osteoporosis Foundation saw nothing in the study to change its endorsement of calcium and vitamin D"
  • Calcium Plus Vitamin-D Supplementation Does An Older Body Good - Science Daily, 2/24/06 - "The older the woman, the more likely it is that consistent use of calcium and vitamin-D supplements will play a role in reducing her risk for osteoporosis"
  • Study Finds Calcium Supplements Don't Prevent Broken Bones - New York Times, 2/15/06 - "the participants were randomly assigned to take 1000 milligrams of calcium and 400 international units of vitamin D a day ... When they looked only at the women who took 80 percent of their pills, the supplements reduced hip fractures by 29 percent. The annual rate of hip fractures in adherent women taking the supplements was 10 per 10,000, compared with 14 per 10,000 in adherent women taking placebos"
  • Calcium, Vitamin D: Help Women's Hips? - WebMD, 2/15/06 - "Calcium and vitamin D supplements may help protect some older women's hips -- but only when taken regularly"
  • Magnesium Prevents Osteoporosis - Healthwell, 2/9/06 - "a higher magnesium intake was associated with greater whole-body bone mineral density, after adjusting for calcium and vitamin D intake, level of exercise, use of estrogen medication, and other factors known to be related to bone health"
  • Strategies for Preventing Osteoporosis in Men - Life Extension Magazine, 1/06 - "For men, maintaining good bone health starts with regular doctor visits to screen for bone mineral density and prostate cancer. Other essentials are regular, weight-bearing exercise, healthy, moderate-protein diets, and supplements including vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, and isoflavones to help prevent bone mineral losses"
  • Dietary Magnesium Could Lead to Stronger Bones - Doctor's Guide, 12/21/05 - "For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density ... this link was only true for the older white men and women" - See iHerb magnesium products.
  • Magnesium could reduce osteoporosis risk - Nutra USA, 12/8/05 - "Higher Mg intake through diet and supplements was positively associated with total-body [bone mineral density] BMD in older white men and women. For every 100 mg per day increase in Mg, there was an approximate 2 per cent increase in whole-body BMD"
  • Nutritional Interventions in Osteoporosis - Medscape, 12/1/05 - "For adults over 50 years of age, the DASH diet emphasizing fruit and vegetables as well as dairy products and whole grains and beans, together with a calcium and a vitamin D supplement, will provide dietary defense against osteoporosis"
  • Silicon may boost calcium/vitamin D bone benefits - Nutra USA, 11/23/05 - "Jarrow Formulas ... The effect was particularly pronounced in the PINP, the most sensitive bone formation marker. In the groups receiving six and 12mg of silicon, the improvements were “significant”" - See Jarrow BioSil at iHerb.
  • Leading Osteoporosis Experts Reach Consensus on Role of Vitamin D in Bone Health in Americans Over 50 - Doctor's Guide, 11/22/05 - "over 70% of women ages 51-70 and nearly 90% of women over 70 are not getting the recommended adequate intake of vitamin D ... The roundtable panelists expressed concern that current recommendations do not provide for optimal bone health and recommended that intake levels be increased to 800-1,000 IU per day for patients over age 50" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Adequate Vitamin D Status Appears More Important than High Calcium Intake for Maintaining Calcium Metabolism - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/05 - "vitamin D sufficiency may be more important than high calcium intake in maintaining desired values of serum PTH ... Vitamin D supplements are necessary to ensure adequate vitamin D status for most of the year in northern climates" -  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Most Postmenopausal Women Are Vitamin D Deficient - Doctor's Guide, 9/29/05 - "64% of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a vitamin D deficiency" -  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy Among Postmenopausal North American Women Receiving Osteoporosis Therapy - Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2005 Oct;60(10):658-659 - "An adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium is viewed as a necessary part of treating osteoporosis ... At a cutoff point of 30 ng/mL, the prevalence of inadequacy was 63% in women taking less than 400 IU daily and 45% in those taking 400 IU or more" -  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Potassium, The Hidden Bone Guardian - betterbones.com, 9/29/05
  • Women Need More Calcium, Say Experts - WebMD, 9/28/05
  • Postmenopausal Women Falling Far Short of Calcium Goals: Presented at ASBMR - Doctor's Guide, 9/28/05 - "A study finds that 85% of postmenopausal women do not consume enough calcium every day, and on average consume about 500 mg less than the US government's recommended daily intake (RDA)"
  • Silicon May Play Important Role in Bone Health - Doctor's Guide, 9/27/05 - "Silicon, taken as choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) supplementation, might help improve bone health and type I collagen synthesis ... the benefits were especially apparent when evaluating changes in PINP, the most sensitive bone formation marker, and resulted in significant improvements after 12 months amongst the subjects in the six and 12 mg silicon groups" - See Jarrow BioSil at iHerb.
  • After Menopause: Eating Soy May Help Bones - WebMD, 9/12/05 - "Within 10 years of menopause, the 20% who ate the most soy foods reported half as many fractures as the 20% who ate the least soy ... The highest level of consumption among Chinese women was about 13 grams of soy protein a day. A cup of soy milk contains about 6.6 grams"
  • Taking A Break From Fractures: A Closer Look At Vitamin D - Science Daily, 8/11/05 - "The researchers concluded, though, that higher daily doses, in the range of 700 to 800 IU, may reduce the risk of fracture by approximately 25 percent ... only subjects receiving higher doses of vitamin D supplementation had significantly fewer fractures than did subjects in the comparison groups" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Balance of Essential Fats May Prevent Bone Loss After Menopause - Doctor's Guide, 7/13/05 - "After 12 weeks, rats with the lowest ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in their diet experienced significantly less bone loss than rats in the other dietary groups ... A 5-to-1 dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids led to a conservation of bone mineral content that we didn't see with a 10-to-1 ratio" -  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3, Omega-6 Fatty Acids Can Affect Bone Loss - CBS 2 Chicago, 7/12/05 - "eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids -- found in walnuts and salmon -- may prevent bone thinning. While excess amounts of omega-6 -- found in grains and beef -- may actually promote bone loss ... a low ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 appears to be best"
  • Vitamin D Deficit: Women's Silent Bone Threat - WebMD, 5/20/05 - "The study included 1,554 postmenopausal U.S. women being treated for osteoporosis ... More than half of the women (52%) had less-than-optimal levels of vitamin D ... Doctors need to pay more attention to vitamin D status"
  • Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64 - "Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons. An oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention"
  • Homocysteine and vitamin b(12) status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people - J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):921-9 - "High Hcy and low vitamin B(12) concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk"
  • Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1232S-9S - "Calcium has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone mass at all ages, although the results are not always consistent. Higher doses than the current US recommendation (600 IU) of vitamin D in the elderly (age >/= 65 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health (800-1000 IU/d) ... The other micronutrient needs for optimizing bone health can be easily met by a healthy diet that is high in fruits and vegetables to ensure adequate intakes for magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, and other potentially important nutrients"
  • Fight Osteoporosis: Bone Up On B12 - Science Daily, 4/23/05 - "This study suggests adequate vitamin B12 intake is important for maintaining bone mineral density"
  • Folate and Vitamin B12 Prevent Hip Fracture in Stroke Patients - Medscape, 3/25/05 - "The magnitude of benefit is similar to that found in trials of alendronate and raloxifene, with considerably less potential risk. The fact that BMD did not change suggests the benefit derives from quality, rather than quantity, of bone"
  • Onions May Fight Osteoporosis - WebMD, 4/8/05
  • Aerobic Exercise, Weights Boost Bone Strength - WebMD, 4/4/05
  • Calcium Supplements: Benefits and Risks - Medscape, 1/26/05 - "Perhaps the most effective method of preventing osteoporosis is ingestion of adequate calcium. Experts suggest the daily requirement for calcium is 1,300 mg for people ages 9 to 18, 1,000 to 1,200 mg for adults 19 to 50, and 1,500 mg for people over 50 ... You should take only the amount of calcium recommended. Ingesting high doses of calcium each day can be harmful and can cause kidney stones"
  • Got Fruit? Bones Need More Than Milk - WebMD, 10/26/04 - "Most people eat a diet that generates acids ... This increase in acid levels is thought to reduce bone strength ... Eating foods that buffer the acidic foods builds strong bones ... Nutrients found in fruits and vegetables may be protective for bone health ... The teenage girls who ate a large amount of fruit had the strongest bones"
  • Study Says What's Good for the Heart May Be Good for the Bones - Doctor's Guide, 10/7/04 - "The study demonstrated a gain of up to 5% in bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in postmenopausal women who drank 2 or fewer glasses of wine daily, and up to 7% in men who drank 1 or 2 beers daily"
  • Vitamin K, bone turnover, and bone mass in girls - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):1075-80 - "Better vitamin K status was associated with decreased bone turnover in healthy girls consuming a typical US diet"
  • Vitamin D Inadequacy Highly Prevalent Among Women Treated for Osteoporosis in North America - Doctor's Guide, 10/4/04 - "More than half of women currently treated for osteoporosis have suboptimal levels of vitamin D"
  • Got Exercise? Workouts Better for Bone Health - WebMD, 6/11/04
  • Vitamins May Lower Osteoporosis Fractures - Intelihealth, 5/13/04 - "B vitamins are known to reduce levels of homocysteine ... high levels of homocysteine at least double the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures"
  • High protein promotes bone health - Nutra USA, 4/5/04
  • Low B-12 Levels Linked to Increased Rate of Bone Loss - Medscape, 3/19/04 - "The results of this study raise the possibility that supplementation with vitamin B-12 or, for some elderly women, dietary assessment and modification may slow rates of bone loss" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 levels linked to bone loss - Nutra USA, 3/4/04 - "after adjusting for age, weight and clinic site, women with the lowest levels of B12 (below 280 pg/ml) experienced significantly more rapid hip bone loss than women with higher levels of B12"
  • Best Ways To Fight Osteoporosis - CBS News, 9/18/03 - "64 percent of women don't know how much calcium they need every day ... women from 19- to 50-years-old should consume 1,000 mg; and women over 50-years-old should consume 1,200 mg ... a high calcium intake will not protect a person against bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol abuse or various medical disorders or treatments" - See drugstore.com/GNC calcium productsicon.
  • Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Prevention - Medscape, 9/11/03 - "Bottom line: Vitamin D supplementation is absolutely critical to bone health in the aging population. Although a number of research questions still need to be addressed, there is currently sufficient evidence to show that all women, living in areas of Northern Latitude, should be taking a vitamin D (and calcium) supplement"
  • 60-Minute Workout Stops Bone Loss - WebMD, 9/5/03 - "Postmenopausal women who work out for 60 minutes, three times a week -- and take calcium -- can stop bone loss ... calcium alone isn't enough -- you also need vitamin D"
  • Exercise Prevents Bone Loss in Early Post-Menopausal Women - New Hope Natural Media, 8/14/03
  • Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Effective for Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/03 - "Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake is essential to the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 200 IU/day of vitamin D for women aged 50 or younger years, 400 IU/day for those aged 51-70 years, and 600 IU/day for those older than 70 years ... In women over the age of 65, there is increased risk of osteoporotic fracture of the hip and non-vertebral sites. Daily vitamin D intake between 800 and 900 IU and 1200-1300 mg of calcium for this population results in increased bone density, decreased bone turnover, and decreased non-vertebral fractures ... Studies have linked vitamin D supplementation to a decrease in body sway, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may protect against fracture by preventing falls" - See drugstore.com/GNC calcium plus vitamin D supplementsicon.
  • Effects on bone mineral density of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency - Joint Bone Spine. 2003 Jun;70(3):203-208 - "bone mass in older women with vitamin D deficiency increases significantly at the lumbar spine, femur, trochanter, and whole body after calcium and vitamin D supplementation for 1 year, and concomitantly bone markers improved as vitamin D levels returned to normal"
  • Protein intake: effects on bone mineral density and the rate of bone loss in elderly women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1517-25 - "The highest quartile of protein intake (: 72 g/d) was associated with higher BMD in elderly women at baseline only when the calcium intake exceeded 408 mg/d"
  • Calcium Supplementation and Exercise Improves Bone Mineral Status in Adolescent Girls - Doctor's Guide, 4/10/03
  • Vitamin D Plus Calcium Supplements Boosts Calcium Absorption - WebMD, 4/1/03 - "We need calcium for good bones, but vitamin D is equally important -- it helps the body with calcium absorption. In fact, calcium supplements plus vitamin D can increase calcium absorption by up to 65%"
  • Vitamin K Builds Strong Bones - New Hope Natural Media, 3/28/03 - "Without adequate vitamin K, osteocalcin cannot be produced, and bone formation becomes impaired ... when women with osteoporosis take supplemental vitamin K, the urinary excretion of calcium falls by about 50%, suggesting that less calcium is being leached from the bones ... Some research, however, suggests that the optimal level of intake may be higher, as much as 400 mcg per day. A typical western diet contains 80 to 150 mcg per day" - See iHerb vitamin K products.
  • Remember Sodium? We're Still Getting Too Much - Intelihealth, 3/14/03 - "High sodium levels also raise the risk of osteoporosis and kidney problems ... In the case of osteoporosis, potassium appears to offset calcium losses from excessive sodium ... postmenopausal women with diets high in salt lost higher amounts of bone mineral. Eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas, tomatoes and orange juice helped stem the calcium loss"
  • Interaction of Dietary Calcium and Protein in Bone Health in Humans - J. Nutr. 133:852S-854S, 3/03 - "Protein has both positive and negative effects on calcium balance, and the net effect of dietary protein on bone mass and fracture risk may be dependent on the dietary calcium intake. In addition to providing substrate for bone matrix, dietary protein stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a factor that promotes osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Protein also increases urinary calcium losses, by several proposed mechanisms. Increasing calcium intake may offset the negative impact of dietary protein on urinary calcium losses, allowing the favorable effect of protein on the IGF-1 axis to dominate"
  • Vitamin D Can Prevent Fractures In Older People - Intelihealth, 2/28/03
  • Vitamin D Helps Elderly Avoid Fractures - WebMD, 2/27/03
  • Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):504-11 - "Women consuming 12.5 µg vitamin D/d from food plus supplements had a 37% lower risk of hip fracture (RR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94) than did women consuming < 3.5 µg/d. Total calcium intake was not associated with hip fracture risk (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.34 for 1200 compared with < 600 mg/d). Milk consumption was also not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (P for trend = 0.21)"
  • Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):512-6 - "Low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low BMD in women ... In contrast, there was no association between dietary vitamin K intake and BMD in men"
  • Walking Your Way to Better Bones - WebMD, 11/13/02
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Not Restricted To High-risk Groups - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/02 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is far more common than is generally assumed and is not necessarily restricted to high-risk groups such as the elderly ... Low vitamin D levels were found across diagnostic categories and were identified in 88 percent of patients with hip fractures; 67 percent of patients with wrist fractures; 50 percent of patients with vertebral fractures, and 52 percent of patients with other fractures ... This study demonstrates the high frequency of hypovitaminosis D in a UK specialist bone clinic setting and the clear need for vitamin D therapy may not [be] appreciated without [taking] vitamin D measurements"
  • Low Bone Mineral Density and Quantitative Ultrasound in Men Associated with Low Vitamin K Status - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/02 - "Low vitamin K status is associated with low quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and low bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and trochanter ... What we did was measure the amount of vitamin K in circulation and use the more sensitive measures of vitamin K status which was % undercarboxylated osteocalcin ... We corrected for triglycerides because vitamin K is transported in the blood by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ... What we found was that the higher the amounts of vitamin K in the plasma, the higher the BMD" - So does that mean that if your triglycerides are in check you may need extra vitamin K?  See iHerb vitamin K products. - Ben
  • Treating & Preventing Osteoporosis - Life Extension Magazine, 9/02 - "From systematic research the best external evidence is available for a supplementation with calcium and vitamin D and a therapy with the bisphosphonates alendronate or risedronate, as well as the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene (Evista)."
  • People Living In Higher Latitudes Require Fall, Winter Vitamin D Supplements - Doctor's Guide, 6/10/02 - "Given that almost every person in our sample had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 80 nmol/L at one point in the year, and that more than one-third of subjects had levels below the most conservative definition of vitamin D insufficiency, our findings support a recommendation for more aggressive vitamin D supplementation, particularly for elderly people and especially during the fall and winter months ... Low levels of vitamin D metabolites are associated with malabsorption of calcium, which results in bone loss"
  • Soy Isoflavone May Improve Bone Metabolism in Perimenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "The isoflavone group (n=12) received daily capsules of soy isoflavone extract (61.8 mg of isoflavones) ... Excretion of bone resorption markers was reduced significantly in the isoflavone group"
  • Getting Calcium On Young Girls' Radar - Intelihealth, 5/23/02 - "Ninety percent of girls ages 9 to 12 don't get enough calcium in their diets ... Ninety to 98 percent of your skeletal system is developed by age 20, so it's important that these bone-healthy activities are done early. After that, you're either going to maintain the bone density or you're going to lose it"
  • Long-Time Tea Drinking Builds Strong Bones - WebMD, 5/14/02
  • Calcium and Vitamin D3 Effective and Cost-Saving in Preventing Hip Fracture in Elderly European Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/13/02 - "simple dietary supplementation with calcium and vitamin D not only helps prevent hip fracture in institutionalized elderly women, it also saves up to 711,000 Euros (some US $640,000) per 1000 treated ... One group received elemental 1200 mg/day calcium plus 800 IU/day vitamin D3, while the other received a placebo. After three years, 25 percent fewer hip fractures were found among members of the supplemented group ... The savings may even be greater than this: remember, this study only takes into account hip fractures, but supplementation could prevent many other types of fracture as well"
  • Tea May Strengthen Bones - Intelihealth, 5/13/02
  • Aging Bone Mineral Density Better With High Protein Diet Plus Extra Calcium, Vitamin D - WebMD, 4/1/02
  • High-Protein Diet Could Repair Bone Loss - WebMD, 3/25/02 - "The supplement group -- particularly those who ate a diet high in protein -- had significantly better bone mass density -- an accurate measure of bone loss. Those who took the placebo, however, had less calcium absorbed into their bloodstream when they consumed more protein"
  • Does High Intake of Vitamin A Pose a Risk for Osteoporotic Fracture? - JAMA. 2002 Mar 20;287(11):1396-7 - "the evidence relating to a possible relationship between moderately high retinol intake and possible adverse effects on bone health remains inconclusive"
  • Curbing Caffeine May Benefit Bones - HealthandAge, 1/11/02
  • Kids Plagued by 'Calcium Crisis' - WebMD, 12/14/01 - "Only 14% of girls and 36% of boys age 12 to 19 in the U.S. are getting the recommended amounts of calcium, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture ... Close to 90% of adult bone is established by the end of the teen years. So if kids are off to a bad start in getting enough calcium, says the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), down the road, they are at serious risk of developing the brittle-bone disease osteoporosis as well as other bone diseases"
  • Calcium, Keep What You Take - Life Extension Magazine, 3/99
  • Vitamin K Deficiency Linked to Low Bone Mineral Density in Women - Doctor's Guide, 10/15/01
  • Vitamin K Cuts Hip Fractures - Nutrition Science News, 9/01
  • Vitamin E May Help Prevent Menopause Bone Loss - WebMD, 6/28/01 - "Treating these rats with vitamin E at a dose comparable to 400 IU in humans was just as good as estrogen treatment in restoring bone density and weight"
  • Study Relates Jogging And Strong Bones - Intelihealth, 6/28/01 - "Young men who jog regularly build strong bones and may be less likely to develop the brittle bone disease osteoporosis ... For couch potatoes, men who do little or no exercise, the bone density of joggers was almost 8 percent better"
  • Not for Ladies Only: Soy May Also Help Men at Risk for Osteoporosis - WebMD, 4/2/01 - "research suggests that a diet enriched with soy protein, which some research has shown can help preserve women's bones, may be able to do the same thing for men ... The group consuming soy protein had significantly more of this growth factor"
  • PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) for Bone Growth and Repair - Nutrition Science News, 3/01
  • Vitamin C May Help Ward Off Osteoporosis - WebMD, 2/8/01 - "Researchers have found that postmenopausal women who took vitamin C supplements had a higher bone density than those who didn't. The highest bone densities were also found in the women who were taking more than 1,000 mg/d."
  • High Impact Physical Activity Cuts Hip-Fracture Risk - Doctor's Guide, 1/18/01
  • Bone Up on Osteoporosis - Nutrition Science News, 11/00
  • Calcium Less Available from Soy Milk - Nutrition Science News, 10/00
  • Supplemental Calcium Can Limit Early On-Set Of Osteoporosis In Children With Asthma - Doctor's Guide, 10/16/00
  • Bone Up on Calcium Supplements, What Are Their Benefits and Risks? - WebMD, 9/19/00
  • Soy Isoflavones Reduce Bone Loss In Perimenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 9/1/00
  • Good Nutrition Important for Prevention of Osteoporosis - WebMD, 5/19/00
  • There's Something to Be Said for Having 'Tea Bones' - WebMD, 4/14/00
  • Researchers Suggest Daily Tea May Fortify Bones Of Elderly Women - Intelihealth, 4/7/00
  • Hearts & Bones: Calcium's Many Applications - Nutrition Science News, 2/00
  • The Replacements - Nutrition Science News, 8/99
  • Postmenopausal Bone Loss Prevented With Low Dose HRT Plus Calcium - Doctor's Guide, 6/2/99
  • Osteoporosis: You can prevent it - CNN, 6/2/99
  • Can ipriflavone prevent osteoporosis? - Nutrition Science News, 5/99
  • Anti-dairy group opens campaign attacking benefits of milk - CNN, 3/1/99
  • Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998 Nov;83(11):3817-25
  • Weight training, calcium, hormones the key to fighting osteoporosis - CNN, 11/6/98
  • Low Dietary Calcium, Low Vitamin C Linked To Increased Risk Of Gum Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/29/98
  • Female Teens Need Calcium During Window Of Opportunity - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/97
  • Report: Americans need more calcium - CNN, 8/13/97

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