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Home > Health Conditions > Depression

Depression

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Popular Medications:

Popular Supplements:

Neurotransmitters in Various Disorders:
  Major Depressive Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Phobia Smoking ADHD Obesity
Serotonin X X X X X X      
Norepinephrine X X X     X X X X
Dopamine X           X X X
Source: American Psychiatric Association 155th Annual Meeting, May 18 - 23, 2002

Alternative News:

  • 6 foods to eat for a mood boost - Washington Post, 4/6/17 - "Salmon ... Probiotics ... Leafy greens ... Blueberries ... Oysters ... Chocolate ... typical unhealthy Western diets that include excessive amounts of sugar, salty snacks, processed and fried foods have been associated with worsening of symptoms of depression, and an increased risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease"
  • Regular consumption of HolisFiit, a polyphenol-rich extract-based food supplement, improves mind and body well-being of overweight and slightly obese volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Feb 23:1-9 - "Overweight and obese volunteers, for which well-being might be perceived degraded, were included in a 16-week double-blind, randomized and parallel trial with a daily supplementation of HolisFiit®, a polyphenol-rich food supplement ... Body composition significantly rebalanced by 7.7% (p = .019) of the lean-to-fat mass ratio. Also, sleep quality significantly improved by 43% (p = .00015) as well as both physical and mental components from SF-36, respectively by 10% (p = .004) and 7% (p = .021). These data altogether, suggest that regular consumption of HolisFiit®, might significantly improve mind and body well-being"
    • Holisfiit® - fytexia.com - "HolisFiit® is a natural formula which combines the benefits of green tea and yerba mate extracts with grape, grapefruit, black carrot, and vitamin B3"
  • Adjunctive low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depression: An open-label pilot trial - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 22:1-5 - "A naturalistic 8-week open-label pilot trial of low-dose DHA, (260 mg or 520 mg/day) in 28 patients with MDD who were non-responsive to medication or psychotherapy, with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of greater than 17, was conducted ... After 8 weeks, 54% of patients had a ≥50% reduction on the HAM-D, and 45% were in remission (HAM-D ≤ 7). The eta-squared statistic (0.59) indicated a large effect size for the reduction of depression (equivalent to Cohen's d of 2.4). However confidence in this effect size is tempered due to the lack of a placebo. The mean score for the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale was significantly improved by 1.28 points" - See Docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Association between carbohydrate nutrition and prevalence of depressive symptoms in older adults - Br J Nutr. 2017 Jan 9:1-6 - "Participants in the highest v. lowest tertile of dietary GI intake had increased odds of depressive symptoms (assessed by the MHI scale), multivariable-adjusted OR 1.55 (95 % CI 1.12, 2.14). Participants in the highest compared with lowest tertile of fruit consumption had reduced odds of prevalent depressive symptoms, multivariable-adjusted OR 0.66 (95 % CI 0.46, 0.95). Total fibre, vegetable fibre and breads/cereal fibre intakes were all inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with global P values of 0.03, 0.01 and 0.03, respectively. Participants in the second v. first tertile of vegetable consumption had 41 % reduced odds of prevalent depressive symptoms, multivariable-adjusted OR 0.59"
  • Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 1;207:188-196 - "123 individuals with major depressive disorder were allocated to one of four treatment conditions, comprising placebo, low-dose curcumin extract (250mg b.i.d.), high-dose curcumin extract (500mg b.i.d.), or combined low-dose curcumin extract plus saffron (15mg b.i.d.) for 12 weeks ... Active drug treatments comprising differing doses of curcumin and combined curcumin/saffron were effective in reducing depressive and anxiolytic symptoms in people with major depressive disorder" - [Nutra USA] - See saffron at Amazon.com and curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil may help improve mood in veterans - Science Daily, 9/23/16 - "Kreider says fish oil contains Omega-3 fatty acids that help to boost brain function. He says studies also show that fish oil acts as an anti-inflammatory within the body -- helping athletes and soldiers manage intense training better. Fish oil content is especially important for soldiers due to the consistent training and physical regiments performed in and out of combat and risk to traumatic brain injury" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2016 Aug 6;8(8) - "It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder ... Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = -0.25, 95% CI (-0.47--0.03), p = 0.03) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (MD = -0.73, 95% CI (-1.37--0.09), p = 0.03) ... probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Are Supplementation of Omega-3 and Ascorbic Acid Effective in Reducing Oxidative Stress and Depression among Depressed Shift Workers? - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 May 10:1-12 - "Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ... Among the participants, 33 received omega-3 fatty acid soft gel (1000 mg twice daily) with vitamin C (250 mg twice daily) (group 1), 31 took omega-3 fatty acid supplements and vitamin C placebo (group 2), 30 took omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C (group 3), and 32 received omega-3 fatty acid supplement placebo and vitamin C placebo (group 4) for 2 months ... the BDI score was reduced significantly in all 4 groups, however, the level of decrease was more in the omega-3 fatty acid (alone) supplementation group (mean 6.29 score decrease) (p < 0.001)" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient supplements can give antidepressants a boost - Science Daily, 4/26/16 - "Omega 3 fish oils, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), methylfolate (bioactive form of folate) and Vitamin D, were all found to boost the effects of medication ... They reported mixed results for zinc, vitamin C and tryptophan (an amino acid). Folic acid didn't work particularly well, nor did inositol" - Note: For people who want an increase in energy and mood with anti-aging effects to boot, I’d skip the antidepressants and go with a combination of deprenyl, lithium (the over-the-counter supplement form), GH-3 and beta-arginine. On the beta-arginine, it will weird you out if you don’t start slow and take it with food if possible. Build yourself up to 3200 mg per day.  Don’t take more than 800 mg per three or four hour period.  Check with a doctor first on all of that.  Also, see methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Association between Fish Intake and Depressive Symptoms among Community-living Older Chinese Adults in Singapore: A Cross-sectional Study - J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(4):404-7 - "Fish intake was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms ([odds ratio] OR = 0.60" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol exerts antidepressant properties in the chronic unpredictable mild stress model through the regulation of oxidative stress and mTOR pathway in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex - Behav Brain Res. 2016 Jan 19 - "prefrontal cortex (PFC) ... chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) ... resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, which was mediated in part by its antioxidant action, up-regulation of phosphor-Akt and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and PFC" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in adult mice - Behav Brain Res. 2015 Dec 22 - "Increasing evidence suggests that depression is accompanied by dysregulation of neuroimmune system. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities ... these findings demonstrated that SFN has antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities in stressed mice model of depression, which likely occurs by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory response to stress. These data support further exploration for developing SFN as a novel agent to treat depression and anxiety disorders" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-dwelling older adults: the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 9 - "Women in the highest tertile of B6 intake from food were 43% less likely to become depressed when adjusting for demographic and health factors (multivariate odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.96), but adjustment for energy intake attenuated the effect. Men in the highest tertile of dietary B12 intake had decreased risk of depression (energy-adjusted multivariate OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.90)"
  • The Role of Curcumin Administration in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Mini Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials - Phytother Res. 2015 Nov 27 - "Several studies have demonstrated that curcumin, the yellow-pigmented substance of the turmeric, possesses antidepressant properties ... Overall, curcumin administration showed a significantly higher reduction in depression symptoms [SMD = -0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.56, -0.13; p = 0.002]. Subgroup analyses showed that curcumin had the highest effect when given to middle-aged patients (SMD = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.59; -0.13; p = 0.002), for longer duration of administration (SMD = -0.40; 95% CI = -0.64, -0.16; p = 0.001), and at higher doses (SMD = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.59, -0.13; p = 0.002). The administration of new formulation of curcumin (BCM-95) had non-significantly higher effect on depression as compared with the conventional curcumin-piperine formula" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial - J Nutr. 2015 Nov 25 - "major depressive disorder (MDD) ... Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ... Overall, vitamin D supplementation of patients with MDD for 8 wk had beneficial effects on the BDI, indicators of glucose homeostasis, and oxidative stress" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Four-Week Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Preparation on Mood and Blood Biomarkers in Young Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Nutrients. 2015 Oct 30 - "Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p < 0.01). MVM treatment was also associated with significantly improved mood, as measured by reduced scores on the "depression-dejection" subscale of the Profile of Mood States"
  • The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms - Phytother Res. 2015 Oct 27 - "Rhodiola rosea L (2 × 200 mg dose Vitano®, 1 tablet taken before breakfast and 1tablet before lunch) or a control condition (no treatment) ... Relative to the controls, the experimental group demonstrated a significant reduction in self-reported, anxiety, stress, anger, confusion and depression at 14 days and a significant improvements in total mood" - See Rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com.
  • Unhealthy Diet May Shrink the Brain - Medscape, 9/22/15 - "Consumption of an unhealthy Western diet characterized by meat, hamburgers, chips, and soft drinks, may reduce the volume of the left hippocampus, whereas a healthy diet of fresh vegetables and fish may increase hippocampal volume ... Specifically, a high-fat diet reduces brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, which impairs neuronal plasticity, learning, and behavior ... The difference in left hippocampal volume between those with a healthy diet and those with an unhealthy diet was 203 cubic millimeters, which accounted for 62% of the average decline in left hippocampal volume during the 4-year study period ... unhealthy diets are linked to mental, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders ... I have a number of cases in my practice of people who just didn't plan their food, who didn't think about how their nutrition is related to their psychiatric condition, and have really changed their lives by enhancing their self-care more nutrient-dense brain food"
  • Fruit and vegetables aren't only good for a healthy body; they protect your mind too - Science Daily, 9/16/15 - "Food items such as meat and sweets (sources of animal fats: saturated and trans fatty acids) were negatively scored, while nuts, fruits and vegetables (sources of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins and minerals respectively) were positively scored ... Questionnaires to assess dietary intake were completed at the start of the project and again after 10 years ... The Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 was associated with the greatest reduction of risk of depression but most of the effect could be explained by its similarity with the Mediterranean Diet"
  • Dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression - Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Aug 28 - "Five key dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression emerged from current published evidence. These comprise: (1) follow 'traditional' dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, Norwegian, or Japanese diet; (2) increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, wholegrain cereals, nuts, and seeds; (3) include a high consumption of foods rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; (4) replace unhealthy foods with wholesome nutritious foods; (5) limit your intake of processed-foods, 'fast' foods, commercial bakery goods, and sweets"
  • Consuming highly refined carbohydrates increases risk of depression - Science Daily,  8/5/15 - "progressively higher dietary GI scores and consumption of added sugars and refined grains were associated with increased risk of new-onset depression in post-menopausal women. Greater consumption of dietary fiber, whole grains, vegetables and non-juice fruits was associated with decreased risk"
  • Link between intestinal bacteria, depression found - Science Daily, 7/28/15 - "We are starting to explain the complex mechanisms of interaction and dynamics between the gut microbiota and its host. Our data show that relatively minor changes in microbiota profiles or its metabolic activity induced by neonatal stress can have profound effects on host behaviour in adulthood"
  • High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun 24 - "We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth vs. first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth vs. first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression"
  • Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression - Br J Nutr. 2015 May;113(9):1418-26 - "sample of Finnish men and women aged 30-79 years from the Health 2000 Survey ... The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0.65 (95 % CI 0.46, 0.93; P for trend = 0·006) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors ... These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Intake and Depression in Adults - Medscape, 5/4/15 - "We found a significant association between very low magnesium intake and depression, especially in younger adults" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of probiotics on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in petrochemical workers - Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Apr 16 - "divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured ... After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS)" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • People less focused on recurrent bad feelings when taking probiotics - Science Daily, 4/14/15 - "Rumination is one of the most predictive vulnerability markers of depression ... Compared to subjects who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the multispecies probiotics intervention showed significantly reduced ruminative thoughts ... Even if preliminary, these results provide the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood. As such, our findings shed an interesting new light on the potential of probiotics  to serve as adjuvant or preventive therapy for depression" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Korea - Ann Nutr Metab. 2015 Mar 24;66(2-3):141-148 - "n-3 PUFAs demonstrated an advantage over placebo that did not reach clinical significance, although CGI-I score was significantly decreased in the n-3 PUFA group as compared with the placebo group" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Component of red grapes, wine could help ease depression - Science Daily, 3/30/15 - "the bullied rats were given a daily dose of resveratrol roughly equivalent to the amount found in six glasses of wine. They found that resveratrol blocked the increased inflammation in the brain and also prevented the depressive-like behaviors in animals that would have normally developed those behaviors ... administering resveratrol blocks the inflammation we would normally see in animals undergoing the bullying stress and brings it to control levels. We saw that consistently with IL-1ß [a pro-inflammatory protein] and many of the other inflammatory markers that we analyzed ... resveratrol has anti-inflammatory potential in the brain, not just on levels of inflammation circulating in the body" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Likelihood of Having Depressive Symptoms among Japanese Workers - J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):541-6 - "Depressive symptoms were inversely associated with 25(OH)D. Compared with those with a 25(OH)D concentration of <20 μg/L, multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for depressive symptoms (CES-D scale score ≥16) were 0.75 (0.59, 0.95) and 0.66 (0.41, 1.06) for those with a 25(OH)D concentration of 20-29 μg/L and ≥30 μg/L, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). After further adjustment for leisure-time physical activity and shift work (factors closely related to photo-initiated vitamin D production), the OR (95% CI) for the highest category of 25(OH)D was 0.70 (0.43, 1.14). The association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms appears to be linear" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D may control brain serotonin, affecting behavior and psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 2/25/15 - "Serotonin affects a wide-range of cognitive functions and behaviors including mood, decision-making, social behavior, impulsive behavior, and even plays a role in social decision-making by keeping in check aggressive social responses or impulsive behavior ... Many clinical disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression share as a unifying attribute low brain serotonin ... This publication suggests that optimizing intakes of vitamin D, EPA, and DHA would optimize brain serotonin concentrations and function, possibly preventing and ameliorating some of the symptoms associated with these disorders without side effects" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com, Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antidepressant dose of taurine increases mRNA expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit and BDNF in the hippocampus of diabetic rats - Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jan 19 - "Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with higher risk for depression. Diabetic rats present depressive-like behaviors and taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the brain, reverses this depressive behaviors ... Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that diabetic rats presented lower α2 GABAA subunit and BDNF mRNA expression than non-diabetic rats and taurine increased both parameters in these sick rats. Taurine also reversed the lower brain weight and improved the short-term memory in diabetic rats. Thus, the taurine antidepressant effect may be explained by interference with the GABA system, in line to its neuroprotective effect showed here by preventing brain weight loss and improving memory in diabetic rats" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Antidepressant-like effects of cordycepin in a mice model of chronic unpredictable mild stress - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:438506 - "This study is attempted to investigate whether cordycepin (COR) possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS-) induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors) and explore the possible mechanisms ... COR remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulating BDNF and downregulating 5-HT2AR levels and inflammation in hippocampus" - See cordyceps at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec 3 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted ORs for self-reported depression across coffee consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.07) for one to six cups/week, 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.79) for one cup/day, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.88) for two cups/day and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.76) for three or more cups/day (P for trend, <0.01). A similar association was observed for self-reported clinical depression, for which the multiple-adjusted ORs were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.92) for one to six cups/week, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.74) for one cup/day, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.84) for two cups/day and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.70) for three or more cups/day, respectively"
  • Vitamin D deficiency, depression linked in international study - Science Daily, 12/2/14 - "Vitamin D deficiency is not just harmful to physical health -- it also might impact mental health ... based on the team's investigations, vitamin D was likely to be a contributing factor in seasonal depression ... Vitamin D is also involved in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine within the brain, both chemicals linked to depression ... Vitamin D levels of more than 50 nanomoles per liter are recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review - Nutrients. 2014 Nov 14 - "iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition ... Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Optimal Serum Selenium Concentrations Are Associated with Lower Depressive Symptoms and Negative Mood among Young Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Nov 5 - "A total of 978 young adults (aged 17-25 y) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale and reported their negative and positive mood daily for 13 d using an Internet diary. Serum selenium concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ... The mean ± SD serum selenium concentration was 82 ± 18 μg/L and ranged from 49 to 450 μg/L. Participants with the lowest serum selenium concentration (62 ± 4 μg/L; decile 1) and, to a lesser extent, those with the highest serum selenium concentration (110 ± 38 μg/L; decile 10) had significantly greater adjusted depressive symptoms than did participants with midrange serum selenium concentrations (82 ± 1 to 85 ± 1 μg/L; deciles 6 and 7). Depressive symptomatology was lowest at a selenium concentration of ∼85 μg/L. Patterns for negative mood were similar but more U-shaped. Positive mood showed an inverse U-shaped association with selenium, but this pattern was less consistent than depressive symptoms or negative mood" - See Se-methyl l-selenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Low dietary intake of magnesium is associated with increased externalising behaviours in adolescents - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov 6:1-7 - "Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ... using a validated FFQ ... Higher dietary intake of Mg (per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising behaviours (β=-1.45; 95 % CI -2.40, -0.50; P=0.003). There was a trend towards reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase; β=-0.73" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatories May Help Ease Depression - Medscape, 10/21/14 - "Results of a meta-analysis show that the adjunctive use of NSAIDs was associated with improved antidepressant treatment response without an increased risk for adverse effects. In particular, add-on treatment with celecoxib (Celebrex, GD Searle LLC) improved antidepressant effects, remission, and response"
  • Fish intake associated with boost to antidepressant response- Science Daily, 10/20/14 - "They categorised the patients into 4 groups, according to their fatty fish intake, and they found that those who took the least fish tended to respond badly to anti-depressants, whereas those who had most fish in the diet responded best to anti-depressants. Those who ate fatty fish at least once a week had a 75% chance of responding to antidepressants, whereas those who never ate fatty fish had only a 23% chance of responding to antidepressants ... So far this is an association between fatty acids in blood and anti-depressant response; so it's not necessarily a causal effect. Our next step is to look at whether these alterations in fatty acid metabolism and hormonal activity are specific for depression, so we are currently repeating these measurements in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Oct 18 - "Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population - J Psychopharmacol. 2014 Oct 2 - "This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures" - [Nutra USA] - See Longvida products at Amazon.com and curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of curcumin on depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Aug 14 - "we examined the effects of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammation in male mice ... curcumin may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behavior, partially due to its anti-inflammatory aptitude" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Investigation of the Efficacy of Adjunctive Therapy with Bioavailability-Boosted Curcuminoids in Major Depressive Disorder - Phytother Res. 2014 Aug 4 - "One hundred and eleven subjects were assigned to standard antidepressive therapy plus curcuminoids-piperine combination (1000-10 mg/day; n = 61) or standard antidepressive therapy alone (n = 50) for a period of 6 weeks ... Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) ... There were significantly greater reductions in total HADS score and subscales of anxiety and depression in the curcuminoids versus control group (p < 0.001). Likewise, reductions in BDI-II total score and scores of somatic and cognitive subscales were found to be greater in the curcuminoids compared with control group" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and piperine extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of fish oil supplementation on prefrontal metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A preliminary 1H MRS study - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jun 10 - "10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO ... In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (-20%, P = 0.06)" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of curcumin on learning and memory deficits, BDNF, and ERK protein expression in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Jun 7 - "Recent studies have shown that curcumin exhibits antidepressant-like effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether curcumin administration influences chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced cognitive deficits and explores underlying mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were subjected to CUS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depression. The depressive-like behavior was tested using sucrose preference test, open field test and Morris water maze test. Effects of curcumin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) levels in the hippocampus were also examined. Chronic treatment with curcumin significantly reversed the CUS-induced behavioral and cognitive parameters (reduced sucrose preference and impaired learning and memory function) in stressed rats. Additionally, CUS reduced hippocampal BDNF and ERK levels, while curcumin effectively reversed these alterations" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 11;6(4):1501-18 - "A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27) ... Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antidepressant Effects of Resveratrol in an Animal Model of Depression - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Apr 6 - "More recently resveratrol was shown to alleviate depressive-like symptoms induced by stress or other means in mice and rats ... forced swim test (FST: a measure of helplessness) ... Both acute and chronic administration of resveratrol resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in FST ... These findings indicate an antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol in an animal model of depression possibly via activation of hippocampal BDNF, and suggest therapeutic potential of resveratrol in at least a subpopulation of depressed patients" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3 β -CREB Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:506735 - "This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS) in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1), intragastrically) were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1), subcutaneously) injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L). Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol reverses the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behavior, serum corticosterone levels and BDNF expression in rats - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Feb 3 - "Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with the neuroendocrine system and alterations in specific brain proteins ... The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the content of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the CUMS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. Resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg/i.p. 5 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and the elevated serum corticosterone levels observed in stressed rats. Additionally, five-weeks of CUMS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala, and was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with the established antidepressant, desipramine" - Note: "decreased ... the elevated serum corticosterone levels".  That might mean it lowers cortisol.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Depression Linked to Low Zinc Levels in Blood - Medscape, 1/2/14 - "The analysis included 17 studies that measured peripheral blood–zinc concentrations in 1643 depressed patients and 804 control participants ... mean peripheral blood–zinc concentrations were lower by approximately 1.85 µmol/L in depressed individuals compared with control participants ... More severe depression was associated with greater differences in zinc levels between depressed and control participants ... Zinc has antioxidant properties, helps to maintain endocrine homeostasis and immune function, and plays multiple roles in regulating the hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic circuits that subserve affective regulation and cognitive function. Thus, changes in zinc homeostasis might compromise neuroplasticity and contribute to long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric decline" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Longitudinal relationship of diet and oxidative stress with depressive symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome after following a weight loss treatment: The RESMENA project - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 22 - "based on volunteers (n = 55) with metabolic syndrome (age 50 ± 1 y.o.; 38M/17F) ... Participants followed two hypocaloric diets (control diet and RESMENA diet) with the same energy restriction (-30% TCV) for six months ... A higher intake of folate and a decline in malondialdehyde plasma levels during a weight loss intervention, were related to improvements in manifestations of depression" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D decreases pain in women with type 2 diabetes, depression - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Researchers in this study tested the efficacy of weekly vitamin D2 supplementation (50,000 IUs) for six months on depression in women with type 2 diabetes. Depression significantly improved following supplementation. In addition, 61 percent of patients reported shooting or burning pain in their legs and feet (neuropathic pain) and 74 percent reported numbness and tingling in their hands, fingers, and legs (sensory pain) at the beginning of the study. Researchers found a significant decrease in neuropathic and sensory pain at three and six months following vitamin D2 supplementation" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Are probiotics a promising treatment strategy for depression? - Science Daily, 11/14/13 - "Human studies are still largely lacking, but a few have shown promising results. In one, healthy volunteers received either a probiotic combination (L.. helveticus R0052 and B. longum) or placebo for 30 days. Those who received the probiotics reported lower stress levels. In a separate study, volunteers who consumed a yogurt containing probiotics reported improved mood" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 6 - "Six electronic databases were searched for articles published up to August 2013 ... high intakes of fruit, vegetables, fish, and whole grains may be associated with a reduced depression risk"
  • Tea Consumption and Depressive Symptoms in Older People in Rural China - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct 1 - "Compared with no or irregular tea consumption, controlling for age, sex, education, leisure activities, number of comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score, the odds ratios of having high depressive symptoms were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.56-1.32) for weekly and 0.59 (95% CI = 0.43-0.81) for daily tea consumption (P for linear trend = .001); the linear trend of the association remained statistically significant when further controlling for history of stroke, transient ischemic attacks, and presence of carotid plaques" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Amino acid offers potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 10/8/13 - "drug discovery is at a near standstill for treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and common forms of autism ... According to Professor Berk, there is now an incontrovertible evidence base that these disorders share inflammation and oxidative stress as part of their disease physiology ... The amino acid, NAC, seems to have multiple effects on all these pathways: it boosts glutathione, which is the body’s major antioxidant defence; has anti-inflammatory properties; enhances levels of nerve cell growth proteins and the growth of new neurons; and reduces cell death pathways. It also appears to reduce dysfunction of mitochondria ... NAC reduces the core symptoms of schizophrenia including negative symptoms such as improved apathy, social interaction and motivation. It also appears to reduce depression in people with bipolar disorder and at this meeting ... there is intriguing evidence that it reduces cravings in a number of addictions including cocaine, cannabis and cigarette smoking" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intakes Are Inversely Related to Elevated Depressive Symptoms among United States Women - J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "assessed whether self-reported depressive symptoms were inversely associated with n-3 fatty acid intakes by using a cross-sectional study in 1746 adults (aged 30-65 y) in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2009). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used, with a CES-D score ≥16 suggestive of elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) ... In sum, among United States women, higher intakes of n-3 fatty acids [absolute (n-3) and relative to n-6 fatty acids (n-3:n-6)] were associated with lower risk of elevated depressive symptoms, specifically in domains of somatic complaints (mainly n-3 PUFAs) and positive affect (mainly n-3 HUFAs)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora(R)) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 7;10(1):37 - "Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety ... assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora(R), Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks ... After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (-18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (-11%), Tension (-13%), Depression (-20%), Anger (-42%), Fatigue (-31%), and Confusion (-27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%)" - Note: The biggest affect was on anger (-42%).  - See Relora at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 6 - "60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination ... curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D improves mood and blood pressure in women with diabetes - Science Daily, 6/25/13 - "The pilot study included 46 women who were an average age of 55 years, had diabetes an average of 8 years and insufficient blood levels of vitamin D (18 ng/ml). They took a weekly dose (50,000 International Units) of vitamin D ... After six months, their vitamin D blood levels reached sufficient levels (average 38 ng/ml) and their moods improved significantly. For example, in a 20-question depression symptom survey, scores decreased from 26.8 at the beginning of the study (indicating moderate depression) to 12.2 at six months (indicating no depression. (The depression scale ranges from 0 to 60, with higher numbers indicating more symptoms of depression.) ... Blood pressure also improved, with the upper number decreasing from 140.4 mm Hg to 132.5 mm Hg. And their weight dropped from an average of 226.1 pounds to 223.6 pounds" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of green tea on reward learning in healthy individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Nutr J. 2013 Jun 18;12(1):84 - "Seventy-four healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study with oral administration of green tea or placebo for 5weeks. We used the monetary incentive delay task to evaluate the reward learning by measurement of the response to reward trial or no-reward trial. We compared the reaction time of reward responsiveness between green tea and placebo treatment. Furthermore, we selected Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) to estimate the depressive symptoms in these two groups ... The results showed chronic treatment of green tea increased reward learning compared with placebo by decreasing the reaction time in monetary incentive delay task. Moreover, participants treated with green tea showed reduced scores measured in MADRS and HRSD-17 compared with participants treated with placebo" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults over Time - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):441-5 - "Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline ... Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):447-55 - "Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases ... Our results indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 4:1-9 - "Higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 cup/d, those consuming ≥4 cups green tea/d had a 51 % significantly lower prevalence odds of having depressive symptoms ... Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with depressive symptoms (≥2 cups/d v. <1 cup/d: OR = 0.61; 95 % CI 0.38, 0.98). Multiple-adjusted odds for depressive symptoms comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption was OR = 0.57 (95 % CI 0.30, 1.05; P for trend = 0.02)" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;202:100-7 - "One case-control study, ten cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies with a total of 31 424 participants were analysed. Lower vitamin D levels were found in people with depression compared with controls (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23-0.97) and there was an increased odds ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories in the cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.0-1.71). The cohort studies showed a significantly increased hazard ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.40-3.49)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Hold the diet soda? Sweetened drinks linked to depression, coffee tied to lower risk - Science Daily, 1/8/13 - "The study involved 263,925 people between the ages of 50 and 71 at enrollment. From 1995 to 1996, consumption of drinks such as soda, tea, fruit punch and coffee was evaluated. About 10 years later, researchers asked the participants whether they had been diagnosed with depression since the year 2000 ... People who drank more than four cans or cups per day of soda were 30 percent more likely to develop depression than those who drank no soda. Those who drank four cans of fruit punch per day were about 38 percent more likely to develop depression than those who did not drink sweetened drinks. People who drank four cups of coffee per day were about 10 percent less likely to develop depression than those who drank no coffee. The risk appeared to be greater for people who drank diet than regular soda, diet than regular fruit punches and for diet than regular iced tea"
  • Lack of nutrients and metabolic syndrome linked to different subtypes of depression - Science Daily, 11/26/12 - "Melancholic depression involves typical depressive symptoms, such as a depressed mood. Non-melancholic depression is characterized by other types of symptoms, such as low self-esteem and feelings of worry and anxiety ... Among subjects with the highest folate intake, the risk for melancholic depressive symptoms was almost 50 per cent lower than among those with the lowest intake. In addition, among those with the highest vitamin B12 levels, the risk for melancholic depressive symptoms was almost three times lower than among those with the lowest levels. Both findings are new. A similar association with non-melancholic depressive symptoms was not observed ... Another novel observation is that the risk for the metabolic syndrome was twofold among those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms, as compared to those with melancholic symptoms or those with no depressive symptoms" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Attenuation of post-myocardial infarction depression in rats by n-3 fatty acids or probiotics starting after the onset of reperfusion - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 15:1-7 - "Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in depression-like behaviour and apoptosis in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). A PUFA n-3 diet or the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 probiotics, when given before the ischaemic period, reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines as well as apoptosis in the limbic system ... These results indicate that a high-PUFA n-3 diet or the administration of probiotics, starting after the onset of reperfusion, are beneficial to attenuate apoptosis in the limbic system and post-MI depression in the rat" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of fish and PUFA, and clinical depressive and anxiety disorders in women - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 10:1-8 - "The present study analysed data from a sample of 935 randomly selected, population-based women aged 20-93 years. A validated and comprehensive dietary questionnaire ascertained the consumption of n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Another assessed fish and energy intake and provided data for a dietary quality score. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) measured psychological symptoms and a clinical interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition) assessed depressive and anxiety disorders ... The only PUFA related to categorical depressive and anxiety disorders was DHA. There was a non-linear relationship between DHA intake and depression; those in the second tertile of DHA intake were nearly 70 % less likely to report a current depressive disorder compared to those in the first tertile. The relationship of DHA to anxiety disorders was linear; for those in the highest tertile of DHA intake, the odds for anxiety disorders were reduced by nearly 50 % after adjustments, including adjustment for diet quality scores, compared to the lowest tertile. Those who ate fish less than once per week had higher GHQ-12 scores, and this relationship was particularly obvious in smokers" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Rhodiola rosea: Nature’s antidepressant - Fox News, 9/10/12 - "Over 300 human studies on Rhodiola rosea show that the plant has anti-stress, anti-anxiety, and anti-depressant properties, and that taking the extract of the root produces no significant negative effects ... Overall, Rhodiola rosea demonstrates greater effectiveness and safety than pharmaceutical drugs for anxiety, depression and fatigue. So why don’t more doctors recommend Rhodiola to their patients? They don’t know about it. For many medical doctors, the herbal world is still a dark green jungle of uncertainty" - See Rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid in mild-to-moderate depression: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Aug 18 - "Eighty-one mild-to-moderately depressed outpatients were randomly assigned to receive either 1g/d of EPA or DHA or placebo (coconut oil) for 12 weeks ... Although there was no significant difference between groups at baseline, patients in the EPA group showed a significantly lower mean HDRS score at study endpoint compared with those in the DHA (p<0.001) or placebo (p=0.002) groups. Furthermore, response to treatment (defined as a ≥50% decrease from the baseline HDRS score) was only observed in 6 patients receiving EPA, while no one in any of DHA or placebo groups responded to treatment" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Outmuscling major depression with creatine - Science Daily, 8/7/12 - "women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone ... Creatine is an amino acid made in the human liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It also is found in meat and fish. Inside the body it is converted into phosphocreatine and stored in muscle. During high-intensity exercise, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, an important energy source for cells. For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability ... The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the creatine group showed no signs of depression compared with one-quarter in the placebo group. There were no significant adverse side effects associated with creatine" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 1 - "Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27) ... In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Erythrocyte n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Seafood Intake Decrease the Risk of Depression: Case-Control Study in Korea - Ann Nutr Metab. 2012 Jul 6;61(1):25-31 - "Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis showed that the risk of depression was significantly and negatively associated with erythrocyte levels of 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, 16:0 and 18:0, but positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 18:2t and 16:1 after adjusting for confounding factors. In addition, the risk of depression was negatively associated with the intake of energy, carbohydrate, seafood and grains, but positively with the intake of fat and meat after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions: The risk of depression could be decreased with increased erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFA and saturated fatty acids, as well as seafood intake, but decreased erythrocyte levels of trans fatty acids in Koreans" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Hormone curbs depressive-like symptoms in stressed mice - Science Daily, 7/9/12 - "A hormone with anti-diabetic properties also reduces depression-like symptoms in mice ... The hormone, called adiponectin, is secreted by adipose tissue and sensitizes the body to the action of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood sugar ... So far, only about half of the patients suffering from major depressive disorders are treated to the point of remission with antidepressant drugs ... The prevalence of depression in the diabetic population is two to three times higher than in the non-diabetic population. Unfortunately, the use of current antidepressants can worsen the control of diabetic patients. Adiponectin, with its anti-diabetic activity, would serve as an innovative therapeutic target for depression treatments, especially for those individuals with diabetes or prediabetes and perhaps those who fail to respond to currently available antidepressants" - [Abstract] - See my adiponectin page for ways to raise it.
  • Treating vitamin D deficiency may improve depression - Science Daily, 6/25/12 - "Women with moderate to severe depression had substantial improvement in their symptoms of depression after they received treatment for their vitamin D deficiency ... Vitamin D may have an as-yet-unproven effect on mood, and its deficiency may exacerbate depression ... Pathak presented the research findings in three women, who ranged in age from 42 to 66. All had previously diagnosed major depressive disorder, also called clinical depression, and were receiving antidepressant therapy ... After treatment, all three women reported significant improvement in their depression, as found using the Beck Depression Inventory" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Rhodiola rosea: Nature’s anti-depressant - Fox News, 3/7/12 - "Many studies support what even the ancient Chinese emperors knew - that Rhodiola rosea gives a terrific lift to body and mind. In one study of people with stress-related fatigue conducted in Sweden, the Rhodiola exerted an anti-fatigue effect, increased mental performance, decreased the stress hormone cortisol in the blood, and reduced stress overall ... In another study reported in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Rhodiola rosea caused improvement in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Yet another study of depressed people in Armenia showed significant improvement in overall mood as a result of taking Rhodiola rosea extract" - See Rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com.
  • More Evidence Links Low Vitamin D to Depression - Medscape, 2/13/12 - "One thing that complicates trials is that if you give someone vitamin D, it takes a long time for it to have much effect, as vitamin D levels go up and down very slowly; it probably wouldn't be a fast antidepressant" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A link between oxytocin and serotonin in humans: Supporting evidence from peripheral markers - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Jan 30 - "Pharmacological studies indicate a functional interaction between the serotonergic and oxytocinergic systems. In particular, some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram and fluvoxamine, seem to exert part of their antidepressant effects through oxytocin (OT) release. Further, the administration of fenfluramine, a serotonergic agonist, to healthy subjects increases plasma OT levels. Interestingly, immunocytochemical and double-immunofluorescent techniques revealed a high degree of overlap between 5-HT transporter (SERT)-labeled fibers and OT-containing cells ... This result represents the first evidence of an interaction between OT and SERT, as measured by [(3)H]-Par binding, at peripheral levels in humans. Given the several activities mediated by both OT and 5-HT, such a relationship might provide new perspectives and insights into psychiatric disorders and/or social relationship disturbances, as well as novel treatment strategies overcoming and/or integrating the serotonergic paradigm" - See oxytocin 6x5iu tablets at International Antiaging Systems or Oxytocin Factor.
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to depression, psychiatrists report - Science Daily, 1/5/12 - "UT Southwestern researchers examined the results of almost 12,600 participants from late 2006 to late 2010. Dr. Brown and colleagues from The Cooper Institute found that higher vitamin D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of current depression, particularly among people with a prior history of depression. Low vitamin D levels were associated with depressive symptoms, particularly those with a history of depression, so primary care patients with a history of depression may be an important target for assessing vitamin D levels. The study did not address whether increasing vitamin D levels reduced depressive symptoms" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Associations between n-3 PUFA concentrations and cognitive function after recovery from late-life depression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 4 - "sample of 132 eligible participants who had recovered from major depression (mean +/- SD age: 67.8 +/- 6.6 y) were enrolled from outpatient psychiatric services. A series of cognitive tests and a structured questionnaire were administered. Fasting blood samples were collected for n-3 PUFA measurements ... the strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression ... Total erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations are positively associated with cognitive function, particularly immediate recall, in older people with previous depression. Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in older people with previous recurrent depression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese - results of a prospective population-based study - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec 16:1-6 - "In a regression model that controlled for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease/health-related variables but not cognitive status, both fruits (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.98, P = 0.038) and vegetables (OR = 0.38, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.86, P = 0.021) were protective against depressive symptoms 4 years later. However, when the same regression model was also adjusted for cognitive status, only vegetables (OR = 0.40, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.95, P = 0.039) were protective against depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of eggs was close to being significant in both regression models (P = 0.087 and 0.069, respectively). Other food categories including meat/poultry, fish, seafood, dairy, legumes, grains and tea showed no significant associations"
  • Increased caffeinated coffee consumption associated with decreased risk of depression in women, study finds - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "During the 10-year follow-up period from 1996 to 2006, researchers identified 2,607 incident (new-onset) cases of depression. When compared with women who consumed one cup of caffeinated coffee or less per week, those who consumed two to three cups per day had a 15 percent decrease in relative risk for depression, and those consuming four cups or more per day had a 20 percent decrease in relative risk. Compared with women in the lowest (less than 100 milligrams [mg] per day) categories of caffeine consumption, those in the highest category (550 mg per day or more) had a 20 percent decrease in relative risk of depression. No association was found between intake of decaffeinated coffee and depression risk"
  • ffects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 20:1-12 - "Depressive symptoms may increase the risk of progressing from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Consumption of n-3 PUFA may alleviate both cognitive decline and depression ... A total of fifty people aged >65 years with MCI were allocated to receive a supplement rich in EPA (1.67 g EPA+0.16 g DHA/d; n 17), DHA (1.55 g DHA+0.40 g EPA/d; n 18) or the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 2.2 g/d; n 15). Treatment allocation was by minimisation based on age, sex and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). Physiological and cognitive assessments, questionnaires and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes were obtained at baseline and 6 months (completers: n 40; EPA n 13, DHA n 16, LA n 11). Compared with the LA group, GDS scores improved in the EPA (P = 0.04) and DHA (P = 0.01) groups and verbal fluency (Initial Letter Fluency) in the DHA group (P = 0.04). Improved GDS scores were correlated with increased DHA plus EPA (r 0.39, P = 0.02). Improved self-reported physical health was associated with increased DHA. There were no treatment effects on other cognitive or QOL parameters. Increased intakes of DHA and EPA benefited mental health in older people with MCI. Increasing n-3 PUFA intakes may reduce depressive symptoms and the risk of progressing to dementia. This needs to be investigated in larger, depressed samples with MCI" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Mind-altering microbes: Probiotic bacteria may lessen anxiety and depression - Science Daily, 8/29/11 - "Probiotic bacteria have the potential to alter brain neurochemistry and treat anxiety and depression-related disorders ... mice fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 showed significantly fewer stress, anxiety and depression-related behaviours than those fed with just broth. Moreover, ingestion of the bacteria resulted in significantly lower levels of the stress-induced hormone, corticosterone ... regular feeding with the Lactobacillus strain caused changes in the expression of receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA in the mouse brain, which is the first time that it has been demonstrated that potential probiotics have a direct effect on brain chemistry in normal situations" - See probiotics at Amazon.com
  • Vitamin D intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "After age, physical activity, and other factors were controlled for, women who reported a total intake of ≥800 IU vitamin D/d had a prevalence OR for depressive symptoms of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.89; P-trend < 0.001) compared with women who reported a total intake of <100 IU vitamin D/d. In analyses limited to women without evidence of depression at baseline, an intake of ≥400 compared with <100 IU vitamin D/d from food sources was associated with 20% lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 3 (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.95; P-trend = 0.001). The results for supplemental vitamin D were less consistent, as were the results from secondary analyses that included as cases women who were currently using antidepressant medications ... Overall, our findings support a potential inverse association of vitamin D, primarily from food sources, and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A gut-full of probiotics for your neurological well-being - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "A recent study in mice, for example, showed that the presence of neurochemicals such a serotonin in the bloodstream was due to direct uptake from the gut ... Until recently the idea that probiotic bacteria administered to the intestine could influence the brain seemed almost surreal ... Yet in Lyte's paper the concept is supported by studies showing that microbes can produce and respond to neurochemicals, which can induce neurological and immunological effects on the host ... The research presents an idea for selecting probiotic strains with neurological applications and linking this with immune-modulatory effects, while highlighting the fact that microbial strains already being widely ingested in fermented food can produce neurochemicals" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 may reduce depression symptoms in the elderly: Study - Nutra USA, 5/18/11 - "According to findings published in The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, depressed women who received daily supplements containing 2.5 grams of omega-3 experienced significant reductions in their symptoms ... In addition, researchers from the University of Pavia also report that omega-3 supplements providing a daily EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) dose of 1.67 grams and a daily DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) dose of 0.83 grams reported improvements in the ‘quality of life’" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Deficiency of dietary omega-3 may explain depressive behaviors - Science Daily, 1/30/11 - "The dietary ratio between omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 increased continuously over the course of the 20th century. These fatty acids are "essential" lipids because the body cannot synthesize them from new ... the researchers studied mice fed a life-long diet imbalanced in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. They found that omega-3 deficiency disturbed neuronal communication specifically. The researchers observed that only the cannabinoid receptors, which play a strategic role in neurotransmission, suffer a complete loss of function. This neuronal dysfunction was accompanied by depressive behaviours among the malnourished mice" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating poorly can make you blue: Trans-fats increase risk of depression, while olive oil helps avoid risk - Science Daily, 1/26/11 - "the participants with an elevated consumption of trans-fats (fats present in artificial form in industrially-produced pastries and fast food, and naturally present in certain whole milk products) "presented up to a 48% increase in the risk of depression when they were compared to participants who did not consume these fats," ... In addition, the study demonstrated a dose-response relationship, "whereby the more trans-fats were consumed, the greater the harmful effect they produced in the volunteers," ...Furthermore, the team, ... also analyzed the influence of polyunsaturated fats (abundant in fish and vegetable oils) and of olive oil on the occurrence of depression. "In fact, we discovered that this type of healthier fats, together with olive oil, are associated with a lower risk of suffering depression,""
  • Not All Omega-3s Equal When It Comes to Antidepressant Effects - Medscape, 12/8/10 - "In fact, only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) — and not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) — is associated with mood improvement in patients with depression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder associated with the menopausal transition: a preliminary open trial - Menopause. 2010 Oct 27 - "The pretreatment and final mean MADRS scores were 24.2 and 10.7, respectively, reflecting a significant decrease in MADRS scores (P < 0.0001). The response rate was 70% (MADRS score decrease of ≥50%), and the remission rate was 45% (final MADRS score of ≤7). Responders had significantly lower pretreatment docosahexaenoic acid levels than nonresponders did (P = 0.03). Hot flashes were present in 15 (75%) participants. Among those with hot flashes at baseline, the number of hot flashes per day improved significantly from baseline (P = 0.02) and Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale scores decreased significantly ... These data support further study of omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder and hot flashes in women during the menopausal transition" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics show potential against stress-related conditions - Nutra USA 10/29/10 - "Results showed that levels of psychological distress, including measures of depression, anger-hostility, anxiety, and problem solving, were significantly improved in the probiotic group, compared with placebo" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation ( Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects - Br J Nutr. 2010 Oct 26:1-9 - "In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30 d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P < 0.05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P < 0.05; somatisation, P < 0.05; depression, P < 0.05; and anger-hostility, P < 0.05), the HADS (HADS global score, P < 0.05; and HADS-anxiety, P < 0.06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P < 0.05) and the UFC level (P < 0.05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers" - Note, in case you missed it, it's saying that it also reduced cortisol. See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Fish and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study - Pediatrics. 2010 Aug 16 - "The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.97]; P for trend = .04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54-0.94]; P = .04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59-1.05]; P = .11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55-0.96]; P = .08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Adding Nutritional Supplement to Antidepressant Therapy May Boost Response in Refractory Depression - Medscape, 8/18/10 - "significantly more SAMe-treated than placebo-treated patients (36.1% vs 17.6%) experienced a clinical response on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), which was the primary study outcome. Remission rates (ie, HAM-D score of ≤7) were also higher with SAMe than with placebo (25.8% vs 11.7%)" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Role of zinc in the development and treatment of mood disorders - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 4 - "Not only has zinc deficiency been shown to induce depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors, supplementation has been used as a treatment for major depression. Zinc administration improves the efficacy of antidepressant drugs in depressed patients and may have a particular role to play in treatment-resistant patients. Recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for these observations suggest a role for zinc in the regulation of neurotransmitter systems, antioxidant mechanisms, neurotrophic factors, and neuronal precursor cells" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (too much zinc can cause a copper difficiency).
  • Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms and on Health-Related Quality of Life in the Treatment of Elderly Women with Depression: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):55-64 - "Supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA is efficacious in the amelioration of depressive symptoms and quality of life in the treatment of depressed elderly female patients" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAMe) Augmentation of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Antidepressant Nonresponders With Major Depressive Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial - Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Jul 1 - "These preliminary results suggest that SAMe can be an effective, well-tolerated, and safe adjunctive treatment strategy for SRI nonresponders with major depressive disorder and warrant replication" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamins B6, B12 May Protect Against Depression in Older Adults - Medscape, 7/1/10 - "Odds of depressive symptoms were 2% lower per year for each additional 10 mg of vitamin B6 and an additional 10 μg of vitamin B12"
  • Treating depression with Omega-3: Encouraging results from largest clinical study - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Initial analyses failed to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of Omega-3 for all patients taking part in the study. Other analyses, however, revealed that Omega-3 improved depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with depression unaccompanied by an anxiety disorder. Efficacy for these patients was comparable to that generally observed with conventional antidepressant treatment" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Is Exercise the Best Drug for Depression - Time Magazine, 6/19/10 - "depressed adults who participated in an aerobic exercise plan improved as much as those treated with sertraline, the drug that was marketed as Zoloft ... Subsequent trials have repeated these results, showing again and again that patients who undergo aerobic exercise regimens see comparable improvement in their depression as those treated with medication, and that both groups do better than patients given only a placebo ... exercise may alter brain chemistry in much the same way that antidepressant drugs do — regulating the key neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women and Men - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May 5 - "Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressed mood was defined as CES-D of 16 or higher ... Women with 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/liter compared with those with higher levels experienced increases in CES-D scores of 2.1 (P = 0.02) and 2.2 (P = 0.04) points higher at, respectively, 3- and 6-yr follow-up. Women with low vitamin D (Vit-D) had also significantly higher risk of developing depressive mood over the follow-up (hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.2; P = 0.005). In parallel models, men with 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/liter compared with those with higher levels experienced increases in CES-D scores of 1.9 (P = 0.01) and 1.1 (P = 0.20) points higher at 3- and 6-yr follow-up. Men with low Vit- D tended to have higher risk of developing depressed mood (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-2.8; P = 0.1). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms in older persons. The strength of the prospective association is higher in women than in men"
  • EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Oct;28(5):525-42 - "Meta-regression studies showed a significant effect of higher levels of baseline depression and lower supplement DHAEPA ratio on therapeutic efficacy. Subgroup analyses showed significant effects for: (1) diagnostic category (bipolar disorder and major depression showing significant improvement with omega3 LC-PUFA supplementation versus mild-to-moderate depression, chronic fatigue and non-clinical populations not showing significant improvement); (2) therapeutic as opposed to preventive intervention; (3) adjunctive treatment as opposed to monotherapy; and (4) supplement type. Symptoms of depression were not significantly reduced in 3 studies using pure DHA (standardized mean difference 0.001, 95% CI -0.330 to 0.332, z = 0.004, p = 0.997) or in 4 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% DHA (standardized mean difference = 0.141, 95% CI = -0.195 to 0.477, z = 0.821, p = 0.417). In contrast, symptoms of depression were significantly reduced in 13 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.446, 95% CI = -0.753 to -0.138, z = -2.843, p = 0.005) and in 8 studies using pure ethyl-EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.396, 95% CI = -0.650 to -0.141, z = -3.051, p = 0.002). However, further meta-regression studies showed significant inverse associations between efficacy and study methodological quality, study sample size, and duration, thus limiting the confidence of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Red clover may counter depressive symptoms in older women - Nutra USA, 3/4/10 - "Symptoms of depression and anxiety were reduced by about 80 per cent following 90 days of supplements containing 80 milligrams of red clover isoflavones" - [Abstract] - See Trinovin (for men), Promensil (for women) at Amazon.com and red clover at Amazon.com.
  • Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts - Maturitas. 2010 Mar;65(3):258-61 - "assigned to receive two daily capsules of MF11RCE (80mg red clover isoflavones, Group A) or placebo of equal appearance (Group B) for a 90-day period ... After receiving the MF11RCE compound the total HADS (anxiety and depression subscale scores also) and the total SDS scores decreased significantly. This effect was equivalent to a 76.9% reduction in the total HADS score (76% for anxiety and 78.3% for depression) and an 80.6% reduction in the total SDS score. After placebo, total HADS (anxiety and depression subscale also) and total SDS scores also decreased significantly in comparison to baseline but only equivalent to an average 21.7% decline. CONCLUSION: Red clover derived isoflavones (MF11RCE) were effective in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms among postmenopausal women" - See Trinovin at Amazon.com and red clover at Amazon.com.
  • More folate may mean less depression: Study - Nutra USA, 1/27/10 - "Men with the highest blood levels of folate were50 per cent less likely to have symptoms of depression, compared to men with the lowest levels" - [Abstract] - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Serum folate and homocysteine and depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of depressive symptoms for the lowest to highest quartiles of serum folate were 1.00 (reference), 0.53 (0.27-1.03), 0.33 (0.16-0.68) and 0.51 (0.25-1.03), respectively" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Drinking in Elderly Linked to Lower Risk for Depression - Medscape, 12/29/09 - "Compared with green tea consumption of 1 or less cup per day, odds ratios for mild and severe depressive symptoms were 0.96 for 2 to 3 cups (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 - 1.42) and 0.56 for 4 or more cups of green tea per day (95% CI, 0.39 - 0.81; P for trend = .001), after adjustment for confounding factors. Similar associations were seen for severe depressive symptoms" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mood Improves On Low-fat, But Not Low-carb, Diet Plan - Science Daily, 11/10/09 - "After one year, a low-calorie, low-fat diet appears more beneficial to dieters' mood than a low-carbohydrate plan with the same number of calories"
  • Green tea consumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct 14 - "A more frequent consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in the community-dwelling older population" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Supplements Provide Mixed Results as Antidepressant - Medscape, 7/8/09 - "There is a large body of epidemiological data to support a link between omega-3 and depression ... For example, 8 of 11 epidemiological studies evaluating the association between depression and fish consumption report a statistically significant inverse association. In other words, less fish means more depression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Can Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Depression In Coronary Heart Disease? - Science Daily, 6/9/09 - "The prevalence of depression ranged from 23% in participants in the lowest tertile of omega –3 fatty acids (< 3.1% of total blood fatty acids) to 13% in participants in the highest tertile ( >4.3% of total blood fatty acids; p for trend = 0.004). Each unit decrease in EPA + DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms as a continuous variable, and these associations persisted after adjustment for age, sex and race. Similarly, each SD decrease in EPA + DHA was associated with significantly greater odds of depression as a dichotomous variable (Patient Health Questionnaire score >10)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Kava for Anxiety: Is Short-Term Use Safe? - WebMD, 5/14/09 - "the WHO report suggested that liver toxicity may be limited to kava formulations that used the whole kava plant, instead of just the root, or used acetone and ethanol to extract the active ingredient from the plant instead of water ... As measured by standardized anxiety and depression questionnaires, the participants reported much less anxiety when they were taking the kava than when they took placebo pills ... Depression levels also dropped among many patients who reported depression and no serious side effects were associated with kava use" - See kava at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Ease Depressive Symptoms Related To Menopause - Science Daily, 1/28/09 - "Their study, published in the February issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, presents the first evidence that omega-3 supplements are effective for treating common menopause-related mental health problems ... Test results before and after the eight-week period indicate that omega-3s significantly improved the condition of women suffering symptoms of psychological distress and mild depression ... Women with hot flashes also noted that their condition improved after consuming omega-3s. At baseline, the number of daily hot flashes was 2.8 and dropped by an average of 1.6 in the group taking omega-3s and by 0.5 in the control group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • St. John's Wort for Depression - Clinical Psychology News, 12/08 - "The best available evidence suggests that St. John's wort is better than placebo for treating major depressive disorder, is as effective as some synthetic antidepressants when used in low to moderate dosing ranges, and has fewer side effects than do synthetic antidepressants"
  • Symptoms Of Depression Associated With Increase In Abdominal Fat - Science Daily, 12/1/08 - "There are several mechanisms by which depression might increase abdominal fat, they note. Chronic stress and depression may activate certain brain areas and lead to increased levels of the hormone cortisol, which promotes the accumulation of visceral fat. Individuals with depression may have unhealthier lifestyles, including a poor diet, that could interact with other physiological factors to produce an increase in abdominal obesity" - See my cortisol page for ways to reduce it.  Cortisol is like the chicken and the egg with depression.  They don't seem to know whether it is the cause or result.
  • St. John's Wort Holds Its Own in Meta-Analysis - Clinical Psychology News, 11/08 - "St. John's wort was more effective than placebo and just as effective as standard antidepressants in treating depression, a Cochrane analysis of 29 studies of almost 5,500 adults with major depression shows" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • St. John's Wort Relieves Symptoms Of Major Depression, Study Shows - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "Cochrane Researchers reviewed 29 trials which together included 5,489 patients with symptoms of major depression. All trials employed the commonly used Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression to assess the severity of depression. In trials comparing St. John's wort to other remedies, not only were the plant extracts considered to be equally effective, but fewer patients dropped out of trials due to adverse effects" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • St. John’s Wort for Major Depression? - WebMD, 10/10/08 - "Can taking an herbal supplement be as good as a prescription medication for people who are severely depressed? ... Researchers in Germany think so" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • Taking herb 'helps depression'  - BBC News, 10/8/08 - "Overall, the St John's Wort extracts tested in the trials were superior to placebo, similarly effective as standard anti-depressants, and had fewer side effects ... Doctors think it works because the herb keeps serotonin, a chemical which makes you happy, in the brain for longer" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • Add-On Therapy Improves Depressive Symptoms In Bipolar Disorder - Science Daily, 9/2/08 - "sought to evaluate whether N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter supplement that increases brain glutathione, might help alleviate depressive symptoms ... Glutathione is the brain’s primary antioxidant defense, and there is evidence of increased oxidative stress in bipolar disorder. Therefore, we studied the potential benefit of NAC treatment in bipolar disorder and found that it impressively remedied residual depressive symptoms" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • St. John's Wort and Duloxetine Equally Effective in Mild to Moderate Depression - Doctor's Guide, 9/1/08 - "Twenty patients received St. John's Wort at a dosage of 900 mg QD, whereas the remaining 20 participants were treated with duloxetine 60  30 mg QD ... In the group of patients suffering from moderate depression, we did not find any statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • Continuation and long-term maintenance treatment with Hypericum extract WS((R)) 5570 after recovery from an acute episode of moderate depression - A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled long-term trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Aug 9 - "3x300 mg/day WS((R)) 5570 or placebo for 26 weeks. 426 patients were evaluated for efficacy. Relapse rates during continuation treatment were 51/282 (18.1%) for WS((R)) 5570 and 37/144 (25.7%) for placebo. Average time to relapse was 177+/-2.8 and 163+/-4.4 days for WS((R)) 5570 and placebo, respectively (time-to-event analysis; p=0.034; alpha=0.025 one-sided). Patients treated with WS((R)) 5570 showed more favorable HAMD and Beck Depression Inventory time courses and greater over-all improvement (CGI) than those randomized to placebo. In long-term maintenance treatment a pronounced prophylactic effect of WS((R)) 5570 was observed in patients with an early onset of depression as well as in those with a high degree of chronicity. Adverse event rates under WS((R)) 5570 were comparable to placebo. WS((R)) 5570 showed a beneficial effect in preventing relapse after recovery from acute depression. Tolerability in continuation and long-term maintenance treatment was on the placebo level" - Note:  The 5570 extract is the Perika Brand.  See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • A double-blind dose-finding pilot study of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depressive disorder - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Jun 5 - "Group A (n=14): 1 g/day of oral DHA; Group B (n=11): 2 g/day; and Group C (n=10): 4 g/day. We measured HAM-D-17 scores, plasma DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and n-6/n-3 ratio. Completer response rates (>/=50% decrease in HAM-D-17 score) were 83% for Group A, 40% for Group B, and 0% for Group C; Groups A and B had significant decreases in HAM-D-17 scores" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Rhodiola for What Ails You? - Dr. Weil, 5/15/08 - "A 2002 review in Herbalgram, the Journal of the American Botanical Council, reported that over the years, numerous studies of rhodiola in humans and animals have shown that it helps prevent fatigue, stress and the damaging effects of oxygen deprivation. Evidence also suggests that it has an antioxidant effect, enhances immune system function and can increase sexual energy ... A study published in 2007 in the Nordic Journal of Psychiatry showed that patients with mild-to-moderate depression who took a rhodiola extract reported fewer symptoms than those who took a placebo. And a study by researchers at the University of California at Irvine found that fruit flies that ate a diet supplemented with rhodiola lived an average of 10 percent longer than flies that didn't eat this herb" - See Rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is inversely associated with severity of depressive symptomatology in the elderly: data from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-City Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1156-62 - "Higher plasma EPA was associated with a lower severity of DS in elderly subjects, especially those taking antidepressants" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Many Depressed Older Adults Lack Vitamin D - WebMD, 5/6/08 - "Researchers reporting in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry have linked low blood levels of vitamin D -- the "sunshine vitamin" -- and increased parathyroid hormone levels to depression among older adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Diets With High Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratios Enhance Risk for Depression, Inflammatory Disease - Medscape, 4/25/08 - "Whereas the early hunter-gatherers had a dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1 to 3:1, this ratio is now 15:1 to 17:1 in North America today ... It is believed that these dietary changes might be related to increases in inflammatory-related diseases, including depression and cardiovascular disease ... at higher levels of depressive symptoms, as the omega-6:omega-3 ratio increased, there was a marked increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels ... compared with the study participants who did not have syndromal depression, the 6 participants who had depression had significantly higher omega-6:omega-3 ratios and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 EPA may benefit depressives, says study - Nutra USA, 4/7/08 - [Abstract] - "were randomly assigned to receive a daily EPA supplement (1000 mg, supplied by Minami Nutrition, Belgium), or 20 mg fluoxetine daily, or a combination of the two for two months ... At the end of the study, data from the 48 people who finished the study showed a 50 per cent reduction in HDRS scores for people in the EPA group, a 56 per cent reduction in people in the fluoxetin group, and a 81 per cent reduction in people in the combined intervention group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder During Pregnancy: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 18;:e1-e8 - "As compared to the placebo group, subjects in the omega-3 group had significantly lower HAM-D scores at weeks 6 (p = .001) and 8 (p = .019), a significantly higher response rate (62% vs. 27%, p = .03), and a higher remission rate, although the latter did not reach statistical significance (38% vs. 18%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder - Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;42(3):192-8 - "EPA + fluoxetine combination was significantly better than fluoxetine or EPA alone from the fourth week of treatment. Fluoxetine and EPA appear to be equally effective in controlling depressive symptoms. Response rates (>/=50% decrease in baseline HDRS) were 50%, 56% and 81% in the fluoxetine, EPA and combination groups, respectively" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Association of folate intake with the occurrence of depressive episodes in middle-aged French men and women - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 6;:1-5 - "the risk of experiencing recurrent depressive episodes (two or more) during the follow-up was strongly reduced in men with high folate intake (OR 0.25 (95 % CI 0.06, 0.98) for the highest tertile v. the lowest" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate may reduce depression symptoms for men, says study - Nutra USA, 12/7/07 - "male subjects with the highest average intake (235 micrograms per 100 kcal) were 50 per cent less likely to have depressive symptoms than men with the lowest average intake (119 micrograms per 100 kcal)" - [Abstract] - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High {omega}-6 and Low {omega}-3 Fatty Acids are Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Neuroticism - Psychosom Med. 2007 Nov 8 - "Lower EPA, and higher AA, AA:EPA ratio and AA:DHA ratio were associated with greater NEO-PI-R Neuroticism" - See Mega Twinlab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Omega-3s in Diet Linked to Higher Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Heart Failure Patients - Doctor's Guide, 11/7/07 - "Heart Failure patients who were prone to depressive symptoms ate 15% fewer omega-3 fatty acids and those with anxiety consumed 14% fewer omega-3 fatty acids than heart failure patients without symptoms"
  • Augmenting antidepressants with folate: a clinical perspective - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 10:4-7 - "Folate in particular has been found to further reduce symptoms in patients with depression when used in conjunction with an antidepressant, and because folate is a water-soluble B vitamin, its safety and tolerability are well established. This strategy would typically be used in patients with low plasma or red blood cell folate levels. Folate augmentation may be used (1) to enhance the efficacy of antidepressants in nonresponders, (2) to enable those who partially respond to antidepressant monotherapy to achieve remission, and (3) to alleviate residual symptoms during antidepressant treatment" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • The role of folate in depression and dementia - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 10:28-33 - "folate deficiencies may be caused by improper absorption and utilization, often due to genetic polymorphisms. Individuals, therefore, can have insufficient levels or lack needed forms of folate, despite adequate intake. Supplementation with the active form of folate, methyltetrahydrofolate, which is more readily absorbed, may be effective in the prevention and treatment of both depression and dementia" - folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Antidepressant-Like Effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the Mouse Tail Suspension Test - Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Sep;30(9):1758-62 - "Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been known as a component of traditional medicines that elicit various biological effects such as anti-fatigue, immunomodulatory, and hypoglycemic actions. Since it has been well-established that fatigue is closely related to depression, we used the tail suspension test (TST) in mice to examine the antidepressant-like effects of hot water extract (HWCS) and supercritical fluid extract (SCCS) of CS ... these results suggest that SCCS may elicit an antidepressant-like effect by affecting the adrenergic and dopaminergic systems, but not by affecting the serotonergic system" - See cordyceps at Amazon.com.
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone and monoamines in the limbic system of a genetic animal model of childhood depression - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Aug 20 - "The results from the current study may imply that treatment with DHEA could be a promising novel therapeutic option for depressed children and adolescents that fail to respond to common (monoaminergic) antidepressant treatments"
  • Diets With High Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratios Enhance Risk for Depression, Inflammatory Disease - Medscape, 4/26/07 - "Whereas the early hunter-gatherers had a dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1 to 3:1, this ratio is now 15:1 to 17:1 in North America today ... compared with the study participants who did not have syndromal depression, the 6 participants who had depression had significantly higher omega-6:omega-3 ratios and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines"
  • Depressive Symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Inflammation in Older Adults - Psychosom Med. 2007 Mar 30 - "Diets with high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios may enhance the risk for both depression and inflammatory diseases"
  • Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:391-7 - "Experimental studies in animals have shown that diets lacking omega 3 PUFA lead to substantial disturbances in neural function, which in most circumstances can be restored by the inclusion of omega 3 PUFA in the diet ... It is clear from the literature that DHA is involved in a variety of processes in neural cells and that its role is far more complex than simply influencing cell membrane properties"
  • l-thyroxine augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in female patients with refractory depression - J Affect Disord. 2007 Feb 6 - "Triiodothyronine (T3) augmentation in treatment-resistant depression had been successfully performed with both tricyclic as well as with SSRI antidepressants. In this paper, the efficacy of addition of moderate dose of l-thyroxine (T4) to serotonergic antidepressants in refractory depression was evaluated ... four weeks of l-thyroxine augmentation, the remission, assessed as 7 or less points on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was obtained in eleven patients (64.7%). Five other patients (29.5%) had responded (reduction>50% on HDRS) and one patient did not show an improvement"
  • Omega-3 in fish oils might ease depression - USA Today, 3/6/07 - "The more DHA a person consumed, the more gray matter there was in three areas of the brain linked to mood: the amygdala, the hippocampus and the cingulate, Conklin says. Seriously depressed people tend to have less gray matter in these areas" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vascular Nutritional Correlates of Late-Life Depression - Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;14(9):787-795 - "The depression group had higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, higher body mass indices, lower alcohol intake, and higher Keys score than the comparison group"
  • Omega-3s may help depressive kids - pilot study - Nutra USA, 6/23/06 - "seven out of ten children in the omega-3 group and none of the children in the placebo group had depression score reductions of 50 per cent or more"
  • Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study - Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):1098-100 - "Analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of omega-3 on symptoms using the CDRS, CDI, and CGI ... Omega-3 fatty acids may have therapeutic benefits in childhood depression"
  • Melatonin Improves Mood In Winter Depression - Science Daily, 5/2/06 - "melatonin, a naturally occurring brain substance, can relieve the doldrums of winter depression, also known as seasonal affective disorder, or SAD"
  • Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment - Med Hypotheses. 2006 Mar 14 - "Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use" - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb 8 - "The inverse relationship between adipose DHA and depression in adults, replicates findings of a previous study. This relationship indicates that a low long-term dietary intake of DHA is associated with an increased risk for depression in adults" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B(12) and folate serum levels in newly admitted psychiatric patients - Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct 7 - "About 30% of patients had low folate values compared to 2.5% in the control group" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Chromium Picolinate Linked With Reduced Carbohydrate Cravings in People With Atypical Depression - Doctor's Guide, 9/29/05 - "65% of the chromium picolinate patients with high carbohydrate craving versus 33% of those receiving placebo had significantly greater improvements on total HAM-D-29 scores (p < 0.05). HAM-D-29 is a standard tool commonly used in assessing severity of symptoms in depressed patients" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Using Magnets to Treat Depression - ABC News, 5/17/05
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/05 - "English investigators conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of EPA doses of 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 mg/day in addition to unchanged standard treatment in 70 patients with persistent depression. The 1,000-mg group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared with placebo, but the other groups showed little evidence of efficacy ... The bulk of evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is effective in treating depression in patients with low omega-3 diets" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • 'Mangia, Mangia!' -- Certain Foods Fight Depression - Science Daily, 3/25/05 - "confirmed the antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids ... uridine, a compound found in sugar beets and molasses, has similar effects"
  • DHEA May Help Midlife Depression - WebMD, 2/7/05 - "treatment with DHEA resulted in a 50% reduction in depression symptoms in half the participants ... Treatment with the supplement was associated with an increase in testosterone blood levels in both men and women ... Taking DHEA for 6 weeks also significantly improved sexual function scores" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Major depressive disorder: probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy - Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):533-8 - "Stress, a significant factor in MDD [major depressive disorder], is known to alter GI microflora, lowering levels of lactobacilli and bifidobacterium. Research suggests that bacteria in the GI tract can communicate with the central nervous system, even in the absence of an immune response. Probiotics have the potential to lower systemic inflammatory cytokines, decrease oxidative stress, improve nutritional status, and correct SIBO. The effect of probiotics on systemic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress may ultimately lead to increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It is our contention that probiotics may be an adjuvant to standard care in MDD"
  • Exercising Has Great Mental Health Benefits - CBS 2 Chicago, 1/25/05 - "This is the first study that looks at exercise alone for treating mild to moderate depression. It found most symptoms were reduced almost in half by people who did some type of aerobic activity for at least 30 minutes, three to five times a week"
  • Dietary Supplement Ups Antidepressant Effect - WebMD, 12/2/04 - "Half the patients in the study reported significant improvement in symptoms when they took SAMe along with their prescription antidepressant for six weeks. Forty-three percent reported having no depression symptoms at all six weeks after adding the dietary supplement to their treatment" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Good For The Heart, And (maybe) Good For The Brain - Science Daily, 11/8/04 - "There is mounting evidence that a diet containing omega-3 fatty acids, already known to help prevent cardiovascular disease, may also prevent depression"
  • Vitamin B6 level is associated with symptoms of depression - Psychother Psychosom. 2004 Nov-Dec;73(6):340-3 - "A low plasma level of PLP was significantly associated with the depression score"
  • Serum Folate, Vitamin B(12), and Homocysteine in Major Depressive Disorder, Part 1: Predictors of Clinical Response in Fluoxetine-Resistant Depression - J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;65(8):1090-1095 - "The response rates for patients with (N = 14) and without (N = 38) low folate levels were 7.1% versus 44.7%, respectively" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Serum Folate, Vitamin B(12), and Homocysteine in Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Predictors of Relapse During the Continuation Phase of Pharmacotherapy - J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;65(8):1096-1098 - "The relapse rates for patients with (N = 7) and without (N = 64) low folate levels were 42.9% versus 3.2%, respectively" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate for depressive disorders - J Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;18(2):251-6 - "adding folate reduced Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores on average by a further 2.65 points ... The remaining study found no statistically significant difference when folate alone was compared with trazodone"  - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Shock Treatment for Mild Depression? - Dr. Weil, 7/9/04
  • Chromium Picolinate Supplementation Linked With Reduced Carbohydrate Cravings Associated With Atypical Depression - Doctor's Guide, 6/2/04 - [Nutra USA][WebMD"daily supplementation with 600 mcg of chromium as chromium picolinate, significantly reduced carbohydrate cravings compared to placebo, and improved other symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue and weight gain perception" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) - A Very Important Natural Product - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 6/2/04 - "SAMe is perhaps the most effective natural antidepressant (although a strong argument could be made for the extract of St. John's wort standardized to contain 0.3% hypericin)" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Supplement SAM-e Helps Beat Depression - WebMD, 5/5/04 - "When SAM-e was added to their usual medication, half of the patients improved and 43% went into remission, Alpert reports. "These are quite strong responses and remission rates for a population that failed traditional therapy."" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc May Increase Antidepressant Therapy Effectiveness - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 3/4/04 - "the zinc-supplemented group showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the placebo group at 6 and 12 weeks ... Other natural substances that have been shown to benefit depression sufferers include folic acid, DHEA, eicosapentaenoic acid (a fatty acid found in fish oil), and St. John’s wort" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Herbal Combo Effective for Mild Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/04 - "84% of patients who received the herbal preparation had a 50% reduction in the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) rating scale scores vs. 18% among those on placebo ... Each patient received 360 mg/day of St. John's wort, 168 mg/day of valerian, and 192 mg/day of passion flower"
  • High Vitamin B12 Levels May be Linked to Better Treatment Outcome for Major Depressive Disorder - Doctor's Guide, 1/5/04 - "Low levels of folate have also been associated with a poor response to antidepressive therapy ... patients with greater HDRS responses had higher vitamin B12 levels both at baseline (r = 0.39, P < .001) and at 6 months ... The positive relationship between higher vitamin B12 levels and improved HDRS score was also confirmed by linear regression analysis" - [Abstract] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder - BMC Psychiatry. 2003 Nov 27 - "Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled study - Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Nov-Dec;55(6):1143-7 - "Zinc supplementation significantly reduced scores in both measures after 6- and 12-week supplementation when compared with placebo treatment. This preliminary study is the first demonstration of the benefit of zinc supplementation in antidepressant therapy. The mechanism(s) may be related to modulation of glutamatergic or immune systems by zinc ion" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Boosts Drug Treatment for Depression - Doctor's Guide, 11/10/03
  • Dietary Folate and Depressive Symptoms Are Associated in Middle-Aged Finnish Men - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3233-3236 - "The participants were grouped into thirds according to their dietary folate intake. Those in the lowest third of energy-adjusted folate intake had a higher risk of being depressed [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% CI = 1.19-2.35, P = 0.003] than those in the highest folate intake third ... There were no associations between the intake of cobalamin, pyridoxine or riboflavin, and depression. These results indicate that nutrition may have a role in the prevention of depression" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • St. John's Wort -  Natural Foods Merchandiser, 10/03 - "Recently, in a large trial comparing SJW with the conventional antidepressant imipramine, researchers concluded SJW is as effective as imipramine and is better tolerated by patients.13 In a newer, larger trial (240 participants) comparing SJW directly with fluoxetine, researchers concluded SJW was as effective and safer than fluoxetine, particularly in patients suffering depression and anxiety" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • The Omega Principle - WashingtonPost.com, 8/19/03 - "Omega-3s, dubbed the "happy" fats in some quarters, are under investigation for treating depression, bipolar disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcoholism, Alzheimer's disease and even the so-called baby blues, or postpartum depression ... there are many profound neurological disorders that are known to be caused by lipid problems ... The brain itself, is, in fact, about 60 percent fat ... while the body can manufacture saturated fat, cholesterol and even some unsaturated fat -- it is incapable of producing two of the fatty acids that are most vital ... there has been an 1,000-fold increase in [consumption of] omega-6 fatty acids ... Flooding brains and bodies with a diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids theoretically could give an unfair advantage to these molecules, allowing them to block omega-3s from getting inside cells" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Aug;13(4):267-71 - "In this study, we conducted an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comparing omega-3 PUFAs (9.6 g/day) with placebo, on the top of the usual treatment, in 28 patients with major depressive disorder. Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Folate Levels Correlate with Improved Outcome for SSRI-Treated Geriatric Patients - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/03 - "Geriatric patients who are treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline appear to experience greater improvement in depression if they have higher than normal folate levels at the start of therapy"
  • Lavender Effective Add-on Therapy for Depression - New Hope Natural Media, 5/8/03 - "the group taking the combination of imipramine and lavender had a significantly greater reduction in HAM-D scores and the antidepressant effect occurred more rapidly, compared with those taking imipramine or lavender alone" - See lavender oil at Amazon.com.
  • Low Folate Concentrations Associated With Depression - Doctor's Guide, 5/2/03 - "Physically healthy people who are depressed have detectably lower folate status than those who are not depressed" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Depression and Folate Status in the US Population - Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2003;72:80-87 - "Low folate status was found to be most characteristic of recently recovered subjects, and a large proportion of such subjects were folate deficient. Conclusions: Low folate status was detectable in depressed members of the general US population. Folate supplementation may be indicated during the year following a depressive episode" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Bright Light Therapy May Boost Testosterone - WebMD, 4/22/03 - "early morning light therapy caused a surge in a pituitary hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH) that raises testosterone levels in men ... Previous studies have shown that bright light therapy of daily exposure to specially designed, high-intensity light boxes can alleviate many symptoms of depression, especially among people who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD) during winter months" - I did a lot of research on lighting for our home owners association.  See http://qualitycounts.com/fp/lights.htm.  The closest fluorescents to actual sunlight are probably the ones with 5000 or 6500 Kelvin rating.  The lights advertised as "cool white" are around 3000 Kelvin.  I've always felt that the "cool white" phase was just a gimmick to sell what was cheap to make.
  • Chromium Effective for Common Type of Depression - New Hope Natural Media, 4/10/03 - "15 people suffering from atypical depression, who had been off of antidepressant medication for at least seven days, were randomly assigned to receive chromium picolinate or a placebo for eight weeks. The dose was 400 mcg per day for the first two weeks, then 600 mcg per day for the remainder of the study ... Seventy percent (7 of 10) of those receiving chromium responded to the treatment, whereas none of the five individuals in the placebo group had a positive response. Although the number of participants in the study was small, the difference in outcome between the chromium and placebo groups was highly statistically significant. Moreover, in 60% of those receiving chromium, the depression went into remission" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Statins Appear To Have Favourable Impact On Psychological Conditions - Doctor's Guide, 4/2/03 - "the longer people are on the statins the more their symptoms of depression, anxiety and hostility decrease ... When people stop taking statins or can not tolerate the medicine, their depression, anxiety and hostility returns to pre-statin levels" - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.  See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • The Death of Anti-Aging Supplements? - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03 - "During these many trials, researchers routinely found that when taken daily, DHEA supplements effectively reduced depressive episodes and enhanced mood. In fact, according to one major study in the UK, as many as 67% of men and 82% of women reported a noticeable decrease in their depressive symptoms while taking as little as 25 mg/day of DHEA"
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Augmentation in the Management of Negative, Depressive, and Anxiety Symptoms in Schizophrenia - Archives of General Psychiatry, 2/03 - "Results indicated significant improvement in negative symptoms (P<.001), as well as in depressive (P<.05) and anxiety (P<.001) symptoms in individuals receiving DHEA. This effect was especially noted in women"
  • Fatty Acid Effective against Depression - New Hope Natural Media, 1/9/03 - "E-EPA is a chemically modified form of EPA ... the best results were achieved with the smallest amount of E-EPA tested ... The authors of the study speculated that taking too much E-EPA might cause an imbalance between the two major classes of essential fatty acids: the omega-3 class (which includes EPA) and the omega-6 class (which includes linoleic and arachidonic acids ... E-EPA is not widely available at the present time"
  • S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Results Similar to Imipramine in Major Depression - Doctor's Guide, 12/30/02 - "A total of 146 patients received 400 milligrams per day of intramuscular SAMe and 147 received 150 mg/d of oral imipramine ... SAMe and imipramine did not differ significantly on any efficacy measure, either main or secondary ... Adverse events were significantly less in patients treated with SAMe compared to those treated with imipramine" - Note:  There seems to be conflicting studies on whether oral SAMe is poorly absorbed.  I've added absorption studies near the bottom of my SAMe page.
    • SAM-e (S-Adenosylmethionine) - James South - "Because SAMe tablets are enterically coated, they should NOT be cut in half to achieve a lower dose- the SAMe may then break down before absorption"
  • SAMe Beneficial in Treating Osteoarthritis, Depression, and Liver Disease - New Hope Natural Media, 12/12/02 - "More than 100 human studies have been published in medical journals showing that SAMe is a safe, effective treatment and, in the cases of depression and osteoarthritis, works as well as conventional medications"
  • Mechanisms Differ Between Depression and Either Vitamin B12 Or Folate - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/02 - "hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and, to a lesser extent, folate deficiency all were related to depressive disorders"
  • Supplement [SAM-e] Found Effective As Antidepressant - Intelihealth, 11/6/02 - "The dietary supplement SAMe is about as effective as older, conventional antidepressants in treating depression, a preliminary, government-funded study says. It also finds SAMe to be comparable to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications in treating the pain of osteoarthritis. Such drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Eases Depression - WebMD, 10/18/02 - "people who added a daily dose of omega-3 fatty acids to their regular antidepressant treatment had significant improvement in symptoms, including anxiety, sleeping problems, sadness, decreased sexual desire, and suicidal tendencies ... Previous studies have suggested that depressed people have lower-than-normal levels of a fatty acid known as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), which plays an important role in maintaining normal brain function" - See my essential fatty acids page, my omega-3 page or Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil May Help Relieve Stubborn Depressionicon - Reuters, 10/17/02 - "Daily supplements of an omega-3 fatty acid--found in fish and fish oil--may help alleviate the symptoms of depression in patients who do not respond to standard antidepressant medications, new research findings suggest ... Previous researchers have suggested that the balance of omega-3 fatty acids in the brain may become skewed in people with depression, and earlier studies have shown that fish oil supplements can help alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, or manic depression"
  • Extending Healthspan: Hormones, Supplements, Diet and Exercise - Life Extension Magazine, 10/02 - "Finally, the authors note that testosterone is an excellent antidepressant. It restores good mood, self-confidence and sociability, often making antidepressants such as Prozac no longer necessary. “Grumpy old men” are those with testosterone deficiency" - See Forever Ageless at Amazon.com
  • Straight Talk on Natural Depression Remedies - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 10/02
  • Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "As testosterone replacement for women is becoming increasingly commonplace, women too report not just restored libido, but also improved mood and greater energy, less anxiety and more assertiveness ... low levels of free testosterone were the best predictor of depression, regardless of age ... the study [in men] showed no correlation between depression and free estradiol ... The mood-improving action of testosterone is more likely to be due to the direct action of testosterone on the brain-possibly through raising the levels of dopamine, a very important "reward" neurotransmitter ... a well-controlled study published in the prestigious Journal of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology and Metabolism did in fact find a significant rise in free testosterone in men aged 60 to 84 years, after three months on 100 mg of DHEA"
  • Bright-Light Therapy Effective In Non-Seasonal Depression - Doctor's Guide, 5/23/02
  • Adjunct Folinic Acid For Depressed Patients With Inadequate SSRI Response - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/02 - "Investigators report that patient folate levels rose. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAM-D-17) scores among 16 patients who completed the study decreased"
  • Experiments Strengthen Link Between Fish Oil, Mental Problems - Intelihealth, 4/18/02 - "Infant monkeys fed baby formulas supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids - the ones found in "fish oil" - were stronger and more alert even at less than a week old than monkeys given standard baby formula ... Harvard researchers gave two groups of persons who had recently been hospitalized with depression diets that were high in omega-3 and omega-6, respectively. The results were so dramatic that after three months, the scientists were directed by a research oversight committee to stop the experiment and allow all the subjects to take omega-3" - Personal recommendation Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Salmon May Help Relieve Depression - WebMD, 3/15/02 - "Patients randomly received either the fish oil capsule or a sugar pill in addition to the antidepressant medication they were taking ... After four weeks, six of 10 patients receiving E-EPA -- but only one of 10 receiving placebo -- had significantly reduced symptoms of depression ... The effect of E-EPA was significant from week two of treatment ... Depressed mood, guilt feelings, worthlessness, and insomnia were all improved" - Note: One softgel of Twinlab TwinEPAicon contains 600 mg of EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid).

Depression and Endocrinology:

  • Wilson's Thyroid Syndrome - "Conversion of T4 to T3 can also be impaired by glucocorticoids" - Maybe that is the mechanism by which cortisol causes depression, and if so, could T3 then cure the depression? - Ben, Related article:
  • Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and the Risk of Depression: A Population-Based Cohort Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb 24 - "Overt hypo- and hyperthyroidism are associated with an increased risk of depression ... depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)] were assessed. A CES-D of 16 or greater is indicative of a depressive disorder ... follow-up (mean 8.0 y) ... persons in the lowest TSH tertile (0.3-1.0 mU/L) had more depressive symptoms [CES-D score (mean): 7.95 vs 6.63, P = .014] as well as an increased risk of a CES-D of 16 or greater [10.7% vs 5.0%, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.22 (1.18-4.17)], compared with persons in the highest normal range TSH tertile (1.6-4.0 mU/L)"
  • Active thyroid may raise risk of depression in older individuals - Science Daily, 2/20/14 - "older individuals with thyroid activity at the high end of the normal range had a substantially increased risk of developing depression over the course of an eight-year period compared to individuals who had less thyroid activity within the normal range ... people with even minor changes in thyroid function may experience similar mental health effects as those with overt thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism ... researchers measured participants' TSH levels and gauged their depression symptoms using a question"
  • Saliva Test May Spot Depression Risk in Male Teens - WebMD, 2/20/14 - "boys with high levels of a stress hormone called cortisol were 14 times more likely to be diagnosed with clinical depression later ... Girls with high cortisol levels were only four times more likely to receive such a diagnosis ... This is the emergence of a new way of looking at mental illness"
  • Does depression contribute to the aging process? - Science Daily, 2/21/12 - "telomere length was shorter in the depressed patients, which confirmed prior findings. Importantly, they also discovered that shorter telomere length was associated with a low cortisol state in both the depressed and healthy groups ... stress plays an important role in depression, as telomere length was especially shortened in patients exhibiting an overly sensitive HPA axis. This HPA axis response is something which has been linked to chronic stress and with poor ability to cope with stress" - Note:  I'm not sure if that's correct because depressed people usually have high cortisol, not low cortisol.  I read somewhere that PTSD was associated with low cortisol.
  • Link between depression, abdominal obesity confirmed by new study - Science Daily, 6/9/10 - "cortisol, a stress hormone, is related to depression and abdominal obesity. "So, there is reason to suspect that people who are depressed would have higher levels of abdominal obesity versus other parts of the body because of elevated cortisol,""
  • Symptoms Of Depression In Obese Children Linked To Elevated Cortisol - Science Daily, 6/11/09 - "There is evidence in adults that abnormal regulation of cortisol plays a role in both obesity and depression ... Cortisol levels in the saliva in the afternoon and evening correlated positively with symptoms of depression ... The more depressive symptoms that subjects reported, the higher the cortisol levels at those times"
  • Neurogenesis In Adult Brain: Association With Stress And Depression - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "Chronic stress can affect the brain and lead into depression"
  • Depression can trigger diabetes, study suggests - MSNBC, 6/17/08 - "Depressed people were 42 percent more likely to develop diabetes ... depression also pushes up the levels of stress hormones such as cortisol ... Elevated cortisol levels can impair insulin sensitivity in the body and encourage belly fat, a risk factor for diabetes"
  • Depression Associated With Low Bone Mineral Density - Medscape, 12/3/07 - "The novelty of this study is the fact that these women were not severely depressed ... Depression is considered a disease of chronic stress, Dr. Cizza said, with attendant increases in the stress hormone cortisol, and cytokines produced by the immune system. "Those substances are helpful to fight stress, but if there is too much cortisol or cytokines, there are side effects," he said. "One of the side effects is bone loss, so it was obvious to ask the question, 'do women with depression have low bone mass?'""
  • l-thyroxine augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in female patients with refractory depression - J Affect Disord. 2007 Feb 6 - "The study included 17 female patients ... After four weeks of l-thyroxine augmentation, the remission, assessed as 7 or less points on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was obtained in eleven patients (64.7%). Five other patients (29.5%) had responded (reduction>50% on HDRS) and one patient did not show an improvement"
  • Use OF T3 Thyroid Hormone to Treat Depression - DrMirkin.com - "some people become depressed when they take just T4 and their depression can be cured when they take both thyroid hormones, T3 and T4"
  • Thyroid Supplementation Enhances Antidepressant Response - Medscape, 9/21/06 - "Remission occurred in 31 patients (58.5%) receiving T3 compared with 19 patients (38%) in the placebo group" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems but check with your doctor first.
  • Salivary Cortisol Response to Prednisolone Challenge Helps Understand Treatment-Resistant Depression - Doctor's Guide, 9/19/06 - "prednisolone is a better corticosteroid than dexamethasone to assess the HPA axis because it binds to 2 different receptors, not only the glucocorticoid receptors but also the mineralocorticoid receptors, providing a more physiological approach"
  • A Comparison of Lithium and T3 Augmentation Following Two Failed Medication Treatments for Depression: A STAR*D Report - Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;163(9):1519-30 - "After a mean of 9.6 weeks (SD=5.2) of treatment, remission rates were 15.9% with lithium augmentation and 24.7% with T(3) augmentation" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Chronic Exposure To Stress Hormone Causes Anxious Behavior In Mice - Science Daily, 4/17/06 - "Scientists already knew that many people with depression have high levels of cortisol, a human stress hormone, but it wasn't clear whether that was a cause or effect. Now it appears likely that long-term exposure to cortisol actually contributes to the symptoms of depression" - See my cortisol page for ways to reduce it.
  • T3 augmentation of SSRI resistant depression - J Affect Disord. 2006 Feb 14 - "T3 augmentation was associated with a statistically significant drop (p<.003) in the mean HAMD at end of the three weeks compared to baseline scores ... T3 augmentation resulted in improvement of mood scores"
  • Depression May Raise Women's Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 12/22/04 - "symptoms of depression were linked to greater levels of insulin resistance among the women ... depression can alter hormones relating to how the body handles stress. This in turn can affect body fat distribution and how it handles blood sugar metabolism"
  • Algorithm-Based Treatment Shows High Lack Of Response To Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors - Doctor's Guide, 4/17/03 - "When the clinicians added T3, they found it was effective among 10 out of 16 women patients (62.5%), but was not effective in any of the 9 male patients who received it. Although values were within the normal range, patients who responded to T3 had higher serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels than those who did not ... The effect of T3 may be related to thyroid function even within the normal range"
  • Mirtazapine Attenuates Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical Axis Hyperactivity in Depressed Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/17/03 - "it has been shown to have an acute inhibiting effect on cortisol secretion in healthy subjects ... Apparently, mirtazapine rapidly attenuates HPA axis hyperactivity in depressed patients via direct pharmaco-endocrinological effects. However, this amelioration of HPA system dysregulation is not necessarily related to clinical improvement" - Click here for a previous study.
  • Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism Advocated - Doctor's Guide, 4/7/03 - "Adverse effects fall into four general categories, according to Dr. Gardner -- neuropsychiatric symptoms, abnormal lipids, altered myocardial function, and greater risk of atherosclerotic heart disease ... Adding to the controversy, he added, is growing evidence that the upper limit of normal serum TSH concentration should be less than 2.5-3.0 U/mL and not the current levels of 5.0-5.5 U/mL"
  • Testosterone May Help Depressed Men - WebMD, 1/3/03 - "nearly half of the men who had not responded to conventional depression treatment had low or low-to-normal testosterone levels. And several showed dramatic improvement when the male hormone was given along with antidepressants"
  • Depression Management - ContinuingEducation.com, exp. 12/31/02 - See table six, recommends 5 - 50 mcg T3, 100 mcg (.1 mg) T4
  • New Vistas in Antidepressant Development - Medscape, 11/21/02 - "The evidence for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion in depression and certain anxiety disorders is compelling ... CRF is transported to the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system where it promotes the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the general circulation, which in turn stimulates the production and release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex ... Numerous studies have revealed that the direct injection of CRF into the CNS of laboratory animals produces effects reminiscent of the cardinal symptoms of depression, including decreased libido"
  • Bipolar Patients Sensitive to Thyroid Function Variations - Doctor's Guide, 1/8/02 - "They studied 65 patients in the depressed phase of bipolar I disorder to test the hypothesis that patients with lower thyroid function, even within the normal range, might have a poorer response to treatment initially ... Outcomes were relatively poor unless patients had FTI [free thyroxine index] values above the median and TSH values below the median"
  • Thyroid Hormones Accelerate Depressive Response to Drug Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 10/30/01 - "Five of the six studies found T3 to be significantly more effective than placebo in accelerating clinical response ... Investigators say they found that the average effect was highly significant"
  • Researchers Explore New Meds for Mood Disorders - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/01 - "Another approach being developed for patients with high levels of circulating cortisol involves the abortion pill mifepristone ... The findings, to be published this month in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, suggest that a rapid antidepressant response (approximately 7 days) may occur in some patients"
  • Researchers Hopeful Antidepressant Augmentation Will Improve Remission - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/01 - "In psychotic depression, a corticosteroid antagonist looks most promising. Mifepristone, which is used to induce abortions but was originally designed as treatment for Cushing's disease, has achieved rapid reversal of symptoms in some 30 psychotically depressed patients, ostensibly by blocking cortisol receptors. The drug is now being investigated in a large double-blind trial, he said"
  • Major Depression: Tianeptine At Least Halves Relapse And Recurrence Rates - Doctor's Guide, 3/29/01 - "A smaller proportion of the tianeptine group experienced either relapses or recurrences compared to placebo (16 and 36 percent, respectively) ... events related to treatment were rare and mild in both arms of the study ... The rates of relapse and recurrence decreased between two- and three-fold among tianeptine users compared to placebo. However, the treatments were equally well accepted by the two groups" - note: tianeptine is believed to inhibit cortisol - Ben
  • Mirtazapine Regulates Stress Hormones, Improves Sleep In Depressed Patients - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/01 - "Mirtazipine might be the best option for depressed patients with sleep disturbance and irregularities in stress hormone function ... Depression is often accompanied by sleep disturbance -- subjective and objective -- as well as [hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal] HPA-axis dysregulation ... Mirtazapine is a treatment that [profoundly affects] the HPA-axis within hours and promotes sleep within days ... They tested the 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels of 16 healthy men and 20 men and women with major depression ... mirtazipne significantly reduced UFC concentrations, which is often elevated in depressed patients"
  • Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism - N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):469-70 - "among 15 visual-analogue scales used to indicate mood and physical status, the results for 10 were significantly better after treatment with thyroxine [t4] plus triiodothyronine [t3]"
  • Study Supports Role Of Anticort In Treating Alzheimer's, HIV - Doctor's Guide, 4/17/98 - "Cortisol's role as a cause of disease is most recently confirmed in a study to be published in the May issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience. Authored by Dr. Sonia Lupien of McGill University, the study reports that high levels of cortisol play a key role in Alzheimer's, memory loss, shrinkage of the brain and aging. Dr. Lupien also states that such illnesses might be prevented with medications to reduce elevated cortisol levels."
  • RU-486 could aid variety of ills - MSNBC, 11/2/00 - "RU-486’s ability to block the action of a different hormone — cortisol — has prompted doctors to try it for psychotic depression. In addition to feeling sad and worthless, people with this devastating condition have distorted thinking and often suffer delusions or hallucinations. Many
    become suicidal.

    “They have very, very disturbing and crazy thoughts ... and they have no ability to suppress them,” said Joseph K. Belanoff, a California psychiatrist who is chief executive officer of Corcept Therapeutics Inc., a small pharmaceutical company. Corcept is sponsoring a study of RU-486 for psychotic depression.

    Several lines of evidence have led researchers to suspect that some of the symptoms of psychotic depression are caused by an excess of cortisol in the brain. Cortisol levels rise in response to stress and may be abnormally elevated in depressed individuals. Similar symptoms can occur in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, an overabundance of cortisol usually caused by a tumor, and RU-486 has cured the mental disturbance in some
    such cases.

    “Our feeling has been that a lot of the cognitive problems and delusions that you see in some of the patients are due to the [cortisol],” said Alan F. Schatzberg, chairman of the psychiatry department at Stanford University School of Medicine, where researchers are conducting a study that will test RU-486 on 30 patients with psychotic depression.

    RU-486 or other cortisol-blocking drugs “may be better alternatives than ... some of the typical treatments” such as antipsychotic drugs or electric shock therapy, he said."
  • Two studies implying that cortisol is the cause, not the result of depression:

Other News:

  • Blood pressure meds could raise your depression risk - CNN, 10/10/16 - "people taking one of two classes of drugs, known beta blockers or calcium channel antagonists, had twice the risk of being admitted into the hospital with a mood disorder, such as severe depression. However, people taking a class of drugs known as angiotensin blockers -- ACE inhibitors -- had a lower risk of developing severe mood disorders, even compared with healthy control groups with no history of hypertension or depression" - Note: It doesn't mention ARB's.  I think they're talking about ACE inhibitors and ARB's as the same with regards to mood.  If you Google 'angiotensin blockers' it brings up ARB's.
  • Statin Use and Risk of Depression - Medscape, 3/25/15 - "Use of any statin was shown to reduce the odds of depression by 8% compared to individuals not using statin medications (OR = 0.92, 95% CI, 0.89–0.96; p < 0.001). Simvastatin had a protective effect (OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.89–0.97; p = 0.001), whereas atorvastatin was associated with increased risk of depression (OR = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.01–1.22; p = 0.032). There was a stepwise decrease in odds ratio with increasing age (OR ≥ 40 years = 0.95, OR ≥ 50 years = 0.91, OR ≥ 60 years = 0.85, OR ≥ 70 years = 0.81)"
  • Internet use may cut retirees' depression - Science Daily, 4/18/14 - "Internet users had an average predicted probability of depression of .07, whereas that probability for nonusers was .105. Based on the difference, Internet use led to a 33 percent reduction in the probability of depression ... Number of people in the household partially mediates this relationship, with the reduction in depression largest for people living alone ... This provides some evidence that the mechanism linking Internet use to depression is the remediation of social isolation and loneliness. Encouraging older adults to use the Internet may help decrease isolation, loneliness, and depression"
  • Elevated CRP Linked to Depression, Psychological Distress - Medscape, 12/27/12 - "those who had the highest levels of CRP were more than twice as likely to have psychological distress and depression than those with normal levels of CRP ... more research is now needed "to establish the direction of the association between CRP and depression" — especially because these studies were primarily cross-sectional ... evaluated data from 73,131 adults between the ages of 20 and 100 years from the Copenhagen General Population study and the Copenhagen City Heart study ... the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.11 when CRP levels were between 1.01 and 3.00 mg/L compared with the lowest levels of 0.01 to 1.00 mg/L. The ORs increased to 1.80 for CRP levels of 3.01 to 10.00 mg/L and to 2.61 for levels greater than 10.00 mg/L"
  • Obesity, depression found to be root causes of daytime sleepiness - Science Daily, 6/13/12 - "Three studies being presented June 13 at sleep 2012 conclude that obesity and depression are the two main culprits making us excessively sleepy while awake ... Insufficient sleep and obstructive sleep apnea also play a role; both have been linked to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, depression, diabetes, obesity and accidents"
  • Anti-depressants likely do more harm than good, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/25/12 - "Andrews and his colleagues examined previous patient studies into the effects of anti-depressants and determined that the benefits of most anti-depressants, even taken at their best, compare poorly to the risks, which include premature death in elderly patients ... The findings include these elevated risks: ... developmental problems in infants ... problems with sexual stimulation and function and sperm development in adults ... digestive problems such as diarrhea, constipation, indigestion and bloating ... abnormal bleeding and stroke in the elderly ... You've got a minimal benefit, a laundry list of negative effects -- some small, some rare and some not so rare. The issue is: does the list of negative effects outweigh the minimal benefit?"
  • Link between fast food and depression confirmed - Science Daily, 3/30/12 - "consumers of fast food, compared to those who eat little or none, are 51% more likely to develop depression ... a dose-response relationship was observed"
  • False promise - The Daily, 3/13/12 - "Antidepressants help only a small fraction of the people who take them, but that didn’t stop Reuters from running an article that carried the headline: “Study suggests overall benefit from antidepressants.” ... Much of the Reuters article ... contradicts its own headline. It explains that about one in three adults who received a placebo recovered from his or her depression. Only one in five people who popped Prozac recovered from his or her depression because of the chemical’s effects of the drug on the brain. The numbers are even worse for seniors ... To make matters worse, the article only makes a passing mention of the downsides of antidepressants. Effexor can make people nauseous, dizzy, drowsy and even anorexic. Prozac can also cause problems with sleep and digestion"
  • Depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and future cognitive health in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Feb 3:1-13 - "mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ... Antidepressant use was associated with a 70% increased risk of MCI, after controlling for potential covariates including the degree of depressive symptom severity. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were both associated with MCI (SSRIs: hazard ratios (HR), 1.78 [95% CI, 1.01-3.13]; TCAs: HR, 1.78 [95% CI, 0.99-3.21]). Depressed users (HR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.24-4.80]), non-depressed users (HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.13-2.85]), and depressed non-users (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.13-2.32]) had increased risk of incident MCI. Similarly, all three groups had increased risk of either MCI or dementia, relative to the control cohort"
  • Working too much is correlated with two-fold increase in likelihood of depression - Science Daily, 1/25/12 - "The odds of a major depressive episode are more than double for those working 11 or more hours a day compared to those working seven to eight hours a day"
  • Depression and chronic stress accelerates aging - Science Daily, 11/9/11 - "The telomere is the outermost part of the chromosome. With increasing age, telomeres shorten, and studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation accelerates this shortening. On this basis it has been suggested that telomere length is a measure of biological aging, and telomere length has subsequently been linked to age-related diseases, unhealthy lifestyle, and longevity. The research team shows that shorter telomere length is associated with both recurrent depression and cortisol levels indicative of exposure to chronic stress"
  • Gut bacteria linked to behavior: That anxiety may be in your gut, not in your head - Science Daily, 5/17/11 - "For each person, the gut is home to about 1,000 trillium bacteria with which we live in harmony. These bacteria perform a number of functions vital to health: They harvest energy from the diet, protect against infections and provide nutrition to cells in the gut. Any disruption can result in life-threatening conditions, such as antibiotic-induced colitis from infection with the "superbug" Clostridium difficile ... Working with healthy adult mice, the researchers showed that disrupting the normal bacterial content of the gut with antibiotics produced changes in behaviour; the mice became less cautious or anxious. This change was accompanied by an increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been linked, to depression and anxiety ... When oral antibiotics were discontinued, bacteria in the gut returned to normal. "This was accompanied by restoration of normal behaviour and brain chemistry,""
  • Dual medications for depression increases costs, side effects with no benefit to patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "One group received escitalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or SSRI) and a placebo; the second group received the same SSRI paired with bupropion (a non-tricyclic antidepressant); and a third group took different antidepressants: venlafaxine (a tetracyclic antidepressant) and mirtazapine (a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) ... After 12 weeks of treatment, remission and response rates were similar across the three groups: 39 percent, 39 percent and 38 percent, respectively, for remission, and about 52 percent in all three groups for response. After seven months of treatment, remission and response rates across the three groups remained similar, but side effects were more frequent in the third group ... Only about 33 percent of depressed patients go into remission in the first 12 weeks of treatment with antidepressant medication" - Note:  Considering that most know that they are getting the real drug because of the side effects, it makes you wonder how much of the 33% are from the placebo effect.
  • More than half of depression patients give up their treatment - Science Daily, 11/22/10 - "Most patients who take anti-depressants give up their treatment in less than six months, the minimum period recommended for treating severe depression and other derived pathologies ... only 25% continue their treatment for more than 11 month"
  • Depression as deadly as smoking, study finds - Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "depression is as much of a risk factor for mortality as smoking"
  • Depression Raises Risk for Type 2 Diabetes - WebMD, 6/8/09 - "Depressed participants who were not being treated had significantly greater insulin resistance than study participants who were not depressed. But treatment for depression appeared to improve insulin sensitivity ... There are several theories about how depression may contribute to type 2 diabetes, but the most widely cited theory involves the stress hormone cortisol ... Cortisol is a key player in blood sugar metabolism and insulin sensitivity ... High cortisol levels are also associated with increased fat deposits around the abdomen, or belly fat, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes"
  • Low free testosterone levels are associated with prevalence and incidence of depressive Symptoms in older men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 May 25 - "Free testosterone levels below 170 pmol/L are associated with depressive symptoms while free testosterone levels below 220 pmol/L (lowest quintile of our population) predict the onset of depressive symptoms"
  • Depression Linked With Accumulation Of Visceral Fat - Science Daily, 4/28/09 - "Our results suggest that central adiposity – which is commonly called belly fat – is an important pathway by which depression contributes to the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes"
  • Heart Disease Tied to Depression, Anger - WebMD, 3/9/09 - "Chronically angry or hostile adults with no history of heart disease may be 19% more likely than their peers to develop heart disease"
  • Physical Activity Improves Mood For People Serious Mental Illness - Science Daily, 1/14/09 - "even meager levels of physical activity can improve the mood of people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) such as bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia"
  • FDA OKs TMS Depression Device - WebMD, 10/8/08 - "TMS is much safer than ECT. Unlike ECT, TMS does not require sedation and is administered on an outpatient basis"
  • Antidepressants Linked To Type 2 Diabetes, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 3/25/08 - "the risk of diabetes almost doubled for the patients who were using two types of therapies at the same time, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)"
  • Treating SSRI-resistant Depression - Science Daily, 3/25/08
  • Low free testosterone concentration as a potentially treatable cause of depressive symptoms in older men - Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;65(3):283-9 - "Participants with depression had significantly lower total and free testosterone concentrations than nondepressed men (P < .001 for both). However, they were also more likely to smoke and to have low educational attainment, a body mass index categorized as obese, a Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 24, a history of antidepressant drug treatment, and greater concurrent physical morbidity. After adjusting for these factors and for age, men with depression were 1.55 (95% CI, 0.91-2.63) and 2.71 (95% CI, 1.49-4.93) times more likely to have total and free testosterone concentrations, respectively, in the lowest quintile"
  • Low Testosterone Levels Associated With Depression In Older Men - Science Daily, 3/4/08 - "men in the lowest quintile (20 percent) of free testosterone concentration had three times the odds of having depression compared to men in the highest quintile"
  • Anti-depressants 'of little use' - BBC News, 2/26/08 - "the drugs helped only a small group of the most severely depressed, and in most cases had no more effect than taking a dummy pill ... even the positive effects seen on severely depressed patients were relatively small, and open to interpretation"
  • Natural Human Hormone As The Next Antidepressant? - Science Daily, 12/12/07 - "Epo also "has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in animal models and affects cognitive and associated neural responses in humans," suggesting that it may be a candidate in the treatment of depression"
  • Mental Health Treatment Extends Lives Of Older Patients With Diabetes And Depression - Science Daily, 12/5/07 - "Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine report that older adults with diabetes and depression are half as likely to die over a 5-year period when they receive depression care management than depressed patients with diabetes who do not receive depression care management"
  • Mild Depression Tied to Bone Loss - WebMD, 11/26/07 - "Even mild depression may significantly increase a woman's risk for developing osteoporosis ... An inflammatory protein that has specifically been linked to bone loss -- interleukin-6 -- was found to be significantly elevated in the women with depression"
  • Depression Linked To Bone-thinning In Premenopausal Women - Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "The researchers found that 17 percent of the depressed women had thinner bone in a vulnerable part of the hip called the femoral neck, compared with 2 percent of those who were not depressed"
  • Abilify(R) (Aripiprazole) Approved by U.S. FDA for Add-On Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/07 - "taking Abilify plus an ADT provided superior improvement in depressive symptoms to ADT alone at study endpoint (week six), as measured by the reduction of the MADRS Total Scores.3 For the secondary endpoint, Abilify plus an ADT was also superior to placebo plus ADT in reducing the mean SDS Total Score in one study"
  • Antipsychotic Drug May Treat Depression - WebMD, 11/2/07 - "depression was in remission for about 24.5% of the Risperdal patients, compared with almost 11% of those taking the placebo"
  • Personal care, restaurant workers most depressed - USATODAY.com, 10/13/07 - "Almost 11% of personal care workers — which includes child care and helping the elderly and severely disabled with their daily needs — reported depression lasting two weeks or longer ... Workers who prepare and serve food — cooks, bartenders, waiters and waitresses — had the second highest rate of depression among full-time employees at 10.3%"
  • Which antidepressants have demonstrated superior efficacy? A review of the evidence - Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Nov;22(6):323-329 - "Criteria were defined to judge the strength of evidence. Two pivotal studies in moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder that demonstrate superiority on the primary efficacy measure, or alternatively one pivotal study supported by consistent results from meta-analyses, was considered to constitute evidence for definite superiority. Three antidepressants met these criteria: clomipramine, venlafaxine, and escitalopram. Three antidepressants were found to have probable superiority: milnacipran, duloxetine, and mirtazapine. Only escitalopram was found to have definite superiority in the treatment of severe depression; probable superiority was identified for venlafaxine and possible superiority for milnacipran and clomipra"
  • Depression Worsens Health More Than Angina, Arthritis, Asthma, Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 9/14/07 - "Depression produces the greatest decrement in health compared with the chronic diseases angina, arthritis, asthma, and diabetes"
  • Depression Associated With Accelerated Bone Loss in Older Women - Medscape, 6/29/07 - "We found that depressive symptoms were associated with greater rates of bone loss in a group of older women (average age about 75 years old); the more depressive symptoms women had, the greater their rates of bone loss"
  • Depression May Trigger Diabetes In Older Adults - Science Daily, 4/23/07 - "Carnethon theorizes that the culprit responsible for diabetes in persons who are depressed is a high level of a stress hormone, cortisol"
  • Depression May Be Related to Testosterone Levels in Men - Doctor's Guide, 11/13/06 - "Levels of TT were 11.94 among patients with major depression and 17.64 among healthy controls (P < .001). Bioavailable testosterone measures were 3.51 among patients with depression and 4.69 among controls ... Men with depression have a significantly lower BT level than do non-depressed men but using TT as the threshold to define hypogonadism revealed an even greater difference between the 2 groups in this study"
  • Study Says Depression May Weaken Bones - WebMD, 10/30/06 - "After four weeks, the depressed mice had lost bone density, the study shows. The problem: They had a drop in bone-building cells called osteoblasts ... When the depressed mice drank water laced with imipramine, their depression eased and their bone loss stopped"
  • Strong Link Seen Between Depression, Inflammation - Clinical Psychiatry News, 6/06 - "depressed patients have elevated inflammatory markers—such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. In fact, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines correlate with the severity of depressive symptoms in studies. In addition, administration of cytokine antagonists can effectively reverse depressive symptoms in patients"
  • Chronic depression may rob you of more than joy: The evidence is piling up that it can also steal your health - US News, 4/10/06 - "depressed adults have a 37 percent greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than the rest of the population; other studies have suggested their risk actually doubles ... One intriguing recent study of Alzheimer's patients revealed that those with a history of depression had more extensive plaques in their brains. Depressed postmenopausal women with no history of heart disease are much more likely to develop it and die of it than their peers ... loneliness can spike blood pressure by 30 points in older people. Pancreatic cancer, for reasons scientists don't understand, is often preceded by a serious depression before the disease asserts itself"
  • Symptoms of Depression May Worsen Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 9/12/05 - "depression may hasten the progression of heart disease by increasing the levels of a key protein that causes inflammation ... tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)"
  • Depression Worsens Heart Disease - WebMD, 8/15/05 - "Patients who reported symptoms of depression did significantly worse on a test of blood vessel function"
  • Drowsy Days May Signal Depression - WebMD, 8/12/05 - "After crunching the numbers, depression was the No. 1 risk factor for excessive daytime sleepiness. BMI came second. Typical sleep duration was third, followed by diabetes, smoking, and, finally, sleep apnea"
  • Dopamine May Play New Role in Depression - WebMD, 7/28/05 - "Current antidepression treatments are mostly based on the deficiency or imbalance of the brain chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine ... This new study highlights the importance of the dopamine system"
  • Insomnia May Precede And Prolong Major Depression - Doctor's Guide, 6/22/05 - "depressed patients with insomnia were nearly 11 times more likely to still be depressed at six months than those sleeping well, and 17 times more likely to remain ill after a year ... they suggest that targeted treatment for insomnia will increase the likelihood and speed of recovery from depression"
  • Many Depressed Patients Have Bipolar Disorder - Medscape, 10/18/04 - "used the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) to reinterview 61 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression who had failed to respond to at least two adequate courses of antidepressants ... after following them for a year, fully 80% of patients were deemed to have bipolar disorder"
  • Unhappy Marriage Reflects Spouse's Depression - WebMD, 10/11/04 - "each spouse's level of anxiety and depression predicted an unhappy marriage for the depressed spouse and the other spouse as well"
  • Elevated Depressive Symptoms and Inflammation Seen in Heart Failure Patients - Doctor's Guide, 9/16/04 - "Activation of proinflammatory cytokines that occurs as a result of depression may promote the progression of heart failure and result in mortality in these patients"
  • Body Aches May Signal Depression - WebMD, 7/20/04 - "often, physical ills occur for no apparent reason -- and depression could be a likely cause ... Yet unless they are specifically screened for depression, it's hard for some doctors to pick up that it may be depression, especially in the primary care setting"
  • Depression, The Mind Body Connection - Physician's Weekly, 2/16/04 - "We are just beginning to realize the high number of patients coming to doctors with physical complaints that, at least in part, stem from depression. Approximately 12% of the general population is depressed, and among those with physical illness that number increases dramatically to maybe more than 40%; an astronomical number of ill patients are depressed ... People who are depressed are likely to have norepinephrine abnormalities; the proper functioning of blood macrophages is dependent upon health norepinephrine"
  • Signs of Depression Put Heart at Risk - WebMD, 2/9/04
  • Low Testosterone May Cause Depression - 2/3/04 - "some 30% of men over age 55 have it. Low levels of the hormone can cause symptoms of fatigue, a decreased sex drive, and irritability ...the men with low testosterone were four times more likely to be diagnosed with clinical depression" - [Abstract]
  • Statins: A New Therapy for Depression? - Physician's Weekly, 12/8/03 - "adult patients with underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) who continuously used statins were 30% to 40% less likely to be at risk for depression, anxiety, and hostility"
  • Should Depressed Patients Take Antidepressants Longer? - Physician's Weekly, 8/25/03 - "depressed women had a smaller hippocampus ... women who remained on a medication for less time experience greater shrinkage of the hippocampus"
  • Depression Liked to Alzheimer's Risk - Physician's Weekly, 7/28/03 - "People who have experienced depression are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than their relatives who have never shown signs of depression ... People who have experienced depression are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than their relatives who have never shown signs of depression"
  • Depression Most Costly Illness for Employers - Psychiatric News, 7/18/03 - "workers with depression cost employers more than three times the amount associated with lost productivity from all other illness ... Twenty percent of the $44 billion cost of depression was accounted for by absenteeism, while 80 percent of the costs associated with depression, or $35.7 billion, was linked to "presenteeism"—that is, present on the job but with significantly reduced productivity"
  • Antidepressant Class Differentially Effective in the Treatment of Melancholic Depression - Doctor's Guide, 7/2/03
  • Depression May Be Intracellular Rather Than Related To Serotonergic Or Noradrenergic Post-Synaptic Receptor Changes - Doctor's Guide, 6/19/03
  • 80% Inadequately Treated for Depression - WebMD, 6/17/03 - "Most people with depression have moderate to severe forms of major depression. Only 10% of depressed Americans have mild, fleeting episodes ... The typical American with major depression is unable to work or perform everyday activities for 35 days each year. Those with the most severe major depression typically lose some 90 days each year"
  • Identification Of Risk Factors In Depression In The Elderly Could Improve Public Health - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/03 - "Five factors - bereavement, sleep disturbance, disability, prior depression and female gender - have been identified as risk factors for depression in people aged fifty years or more"
  • Sexual Dysfunction Common But Conservatively Treated In Depressed Patients - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/03 - "Sexual dysfunction was observed in 35% of those spontaneously reporting problems and in 69% of those with problems identified by physician questioning. Of patients treated with antidepressants, 71% reported sexual dysfunction compared to 65% in untreated patients. The researchers also found that treatment with tianeptine was associated with a lower incidence of sexual dysfunction than was treatment with tricyclic antidepressant or serotonin reuptake inhibitors" - Interesting because depression is associated with high cortisol and tianeptine has been shown to counter the effects of cortisol.  That supports the theory of cortisol being the cause.  Tianeptine is available at IAS. - Ben
  • Men in Depression Denial? - Physician's Weekly, 5/19/03 - "A National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) survey found that 32% of women receive treatment for depression as opposed to just 22% of men ... the disorder is often unrecognized and consistently under-treated"
  • Repercussions Of Concussions - CBS News, 5/5/03 - "Retired football players who suffered three or four concussions have twice the risk of later developing clinical depression — a risk that rises with even more injuries"
  • New Stress-Buster Drugs Block Hormone Binding - Clinical Psychiatry News, 4/03 - "A new class of anxiety-relieving drugs—agents that interrupt core hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress signals—will emerge in the next 2-3 years ... In his HPA axis model of depression, the affected individual has a blunted ability to counterregulate in response to stress-induced cortisol increases, and thus is unable to turn off the fight-or-flight HPA mechanism. The result is constant anxiety and overreaction to external stimuli, followed by a sense of learned helplessness and loss of motivation. Many symptoms of deeply entrenched depression—anxiety, loss of appetite, reduced libido, elevated heart rate, hypertension, and dyslipidemia—point to HPA dysregulation ... People with melancholic depression do tend to produce abnormally high levels of CRH. These individuals also have elevated levels of cortisol" - See my cortisol page for ways to reduce it.
  • Sleep Problems Don't Discriminate by Age - WebMD, 3/31/03 - "Sleep disorders were reported by: ... 82% of those with depression"
  • Recurrent Major Depression Important Risk Factor For Carotid Plaque In Healthy Middle-Aged Women - Doctor's Guide, 3/3/03 - "Women with a lifetime history of recurrent major depressive episodes were more than twice as likely to have plaque on carotid ultrasonography than women with no history of major depression"
  • Chronic Painful Physical Conditions [CPPCs] Strongly Associated With Major Depression - Doctor's Guide, 2/19/03 - "A diagnosis of major depressive disorder was made in 4% of participants, and 43.4% of those with major depression had at least one CPPC. The researchers point out this was four times the rate in people without major depressive disorder"
  • Ovarian Function Could Decline Early In Women With A History of Depression - Doctor's Guide, 2/19/03 - "Women with a lifetime history of major depression could have an early decline in ovarian function"
  • Depression And Chronic Pain Linked, May Influence Diagnosis, Treatment - Doctor's Guide, 1/16/03 - "A new study finds that people who have major depression are more than twice as likely to have chronic pain when compared to people who have no symptoms of depression" - See substance P.
  • How Your Mind Can Heal Your Body - Time Magazine, 1/20/03 - "More and more doctors—and patients—recognize that mental states and physical well-being are intimately connected. An unhealthy body can lead to an unhealthy mind, and an illness of the mind can trigger or worsen diseases in the body. Fixing a problem in one place, moreover, can often help the other ... Somehow depression makes the body less responsive to insulin, the hormone that processes blood sugar—plausibly through the action of cortisol, a hormone that can interfere with insulin sensitivity and that is often elevated in depressed patients ... Cortisol may also make depressed patients more prone to osteoporosis ... Cizza estimates that some 350,000 women get osteoporosis each year because of depression. Cortisol appears to interfere with the ability of the bones to absorb calcium and offset the natural calcium loss that comes with menopause and aging"
  • Alzheimer's Drugs Help More Than Memory - WebMD, 1/7/03 - "Four such drugs have been approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. -- Reminyl, approved in 2001; Exelon, approved in 2000; Aricept, approved in 1996; and Cognex, approved in 1993, but rarely used now because it can cause liver problems ... treatment with one of these drugs for at least one month slowed the worsening of functional skills such as the ability to dress, bathe and shop. And it improved psychiatric symptoms including depression, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, and apathy"
  • Testosterone May Help Depressed Men - WebMD, 1/3/03 - "nearly half of the men who had not responded to conventional depression treatment had low or low-to-normal testosterone levels. And several showed dramatic improvement when the male hormone was given along with antidepressants"
  • Three Depression Subtypes Respond Selectively - Clinical Psychiatry News, 1/03 - "Psychotic depression ... In general, the antidepressant needs to be helped along by an adjunctive antipsychotic agent or by ECT ... That constellation of symptoms known as atypical depression seems to preferentially respond to our old friends—the MAO inhibitors"
  • Increased Mortality Risk Observed in Sub-Clinical Forms of Depression - Doctor's Guide, 12/11/02 - "The increased risk of mortality associated with depression exists not only in major depression but also in sub-clinical forms of the disease ... In many cases, depression should be considered as a life-threatening disorder"
  • Depression Could Cost You Your Job - WebMD, 12/9/02 - "researchers found that 42% of those who showed symptoms of depression in the study's first year eventually lost their jobs"
  • Unraveling the Sun's Role in Depression - WebMD, 12/5/02 - "regardless of the season, the turnover of serotonin in the brain was affected by the amount of sunlight on any given day. And the levels of serotonin were higher on bright days than on overcast or cloudy ones. In fact, the rate of serotonin production in the brain was directly related to the duration of bright sunlight"
  • Half Of Clinically Depressed Not Diagnosed - Intelihealth, 10/10/02 - "If you were depressed, you'd certainly know it, right? ... Well, maybe not ... Experts estimate that about half of the 20 million Americans who are clinically depressed, and could benefit from treatment" - I once read the the main reason most people take supplements is for increased energy.  I take them because I feel the anti-oxidants slow aging but I feel that a lot of those that are tired are really suffering from depression and don't realize it and therefore supplements aren't going to help much with there energy level.
  • Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Some men on testosterone drug replacement therapy develop dangerously high estrogen levels. Estrogen can be suppressed by taking an aromatase-inhibiting drug like Arimidex (0.5 mg twice a week) or using a supplement like Super Mira Forte (six capsules daily)"
  • Depression May Be A Modifiable Risk Factor For Poor Compliance With Antihypertensive Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 7/31/02 - "the investigators found that depression was significantly associated with non-compliance with [antihypertensive] therapy"
  • Patient Perception Of Illness May Mask Anxiety And Depression - Doctor's Guide, 7/10/02
  • Modafinil May Reduce Residual Fatigue, Sleepiness - Clinical Psychiatry News, 7/02 - "Fatigue, sleepiness, and such related phenomena as impaired concentration and reduced energy are extremely common in depression, and may remain—sometimes for years—after the disorder has resolved ... There were significant declines in both sleepiness and fatigue in the medication [modafinil] group, compared with placebo, at the first week of treatment (for sleepiness) and the second (for fatigue)."
  • Testosterone Therapy Improves Exercise Ability of Men with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 6/21/02 - "After 12 weeks, the testosterone group achieved a 34 percent increase in exercise capacity compared to 2 percent for the control group ... In addition, the testosterone treatment improved depression and heart failure symptoms while causing few side effects"
  • Depression Linked to Parkinson's - WebMD, 5/28/02 - "About 1.4% (19) of the depressed people (about 1.4%) developed Parkinson's compared with only 0.4% of the others ... the link may have a biological explanation, known as the "serotonin hypothesis." Not only do people with Parkinson's disease have lower levels of dopamine in the brain, studies have also shown that the brains of these patients also have reduced levels of another brain chemical, serotonin. Low levels of serotonin are known to be a key factor in depression" - Note: St. Johns wort is believed to increase all three of the brain's primary chemicals, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.
  • Panel Pushes Depression Screening - Intelihealth, 5/21/02 - "They said doctors should start by asking patients two questions: "Over the past two weeks, have you felt down, depressed or hopeless?" and "Over the past two weeks, have you felt little interest or pleasure in doing things?" ... A yes answer to either question should be followed with in-depth questionnaires to determine whether the patient is depressed"
  • Primary-Care Treatment Choices Outlined For Non-Major Depression - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/02 - "They add that individual trials suggest significantly greater improvements in symptom scores with venlafaxine [Effexor]"
  • Nausea Sometimes A Red Flag For Anxiety and Depression - Doctor's Guide, 3/8/02 - "People who experience nausea may be suffering from anxiety or depression, possible causes that should be investigated before aggressive treatments are begun for gastrointestinal disorders"
  • Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression - WebMD, 2/14/02 - "The message here is that older women who are being treated for depression, but are not getting better, might want to explore the option of estrogen replacement if the don't have any contraindications to it"
  • Augmentation Strategy Aids Treatment-Resistant Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 11/01 - "Pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, may be an effective augmentation agent for patients with treatment-resistant depression"
  • Depression May Lurk in Stress-Response System - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/01 - "Norepinephrine depletion has a particularly marked effect on concentration, energy, and interest, while mood is equally sensitive to this neurotransmitter and serotonin"
  • Hyper-Secretion of Cortisol Found in Depressed Patients - Doctor's Guide, 8/28/01 - "a dysfunction in 5-HT 1A receptor activity could be due to a hyper-secretion of cortisol"
  • Wendy Williams dives into depression awareness - USA Today, 8/10/01 - "Depression is the number one cause of disability in the world, worse than heart disease, cancer, and car accidents"
  • The Future is Now: You Can Control How Well You Age, Depression, Education Key Factors - WebMD, 6/1/01 - "However, if the seven controllable factors are in check, the only uncontrollable factor that is likely to wreak havoc with your older years is depression"
  • Depression may double diabetes risk - USA Today, 5/24/01 - "But, even "independent of weight gain and other factors," Lustman says, depression doubles the risk for diabetes. "There are changes in hormones that occur during depression that can directly increase insulin resistance.""
  • Consider Undertreatment in Resistant Depression - Clinical Psychiatry News, 4/01 - "Dosage should be pushed to the maximal tolerated level—something many psychiatrists are not prepared to do—and then maintained there for at least 6 weeks before an agent is concluded to be ineffective"
  • Antidepressants Can Cause Bedroom Blues, Wellbutrin Fixes Antidepressant Sex Problems - WebMD, 4/18/01 - "as many as half of the men and women taking these drugs find that it affects their sex lives"
  • Study Showing High Relapse Rate Puts Spotlight On Electroshock Therapy - Intelihealth, 3/13/01 - "without follow-up medication, depression returned in 84 percent of patients within six months. Even with the best results - using an anti-depressant and anti-psychotic after ECT - 39 percent of patients relapsed"
  • A fatal cycle of inactivity, blues - USA Today, 3/8/01 - "It's kind of a chicken-or-egg thing," Carney says. "Do you become depressed because you don't exercise, or do you not exercise because you're depressed? The arrow probably goes in both directions"
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