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Home > Health Conditions > Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer's Disease/Dementia

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  • Running rats remember better - Science Daily, 8/14/17 - "Early life interventions that increase physical activity may therefore help to build up this reserve, potentially delaying the onset of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease"
  • Effects of curcumin on short-term spatial and recognition memory, adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of dementia of Alzheimer's type - Behav Brain Res. 2017 Aug 8 - "These results suggest a positive effect of curcumin in object recognition memory which was not related to hippocampal neurogenesis" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Using omega 3 fatty acids to treat Alzheimer's and other diseases? - Science Daily, 7/18/17 - "Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key essential Omega-3 fatty acid, produces signaling molecules called docosanoids in response to disruptions in the state of equilibrium within cells caused by injury or disease. Neuroprotectin D1 (NDP1) is a docosanoid that the Bazan lab discovered and found protects neurons by controlling which and how certain genes in the retina and brain respond ... The Minireview summarizes the effects of the essential fatty acid family member DHA and its bioactive derivative NPD1 in the context of a specific target of gene regulation. The authors also describe the mechanism of a pathway of regulation by a bioactive lipid that has a significant impact on cellular homeostasis -- how NPD1 activates pro-survival genes and suppresses pro-death genes" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Natural plant compound may reduce mental effects of aging, more evidence shows - Science Daily, 7/10/17 - "At 10 months, the differences between these two groups were striking ... Mice not treated with fisetin had difficulties with all the cognitive tests as well as elevated markers of stress and inflammation. Brain cells called astrocytes and microglia, which are normally anti-inflammatory, were now driving rampant inflammation. Mice treated with fisetin, on the other hand, were not noticeably different in behavior, cognitive ability or inflammatory markers at 10 months than a group of untreated 3-month-old mice with the same condition. Additionally, the team found no evidence of acute toxicity in the fisetin-treated mice, even at high doses of the compound" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats - Nutrients. 2017 Jul 1;9(7)- "AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity ... We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats" - See aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Olive Oil Key Ingredient in Alzheimer's Prevention? - Medscape, 6/27/17 - "mice fed the EVOO-enriched diet performed significantly better at both 9 and 12 months on tests designed to assess working memory, spatial memory, and learning abilities compared with mice fed regular chow ... The researchers also found a statistically significant reduction in the amount of Aβ peptides deposited in the brains of the EVOO-treated animals compared with controls ... There was also a significant reduction in the phosphorylated forms of tau in mice fed the EVOO-enriched chow compared to controls" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Can omega-3 help prevent Alzheimer's disease? Brain SPECT imaging shows possible link - Science Daily, 5/18/17 - "Overall, the study showed positive relationships between omega-3 EPA+DHA status, brain perfusion, and cognition ... This is very important research because it shows a correlation between lower omega-3 fatty acid levels and reduced brain blood flow to regions important for learning, memory, depression and dementia ... Although we have considerable evidence that omega-3 levels are associated with better cardiovascular health, the role of the 'fish oil' fatty acids in mental health and brain physiology is just beginning to be explored. This study opens the door to the possibility that relatively simple dietary changes could favorably impact cognitive function" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Studies link healthy brain aging to omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the blood - Science Daily, 5/18/17 - "The team found correlations between blood levels of three omega-3 fatty acids -- ALA, stearidonic acid and ecosatrienoic acid -- and fluid intelligence in these adults. Further analyses revealed that the size of the left frontoparietal cortex played a mediating role in this relationship. People with higher blood levels of these three nutrients tended to have larger left frontoparietal cortices, and the size of the frontoparietal cortex predicted the subjects' performance on tests of fluid intelligence ... A lot of research tells us that people need to be eating fish and fish oil to get neuroprotective effects from these particular fats, but this new finding suggests that even the fats that we get from nuts, seeds and oils can also make a difference in the brain ... These findings have important implications for the Western diet, which tends to be misbalanced with high amounts of omega-6 fatty acids and low amounts of omega-3 fatty acids" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
    • Stearidonic acid - Wikipedia - "Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an ω-3 fatty acid, sometimes called moroctic acid. It is biosynthesized from alpha-linolenic acid by the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. Natural sources of this fatty acid are the seed oils of hemp, blackcurrant, corn gromwell[1] and echium (although the plant is a source of stearidonic acid, it is toxic for human consumption), and the cyanobacterium Spirulina"
  • Association of Serum Manganese Levels with  Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment:  A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2017 Mar 3;9(3) - "Manganese (Mn) is one of the most studied environmental heavy metals linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... health controls (HC). Random-effects meta-analysis showed that patients with AD had significantly reduced serum Mn levels compared with HC subjects ... Mn deficiency may be a risk factor for AD" - See manganese at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of pioglitazone on the incidence of dementia in patients with diabetes - J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Jan 20 - "The risk of dementia decreased by 23% in the pioglitazone-treated cohort compared with that in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, and stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.62-0.96). In addition, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for dementia were 0.50 (0.34-0.75, P=.001) in high-cumulative dose users, 0.53 (0.36-0.77, P<.001) in long-term users, and 0.66 (0.49-0.90, P=.009) in high-mean daily dose users"
  • White Ginseng Protects Mouse Hippocampal Cells Against Amyloid-Beta Oligomer Toxicity - Phytother Res. 2017 Jan 23 - "Amyloid-beta oligomer (AβO) is a soluble oligomer form of the Aβ peptide and the most potent amyloid-beta form that induces neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the effect of dried white ginseng extract (WGE) on neuronal cell damage and memory impairment in intrahippocampal AβO (10 μM)-injected mice ... WGE improved memory impairment by inhibiting hippocampal cell death caused by AβO. In addition, AβO-injected mice treated with WGE showed restoration of reduced synaptophysin and choline acetyltransferase intensity and lower levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 in the hippocampus compared with those of vehicle-treated controls. These results suggest that WGE reverses memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease by attenuating neuronal damage and neuroinflammation in the AβO-injected mouse hippocampus" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • B-Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study - Nutrients. 2017 Jan 10;9(1) - "Participants (aged 60-88 years; n = 155) who had been previously screened for cognitive function were reassessed four years after initial investigation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). At the 4-year follow-up assessment when participants were aged 73.4 ± 7.1 years, mean cognitive MMSE scores had declined from 29.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 27.5 ± 2.4 (p < 0.001), but some 27% of participants showed a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline (i.e., decrease in MMSE > 0.56 points per year). Lower vitamin B6 status, as measured using pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; <43 nmol/L) was associated with a 3.5 times higher risk of accelerated cognitive decline, after adjustment for age and baseline MMSE score (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.58 to 7.63; p < 0.05). Correspondingly, lower dietary intake (0.9-1.4 mg/day) of vitamin B6 was also associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.28-13.90; p < 0.05). No significant relationships of dietary intake or biomarker status with cognitive decline were observed for the other B-vitamins" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  B6 also helps with melatonin absorption.  I take 25 mg of B6 with 1 mg of melatonin every night.  See Best Naturals Vitamin B-6 25 mg 250 Tablets at Amazon.com.  Related study:
  • Resveratrol regulates neuro-inflammation and induces adaptive immunity in Alzheimer's disease - J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Jan 3;14(1):1 - "Compared to the placebo-treated group, at 52 weeks, resveratrol markedly reduced CSF MMP9 and increased macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), interleukin (IL)-4, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Compared to baseline, resveratrol increased plasma MMP10 and decreased IL-12P40, IL12P70, and RANTES. In this subset analysis, resveratrol treatment attenuated declines in mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores, change in ADL (ADCS-ADL) scores, and CSF Aβ42 levels during the 52-week trial, but did not alter tau levels" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Montmorency Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) modulate vascular function acutely, in the absence of improvement in cognitive performance - Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(11):1935-194 - "Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68.0 (sd 0.26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160.75 (sd 0.55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0.59 (sd 0.02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo ... There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0.05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See cherry juice extract at Amazon.com.
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats - Nutrients. 2017 Jan 3;9(1) - "Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain ... Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects ... Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats" - See Now Foods Garlic 5000 Tablets, 90 Count at Amazon.com.
  • Frequent sauna bathing protects men against dementia - Science Daily, 12/16/16 - "the study participants were divided into three groups: those taking a sauna once a week, those taking a sauna 2-3 times a week, and those taking a sauna 4-7 times a week ... The more frequently saunas were taken, the lower was the risk of dementia. Among those taking a sauna 4-7 times a week, the risk of any form of dementia was 66% lower and the risk of Alzheimer's disease 65% lower than among those taking a sauna just once a week ... Previous results from the KIHD study have shown that frequent sauna bathing also significantly reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death, the risk of death due to coronary artery disease and other cardiac events, as well as overall mortality" - See JNH Lifestyle saunas at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics improve cognition in Alzheimer's patients - Science Daily, 11/14/16 - "a daily dose of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria taken over a period of just 12 weeks is enough to yield a moderate but significant improvement in the score of elderly Alzheimer's patients on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale, a standard measure of cognitive impairment ... scientists have long hypothesized that probiotics might also boost cognition, as there is continuous two-way communication between the intestinal microflora, the gastrointestinal tract, and the brain through the nervous system, the immune system, and hormones (along the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis"). In mice, probiotics have indeed been shown to improve learning and memory, and reduce anxiety and depression- and OCD-like symptoms ... Over the course of the study, the average score on the MMSE questionnaire significantly increased (from 8.7 to 10.6, out of a maximum of 30) in the group receiving probiotics, but not in the control group (from 8.5 to 8.0)" - See Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA 180 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • 'Medical Food' May Slow Brain Atrophy in Patients With Alzheimer's and Related Disorders - Medscape, 10/31/16 - "In a study of 67 participants, those with both HHcy and ADRD who took the L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and N-acetyl-cysteine product for 2 years had an adjusted hippocampal atrophy rate more than 4 times slower than that in the participants with ADRD and no HHcy who did not take the prescription medical food. The rate of cortical atrophy was more than 11 times slower in the treatment group ... the reductions in rate of brain tissue loss "were quite dramatic" and he especially didn't expect the cortical finding ... The take-away message…is that elevated homocysteine is common and should be regularly checked for in all persons over 50 years old, and it should be treated when found ... HHcy has a worldwide prevalence of 5.1% to 29% in individuals who are older than 65 years. "Furthermore, the odds of brain atrophy are up to 10 times higher in HHcy patients than in those with normal homocysteine levels,"" - See L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and N-acetyl-cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Additional benefit of omega-3 fatty acids for the clearance of metabolites from the brain - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in fish oil, could improve the function of the glymphatic system, which facilitates the clearance of waste from the brain, and promote the clearance of metabolites including amyloid-β peptides, a primary culprit in Alzheimer's disease ... This study should not turn attention away from the roles of these substances in maintaining vascular health, but neither should they restrict our view. The brain is an extremely vascularized organ, while we might also bear in mind that omega-3 fatty acids may impact neurons, glia, and astrocytes themselves" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C Supplementation, APOE4 Genotype and Cognitive Functioning in a Rural-Dwelling Cohort - J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(8):841-844 - "Overall, Vitamin C supplementation was associated with significantly better immediate memory (p=0.04), visuospatial skills (p=0.002), language (p=0.01), and global cognitive functioning (p=0.006). Among APOE4 non-carriers, vitamin C supplementation was positively associated with immediate memory (F[1,392] =6.7, p=0.01), visuospatial skills (F[1,391]=10.6, p=0.001), language (F[1,392]=13.0, p<0.001), attention (F[1,386]=7.9, p=0.005, and global cognition (F[1,382]=11.0, p=0.001. However, there was no significant link between vitamin C supplementation and cognition among APOE4 carriers" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Use of Vitamin E and C Supplements for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline - Ann Pharmacother. 2016 Oct 4 - "Data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (1991-2002), a cohort study of dementia including 3 evaluation waves at 5-yearly intervals, were used ... Compared with those not taking vitamin supplements, the age-, sex-, and education-adjusted hazard ratios of CIND, AD, and all-cause dementia were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI = 0.60-0.98), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.86), and 0.62 (95% CI = 0.46-0.83) for those taking vitamin E and/or C supplements ... This analysis suggests that the use of vitamin E and C supplements is associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com and American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Western diet increases Alzheimer's risk - Science Daily, 8/25/16 - "Dietary supply of meat or animal products (minus milk) 5 years before Alzheimer's disease prevalence had the highest correlations with Alzheimer's disease prevalence in this study ... Residents of the United States seem to be at particular risk, with each person in the U.S. having about a 4% chance of developing Alzheimer's disease, likely due in part to the Western dietary pattern, which tends to include a large amount of meat consumption ... Reducing meat consumption could significantly reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease as well as of several cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, stroke, and, likely, chronic kidney disease ... Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with about half the risk for Alzheimer's disease of the Western diet, the traditional diets of countries such as India, Japan, and Nigeria, with very low meat consumption, are associated with an additional 50% reduction in risk of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Higher Serum DHA Linked to Less Amyloid, Better Memory - Medscape, 8/17/16 - "DHA is "the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, playing an important structural role in synapses while also modulating a number of signaling pathways ... serum DHA levels (percentage of total fatty acids) were 23% lower in those with cerebral amyloidosis relative to those without ... there was a significant association between serum DHA levels and nonverbal memory" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee - Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Jul 5;46:113-123 - "Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease ... quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol appears to restore blood-brain barrier integrity in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 7/27/16 - "Resveratrol, given to Alzheimer's patients, appears to restore the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, reducing the ability of harmful immune molecules secreted by immune cells to infiltrate from the body into brain tissues ... The reduction in neuronal inflammation slowed the cognitive decline of patients, compared to a matching group of placebo-treated patients with the disorder" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D levels predict risk of brain decline in Chinese elderly - Science Daily, 7/27/16 - "It is now believed to also play a significant role in maintaining healthy brain function. An increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has been observed in those with low vitamin D levels, and studies from Europe and North America have linked low vitamin D levels with future cognitive decline ... individuals with lower vitamin D levels at the start of the study were approximately twice as likely to exhibit significant cognitive decline over time. In addition, low vitamin D levels at baseline also increased the risk of future cognitive impairment by 2-3 times" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antibiotics weaken Alzheimer's disease progression through changes in the gut microbiome - Science Daily, 7/24/16 - "Two of the key features of Alzheimer's disease are the development of amyloidosis, accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides in the brain, and inflammation of the microglia, brain cells that perform immune system functions in the central nervous system. Buildup of Aß into plaques plays a central role in the onset of Alzheimer's, while the severity of neuro-inflammation is believed to influence the rate of cognitive decline from the disease ... For this study, Sisodia and his team administered high doses of broad-spectrum antibiotics to mice over five to six months. At the end of this period, genetic analysis of gut bacteria from the antibiotic-treated mice showed that while the total mass of microbes present was roughly the same as in controls, the diversity of the community changed dramatically. The antibiotic-treated mice also showed more than a two-fold decrease in Aß plaques compared to controls, and a significant elevation in the inflammatory state of microglia in the brain. Levels of important signaling chemicals circulating in the blood were also elevated in the treated mice" - Note:  It would seem like changing the gut balance via probiotics would be the way to go, not taking antibiotics.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Regulation of structural and functional synapse density by L-threonate through modulation of intraneuronal magnesium concentration - Neuropharmacology. 2016 Sep;108:426-39 - "Oral administration of the combination of L-threonate (threonate) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) in the form of L-Threonic acid Magnesium salt (L-TAMS) can enhance learning and memory in young rats and prevent memory decline in aging rats and in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Recent results from a human clinical trial demonstrate the efficacy of L-TAMS in restoring global cognitive abilities of older adults ... The current study provides an explanation for why threonate is an essential component of L-TAMS and supports the use of L-TAMS to promote cognitive abilities in human" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin Linked to Lower Neurodegenerative Disease Risk - Medscape, 6/11/16 - "The mechanism is unclear, but metformin is known to cross the blood-brain barrier ... The adjusted incidence of developing one or more neurodegenerative diseases per 100 person-years was 2.08 for those who never used metformin, 2.47 for those using metformin less than 1 year, 1.61 for less than 2 years, 1.30 for 2 to 4 years, and 0.49 for 4 or more years ... Compared with no metformin, the hazard ratios for 2 to 4 years of metformin therapy for all neurodegenerative diseases combined was 0.623 and for 4 or more years 0.216 ... The findings were also significant for dementia specifically (0.567 at 2–4 years and 0.252 for 4+ years) and for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases only beyond 4 years (0.038 and 0.229, respectively)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Fountain of youth? Dietary supplement may prevent and reverse severe damage to aging brain, research suggests - Science Daily, 6/2/16 - "contains common ingredients such as vitamins B, C and D, folic acid, green tea extract, cod liver oil and other nutraceuticals ... The mice used in this study had widespread loss of more than half of their brain cells, severely impacting multiple regions of the brain by one year of age, the human equivalent of severe Alzheimer's disease ... they also discovered that the mice on the supplements experienced enhancement in vision and most remarkably in the sense of smell -- the loss of which is often associated with neurological disease -- improved balance and motor activity" - See Garden of Life Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Men's Multi, 240 Capsules and Garden of Life Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Women's Multi, 240 Capsules.
  • The flavonoid baicalein rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Behav Brain Res. 2016 May 24 - "Baicalein prevented Aβ-induced impairments in hippocampal LTP through activation of serine threonine Kinase (Akt) phosphorylation. Long-term oral administration of baicalein inhibited 12/15LO and GSK3β activity, reduced β-secretase enzyme (BACE1), decreased the concentration of total Aβ, and prevented phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, baicalein restored spine number, synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicalein as a novel and promising oral bioactive therapeutic agent that prevents memory deficits in AD" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Oct 27;49(4):971-90 - "Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep ... We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50-70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated ... With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen's d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive Function and Quantitative EEG in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Preliminary Study - J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Mar 14 - "Korean red ginseng (KRG) has a nootropic effect. This study assessed the efficacy of KRG on cognitive function and quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... Fourteen patients with AD (mean age, 74.93 years; 11 women and 3 men) were recruited and treated with KRG (4.5 g per day) for 12 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed by the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) ... The FAB score improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment. In the relative power spectrum analysis performed according to responsiveness, alpha power increased significantly in the right temporal area of the responders. The increments of relative alpha power in the right temporal, parietal, and occipital areas were significantly higher in the responders than the nonresponders" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries, the well-known 'super fruit,' could help fight Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 3/14/16 - "One study involved 47 adults aged 68 and older, who had mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for Alzheimer's disease. The researchers gave them either freeze-dried blueberry powder, which is equivalent to a cup of berries, or a placebo powder once a day for 16 weeks ... The blueberry group demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts ... The team also conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which showed increased brain activity in those who ingested the blueberry powder" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin improves tau-induced neuronal dysfunction of nematodes - Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Mar;39:69-81 - "Tau is a key protein in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, which are categorized as tauopathies. Because the extent of tau pathologies is closely linked to that of neuronal loss and the clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, anti-tau therapeutics, if any, could be beneficial to a broad spectrum of tauopathies ... These data indicate that curcumin improves the tau-induced neuronal dysfunction that is independent of insoluble aggregates of tau" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Hesperidin ameliorates cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis against aluminium chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease - Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Feb 15 - "In our lab, we have previously reported that hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid reversed memory loss caused by aluminium intoxication through attenuating acetylcholine esterase activity and the expression of Amyloid β biosynthesis related markers ... Results of the present study demonstrated that hesperidin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress and apoptosis associated neurodegenerative diseases including AD" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane exerts its anti-inflammatory effect against amyloid-β peptide via STAT-1 dephosphorylation and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 cascade in human THP-1 macrophages - Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Feb;38:1-10 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, accounting for most cases of dementia in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane against Aβ1-42 monomers in human THP-1 microglia-like cells. The results showed that sulforaphane preferentially inhibited cathepsin B- and caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mostly Aβ1-42 monomers, an effect that potently reduced excessive secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) ... These findings suggest that the phytochemical sulforaphane has a potential application in AD therapeutics" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of fish and PUFAs and mild-to-severe cognitive impairment risks: a dose-response meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 30 - "As an important source of marine n-3 PUFAs, a 0.1-g/d increment of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was associated with lower risks of dementia (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96; P < 0.001, I2 = 92.7%) and AD (RR: 0.63" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium ions show promise in slowing progression of Alzheimer's disease in mice - Science Daily, 12/1/15 - "in mouse models of the disease oral administration of magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) alleviated cognitive decline by suppressing the Aβ deposition in amyloid plaques in an APH-1α/1β-dependent manner ... The good news about this work is that if it holds up in humans, magnesium is a common element that is readily available" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.  2013 Study:
    • Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages - Science Daily,  11/4/13 - "the human brain begins shrinking after age 25. Structural changes and loss of brain synapses lead to rapid decline in cognitive health ... magnesium deficiency in adults may play a more important role in CI, and more seriously, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), than previously thought ... elevation of brain magnesium through dietary intake of magnesium threonate exerts substantial positive effects on brain synapes in a mouse model of AD, actually restoring aging brains to their youthful conditions ... the 'gold standard' of science, demonstrates that dietary supplementation of Magtein, patented magnesium threonate, can significantly enhance human cognitive functions and decrease symptoms of cognitive impairments ... We know that as we age our bodies naturally lose magnesium. For example, drinking coffee or caffeinated products increases the loss"
  • Can physical exercise enhance long-term memory? - Science Daily, 11/25/15 - "mice that spent time running on wheels not only developed twice the normal number of new neurons, but also showed an increased ability to distinguish new objects from familiar objects ... studies have shown that exercise can improve spatial navigation, contextual memory and the ability to distinguish between highly similar objects or stimuli (pattern separation) in rodents and humans ... Because exercise can increase the rate of new neurons being produced, it makes it an attractive candidate for therapeutic purposes. Studies have shown that exercise can have both structural and cognitive benefits in rodent models of pathological conditions like Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Alzheimer's disease"
  • Improving fitness may counteract brain atrophy in older adults, study shows - Science Daily, 11/19/15 - "the study participants who showed the greatest improvements in fitness had the most growth in the cortical layer, including both the group diagnosed with MCI and the healthy elders. While both groups showed strong associations between increased fitness and increased cortical thickness after the intervention, the MCI participants showed greater improvements compared to healthy group in the left insula and superior temporal gyrus, two brain regions that have been shown to exhibit accelerated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease"
  • Seniors who ate more foods tied to the eating plan, especially fish, had bigger brains, study says - WebMD, 10/21/15 - "eating too much meat might shrink your brain ... people over 65 who ate more fish, vegetables, fruit, grains and olive oil had a larger brain volume than a similar group who didn't follow a Mediterranean diet ... The difference was minor in overall size -- equated to about five years of aging ... eating more fish and less meat was associated with even less brain shrinkage ... a higher intake of fish and vegetables and a lower intake of meat are beneficial for brain cell growth"
  • A Nutritional Formulation for Cognitive Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Placebo-Controlled Trial with an Open-Label Extension - J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Sep 4 - "Thirty-four individuals with mild cognitive impairment were randomized for 6 months to a nutraceutical formulation (NF: folate, alpha-tocopherol, B12, S-adenosyl methioinine, N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine) or indistinguishable placebo, followed by a 6-month open-label extension in which all individuals received NF. The NF cohort improved in the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS; effect size >0.7) and maintained baseline performance in CLOX-1. The placebo cohort did not improve in DRS and declined in CLOX-1, but during the open-label extension improved in DRS and ceased declining in CLOX-1" - [Nutra USA]
  • Unhealthy Diet May Shrink the Brain - Medscape, 9/22/15 - "Consumption of an unhealthy Western diet characterized by meat, hamburgers, chips, and soft drinks, may reduce the volume of the left hippocampus, whereas a healthy diet of fresh vegetables and fish may increase hippocampal volume ... Specifically, a high-fat diet reduces brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, which impairs neuronal plasticity, learning, and behavior ... The difference in left hippocampal volume between those with a healthy diet and those with an unhealthy diet was 203 cubic millimeters, which accounted for 62% of the average decline in left hippocampal volume during the 4-year study period ... unhealthy diets are linked to mental, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders ... I have a number of cases in my practice of people who just didn't plan their food, who didn't think about how their nutrition is related to their psychiatric condition, and have really changed their lives by enhancing their self-care more nutrient-dense brain food"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 9/14/15 - "The magnitude of the effect of Vitamin D insufficiency on cognition was substantial ... Vitamin D supplementation remains an intriguing possibility to delay or even prevent dementia" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • For Alzheimer's patients, resveratrol brings new hope - CNN, 9/11/15 - "Even for the relatively small number of participants in the study, the researchers did see indication that resveratrol could improve cognition. Patients in this group had slight improvements in their ability to carry out daily tasks, such as remembering to brush their teeth. And anecdotally, patients who took resveratrol told the researchers that they felt like they were maintaining their mental ability. (Neither the participants nor the researchers knew who was taking resveratrol and who was taking placebo.) ... If resveratrol does pan out in further research, it may add to the medications that are currently available, such as Aricept and Exelon, which slow, but do not halt, progression of the disease ... resveratrol on its own might not end up working as well as a combination of resveratrol and other polyphenol compounds found in red wine, grape juice and grape seed extract, which could help people at risk of Alzheimer's and those who already have mild symptoms" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com and OPCs+95 at Amazon.com.
  • Using Antidiabetic Therapies to Treat Alzheimer Disease - Medscape, 8/27/15 - "There are other treatments, such as metformin and the new generation of antidiabetic drugs known as incretins, that have been shown in animal models to have a pro-cognitive effect ... Inflammatory molecules have a negative effect on the brain and also contribute to insulin resistance" - See metformin at IAS.
  • The impact of supplemental macular carotenoids in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized clinical trial - J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;44(4):1157-69 - "supplemented for six months with either Macushield (10 mg meso-zeaxanthin [MZ]; 10 mg lutein [L]; 2 mg zeaxanthin [Z]) or placebo (sunflower oil) ... supplementation with the macular carotenoids (MZ, Z, and L) benefits patients with AD, in terms of clinically meaningful improvements in visual function and in terms of MP augmentation" - [Nutra USA] - See Macushield at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Carotenoids Are Inversely Associated With Dementia Risk in an Elderly French Cohort - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Aug 18 - "Dementia and AD were diagnosed by a committee of neurologists. The concentration of plasma carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin) was determined at baseline ... After adjustment for sociodemographic data, diet quality, and clinical variables, including baseline cognitive performances, only higher lutein concentration, considered as a function of plasma lipids, was consistently significantly associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia and AD (hazard ratio = 0.808, 95% confidence interval = 0.671-0.973, p = .024 and hazard ratio = 0.759" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • The Most Effective Way to Protect an Aging Brain - WebMD, 8/7/15 - "Exercise lowered levels of toxic tau proteins and increased blood flow in the brains of people with early memory changes that put them at risk for dementia. Four months of intense exercise improved symptoms like anxiety, irritability, and depression in people with Alzheimer’s, though it didn’t help their memories. But 6 months of exercise did improve memory and thinking in people diagnosed with vascular dementia ... the not-so-great news is that studies are showing that it takes a pretty big commitment to get this protection -- at least 3 hours, or 180 minutes, of vigorous physical activity each week. That’s significantly more than the 150 minutes a week that government guidelines recommend ... rigorous physical activity is any exercise that makes you pant and sweat. And it requires people to get their heart pumping at 70% to 80% of their age-related maximum heart rate. For someone who’s 65 years old, that’s somewhere between 109 and 124 beats per minute ... Experts say in order to see the brain benefits, it’s really important to hit the right dose of physical activity"
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: evidence from meta-analysis - Nutr J. 2015 Aug 1;14(1):76 - "Results of our meta-analysis showed that subjects with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D level < 50 nmol/L) were at increased risk of developing AD by 21 % compared with those possessing 25(OH)D level > 50 nmol/L. Similar analysis also found a significantly increased dementia risk in vitamin D deficient subjects" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Insulin resistance increases risk for Alzheimer's disease, study finds - Science Daily, 7/27/15 - "examined brain scans in 150 late middle-aged adults, who were at risk for Alzheimer's disease, but showed no sign of memory loss. The scans detected if people with higher levels of insulin resistance used less blood sugar in areas of the brain most susceptible to Alzheimer's. When that happens, the brain has less energy to relay information and function ... If you don't have as much fuel, you're not going to be as adept at remembering something or doing something ... this is important with Alzheimer's disease, because over the course of the disease there is a progressive decrease in the amount of blood sugar used in certain brain regions. Those regions end up using less and less" - See metformin at IAS.
    • Diabetes medication reduces dementia risk: Analysis of health insurance data suggests preventive effect - Science Daily, 6/23/15 - "Treatment with pioglitazone showed a remarkable side benefit. It was able to significantly decrease the risk of dementia ... The longer the treatment, the lower the risk ... Risk reduction was most noticeable when the drug was administered for at least two years ... Metformin -- another frequently prescribed antidiabetic drug -- also lowered the risk of developing dementia. However, the effect was lower than that of pioglitazone" - See metformin at IAS.  Pioglitazone is harder to find.  I've been taking both in low dose for years for various anti-aging advantages.
  • Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;102(1):215-21 - "included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85) ... There was a significant interaction (P = 0.024) between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates. In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 supplements, antioxidants may help with preclinical Alzheimer's disease -Science Daily, 6/30/15 - "A new report published in the July 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal describes the findings of a very small study in which people with mild clinical impairment, such as those in the very early stages of the disease, saw clearance of the hallmark amyloid-beta protein and reduced inflammation in neurological tissues. Although the findings involved just 12 patients over the course of 4 to 17 months, the findings suggest further clinical study of this relatively inexpensive and plentiful supplement should be conducted" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes medication reduces dementia risk: Analysis of health insurance data suggests preventive effect - Science Daily, 6/23/15 - "Treatment with pioglitazone showed a remarkable side benefit. It was able to significantly decrease the risk of dementia ... The longer the treatment, the lower the risk ... Risk reduction was most noticeable when the drug was administered for at least two years ... Metformin -- another frequently prescribed antidiabetic drug -- also lowered the risk of developing dementia. However, the effect was lower than that of pioglitazone" - See metformin at IAS.  Pioglitazone is harder to find.  I've been taking both in low dose for years for various anti-aging advantages.
  • Quercetin reduces eIF2α phosphorylation by GADD34 induction - Neurobiol Aging. 2015 May 15 - "After the long-term feeding of quercetin, deterioration in memory assessed by freezing behavior was delayed in APP23 mice. These results indicate that quercetin may reduce eIF2α phosphorylation and ATF4 expression through GADD34 induction in the brain, leading to the improvement of memory in aged mice and the delay of deterioration in memory at the early stage of AD in AD model mice" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Diet That Helps You Live Longer May Keep Your Mind Sound, Too - nbcnews.com, 5/11/15 - "Two groups were assigned to follow the Mediterranean diet and told to add either five 5 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil a day or a handful of mixed nuts. The third group got the low-fat advice ... The group who ate the extra nuts did better in terms of memory and the group given extra virgin olive oil performed better on tests that required quick thinking ... Just over 13 percent of those who got extra olive oil were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, which may or may not lead to Alzheimer's disease. Just 7 percent of those who got nuts were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, while around 13 percent of those who got neither developed memory loss ... But many of the patients actually saw their memories get better over the four years. On average, those in the low-fat-only group lost some memory and thinking skills, but those who got extra nuts had their memory skills improve on average, while those who got olive oil had improvements in problem-solving and planning skills" - [Abstract]
  • Low Levels of a Urinary Biomarker of Dietary Polyphenol Are Associated with Substantial Cognitive Decline over a 3-Year Period in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr 27 - "total urinary polyphenols (TUPs) and total dietary polyphenols (TDPs) ... High concentrations of polyphenols, a nutritional biomarker of polyphenol intake, were associated with lower risk of substantial cognitive decline in an older population studied over a 3-year period, suggesting a protective effect against cognitive impairment" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet Linked to Larger Brain Volume - Medscape, 4/28/15 - "Participants who adhered more to a MeDI had larger brain volumes both in gray matter and white matter, said Dr Gu. She also noted that each additional higher MeDi adherence and total brain volume is equivalent to more than 1 year of aging (β for age = 2.5; P < .001) ... Dr Gu noted that most of the association was driven by higher intake of fish and lower intake of meat. Potential mechanisms, she said, include anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidative effects, as well as potential slowing of the accumulation of β-amyloid or tau"
  • Improving effect of chronic resveratrol treatment on central monoamine synthesis and cognition in aged rats - Age (Dordr). 2015 Jun;37(3):9777 - "We analyzed the in vivo effects of chronic administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) in old male rats (Wistar, 20 months), on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activities which mediate central monoaminergic neurotransmitters synthesis, and besides, on hippocampal-dependent working memory test (radial maze). Our results show an age-related decline in neurochemical parameters that were reversed by resveratrol administration. The resveratrol treatment enhances serotonin (5-HT) levels in pineal gland, in hippocampus, and in striatum, and those of noradrenaline (NA) in hippocampus and also dopamine (DA) in striatum. These changes were largely due to an increased activity of TPH-1 (463 % in pineal gland), TPH-2 (70-51 % in hippocampus and striatum), and TH (150-36 % in hippocampus and striatum). Additionally, the observed hippocampal effects correlate with a resveratrol-induced restorative effect on working memory (radial maze)" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 15 - "included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85). The subjects underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and 2 y later ... In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group" - Note:  I take a good multi and even that only has 4 mg of B6.  See B complex supplements at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com, vitamin B6 at Amazon.com vitamin B12 at Amazon.com and fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Mechanism outlined by which inadequate vitamin E can cause brain damage - Science Daily, 4/13/15 - "that zebrafish fed a diet deficient in vitamin E throughout their life had about 30 percent lower levels of DHA-PC, which is a part of the cellular membrane in every brain cell, or neuron. Other recent studies have also concluded that low levels of DHA-PC in the blood plasma of humans is a biomarker than can predict a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease ... the deficient levels of vitamin E they were given, are equivalent to humans eating a low vitamin E diet for a lifetime. In the United States, 96 percent of adult women and 90 percent of men do not receive adequate levels of vitamin E in their diet" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015 - "This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and Coriolus versicolor at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Linked to Lower Risk for Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 3/25/15 - "starting with participants with normal cognitive function in 2007-2008 ... at follow-up between 2011 and 2013, green tea consumption 1 to 6 days/wk or every day was associated with a lower risk for MCI or dementia. There was no effect of coffee consumed daily or 1 to 6 days/wk or of black tea consumption. She calculated that the odds ratio of developing dementia or cognitive decline was 0.47 (P < .05) for elderly Japanese participants who drank green tea 1 to 6 days/ wk and 0.32 (P < .01) for those who drank it every day" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Milk could be good for your brain - Science Daily, 3/24/15 - "participants who had indicated they had drunk milk recently had higher levels of glutathione in their brains. This is important, the researchers said, because glutathione could help stave off oxidative stress and the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many other conditions" - Note:  Yeah but three servings of this and three serving of that and three servings of the other thing will pack on the pounds as you get older and don't even think about dessert. The best way I know of to increase glutathione is to take n-acetyl-cysteine.  See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • New MIND diet may significantly protect against Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 3/23/15 - "With the MIND diet, a person who eats at least three servings of whole grains, a salad and one other vegetable every day -- along with a glass of wine -- snacks most days on nuts, has beans every other day or so, eats poultry and berries at least twice a week and fish at least once a week and benefits. However, he or she must limits intake of the designated unhealthy foods, especially butter (less than 1 tablespoon a day), cheese, and fried or fast food (less than a serving a week for any of the three), to have a real shot at avoiding the devastating effects of AD ... Blueberries are one of the more potent foods in terms of protecting the brain ... strawberries have also performed well in past studies of the effect of food on cognitive function"
  • Silibinin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid β peptide aggregation: a dual-target drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Feb 11 - "these data suggest that silibinin could act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment" - See silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • Promising 'natural' Alzheimer's treatment moves toward clinical trials - Science Daily, 3/11/15 - "This particular research has focused on Ashwagandha, an herbal remedy that's been used in Eastern medicines for centuries ... While plants cannot be patented, compounds from it can. MSU holds the patent for withanamides, and earlier research revealed that the compound, found in the plants' seeds, proved to be a powerful anti-oxidant -- double the strength of what's on today's market. The potent compound has shown that it can protect cells against damaging attacks by a rogue protein - the earliest stage of Alzheimer's" - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
  • Experts criticize 'inaccurate' view that B Vitamins have no role in Alzheimer's disease prevention - Science Daily, 2/25/15 - "the analysis of previous clinical trial data published last year cast no doubt whatsoever on the potential of folic acid and vitamin B-12 to prevent dementia, and that the lead author's comments were 'unjustified and misleading' ... taking B vitamins lowers blood levels of a molecule (homocysteine), which in high concentrations acts as a potent risk factor for dementia"
  • Compound found in grapes, red wine may help prevent memory loss - Science Daily, 2/4/15 - "treatment with resveratrol had apparent benefits in terms of learning, memory and mood function in aged rats ... for the control rats who did not receive resveratrol, spatial learning ability was largely maintained but ability to make new spatial memories significantly declined between 22 and 25 months. By contrast, both spatial learning and memory improved in the resveratrol-treated rats ... neurogenesis (the growth and development of neurons) approximately doubled in the rats given resveratrol compared to the control rats. The resveratrol-treated rats also had significantly improved microvasculature, indicating improved blood flow, and had a lower level of chronic inflammation in the hippocampus" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • New study postulates the role of dietary advanced glycation end products in the risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 2/3/15 - "meat made the highest contribution of AGEs, followed by vegetable oils, cheese, and fish. Foods such as cereals/grains, eggs, fruit, legumes, milk, nuts, starchy roots, and vegetables generally make low contributions to the total amount of AGEs in a diet, either because they are generally prepared at low temperatures or since they comprise smaller portions of diets ... This epidemiological study supports our previous findings in animals and humans of an important role for dietary AGEs in Alzheimer's disease. We found that mice kept on a diet high in AGEs, similar to Western diet, had high levels of AGEs in their brains together with deposits of amyloid-β, a component of the plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while at the same time developed declines in cognitive and motor abilities. The mice fed a low AGE diet remained free of these conditions. In addition, clinical studies have shown that subjects with higher blood AGE levels, in turn resulting from high AGE diets, are more likely to develop cognitive decline on follow up"
  • Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals aged 35-55 - J Neurosurg Sci. 2014 Dec;58(4):239-48 - "Pycnogenol® (150 mg/day) ... Cognitive function, attention, mental performance, sustained attention, memory, executive functions, mood and oxidative stress values were comparable at inclusion. At 12 weeks the improvement in Pycnogenol® subjects was more significant than in controls. Plasma-free radicals (oxidative stress) were significantly decreased (median -30.4%) at 12 weeks in Pycnogenol® subjects in comparison with a non-significant variation observed in controls (+0.9%; difference between groups). Considering the cognitive test battery (PASAT, pattern recognition memory, spatial recognition memory, spatial working memory), Pycnogenol® subjects showed a small but significant improvement with spatial recognition memory unchanged. Mood parameters (alertness, anxiety, contentedness) also improved in professionals using the supplement. In the evaluation of 12 professional daily tasks all items were improved with Pycnogenol® supplementation. The score relative to semi-professional minitasks was improved more in Pycnogenol® subjects. Tolerability and compliance were optimal with >94% of the doses of supplement correctly used" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Oxytocin May Help Frontotemporal Dementia - Medscape, 1/20/15 - "frontotemporal dementia is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. "It typically starts in the 50s or 60s and appears to have a different pathology to Alzheimer's, with loss of empathy being the hallmark symptom in the most common subtype — known as behavioral variant." ... The patient usually has a striking lack of insight into their condition. They tend to become very self-centered and unappreciative of other family members ... Oxytocin is believed to be an important mediator of social behavior, potentially enhancing empathy. When given to healthy adults or patients with autism, oxytocin has improved emotional expression, empathy, and cooperative behavior ... oxytocin produced changes in subscales of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration–modified Clinical Dementia Rating (FBI) scale, consistent with improvements in levels of apathy and expressions of empathy ... However, one third of patients receiving oxytocin had reported increases in hypersexual behaviors" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Curcumin's ability to fight Alzheimer's studied - Science Daily, 1/12/15 - "Curcumin has demonstrated ability to enter the brain, bind and destroy the beta-amyloid plaques present in Alzheimer’s with reduced toxicity" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Association between intake of B vitamins and cognitive function in elderly Koreans with cognitive impairment - Nutr J. 2014 Dec 17 - "These results suggested that total B vitamins intake is associated with cognitive function in cognitively impaired AD and MCI elderly, and the association is stronger in AD patients"
  • Hesperidin ameliorates behavioural impairments and neuropathology of transgenic APP/PS1 mice - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Dec 12 - "Our findings suggest that hesperidin might be a potential candidate for the treatment of AD or even other neurodegenerative diseases" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Periodontal disease associates with higher brain amyloid load in normal elderly - Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Nov 5 - "The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques is a central feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... clinical attachment loss (≥3 mm), representing a history of periodontal inflammatory/infectious burden, was associated with increased PIB uptake in Aβ vulnerable brain regions (p = 0.002). We show for the first time in humans an association between periodontal disease and brain Aβ load. These data are consistent with the previous animal studies showing that peripheral inflammation/infections are sufficient to produce brain Aβ accumulations" - Note:  Here's a cut and paste from my dental page with my solution to periodontal disease in addition to dental cleaning and good hygiene:
  • Serum coenzyme Q10 and risk of disabling dementia: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS) - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Sep 28 - "community-based cohort of approximately 6000 Japanese aged 40-69 years at baseline (1984-1994) ... Serum coenzyme Q10 was inversely associated with dementia: the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.68 (0.26-1.78), 0.92 (0.33-2.56), and 0.23 (0.06-0.86) for individuals with the second, third, and highest quartiles of coenzyme Q10, respectively, as compared with the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0.05)" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Higher homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative - Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Aug 30 - "A significant portion of our risk for dementia in old age is associated with lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and cardiovascular health) that are modifiable, at least in principle. One such risk factor, high-homocysteine levels in the blood, is known to increase risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular disorders ... These regional differences in gray matter structure may be useful biomarkers to assess the effectiveness of interventions, such as vitamin B supplements, that aim to prevent homocysteine-related brain atrophy by normalizing homocysteine levels"
  • Oral Resveratrol Stabilizes Amyloid in Alzheimer's - Medscape, 11/18/14 - "We found that oral resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrate the blood–brain barrier and seemed to have [central nervous system (CNS)] actions at nanomolar concentrations ... In the phase 2, double-blind, multicenter, 12-month trial, participants were randomly assigned to receive either oral RES 500 mg once daily (N = 64), escalating to 1000 mg twice daily at 13-week intervals, or matching placebo (n = 55) ... RES treatment altered Aβ40 levels in CSF and plasma and was associated with a loss of brain volume and an increase in ventricular volume, possibly explained by reduced edema and inflammation ... Eleven RES patients lost weight compared with none in the placebo group (P = .049). Most of the weight change occurred after week 26. By week 52, the RES group had lost about 1.2 kg compared with baseline, and the placebo group had gained about 1.5 kg" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Slows Cognitive Decline, With Caveats - Medscape, 10/9/14 - "fish oil supplement use during the study was associated with a significantly lower rate of cognitive decline as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination, but only in participants free of dementia at the time of enrollment. Moreover, in patients with normal cognition at baseline, those who reported taking fish oil supplements demonstrated less brain atrophy in one or more of the MRI regions of interest, compared with those who did use the supplements" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D prevents cognitive decline and enhances hippocampal synaptic function in aging rats - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 29 - "Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline ... Our studies demonstrate a causal relationship between vitamin D status and cognitive function, and they suggest that vitamin D-mediated changes in hippocampal gene expression may improve the likelihood of successful brain aging" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells - Science Daily, 9/25/14 - "A bioactive compound found in turmeric promotes stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain ... The findings suggest aromatic turmerone could be a future drug candidate for treating neurological disorders, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • A specific multi-nutrient enriched diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in aged rats - Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Jul 24 - "Fortasyn Connect (FC) is a specific nutrient combination designed to target synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease by providing neuronal membrane precursors and other supportive nutrients ... the FC diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in aged rats and suggest that this effect is mediated by enhanced synaptic membrane formation. These data provide further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FC may support memory processes in Alzheimer's disease"
    • Souvenaid - Wikipedia - "Souvenaid was developed by Advanced Medical Nutrition division of Nutricia and contains a patented combination of nutrients, referred to under the trademark Fortasyn Connect™.[4] Souvenaid was designed to support synapse formation and function[1] in early Alzheimer’s disease ... Composition ... Eicospentaenoic acid, 300 mg ... Docosahexaenoic acid, 1200 mg ... Phospholipids 106 mg ... Choline, 400 mg ... Uridine monophosphate, 625 mg ... Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol equivalents), 40 mg ... Selenium, 60 µg ... Vitamin B12, 3 µg ... Vitamin B6, 1 mg ... Folic acid, 400 µg" - See uridine at Amazon.com.  Most health conscious people are probably already taking the other incredients.
  • Creating pomegranate drug to stem Alzheimer's, Parkinson's - Science Daily, 8/22/14 - "The onset of Alzheimer's disease can be slowed and some of its symptoms curbed by a natural compound that is found in pomegranate. Also, the painful inflammation that accompanies illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson's disease could be reduced ... punicalagin, which is a polyphenol -- a form of chemical compound -- found in pomegranate fruit, can inhibit inflammation in specialised brain cells known as micrologia. This inflammation leads to the destruction of more and more brain cells, making the condition of Alzheimer's sufferers progressively worse ... we do know that regular intake and regular consumption of pomegranate has a lot of health benefits -- including prevention of neuro-inflammation related to dementia" - See pomegranate extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D And Dementia: A Very Close Tie - Medscape, 8/6/14 - "Researchers obtained blood samples in 1992–1993 and in 2008; they measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations. They classified these samples as follows: less than 25 nmol/L (severely deficient), 25 nmol/L or greater to less than 50 nmol/L (deficient), and 50 nmol/L or greater (sufficient) ... After also adjustment for education, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms, the HRs for all-cause dementia were 1.53 in those who were vitamin D deficient and 2.25 for those who were severely deficient ... Low vitamin D levels likely affect cognition through both neurodegenerative and vascular mechanisms ... The findings suggest that the optimal vitamin D level to prevent dementia is 50 nmol/L. Others in the field argue that a higher level — 75 nmol/L — is better" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Regular Fish Consumption and Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Loss - Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul 29 - "Data were analyzed from 260 cognitively normal individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Study with information on fish consumption from the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... Weekly consumption of baked or broiled fish was positively associated with gray matter volumes in the hippocampus, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex even after adjusting for covariates" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association of fish oil supplement use with preservation of brain volume and cognitive function - Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Jun 18 - "fish oil supplements (FOSs) ... Older adults (229 cognitively normal individuals, 397 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 193 patients with Alzheimer's disease) were assessed with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months ... FOS use during follow-up was associated with significantly lower mean cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores among those with normal cognition ... FOS use during the study was also associated with less atrophy in one or more brain regions of interest" - [Science Daily] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Milk and Dairy Consumption and Risk of Dementia in an Elderly Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jun 10 - "vascular dementia (VaD) ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD significantly decreased as milk and dairy intake level increased (P for trend = .03 for all-cause dementia, .04 for AD, .01 for VaD)"
  • Korean Red Ginseng Extract Exhibits Neuroprotective Effects through Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(6):938-46 - "Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduces Cerebral Amyloid-β Accumulation and Improves Cognition in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease - J Neurosci. 2014 May 21;34(21):7091-101 - "The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Mouse study offers new clues to cognitive decline - Science Daily, 5/8/14 - "The pathway begins with the B vitamin nicotinamide. Cells take dietary nicotinamide and, with a helper protein called Nampt, manufacture a molecule called NMN, which then is processed further to make NAD. When Stein eliminated Nampt from neural stem cells, several significant changes took place ... Levels of NAD dropped, and the neural stem cells stopped dividing; they stopped renewing themselves; and they stopped being able to create important cells that insulate axons, the "wires" that carry electrical signals throughout the brain. With less insulation, these signals slow down, impairing brain function"
    • What Is the Difference Between Niacin & Niacinamide? - LiveStrong.com - "Your body can convert niacin into niacinamide ... Niacin and niacinamide have identical function when used as vitamins ... their pharmacologic properties differ. For example, high doses of niacin can cause skin flushing. Niacinamide, however, does not have the same vasodialating, or blood-vessel widening, effects, that niacin has, so it does not lead to skin flushing" - Note:  You'll find contradictory information on the Internet but niacinamide will not raise HDL and niacin will.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • A Nutrient Combination that Can Affect Synapse Formation - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 23;6(4):1701-10 - "Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients-uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline ... In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the need for extra quantities of the three nutrients is enhanced, both because their basal plasma levels may be subnormal (reflecting impaired hepatic synthesis), and because especially high brain levels are needed for correcting the disease-related deficiencies in synaptic membrane and synapses" - See uridine at Amazon.com, docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 24 - "Rutin, an active flavonoid compound, has been shown to potently protect the brain against several insults via its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown so far ... Studies were carried out in rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion ...BCCAO rats showed remarkable cognitive deficits, which were significantly improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses, and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus as compared with sham-operated rats, all of which were significantly alleviated by long-term treatment of rutin" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine attenuates amyloid β 1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activating of SIRT1 in SK-N-SH cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 12 - "Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) ... Taurine, a naturally occurring β-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties ... Our results suggest that taurine prevents Aβ1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of SIRT1. This study implies that taurine is a prospective additive for AD patients" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Caffeine against Alzheimer's disease? Positive effect on tau deposits demonstrated - Science Daily, 4/7/14 - "Tau deposits, along with beta-amyloid plaques, are among the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease. These protein deposits disrupt the communication of the nerve cells in the brain and contribute to their degeneration ... Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, blocks various receptors in the brain which are activated by adenosine"
  • Clinical Investigation of the Protective Effects of Palm Vitamin E Tocotrienols on Brain White Matter - Stroke. 2014 Apr 3 - "Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). WMLs are regarded as manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, reflecting varying degrees of neurodegeneration and tissue damage with potential as a surrogate end point in clinical trials ... total of 121 volunteers aged ≥35 years with cardiovascular risk factors and MRI-confirmed WMLs were randomized to receive 200 mg mixed tocotrienols or placebo twice a day for 2 years ... the mean WML volume of the placebo group increased after 2 years, whereas that of the tocotrienol-supplemented group remained essentially unchanged" - My favorite: Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • What Is Fisetin? And Does It Slow Dementia? - Medscape, 4/3/14 - "The compound is known to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on brain cells. They have now investigated the memory-protecting effects of fisetin in a strain of double-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. Three-month-old mice had fisetin added to their food. By 9 months of age, mice that had not received fisetin began performing more poorly in water mazes, a standard test of animal learning and memory. Mice fed fisetin daily performed as well as control mice without the Alzheimer's transgene at both 9 months and 1 year old. The researchers next found that in AD mice with memory impairment, pathways involved in cellular inflammation were activated. In fisetin-fed AD mice, those pathways were dampened, and anti-inflammatory molecules were activated" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Healthy midlife diet may prevent dementia later - Science Daily, 3/10/14 - "those who ate the healthiest diet at the average age of 50 had an almost 90 per cent lower risk of dementia in a 14-year follow-up study than those whose diet was the least healthy ... Vegetables, berries and fruits, fish and unsaturated fats from milk products and spreads were some of the healthy components, whereas sausages, eggs, sweets, sugary drinks, salty fish and saturated fats from milk products and spreads were indicated as unhealthy ... Even those who are genetically susceptible can at least delay the onset of the disease by favouring vegetable oils, oil-based spreads and fatty fish in their diet"
  • Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Feb 21 - "A literature review was conducted on the effects of nicotinamide and its derivatives as a preventive and therapeutic agent for disorders of neurocognitive function. Specific conditions examined include age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischaemic and traumatic brain injury ... nicotinamide may be beneficial in preserving and enhancing neurocognitive function ... Nicotinamide is non-toxic, inexpensive and widely available, and interventional studies in humans, using supplemental doses of nicotinamide, are now warranted" - See nicotinamide at Amazon.com.  It’s just one more nutrient to add to the arsenal that may have a synergistic effect to delay or help prevent Alzheimer’s or dementia.
    • What Is the Difference Between Niacin & Niacinamide? - LiveStrong.com - "Your body can convert niacin into niacinamide ... Niacin and niacinamide have identical function when used as vitamins ... their pharmacologic properties differ. For example, high doses of niacin can cause skin flushing. Niacinamide, however, does not have the same vasodialating, or blood-vessel widening, effects, that niacin has, so it does not lead to skin flushing" - Note:  You'll find contradictory information on the Internet but niacinamide will not raise HDL and niacin will.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Chemicals in 'Western' Diet Show Alzheimer's-Like Effects in Mice - WebMD, 2/24/14 - "when they added the compounds -- called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) -- to the lifelong diets of laboratory mice, the animals developed greater amounts of beta-amyloid in the brain. Beta-amyloid is the protein that makes up the brain "plaques" seen in people with Alzheimer's disease ... mice fed these compounds developed more problems with movement and memory as they aged compared to mice that spent their lives dining on chow that produced low levels of these chemicals ... AGEs are naturally present in small amounts in the human body ... But you also ingest the compounds through food -- particularly animal products prepared at a high heat ... That includes fried, grilled or broiled meats, and dairy products that are pasteurized or sterilized"
  • Rutin improves spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by reducing Aβ oligomer level and attenuating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Feb 7 - "orally administered rutin significantly attenuated memory deficits in AD transgenic mice, decreased oligomeric Aβ level, increased super oxide dismutase activity and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, reduced GSSG and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, downregulated microgliosis and astrocytosis, and decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the brain. These results indicated that rutin is a promising agent for AD treatment because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reducing Aβ oligomer activities" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
    • Rutin - Wikipedia - "Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in many plants including buckwheat,[6] the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and asparagus"
  • Natural plant compound prevents Alzheimer's disease in mice - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "A chemical that's found in fruits and vegetables from strawberries to cucumbers appears to stop memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer's disease in mice ... In experiments on mice that normally develop Alzheimer's symptoms less than a year after birth, a daily dose of the compound -- -a flavonol called fisetin -- -prevented the progressive memory and learning impairments" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary treatment shows potential in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 1/24/14 - "The study used transgenic female mice carrying APP and PS1 mutations linked with familial Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type mice ... some of the APP/PS1 mice were fed three experimental chows enriched with fish oil and having a similar fat content as the control chow: fish oil supplement only, plant sterol supplement or Fortasyn supplement, which contains uridine-monophosphate, phospholipids, B- vitamins, and antioxidants ... Among transgenic mice on the experimental diets, the mice on the Fortasyn diet performed equally well as the wild-type mice, whereas other dietary treatments showed no improvement. However, all test diets reversed the memory deficit of the APP/PS1 mice in the odour recognition task. The levels of accumulated amyloid-β protein in the brain were examined at the end of the study. A significant reduction in the amyloid-β levels was observed in the plant sterol group while other experimental diets showed no effect. However, why was a substantial reduction in brain amyloid-β levels not accompanied by a positive memory effect in the spatial task in the plant sterol group? One explanation is that the plant sterol diet increased formation of reactive oxygen species in the hippocampus, whereas the Fortasyn diet, which yielded the best results in the spatial memory task, tended to have an opposite effect" - See uridine at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Might Guard Against Loss of Brain Cells - WebMD, 1/22/14 - "The more you consume the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils, the less likely you are to lose as many precious brain cells as you age ... the researchers tested levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the red blood cells of more than 1,000 older women. Eight years later, the women had MRI scans that measured their brain volumes. At the time of the scans, the women were an average of 78 years old ... Participants whose omega-3 levels were twice as high had a 0.7 percent higher brain volume ... The results suggest that the effect on brain volume is the equivalent of delaying the normal loss of brain cells that comes with aging by one to two years" - [Medscape] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes - Neurology, 2014 Jan 22 - "RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study ... A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Several forms of vitamin E protect against memory disorders, study says - Science Daily, 1/7/14 - "Studies investigating the link between vitamin E and memory disorders have usually focused on a single form of vitamin E, namely α-tocopherol, which is also used in vitamin E supplements. However, vitamin E exists in eight different natural forms, tocopherols and tocotrienols, all of which have antioxidant properties ... This recently published study comprises a sample of 140 over 65-year-old Finnish persons with no memory impairment at the onset of the study. During the eight-year follow-up, it was discovered that higher total serum levels of vitamin E, and higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol and total tocotrienols in particular, seemed to protect against memory disorders. According to the researchers, the results show that the entire vitamin E family plays a role in memory processes" - See mixed tocopherols at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E Improves Function in Mild Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 12/31//13 - "The study, conducted at 14 Veterans Affairs medical centers, assessed the effect of vitamin E alone or with memantine on functional decline in 613 patients (97% men) with mild to moderate AD ... By random assignment, 152 patients received 2000 IU of α-tocopherol per day, 155 received 20 mg of memantine per day, 154 received the combination of vitamin E and memantine, and 152 received placebo. They were followed for a mean of 2.3 years ... The annual rate of decline in ADLs was reduced by 19% (P = .03) with vitamin E compared with placebo" - [Science Daily] [Abstract] - Note:  I'm still sticking with the mixed form of vitamin E.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Cholesterol levels linked to early signs of Alzheimer's in brain - nbcnews.com, 12/30/13 - "Reed and his team studied brain scans of 74 patients in stroke clinics and senior centers using Pittsburgh Compound B, or PIB, a tracer dye that highlights amyloid in the brain. The patients were, for the most part, normal and free of any symptoms of dementia ... But when the scientists measured the cholesterol in their blood, and teased out the two types, they found that patients with high levels of low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein or HDL cholesterol showed higher PIB levels ... That means that the good and bad effects of the two kinds of cholesterol may occur long before people develop Alzheimer’s symptoms, perhaps offering a new chance for early intervention ... The American Heart Association has long said that keeping levels of HDL “good” cholesterol up — above 60 milligrams per deciliter of blood — and levels of LDL “bad” cholesterol — below 100 mg/dL — can prevent heart disease. But this new study underscores the benefit for the brain" - See niacin at Amazon.com (to raise HDL.  See my niacin page).
  • Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults - Exp Gerontol. 2013 Dec;48(12):1428-35 - "A sample of 140 non-cognitively impaired elderly subjects derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study was followed-up for 8years to detect cognitive impairment, defined as development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia. The association between baseline serum vitamin E and cognitive impairment was analyzed with multiple logistic regression after adjusting for several confounders ... Elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol forms are associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment in older adults. The association is modulated by concurrent cholesterol concentration. Various vitamin E forms might play a role in cognitive impairment, and their evaluation can provide a more accurate measure of vitamin E status in humans" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Pass Blood-Brain Barrier - Science Daily, 12/4/13 - "omega-3 fatty acids in dietary supplements can cross the blood brain barrier in people with Alzheimer's disease ... The findings are presented in the Journal of Internal Medicine, and strengthen the evidence that omega-3 may benefit certain forms of this seriously debilitating disease ... Thirty-three patients participated in the study, 18 of whom received a daily omega-3 supplement and 15 a placebo for six months. The results show that the first group had higher levels of both DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another omega-3 fatty acid) in their cerebrospinal fluid (which surrounds the CNS) and blood. No such change was seen in the placebo group ... Moreover, they also found that levels of DHA correlated directly with the degree of change in Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Aerobic Exercise Improves Memory, Brain Function, Physical Fitness - Science Daily, 11/12/13 - "sedentary adults ages 57-75 were randomized into a physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group participated in supervised aerobic exercise on a stationary bike or treadmill for one hour, three times a week for 12 weeks ... By measuring brain blood flow non-invasively using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, we can now begin to detect brain changes much earlier than before ... One key region where we saw increase in brain blood flow was the anterior cingulate, indicating higher neuronal activity and metabolic rate. The anterior cingulate has been linked to superior cognition in late life ... Exercisers who improved their memory performance also showed greater increase in brain blood flow to the hippocampus, the key brain region affected by Alzheimer's disease"
  • Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages - Science Daily,  11/4/13 - "the human brain begins shrinking after age 25. Structural changes and loss of brain synapses lead to rapid decline in cognitive health ... magnesium deficiency in adults may play a more important role in CI, and more seriously, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), than previously thought ... elevation of brain magnesium through dietary intake of magnesium threonate exerts substantial positive effects on brain synapes in a mouse model of AD, actually restoring aging brains to their youthful conditions ... the 'gold standard' of science, demonstrates that dietary supplementation of Magtein, patented magnesium threonate, can significantly enhance human cognitive functions and decrease symptoms of cognitive impairments ... We know that as we age our bodies naturally lose magnesium. For example, drinking coffee or caffeinated products increases the loss" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • High Glucose Linked to Poorer Memory, Even Without Diabetes - Medscape, 10/23/13 - "lowering blood glucose levels, possibly even to relatively low levels, might help preserve cognition ... Strategies that help lower blood glucose levels include a healthy Mediterranean-type diet and regular physical activity ... cross-sectional study included 141 healthy persons (mean age, 63.1 years) ... lower performance on 3 memory tasks (delayed recall, learning ability, and consolidation) was associated with higher levels of both the long-term marker of glucose control (HbA1c) and the short-term glucose marker ... For insulin, there was a "general trend going in the same direction" but correlations were less clear, and without the same direct relationship ... How low is it safe to go in terms of blood glucose levels? ... If you're used to low blood sugar levels, you can go quite low ... The idea is that the lower the A1c the better your brain function" - [Science Daily]
  • Major Alzheimer's risk factor linked to red wine target - Science Daily, 10/21/13 - "researchers at the Buck Institute found a link between ApoE4 and SirT1, an "anti-aging protein" that is targeted by resveratrol, present in red wine ... ApoE4 causes a dramatic reduction in SirT1, which is one of seven human Sirtuins ... the abnormalities associated with ApoE4 and AD, such as the creation of phospho-tau and amyloid-beta, could be prevented by increasing SirT1" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • High serum fatty acid protects against brain abnormalities - Science Daily, 10/17/13 - "3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants ... silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people ... those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood ... people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Statins and Cognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Short- and Long-term Cognitive Effects - Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Sep 27 - "A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register from their inception to April 25, 2013 ... Long-term cognition studies included 23,443 patients with a mean exposure duration of 3 to 24.9 years. Three studies found no association between statin use and incident dementia, and 5 found a favorable effect. Pooled results revealed a 29% reduction in incident dementia in statin-treated patients"
  • Statin May Prevent Dementia, Memory Loss With Longer Use, Don't Pose Short-Term Cognition Problems - Science Daily, 10/1/13 - "statins do not affect short-term memory or cognition. In contrast, they say that when the drugs are taken for more than one year, the risk of dementia is reduced by 29 percent ... We looked at high-quality, randomized controlled trials and prospective studies that included more than 23,000 men and women with no prior history of cognitive problems. The participants in those studies were followed for up to 25 years ... Vascular dementia is caused by blockages in small blood vessels in the brain that prevent blood flow to certain areas. Medications such as statins that reduce plaque and inflammation in coronary arteries may also be having the same effect on blood vessels in the brain"
  • New brain magnesium research and its role in reversing effects of Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA free download, 9/24/13 - "Magtein is the only magnesium compound that has been shown to effectively raise the brain’s magnesium levels, which leads to enhanced learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in both young and aged animals. In four published preclinical studies, Magtein was found to improve memory, alleviate anxiety and help prevent the decline and reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer’s ... Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, Magtein) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
    • Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model - J Neurosci. 2013 May 8;33(19):8423-41 - "Here, we investigated whether elevation of brain magnesium by the use of a recently developed compound, magnesium-l-threonate (MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. MgT treatment reduced Aβ plaque and prevented synapse loss and memory decline in the Tg mice. Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when given to the mice at the end stage of their AD-like pathological progression ... Our results suggest that elevation of brain magnesium exerts substantial synaptoprotective effects in a mouse model of AD and may have therapeutic potential for treating AD in humans"
  • Fish oil could help protect alcohol abusers from dementia - Science Daily, 9/8/13 - "pooled the results of 143 studies, found that moderate social drinking may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment. (Moderate drinking is defined as a maximum of two drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.) ... exposed cultures of adult rat brain cells to amounts of alcohol equivalent to more than four times the legal limit for driving. These cell cultures were compared with cultures of brain cells exposed to the same high levels of alcohol, plus a compound found in fish oil called omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Researchers found there was about 90 percent less neuroinflammation and neuronal death in the brain cells exposed to DHA and alcohol than in the cells exposed to alcohol alone" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Therapeutic Potential of Turmeric in Alzheimer's Disease: Curcumin or Curcuminoids? - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 19 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is limited choice in modern therapeutics, and drugs available have limited success with multiple side effects in addition to high cost. Hence, newer and alternate treatment options are being explored for effective and safer therapeutic targets to address AD. Turmeric possesses multiple medicinal uses including treatment for AD. Curcuminoids, a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are vital constituents of turmeric. It is generally believed that curcumin is the most important constituent of the curcuminoid mixture that contributes to the pharmacological profile of parent curcuminoid mixture or turmeric. A careful literature study reveals that the other two constituents of the curcuminoid mixture also contribute significantly to the effectiveness of curcuminoids in AD. Therefore, it is emphasized in this review that each component of the curcuminoid mixture plays a distinct role in making curcuminoid mixture useful in AD, and hence, the curcuminoid mixture represents turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin and carotenoid levels are related to cerebral white matter lesions - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):456-60 - "To determine the effects of vitamins and carotenoids on brain white matter lesions (WMLs), we examined the associations between WMLs with vitamin and carotenoid levels in Japanese middle-aged and elderly subjects ... Deep white matter lesions (DWLs) ... Lower gamma-tocopherol levels were significantly associated with DWLs in all subjects. While lower gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were significantly associated with DWLs in males, lower delta-tocopherol levels were associated with DWLs in females. The associations between DWLs and lower gamma- and delta-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were independent of age, hypertension, or smoking. However, the associations between DWLs and lower alfa-tocopherol were not significant following adjustments for smoking" - Note:  Most supplements only contain alfa-tocopherol which had no affect.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • More Evidence Berries Have Health-Promoting Properties - Science Daily, 4/21/13 - "researchers from the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University and University of Maryland Baltimore County recently fed rats a berry diet for 2 months and then looked at their brains after irradiation, a model for accelerated aging ... Berries seem to promote autophagy, the brain's natural housekeeping mechanism, thereby reducing the toxic accumulation" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr 3 - "dietary pattern 1 was correlated with high intakes of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice ... vascular dementia (VaD) ... AD, and VaD were reduced by 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.95), 0.65 (95% CI: 0.40, 1.06), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.91), respectively, in subjects in the highest quartile of score for dietary pattern 1 compared with subjects in the lowest quartile"
  • Explaining how extra virgin olive oil protects against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 3/20/13 - "Newer research suggested that the actual protective agent might be a substance called oleocanthal, which has effects that protect nerve cells from the kind of damage that occurs in AD ... oleocanthal showed a consistent pattern in which it boosted production of two proteins and key enzymes believed to be critical in removing Aβ from the brain" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease - J Nutr. 2013 Mar 6 - "Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia ... Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice ... These data indicate that dietary pomegranate produces brain antiinflammatory effects that may attenuate AD progression" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Citicoline May Improve Memory, Decrease Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 3/5/13 - "The study examined 349 patients older than 64 years from 6 regions in Italy who had memory complaints and evidence of vascular lesions — but who did not have probable Alzheimer's disease ... the participants who received citicoline had significantly better memory scores, as shown on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), up to 9 months after treatment compared with their counterparts who did not receive the treatment ... Of the 349 study participants, 265 received 500 mg of oral citicoline twice daily" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea extract interferes with the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 3/5/13 - "The aggregation of these proteins, called metal-associated amyloids, is associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions ... Lim and an interdisciplinary team of researchers used green tea extract to control the generation of metal-associated amyloid-β aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease in the lab ... The specific molecule in green tea, ( -- )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also known as EGCG, prevented aggregate formation and broke down existing aggregate structures in the proteins that contained metals -- specifically copper, iron and zinc" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Copper can protect against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 2/17/13 - "under conditions which are approximately similar to those found in the brain, copper can only protect against beta amyloid forming beta sheets and as such it is highly unlikely that copper is directly involved in the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease ... The research, published by Nature's online journal Scientific Reports, may also imply that lower levels of copper in the brain may promote the mechanisms whereby beta amyloid is deposited as senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea and red wine extracts interrupt Alzheimer's disease pathway in cells - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "They were able to interrupt this pathway using the purified extracts of EGCG from green tea and resveratrol from red wine ... Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a distinct build-up of amyloid protein in the brain, which clumps together to form toxic, sticky balls of varying shapes. These amyloid balls latch on to the surface of nerve cells in the brain by attaching to proteins on the cell surface called prions, causing the nerve cells to malfunction and eventually die ... The team formed amyloid balls in a test tube and added them to human and animal brain cells ... When we added the extracts from red wine and green tea, which recent research has shown to re-shape amyloid proteins, the amyloid balls no longer harmed the nerve cells" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, omega-3 may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Our new study sheds further light on a possible role for nutritional substances such as vitamin D3 and omega-3 in boosting immunity to help fight Alzheimer's ... The team incubated the immune cells overnight with amyloid-beta. They added either an active form of vitamin D3 called 1alpha,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 or an active form of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA called resolvin D1 to some of the cells to gauge the effect they had on inflammation and amyloid-beta absorption ... Both 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and resolvin D1 improved the ability of the Alzheimer's disease patients' macrophages to gobble-up amyloid-beta, and they inhibited the cell death that is induced by amyloid-beta. Researchers observed that each nutrition molecule utilized different receptors and common signaling pathways to do this"
  • Mild vitamin B12 deficiency associated with accelerated cognitive decline - Science Daily, 12/5/12 - "examined data from 549 men and women enrolled in a cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, focusing on scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a short list of questions and tasks commonly used to screen for dementia. The subjects were divided into five groups, based on their vitamin B-12 blood levels ... Being in the two lowest groups was associated with significantly accelerated cognitive decline ... Rapid neuropsychiatric decline is a well-known consequence of severe vitamin B-12 deficiency, but our findings suggest that adverse cognitive effects of low vitamin B-12 status may affect a much larger proportion of seniors than previously thought" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D tied to women's cognitive performance - Science Daily, 11/30/12 - "Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease ... low vitamin D levels among older women are associated with higher odds of global cognitive impairment and a higher risk of global cognitive decline ... Slinin's group based its analysis on 6,257 community-dwelling older women who had vitamin D levels measured during the Study of Osteopathic Fractures" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • This is your brain on exercise - nbcnews.com, 11/26/12 - "Seniors who fit in the most daily physical activity – from raking leaves to dancing – can have more gray matter in important brain regions ... The scientists have images that show people who were the most active had 5 percent more gray matter than people who were the least active. Having more little gray brain cells translates into a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease, other studies have shown ... the MRIs showed the differences were in areas of the brain like the hippocampus, which is heavily damaged in Alzheimer’s disease ... No pharmaceutical drug on the market has been shown to have these effects on the brain -- not a single drug ...  And exercise is available to anyone ... And it doesn’t cost anything"
  • Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study - Nutr J. 2012 Nov 22;11(1):99 - "Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily) were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p < 0.05). In contrast to placebo, n-3 PUFA lowered plasma triacylglycerides (P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), f-glucose (p = 0.05), and s-TNF-alpha (p = 0.05), were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests ... Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D could hold vital key to arresting development of Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 11/8/12 - "Alzheimer's patients who were not using medication had very poor stores of vitamin D2 -- the type originating from food such as oily fish, rather than that obtained from exposure to the sun. "The vitamin was either non-existent or in such low quantities that it could barely be measured," he explained. "In comparison, people in the study who were either being treated with drugs to control their Alzheimer's or who didn't have the condition at all showed far higher levels."" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin may slow the decline in mental capacity among elderly patients, Swedish study suggests - Science Daily, 10/22/12 - "Of the 681 women, 129 received a low daily dose of acetylsalicylic acid, equivalent to a fourth of an aspirin, to prevent heart disease. The Gothenburg study shows that acetylsalicylic acid also slowed decline in brain capacity among the elderly women ... At the end of the five year examination period mental capacity had declined among all the women and the portion that suffered from dementia was equally large in the entire group. However, the decline in brain capacity was significantly less and occurred at a slower pace among the women who received acetylsalicylic acid"
  • Exercise Protects Aging Brains Better - WebMD, 10/22/12 - "The new research included about 700 people living in the United Kingdom who all had brain scans when they reached the age of 73 ... Three years earlier, at age 70, the study participants were questioned about the leisure and physical activities they engaged in ... People in the study who reported being the most physically active tended to have larger brain volumes of gray and normal white matter, and physical activity was linked to less brain atrophy ... Regular exercise also appeared to protect against the formation of white matter lesions, which are linked to thinking and memory decline"
  • Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: Influence of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Use in the VITA Cohort - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(8):687-94 - "Increased serum homocysteine and low folate levels are associated with a higher rate of conversion to dementia ... The self-reported combined use of folic acid and vitamin B12 for more than one year was associated with a lower conversion rate to dementia. Serum levels of homocysteine and vitamin B12 as measured at baseline or at five years were not associated with conversion. Higher folate levels at baseline in females predicted a lower conversion rate to dementia. The assessment of brain morphological parameters by magnetic resonance imaging revealed higher serum folate at baseline, predicting lower medial temporal lobe atrophy and higher levels of homocysteine at baseline, predicting moderate/severe global brain atrophy at five years. Users of vitamin B12 or folate, independent of time and pattern of use, had lower grades of periventricular hyperintensities and lower grades of deep white matter lesions as compared to non-users" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Eating lots of carbs, sugar may raise risk of cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 10/16/12 - "People 70 and older who eat food high in carbohydrates have nearly four times the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, and the danger also rises with a diet heavy in sugar, Mayo Clinic researchers have found. Those who consume a lot of protein and fat relative to carbohydrates are less likely to become cognitively impaired ... Researchers tracked 1,230 people ages 70 to 89 who provided information on what they ate during the previous year ... A high carbohydrate intake could be bad for you because carbohydrates impact your glucose and insulin metabolism"
  • Caffeine may block inflammation linked to mild cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "Freund's team examined the effects of caffeine on memory formation in two groups of mice -- one group given caffeine, the other receiving none. The two groups were then exposed to hypoxia, simulating what happens in the brain during an interruption of breathing or blood flow, and then allowed to recover ... The caffeine-treated mice recovered their ability to form a new memory 33 percent faster than the non-caffeine-treated mice. In fact, caffeine had the same anti-inflammatory effect as blocking IL-1 signaling. IL-1 is a critical player in the inflammation associated with many neurodegenerative diseases ... caffeine blocks all the activity of adenosine and inhibits caspase-1 and the inflammation that comes with it, limiting damage to the brain and protecting it from further injury"
  • Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Neurology. 2012 Sep 25;79(13):1397-405 - "Thirty-seven studies were included; 8 contained data allowing mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores to be compared between participants with vitamin D <50 nmol/L to those with values ≥50 nmol/L. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies that compared the WMD for MMSE but an overall positive effect for the higher vitamin D group (1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 1.9; I(2) = 0.65; p = 0.002). The small positive effect persisted despite several sensitivity analyses. Six studies presented data comparing Alzheimer disease (AD) to controls but 2 utilized a method withdrawn from commercial use. For the remaining 4 studies the AD group had a lower vitamin D concentration compared to the control group (WMD = -6.2 nmol/L, 95% CI -10.6 to -1.8) with no heterogeneity (I(2) < 0.01; p = 0.53) ... These results suggest that lower vitamin D concentrations are associated with poorer cognitive function and a higher risk of AD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Melatonin and exercise work against Alzheimer's in mice - Science Daily, 9/26/12 - "The mice were divided into one control group and three other groups which would undergo different treatments: exercise -unrestricted use of a running wheel-, melatonin -a dose equivalent to 10 mg per kg of body weight-, and a combination of melatonin and voluntary physical exercise ... After six months, the state of the mice undergoing treatment was closer to that of the mice with no mutations than to their own initial pathological state. From this we can say that the disease has significantly regressed ... The results, which were published in the journal Neurobiology of Aging, show a general improvement in behaviour, learning, and memory with the three treatments ... These procedures also protected the brain tissue from oxidative stress and provided good levels of protection from excesses of amyloid beta peptide and hyperphosphorylated TAU protein caused by the mutations" - Note:  That's a huge amount of melatonin though but then on the other hand it was a short six month period but on the third hand, mice have a much shorter life span so it might interpolate to a much longer time span for humans.  See Source Naturals, Melatonin, 2.5 mg, Peppermint Flavored Sublingual, 60 Tablets which is what I take.
  • Higher Free Thyroxine Levels Predict Increased Incidence of Dementia in Older Men: The Health In Men Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep 13 - "Men who developed dementia had higher baseline FT(4) (16.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 15.9 +/- 2.2 pmol/liter, P = 0.004) but similar TSH (2.2 +/- 1.4 vs. 2.3 +/- 1.6 mU/liter, P = 0.23) compared with men who did not receive this diagnosis. After adjusting for covariates, higher FT(4) predicted new-onset dementia (11% increased risk per 1 pmol/liter increase in FT(4), P = 0.005; quartiles Q2-4 vs. Q1: adjusted hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.00, P = 0.04). There was no association between TSH quartiles and incident dementia. When the analysis was restricted to euthyroid men (excluding those with subclinical hyper- or hypothyroidism), higher FT(4) remained associated with incident dementia (11% increase per unit increment, P = 0.03; Q2-4 vs. Q1: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-3.71, P = 0.024)" - Note:  There is also an association with a low T3/T4 ration and insulin resistance.  I alternate between taking T4 on day and T3 the next.  Doctor's seem to refuse to prescribe both.  See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Vitamin C and beta-carotene might protect against dementia - Science Daily, 9/11/12 - "A total of 74 AD-patients and 158 healthy controls were examined for the study that has been published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD) ... The concentration of vitamin C and beta-carotene in the serum of AD-patients was significantly lower than in the blood of control subjects. Whereas no such difference between the groups could be found for the other antioxidants (vitamin E, lycopene, coenzyme Q10)" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment - Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Oct;33(10):2282-90 - "Vitamin E includes 8 natural compounds (4 tocopherols, 4 tocotrienols) with potential neuroprotective activity. α-Tocopherol has mainly been investigated in relation to cognitive impairment ... Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Brush your teeth! Dental health linked to dementia risk - MSNBC, 8/21/12 - "Inflammation stoked by gum disease-related bacteria is implicated in a host of conditions including heart disease, stroke and diabetes ... It's thought that gum disease bacteria might get into the brain, causing inflammation and brain damage ... followed 5,468 residents of a Californian retirement community from 1992 to 2010. Most people in the study were white, well-educated and relatively affluent. When the study began, participants ranged in age from 52 to 105, with an average age of 81 ... All were free of dementia at the outset, when they answered questions about their dental health habits, the condition of their teeth and whether they wore dentures ... followed up 18 years later ... Of 78 women who said they brushed their teeth less than once a day in 1992, 21 had dementia by 2010, or about one case per 3.7 women ... In comparison, among those who brushed at least once a day, closer to one in every 4.5 women developed dementia which translates to a 65-percent greater chance of dementia among those who brushed less than daily"
  • Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe - Neurology. 2012 Aug 1 - "A total of 281 community dwellers from the Three-City Study, aged 65 years or older, had plasma fatty acid measurements at baseline and underwent MRI examinations at baseline and at 4 years. We studied the association between plasma EPA and DHA and MTL gray matter volume change at 4 years ... Higher plasma EPA, but not DHA, was associated with lower gray matter atrophy of the right hippocampal/parahippocampal area and of the right amygdala (p < 0.05, familywise error corrected). Based on a mean right amygdala volume loss of 6.0 mm(3)/y (0.6%), a 1 SD higher plasma EPA (+0.64% of total plasma fatty acids) at baseline was related to a 1.3 mm(3) smaller gray matter loss per year in the right amygdala. Higher atrophy of the right amygdala was associated with greater 4-year decline in semantic memory performances and more depressive symptoms ... The amygdala, which develops neuropathology in the early stage of AD and is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, may be an important brain structure involved in the association between EPA and cognitive decline and depressive symptoms" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Supplement May Aid Vascular Dementia Memory Problems - Medscape, 8/1/12 - "at 9 months, there was a significant difference in Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in citicoline users vs nonusers ... A psychostimulant, citicoline has been shown to inhibit brain cell death associated with cerebral ischemia. It has also been shown to inhibit neurodegeneration and is able to increase neuroplasticity and noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the central nervous system ... Those in the active treatment group received oral citicoline at a dose of 500 mg twice a day" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Medical Food Linked to Memory Improvement in Mild Alzheimer's - Medscape, 7/23/12 - "Administration of a medical food designed to improve synaptic dysfunction is associated with continuous memory improvement in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... The once-a-day drink contains a patented nutrient combination with the following ingredients: Eicospentaenoic acid, 300 mg ... Docosahexaenoic acid, 1200 mg ... Phospholipids 106 mg ... Choline, 400 mg ... Uridine monophosphate, 625 mg ... Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol equivalents), 40 mg ... Selenium, 60 µg ... Vitamin B12, 3 µg ... Vitamin B6, 1 µg ... Folic acid, 400 µg"
  • Gingko biloba extract EGb 761®: clinical data in dementia - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Aug;24 Suppl 1:S35-40 - "Research into Gingko biloba extract EGb 761® has been ongoing for many years. Early studies showed that the extract was superior to placebo in improving symptoms of dementia, and this has been confirmed by more recent research. The GINDEM-NP, GOTADAY and GOT-IT! studies showed that 240 mg/day EGb 761® improved cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life in patients with mild to moderate dementia compared with placebo, with results reproducible in independent trials. The strength of the effect in terms of improvements in neurosensory symptoms associated with old age and dementia was strong enough to be detected by caregivers and independent clinicians. A combination of 240 mg/day EGb 761® and 10 mg/day (initially 5 mg/day) donepezil was also more effective than either drug alone. Regarding the improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms, a cross-comparison of studies with different antidementia agents suggests that EGb 761® is at least as effective as memantine, galantamine, and donepezil. Safety data revealed no important safety concerns with EGb 761®" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin May Help Renew Neurons - Medscape, 7/10/12 - "Animal studies showed that metformin activates a key pathway (aPKC-CBP) that promotes neurogenesis and enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial memory formation in study animals. Results also showed that the drug has similar activity on human neural precursors, increasing the likelihood that it might enhance neurogenesis in the human brain as well ... compared with mice given a control substance, those treated with metformin had about a third more new neurons in the hippocampus, and almost double the number of new neurons produced by stem cells ... in a spatial learning maze test, mice given metformin (200 mg/kg) were significantly better able to learn the location of a submerged platform compared with those given a sterile saline solution" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Nutrient mixture improves memory in patients with early Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 7/10/12 - "Wurtman came up with a mixture of three naturally occurring dietary compounds: choline, uridine and the omega-3 fatty acid DHA ... These nutrients are precursors to the lipid molecules that, along with specific proteins, make up brain-cell membranes, which form synapses. To be effective, all three precursors must be administered together ... In animal studies, he showed that his dietary cocktail boosted the number of dendritic spines, or small outcroppings of neural membranes, found in brain cells. These spines are necessary to form new synapses between neurons ... 40 percent of patients who consumed the drink improved in a test of verbal memory, while 24 percent of patients who received the control drink improved their performance ... Patients, whether taking Souvenaid or a placebo, improved their verbal-memory performance for the first three months, but the placebo patients deteriorated during the following three months, while the Souvenaid patients continued to improve ... as the trial went on, the brains of patients receiving the supplements started to shift from patterns typical of dementia to more normal patterns. Because EEG patterns reflect synaptic activity, this suggests that synaptic function increased following treatment, the researchers say" - Avoid the patent mark-up.  See citicholine at Amazon.com, uridine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes drug may someday repair Alzheimer's damage - MSNBC, 7/6/12 - "The diabetes medication was intended to target a specific pathway in liver cells. In the new study, researchers found that the drug activated that same pathway in brain cells, prompting new cell growth ... The new cells that are produced could help to repair the effects of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease ... new brain cells grew in both living mice and in human brain cell cultures growing in lab dishes. They are now working to set up clinical trials ... A 2008 study found that patients with both diabetes and Alzheimer’s who began taking metformin experienced improvements in their Alzheimer's symptoms after starting on the drug" - See metformin at IAS.
  • High blood caffeine levels in older adults linked to avoidance of Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 6/4/12 - "The collaborative study involved 124 people, ages 65 to 88, in Tampa and Miami ... These intriguing results suggest that older adults with mild memory impairment who drink moderate levels of coffee -- about 3 cups a day -- will not convert to Alzheimer's disease -- or at least will experience a substantial delay before converting to Alzheimer's ... The results from this study, along with our earlier studies in Alzheimer's mice, are very consistent in indicating that moderate daily caffeine/coffee intake throughout adulthood should appreciably protect against Alzheimer's disease later in life ... We found that 100 percent of the MCI patients with plasma caffeine levels above the critical level experienced no conversion to Alzheimer's disease during the two-to-four year follow-up period ... In addition to Alzheimer's disease, moderate caffeine/coffee intake appears to reduce the risk of several other diseases of aging, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Type II diabetes, and breast cancer"
  • Greater purpose in life may protect against harmful changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 5/7/12 - "These findings suggest that purpose in life protects against the harmful effects of plaques and tangles on memory and other thinking abilities. This is encouraging and suggests that engaging in meaningful and purposeful activities promotes cognitive health in old age ... The Rush Memory and Aging Project, which began in 1997, is a longitudinal clinical-pathological study of common chronic conditions of aging. Participants are older persons recruited from about 40 continuous care retirement communities and senior subsidized housing facilities in and around the Chicago Metropolitan area"
  • Biosynthetic grape-derived compound prevents progression of Alzheimer’s disease in animal model - Science Daily, 5/1/12 - "Polyphenols, which occur naturally in grapes, fruits, and vegetables, have been shown to prevent the cognitive decline associated with AD in a mouse model, but the molecules are very complex and are extensively metabolized in the body. This is the first study to determine which specific subfraction of these molecules penetrates the animal brain, and demonstrate that a drug compound similar to polyphenols can exert similar bioactivities ... Dr. Pasinetti's team analyzed the structure of this polyphenol by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and recreated it biosynthetically in the laboratory. Dr. Pasinetti and his collaborators discovered that the synthetic polyphenol generated in the laboratory also promoted plasticity and benefits in learning and memory functions in the brains of the mice" - Note:  Sounds like a way to get rich off a patent when the original natural version is probably better in the first place. - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Eating fish, chicken, nuts may lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - "A new study suggests that eating foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish, chicken, salad dressing and nuts, may be associated with lower blood levels of a protein related to Alzheimer's disease and memory problems ... 1,219 people older than age 65, free of dementia, provided information about their diet for an average of 1.2 years before their blood was tested for the beta-amyloid. Researchers looked specifically at 10 nutrients, including saturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin D ... the more omega-3 fatty acids a person took in, the lower their blood beta-amyloid levels. Consuming one gram of omega-3 per day (equal to approximately half a fillet of salmon per week) more than the average omega-3 consumed by people in the study is associated with 20 to 30 percent lower blood beta-amyloid levels ... Other nutrients were not associated with plasma beta-amyloid levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Vitamin D Dietary Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A 7-Year Follow-up - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr 13 - "Women who developed AD (n = 70) had lower baseline vitamin D intakes (mean, 50.3 +/- 19.3 μg/wk) than nondemented (n = 361; mean intake = 59.0 +/- 29.9 μg/wk, p = .027) or those who developed other dementias (n = 67; mean intake = 63.6 +/- 38.1 μg/wk, p = .010). There was no difference between other dementias and no dementia (p = .247). Baseline vitamin D dietary intakes were associated with the onset of AD (adjusted odds ratio = 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.98-0.99], p = .041) but not with other dementias (p = .071). Being in the highest quintile of vitamin D dietary intakes was associated with a lower risk of AD compared with the lower 4 quintiles combined (adjusted odds ratio = 0.23 [95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.67], p = .007) ... Higher vitamin D dietary intake was associated with a lower risk of developing AD among older women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Does Lithium Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? - Drugs Aging. 2012 Apr 14 - "Lithium salts have a well-established role in the treatment of major affective disorders. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have provided evidence that lithium may also exert neuroprotective effects. In animal and cell culture models, lithium has been shown to increase neuronal viability through a combination of mechanisms that includes the inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of autophagy, increased mitochondrial function, and synthesis of neurotrophic factors. In humans, lithium treatment has been associated with humoral and structural evidence of neuroprotection, such as increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes, inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortical thickening, increased grey matter density, and hippocampal enlargement ... A recent placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) showed that long-term lithium treatment may actually slow the progression of cognitive and functional deficits, and also attenuate Tau hyperphosphorylation in the MCI-AD continuum" - See lithium supplement at Amazon.com.
  • Japanese traditional therapy, honokiol, blocks key protein in inflammatory brain damage, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/19/12 - "honokiol (HNK) is able to down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in activated microglia via Klf4, a protein known to regulate DNA ... HNK can easily move across the blood brain barrier and we found that HNK reduced levels of pNF-kb and Klf4 as well as the number of activated microglia in the brains of LPS treated mice" - Note:  Relora (honokiol) is also purported to lower cortisol.  See Relora at Amazon.com.
  • Scientists pinpoint how vitamin D may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 3/6/12 - "vitamin D3 may activate key genes and cellular signaling networks to help stimulate the immune system to clear the amyloid-beta protein ... in both Type I and Type II macrophages, the added 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 played a key role in opening a specific chloride channel called "chloride channel 3 (CLC3)," which is important in supporting the uptake of amyloid beta through the process known as phagocytosis. Curcuminoids activated this chloride channel only in Type I macrophages ... The scientists also found that 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 strongly helped trigger the genetic transcription of the chloride channel and the receptor for 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Type II macrophages" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Brain Age Better - WebMD, 2/27/12 - "the results suggest diets lacking in omega-3 fatty acids may cause the brain to age faster ... people whose DHA levels were in the bottom 25% of the group had lower brain volumes compared with people with higher DHA levels ... In addition, people with both low DHA and all the other omega-3 fatty acid levels scored lower on tests of visual memory, processing, and abstract thinking ... Researchers say the results suggest that low DHA and other omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with a pattern of memory and brain function problems even in people free of dementia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet May Protect Brain - WebMD, 2/13/12 - "white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) ... WMHV is an indicator of small blood vessel damage in the brain and is detected by magnetic resonance screening (MRI) ... researchers compared the brain scans and diets of 966 adults with an average age of 72 ... those who most closely followed a Mediterranean diet had a lower measure of WMHV than those who did not. Each increase in the Mediterranean diet score was associated with a corresponding decrease in white matter hyperintensity volume score ... the aspect of the Mediterranean diet that seemed to matter most was the ratio of monounsaturated fat to saturated fat"
  • More vitamin E linked to better mental function: Study - Nutra USA, 1/11/12 - "Alzheimer patients were 85% less likely to have the highest levels of vitamin E, compared with people with normal cognitive function ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) ... the new study is said to be the first to evaluate all the forms of vitamin E in relation to Alzheimer’s disease ... Consumers should be taking a full spectrum vitamin E especially for improving/ preserving cognitive health and performance" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Alzheimer's: Diet patterns may keep brain from shrinking - Science Daily, 12/29/11 - "People with diets high in several vitamins or in omega 3 fatty acids are less likely to have the brain shrinkage associated with Alzheimer's disease than people whose diets are not high in those nutrients ... Those with diets high in omega 3 fatty acids and in vitamins C, D, E and the B vitamins also had higher scores on mental thinking tests than people with diets low in those nutrients ... people with diets high in trans fats were more likely to have brain shrinkage and lower scores on the thinking and memory tests than people with diets low in trans fats" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant has potential in the Alzheimer's fight - Science Daily, 12/14/11 - "When you cut an apple and leave it out, it turns brown. Squeeze the apple with lemon juice, an antioxidant, and the process slows down ... Simply put, that same "browning" process-known as oxidative stress-happens in the brain as Alzheimer's disease sets in ... an antioxidant can delay the onset of all the indicators of Alzheimer's disease, including cognitive decline. The researchers administered an antioxidant compound called MitoQ to mice genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer's. The results of their study were published in the Nov. 2 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience ... Oxidative stress is believed to cause neurons in the brain to die, resulting in Alzheimer's ... The brain consumes 20 percent of the oxygen in the body even though it only makes up 5 percent of the volume, so it's particularly susceptible to oxidative stress ... MitoQ selectively accumulates in the mitochondria" - Note:  I couldn't find the ingredients but it sounds like a form of co-enzyme Q10.  Here's the form I take: ubiquinol products at Amazon.com
  • Eating fish reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 11/30/11 - "This is the first study to establish a direct relationship between fish consumption, brain structure and Alzheimer's risk ... people who consumed baked or broiled fish at least one time per week had better preservation of gray matter volume on MRI in brain areas at risk for Alzheimer's disease ... Each patient underwent 3-D volumetric MRI of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry, a brain mapping technique that measures gray matter volume, was used to model the relationship between weekly fish consumption at baseline and brain structure 10 years later ... consumption of baked or broiled fish on a weekly basis was positively associated with gray matter volumes in several areas of the brain. Greater hippocampal, posterior cingulate and orbital frontal cortex volumes in relation to fish consumption reduced the risk for five-year decline to MCI or Alzheimer's by almost five-fold ... Consuming baked or broiled fish promotes stronger neurons in the brain's gray matter by making them larger and health"
  • B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests, including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of 70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing 0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: A cross-sectional examination - Neurology. 2011 Sep 27;77(13):1276-82 - "Concentrations of all vitamin B12-related markers, but not serum vitamin B12 itself, were associated with global cognitive function and with total brain volume. Methylmalonate levels were associated with poorer episodic memory and perceptual speed, and cystathionine and 2-methylcitrate with poorer episodic and semantic memory. Homocysteine concentrations were associated with decreased total brain volume. The homocysteine-global cognition effect was modified and no longer statistically significant with adjustment for white matter volume or cerebral infarcts. The methylmalonate-global cognition effect was modified and no longer significant with adjustment for total brain volume ... Methylmalonate, a specific marker of B12 deficiency, may affect cognition by reducing total brain volume whereas the effect of homocysteine (nonspecific to vitamin B12 deficiency) on cognitive performance may be mediated through increased white matter hyperintensity and cerebral infarcts. Vitamin B12 status may affect the brain through multiple mechanisms" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage ... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18 to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 may ease depression symptoms, slash dementia risk: RCT - Nutra USA, 9/23/11 - "recruited 50 people over the age of 65 to participate in their six-month double-blind, randomized controlled trial ... Participants received daily supplements of EPA- or DHA-rich fish oil, or the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA, 2.2 grams per day). The EPA-rich supplement provided 1.67 grams of EPA and 0.16 grams of DHA, while the DHA-rich supplement provided 1.55 grams of DHA and 0.40 grams of EPA ... compared with the group receiving the LA supplements, the EPA-rich supplement group displayed higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale ... On the other hand, the DHA group displayed improvements in verbal fluency ... These results indicate that DHA-rich and EPA-rich fish oils may be effective for depressive symptoms and health parameters, exerting variable effects on cognitive and physical outcomes" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Aerobic exercise may reduce the risk of dementia, researchers say - Science Daily, 9/7/11 - "Researchers examined the role of aerobic exercise in preserving cognitive abilities and concluded that it should not be overlooked as an important therapy against dementia ... Examples include walking, gym workouts and activities at home such as shoveling snow or raking leaves ... We culled through all the scientific literature we could find on the subject of exercise and cognition, including animal studies and observational studies, reviewing over 1,600 papers, with 130 bearing directly on this issue ... brain imaging studies have consistently revealed objective evidence of favorable effects of exercise on human brain integrity"
  • Natural Alzheimer's-fighting compound created inexpensively in lab - Science Daily, 8/25/11 - "Until now, researchers have only been able to derive small amounts of the compound directly from the Huperzia serrata plant, or had to resort to lengthy and cumbersome methods to synthesize it in the lab ... Now researchers at Yale have developed a practical and cost-effective method to synthesize huperzine A in the lab. The process requires just eight steps and produces a yield of 40 percent. Previously, the best synthetic techniques had required twice as many steps and achieved yields of only two percent ... In addition, the Herzon lab and the firm are working with the U.S. Army, which is interested in huperzine A's potential in blocking the effects of chemical warfare agents ... Other Alzheimer's treatments based on enzyme inhibitors are currently prescribed in the U.S., but huperzine A binds better, is more easily absorbed by the body and last longer in the body than other treatments ... We believe huperzine A has the potential to treat a range of neurologic disorders more effectively than the current options available" - See huperzine at Amazon.com.
  • Treatment with vitamin C dissolves toxic protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/18/11 - "The brains of people with Alzheimer's disease contain lumps of so-called amyloid plaques which consist of misfolded protein aggregates. They cause nerve cell death in the brain and the first nerves to be attacked are the ones in the brain's memory centre ... When we treated brain tissue from mice suffering from Alzheimer's disease with vitamin C, we could see that the toxic protein aggregates were dissolved ... The notion that vitamin C can have a positive effect on Alzheimer's disease is controversial, but our results open up new opportunities for research into Alzheimer's and the possibilities offered by vitamin C" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil's impact on cognition and brain structure identified in new study - Science Daily, 8/17/11 - "Researchers at Rhode Island Hospital's Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center have found positive associations between fish oil supplements and cognitive functioning as well as differences in brain structure between users and non-users of fish oil supplements ... compared to non-users, use of fish oil supplements was associated with better cognitive functioning during the study. However, this association was significant only in those individuals who had a normal baseline cognitive function and in individuals who tested negative for a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease known as APOE4. This is consistent with previous research ... The unique finding, however, is that there was a clear association between fish oil supplements and brain volume ... In other words, fish oil use was associated with less brain shrinkage in patients taking these supplements during the ADNI study compared to those who didn't report using them" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Natural chemical found in grapes may protect against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 7/16/11 - "grape seed polyphenols -- a natural antioxidant -- may help prevent the development or delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease ... This is the first study to evaluate the ability of grape-derived polyphenols to prevent the generation of a specific form of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, a substance in the brain long known to cause the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer disease ... administered grape seed polyphenolic extracts to mice genetically determined to develop memory deficits and Aβ neurotoxins similar to those found in Alzheimer's disease. They found that the brain content of the Aβ*56, a specific form of Aβ previously implicated in the promotion of Alzheimer's disease memory loss, was substantially reduced after treatment" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • The Body Odd - Coffee buzz protects brain from Alzheimer's - MSNBC, 6/29/11 - "the equivalent of four to five cups of caffeinated coffee every few days led to much improved memories in the Alzheimer’s mice ... Earlier research by Arendash and his colleagues showed that caffeine could at least partially block the production of beta amyloid, the sticky protein that clogs the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. They also found that a substance called granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, or GCSF, sparked the production of new axons, the communication cables that link nerve cells together, as well as new nerve cells themselves"
  • Lithium profoundly prevents brain damage associated with Parkinson's disease, mouse study suggests - Science Daily, 6/24/11 - "lithium has recently been suggested to be neuroprotective in relation to several neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and has been touted for its anti-aging properties in simple animals" - See lithium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Nutritional Supplement Boosts Cognition in Healthy Women - Medscape, 6/21/11 - "Citicoline, a naturally occurring substance found in the brain and liver and marketed as a nutritional supplement, enhanced aspects of cognition in healthy women and may have a role in mitigating the cognitive decline associated with normal aging ... It may also improve the attention deficits associated with psychiatric disorders ... The women were divided into 3 groups of 20 and randomly assigned to receive a daily oral citicoline dose of 250 mg (low dose) or 500 mg (high dose) or placebo for 28 days ... participants who received low- or high-dose citicoline showed improved attention, demonstrating fewer commission and omission errors on the CPT-II compared with the placebo group" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Mystery ingredient in coffee boosts protection against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 6/21/11 - "A yet unidentified component of coffee interacts with the beverage's caffeine, which could be a surprising reason why daily coffee intake protects against Alzheimer's disease. A new Alzheimer's mouse study by researchers at the University of South Florida found that this interaction boosts blood levels of a critical growth factor that seems to fight off the Alzheimer's disease process ... The new study does not diminish the importance of caffeine to protect against Alzheimer's. Rather it shows that caffeinated coffee induces an increase in blood levels of a growth factor called GCSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor). GCSF is a substance greatly decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease and demonstrated to improve memory in Alzheimer's mice ... The boost in GCSF levels is important, because the researchers also reported that long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhances memory in Alzheimer's mice. Higher blood GCSF levels due to coffee intake were associated with better memory ... First, GCSF recruits stem cells from bone marrow to enter the brain and remove the harmful beta-amyloid protein that initiates the disease. GCSF also creates new connections between brain cells and increases the birth of new neurons in the brain ... An increasing body of scientific literature indicates that moderate consumption of coffee decreases the risk of several diseases of aging, including Parkinson's disease, Type II diabetes and stroke"
  • Fatty Acids and Cognitive Decline in Women - Medscape, 6/13/11 - "In this cohort of older women, greater MUFA intake was associated with less cognitive decline over a 3-year period. Previous studies generally but not invariably support this association. One previous prospective study found greater dietary MUFA intake to be associated with less cognitive decline,[10] a second found a trend in the same direction,[9] a third found a trend in the same direction in restricted analyses,[6] and three others were null.[7,8,11] None of the null studies had multiple measures of diet; one assessed diet using a measure of fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes,[7] but that study assessed cognitive decline exclusively using the Mini-Mental State Examination, which is probably not as sensitive as the neuropsychological test battery used in this study ... MUFA is thought to be one of the major protective components of the traditional Mediterranean diet, in which it is derived primarily from olive oil (median 46 g/d).[10] Two recent prospective studies of the Mediterranean diet have found greater adherence to be associated with less cognitive decline and lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD).[31,32] One of these studies found an effect of the Mediterranean diet on an individual cognitive domain, namely memory.[31] This finding is consistent with the observed protective effect of MUFA on memory in the WHI CCW. In addition, the current study found an association between MUFA and less decline in visual–spatial abilities (copying and matching), a finding not previously made to the knowledge of the authors of the current study. Decline in visuospatial function has been associated with driving errors in older adults[33] and has also been suggested as a potential predictor (along with amnestic impairment) of transition from mild cognitive impairment to AD ... Several pathways may explain the apparent relationship between MUFA intake and cognitive function. MUFA and MUFA derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in vivo,[35,36] which may be important because chronic inflammation appears to be a precursor of symptomatic AD.[37–39] Oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD,[40] and derivatives from MUFA, including low-molecular-weight phenols, have been found to have antioxidant effects.[41] MUFA may also exert their potentially beneficial effects on cognition indirectly by decreasing cardiovascular risk by reducing macrophage uptake of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and f triglycerides" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Naturally occurring plant alkaloids could slow down Alzheimer's disease, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/26/11 - "Beta-carboline alkaloids could potentially be used in therapeutic drugs to stop, or at least slow down, the progressively debilitating effects of Alzheimer's ... Beta-carboline alkaloids are found in a number of medicinal plants. They have antioxidant properties, and have been shown to protect brain cells from excessive stimulation of neurotransmitters. "(They) are natural occurring compounds in some plant species that affect multiple central nervous system targets,""
  • Moderate exercise dramatically improves brain blood flow in elderly women - Science Daily, 4/12/11 - "it's never too late for women to reap the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise. In a 3-month study of 16 women age 60 and older, brisk walking for 30-50 minutes three or four times per week improved blood flow through to the brain as much as 15% ... At study's end, the team measured blood flow in the women's carotid arteries again and found that cerebral blood flow increased an average of 15% and 11% in the women's left and right internal carotid arteries, respectively. The women's VO2 max increased roughly 13%, their blood pressure dropped an average of 4%, and their heart rates decreased approximately 5% ... A steady, healthy flow of blood to the brain achieves two things. First, the blood brings oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to the brain, which are vital for the brain's health. Second, the blood washes away brain metabolic wastes such as amyloid-beta protein released into the brain's blood vessels. Amyloid-beta protein has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid reduces amyloid {beta} production via multiple, pleiotropic mechanism - J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 15 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in AD in several epidemiological trials; however the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated ... DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and Presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased non-amyloidogenic processing. Beside the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, which is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and Presenilin1 protein level. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP towards non-amyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism, but the result of combined multiple effects" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Good diets fight bad Alzheimer's genes: Diets high in fish oil have a beneficial effect in patients at risk, researcher says - Science Daily, 2/15/11 - "APOE comes in two forms, a "good" APOE gene and a "bad" APOE gene, called APOE4. He has developed animal models to investigate the effects of diet and environment on carriers of APOE4, the presence of which is a known risk factor for Alzheimer's. It appears in 50% of all Alzheimer's patients, and in 15% of the general population which due to APOE4 is the population which is at risk of getting the disease ... The good news? In preliminary results, the researchers are exhilarated to find that a diet high in Omega 3 oils and low in cholesterol appears to significantly reduce the negative effects of the APOE4 gene in mouse models" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Protective properties of green tea uncovered - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "Regularly drinking green tea could protect the brain against developing Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Higher HDL-C Levels May Curb Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Medscape, 12/16/10 - "There was a definite threshold effect, the researchers say, with a clear reduction in AD risk for people in the highest HDL-C level quartile (>56 mg/dL) ... these analyses were limited by the small number of cases of vascular dementia (n = 16) ... the current study linking higher HDL-C to a lower risk for incident dementia contrast with a prior study by the same researchers. This earlier study involved 1168 participants recruited from the same community in 1992 – 1994 and showed no association between HDL-C and AD ... Compared with the 1992 – 1994 cohort, the 1999 – 2001 cohort had a higher proportion of subjects receiving lipid-lowering treatment (23.4% vs 14.5%), higher mean HDL-C levels (48.3 vs 47.2 mg/dL), and fewer individuals who smoked (9.4% vs 10.6%) and had heart disease (18.8% vs 34.1%)"
  • High levels of 'good' cholesterol may be associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 12/13/10 - "The researchers defined higher levels of HDL cholesterol as 55 milligrams per deciliter or more ... higher levels of HDL cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of both probable and possible Alzheimer's disease"
  • Blueberries and other purple fruits to ward off Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's - Science Daily, 12/7/10 - "Eating purple fruits such as blueberries and drinking green tea can help ward off diseases including Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's ... the majority of debilitating illnesses are in part caused by poorly-bound iron which causes the production of dangerous toxins that can react with the components of living systems ... These toxins, called hydroxyl radicals, cause degenerative diseases of many kinds in different parts of the body ... In order to protect the body from these dangerous varieties of poorly-bound iron, it is vital to take on nutrients, known as iron chelators, which can bind the iron tightly" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chronic high cholesterol diet produces brain damage - Science Daily, 11/24/10 - "chronic high fat cholesterol diet in rats exhibited pathologies similar to Alzheimer's disease ... A third hypothesis suggests that chronic long-lasting mild cerebrovascular damage, including inflammatory processes and oxidative stress, may cause Alzheimer's disease ... chronic hypercholesterolemia [in rats] caused memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, inflammation, enhanced cortical beta-amyloid and tau and induced microbleedings, all indications, which resemble an Alzheimer's disease-like pathology"
  • Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 - "homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1 μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1 pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further investigated"
  • Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 - "holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand, for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010 Sep 14 - "Results showed a significantly lower blood zinc in patients with Alzheimer's and patients with Parkinson's than in controls. Urine zinc excretion, normalized to urine creatinine excretion, was not significantly different in either patient group compared to controls. These patients are probably zinc deficient because of nutritional inadequacy" - Note:  Zinc interferes with copper and too much zinc can cause a deficiency of copper.  See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of 0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
  • Vitamin B is revolutionary new weapon against Alzheimer's Disease telegraph.co.uk, 9/9/10 - "Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) – a kind of memory loss and forgetfulness – and Alzheimer's ... On average, taking B vitamins slowed the rate of brain atrophy by 30 per cent, and in many cases reductions was as high as 53 per cent were seen"
  • Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
  • Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "Serum 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely correlated with four assessments within the spatial working memory (SWM) test parameter (SWM between errors (r=-0.166; P=0.003); SWM between errors 8 boxes (r=-0.134; P=0.038); SWM strategy (r=-0.246; P<0.0001); and SWM total errors (r=-0.174; P<0.003)). When subjects were stratified on the basis of tertiles (T) of serum 25(OH)D (<47.6 (T(1)); 47.6-85.8 (T(2)); and >85.8 (T(3)) nmol/l), fewer errors in SWM test scores occurred in subjects in the third T when compared with the first T (P<0.05-0.084). Stratification by sex showed that these differences between tertiles strengthened (P<0.001-0.043) in the females, but the differences were not significant (P>0.6) in males.Conclusions:Vitamin D insufficiency, but not deficiency, is widespread in the older population of several European countries. Low vitamin D status was associated with a reduced capacity for SWM, particularly in women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Natural substance NT-020 aids aging brains in rats, study finds - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "Aging has been linked to oxidative stress, and we have previously shown that natural compounds made from blueberries, green tea, and amino acids, such as carnosine, are high in antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity .... The combination of these nutrients, called NT-020, creates a synergistic effect that promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the aged animals ... NT-020 may have not only a positive effect on the stem cell niche ... NT-020 may have far-reaching effects on organ function beyond the replacement of injured cells, as demonstrated by cognitive improvement in the NT-020 group"
  • Low vitamin D levels associated with cognitive decline - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "An estimated 40 percent to 100 percent of older adults in the United States and Europe are deficient in vitamin D ... Participants who were severely deficient in vitamin D (having blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 25 nanomoles per liter) were 60 percent more likely to have substantial cognitive decline in general over the six-year period and 31 percent more likely to experience declines on the test measuring executive function than those with sufficient vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Sirtuin1 may boost memory and learning ability; Discovery could lead to new drugs to fight Alzheimer's, other neurological diseases - Science Daily, 7/11/10 - "Resveratrol, found in wine, has been touted as a life-span enhancer because it activates a group of enzymes known as sirtuins, which have gained fame in recent years for their ability to slow the aging process. Now MIT researchers report that Sirtuin1 -- a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene -- also promotes memory and brain flexibility ... We have now found that SIRT1 activity also promotes plasticity and memory" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • High blood levels of vitamin E reduces risk of Alzheimer's, Swedish study finds - Science Daily, 7/7/10 - "High levels of several vitamin E components in the blood are associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in advanced age, suggesting that vitamin E may help prevent cognitive deterioration in elderly people. This is the conclusion reached in a Swedish study ... Vitamin E is a family of eight natural components, but most studies related to Alzheimer's disease investigate only one of these components, +/--tocopherol ... We hypothesized that all the vitamin E family members could be important in protecting against AD ... subjects with higher blood levels of all the vitamin E family forms had a reduced risk of developing AD, compared to subjects with lower levels. After adjusting for various confounders, the risk was reduced by 45-54%, depending on the vitamin E component" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com
  • Compound found in red wine neutralizes toxicity of proteins related to Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "An organic compound found in red wine -- resveratrol -- has the ability to neutralize the toxic effects of proteins linked to Alzheimer's disease ... this molecule can target some of these packing arrangements that are toxic and rearrange them into packing arrangements that are not toxic. For those forms that are non-toxic, it doesn't change them" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Alcohol consumption may protect against risk of Alzheimer's disease, particularly in female nonsmokers, study finds 0 Science Daily, 5/24/10
  • Caffeine may slow Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, restore cognitive function, according to new evidence - Science Daily, 5/17/10 - "Key findings ... Multiple beneficial effects of caffeine to normalize brain function and prevent its degeneration ... Caffeine's neuroprotective profile and its ability to reduce amyloid-beta production ... Caffeine as a candidate disease-modifying agent for Alzheimer's disease ... Positive impact of caffeine on cognition and memory performance ... Identification of adenosine A2A receptors as the main target for neuroprotection afforded by caffeine consumption ... Confirmation of data through valuable meta-analyses presented ... Epidemiological studies corroborated by meta-analysis suggesting that caffeine may be protective against Parkinson's disease"
  • Low Vitamin D Level Tied to Cognitive Decline - WebMD, 4/16/10 - "Two new studies add to evidence that older people with low levels of vitamin D may be more likely to suffer from cognitive impairment. ... Results showed that the lower their score on the test, the lower their vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Plays a Preventive Role Against Alzheimer's Disease - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "Regular physical activity increases the endurance of cells and tissues to oxidative stress, vascularization, energy metabolism, and neurotrophin synthesis, all important in neurogenesis, memory improvement, and brain plasticity. Although extensive studies are required to understand the mechanism, it is clear that physical exercise is beneficial in the prevention of AD and other age-associated neurodegenerative disorders"
  • Caffeine Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline: A Cohort Study from Portugal - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "Caffeine intake (> 62 mg/day [3rd third] vs. < 22 mg/day [1st third]) was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline in women (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.24-0.97), but not significantly in men (RR=0.65, 95%CI 0.27-1.54)" - Note:  I don't know how they determine that 0.65 isn't significant.
  • Caffeine as a Protective Factor in Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "In the CAIDE study, coffee drinking of 3-5 cups per day at midlife was associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD by about 65% at late-life. In conclusion, coffee drinking may be associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD. This may be mediated by caffeine and/or other mechanisms like antioxidant capacity and increased insulin sensitivity. This finding might open possibilities for prevention or postponing the onset of dementia/AD"
  • DHA May Prevent Age-Related Dementia - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 24 - "DHA is pleiotropic, acting at multiple steps to reduce the production of the beta-amyloid peptide, widely believed to initiate AD. DHA moderates some of the kinases that hyperphosphorylate the tau-protein, a component of the neurofibrillary tangle. DHA may help suppress insulin/neurotrophic factor signaling deficits, neuroinflammation, and oxidative damage that contribute to synaptic loss and neuronal dysfunction in dementia. Finally, DHA increases brain levels of neuroprotective brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reduces the (n-6) fatty acid arachidonate and its prostaglandin metabolites that have been implicated in promoting AD. Clinical trials suggest that DHA or fish oil alone can slow early stages of progression, but these effects may be apolipoprotein E genotype specific, and larger trials with very early stages are required to prove efficacy. We advocate early intervention in a prodromal period with nutrigenomically defined subjects with an appropriately designed nutritional supplement, including DHA and antioxidants" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid Deficiency and Prefrontal Cortex Neuropathology in Recurrent Affective Disorders - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 10 - "Increasing evidence suggests that docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)], the principal (n-3) fatty acid in brain gray matter, has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. Preliminary clinical evidence also suggests that the perinatal accrual, and the subsequent dietary maintenance of, cortical DHA is positively associated with cortical gray matter volumes. The pathophysiology of recurrent affective disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression, is associated with (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, DHA deficits, impaired astrocyte mediated vascular coupling, neuronal shrinkage, and reductions in gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Preclinical studies have also observed neuronal shrinkage and indices of astrocyte pathology in the DHA-deficient rat brain. Together, this body of evidence supports the proposition that DHA deficiency increases vulnerability to neuronal atrophy in the PFC of patients with affective disorders" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 may reduce risk of Alzheimer’s: Rat study - Nutra USA, 2/1/10 - "This study, for the first time, reported […] a clear correlation between the decrease in acetylcholine release and memory deficit, [and] E-EPA improves memory by attenuating the reduction of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression ... In this study, our findings add further evidence that E-EPA may improve memory by the modulation of acetylcholineand neurotrophin functions" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Reductions of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression are correlated with memory impairment induced by interleukin-1beta administrations: effects of omega-3 fatty acid EPA treatment - J Neurochem. 2009 Dec 3 - "E-EPA treatment significantly improved the memory, which was correlated with normalizing ACh release, and expressions of NGF and IL-1beta" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoid intake and disability-adjusted life years due to Alzheimer's and related dementias: a population-based study involving twenty-three developed countries - Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan 11:1-7 - "Flavonols and combined flavonoids (all five combined) intakes were the only two parameters with significant (P < 0.05) negative dementia correlations. Multiple linear regression models confirmed this relationship, and excluded confounding from some other dietary and non-dietary factors. Similar analyses with non-dementia, neurological/psychiatric diseases did not yield significant correlations. CONCLUSIONS: At a global level, and in the context of different genetic backgrounds, our results suggest that higher consumption of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, is associated with lower population rates of dementia in these countries"
  • Green tea chemical combined with another may hold promise for treatment of brain disorders - Science Daily, 12/3/09 - "Scientists at Boston Biomedical Research Institute (BBRI) and the University of Pennsylvania have found that combining two chemicals, one of which is the green tea component EGCG, can prevent and destroy a variety of protein structures known as amyloids. Amyloids are the primary culprits in fatal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services - Neurology. 2009 Nov 25 - "Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was associated with all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease, stroke (with and without dementia symptoms), and MRI indicators of cerebrovascular disease. These findings suggest a potential vasculoprotective role of vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids boost the birth of new neurons, study finds - Science Daily, 11/24/09 - "a diet rich in polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, patented as an LMN diet, helps boost the production of the brain's stem cells -neurogenesis- and strengthens their differentiation in different types of neuron cells ... mice fed an LMN diet, when compared to those fed a control diet, have more cell proliferation in the two areas of the brain where neurogenesis is produced, the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus, both of which are greatly damaged in patients with Alzheimer's disease ... Polyphenols can be found in tea, beer, grapes, wine, olive oil, cocoa, nuts and other fruits and vegetables. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be found in blue fish and vegetables such as corn, soya beans, sunflowers and pumpkins"
  • NSAIDs Prevent Early Sign Of Alzheimer Disease In Mice Science Daily, 11/12/09 - "If taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen is to protect you from developing Alzheimer disease then you will have to start taking them at a very early age according to research in a mouse model of the disease"
  • Olive oil component could avert Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 10/20/09 - "ADDLs bind within the neural synapses of the brains of Alzheimer's patients and are believed to directly disrupt nerve cell function, eventually leading to memory loss, cell death and global disruption of brain function ... incubation with oleocanthal changed the structure of ADDLs by increasing the protein's size" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Alzheimer's-associated Abeta oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal - Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009 Oct 15;240(2):189-97 - "results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Nuts, Vegetables, Fish Cut Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 10/14/09 - "we discovered an Alzheimer's-disease-protective dietary pattern that was characterized by a high consumption of nuts, fish, salad dressing, poultry, tomatoes, cruciferous, dark, and green leafy vegetables and fruits, and low in high-fat dairy, red meat, organ meat, and butter"
  • Protective Role For Copper In Alzheimer’s Disease - Science Daily, 10/8/09 - "Two articles in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease -- by Dr Chris Exley, Reader in Bioinorganic Chemistry in the Research Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics at Keele University, UK, and Dr Zhao-Feng Jiang, of Beijing Union University, Beijing, China -- have confirmed a potentially protective role for copper in Alzheimer’s disease" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com. Note: High quantities of zinc can lower copper.
  • Natural Compound In Extra-virgin Olive Oil -- Oleocanthal -- May Help Prevent, Treat Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 9/29/09 - "Measuring ADDL binding with and without oleocanthal, they discovered that small amounts of oleocanthal effectively reduced binding of ADDLs to hippocampal synapses. Additional studies revealed that oleocanthal can protect synapses from structural damage caused by ADDLs ... An unexpected finding was that oleocanthal makes ADDLs into stronger targets for antibodies. This action establishes an opportunity for creating more effective immunotherapy treatments, which use antibodies to bind to and attack ADDLs" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Sleep Loss Linked To Increase In Alzheimer's Plaques - Science Daily, 9/24/09 - "Chronic sleep deprivation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease makes Alzheimer's brain plaques appear earlier and more often"
  • How To Boost Value Of Alzheimer's-fighting Compounds - Science Daily, 9/7/09 - "Connie Weaver, Purdue's head of foods and nutrition; and Elsa Janle, a Purdue associate professor of foods and nutrition, found that the amount of polyphenols from grapeseed extract that can reach a rat's brain is as much as 200 percent higher on the 10th consecutive day of feeding as compared to the first. Many previous experiments, in which absorption was measured after single or sporadic doses, often found very little, if any, of the bioactive polyphenols reaching brain tissues. However, more chronic exposure appears to improve absorption ... This shows that reasonable and chronic consumption of these products may be the way to go, rather than single, high doses" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • More Obesity Blues: Obese People Are At Greater Risk For Developing Alzheimer's, Study Finds - Science Daily, 8/25/09 - "They found that obese people had 8 percent less brain tissue than people with normal weight, while overweight people had 4 percent less tissue. According to Thompson, who is also a member of UCLA's Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, this is the first time anyone has established a link between being overweight and having what he describes as "severe brain degeneration.""
  • Green Tea (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits {beta}-Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction through Modification of Secretase Activity via Inhibition of ERK and NF-{kappa}B Pathways in Mice - J Nutr. 2009 Aug 5 - "Compared with untreated mutant PS2 AD mice, treatment with EGCG enhanced memory function and brain alpha-secretase activity but reduced brain beta- and gamma-secretase activities as well as Abeta levels. Moreover, EGCG inhibited the fibrillization of Abeta in vitro with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.5 mg/L. These studies suggest that EGCG may be a beneficial agent in the prevention of development or progression of AD" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • 'Brain Exercises' May Delay Memory Decline In Dementia - Science Daily, 8/4/09 - "People who engage in activities that exercise the brain, such as reading, writing, and playing card games, may delay the rapid memory decline that occurs if they later develop dementia"
  • Vit D-curcumin combo offers brain health potential - Nutra USA, 7/27/09 - "The curcuminoids were found to enhance binding of beta-amyloid to macrophages, and that vitamin D could strongly stimulate the uptake and absorption of beta-amyloid in macrophages in most of the patients ... Since vitamin D and curcumin work differently with the immune system, we may find that a combination of the two or each used alone may be more effective — depending on the individual patient" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.comand curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D_{3} Interacts with Curcuminoids to Stimulate Amyloid-β Clearance by Macrophages of Alzheimer's Disease Patient - J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 May 11 - "1,25D3 strongly stimulated Abeta phagocytosis and clearance while protecting against apoptosis. Certain synthetic curcuminoids in combination with 1,25D3 had additive effects on phagocytosis in Type I but not Type II macrophages. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of 1,25D3 and curcuminoids in macrophages. The 1,25D3 genomic antagonist analog MK inhibited 1,25D3 but not curcuminoid effects, suggesting that 1,25D3 acts through the genomic pathway. In silico, 1,25D3 showed preferential binding to the genomic pocket of the vitamin D receptor, whereas bisdemethoxycurcumin showed preference for the non-genomic pocket. 1,25D3 is a promising hormone for AD immunoprophylaxis because in Type I macrophages combined treatment with 1,25D3 and curcuminoids has additive effects, and in Type II macrophages 1,25D3 treatment is effective alone. Human macrophages are a new paradigm for testing immune therapies for AD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.comand curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant effect of lutein towards phospholipid hydroperoxidation in human erythrocytes - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22:1-5 - "These results suggest that lutein has the potential to act as an important antioxidant molecule in erythrocytes, and it thereby may contribute to the prevention of dementia" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Chemicals Found In Fruit And Vegetables Offer Dementia Hope - Science Daily, 7/19/09 - "a new concept is emerging that suggests flavonoids do not act simply as antioxidants but exert their biological effects through other mechanisms. A small number of recent studies carried out in models of Alzheimer’s disease have found that oral administration of green tea flavonoids or grape flavonoids reduces brain pathology and, in some cases, improves cognition. Dr Williams and colleagues have focused their own cellular studies on a flavonoid called epicatechin, which is abundant in a number of foodstuffs, including cocoa ... epicatechin protects brain cells from damage but through a mechanism unrelated to its antioxidant activity and shown in laboratory tests that it can also reduce some aspects of Alzheimer���s disease pathology" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, Curcumin May Help Clear Amyloid Plaques Found In Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/15/09 - "The team discovered that curcuminoids enhanced the surface binding of amyloid beta to macrophages and that vitamin D strongly stimulated the uptake and absorption of amyloid beta in macrophages in a majority of patients ... Since vitamin D and curcumin work differently with the immune system, we may find that a combination of the two or each used alone may be more effective — depending on the individual patient" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Oily fish may reduce dementia risk: Transcontinental study - Nutra USA, 7/8/09 - "Almost 15,000 people aged 65 or over were surveyed. After adjusting for various confounders and pooling the data from all the sites, the researchers report that they observed a dose-dependent inverse association between dementia and fish consumption" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fish and meat intake and dementia in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "We found a dose-dependent inverse association between fish consumption and dementia (PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Caffeine Reverses Memory Impairment In Mice With Alzheimer's Symptoms - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "Coffee drinkers may have another reason to pour that extra cup. When aged mice bred to develop symptoms of Alzheimer's disease were given caffeine – the equivalent of five cups of coffee a day – their memory impairment was reversed"
  • Silibinin prevents amyloid beta peptide-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in mice - Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 22 - "Silibinin (silybin), a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to have antioxidative properties; however, it remains unclear whether silibinin improves Abeta-induced neurotoxicity ... Silibinin prevented the memory impairment induced by Abeta(25-35) in the Y-maze and novel object recognition tests. Repeated treatment with silibinin attenuated the Abeta(25-35)-induced accumulation of malondialdehyde and depletion of glutathione in the hippocampus ... Silibinin prevents memory impairment and oxidative damage induced by Abeta(25-35) and may be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease" - See silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;17(7):542-55 - "Alzheimer disease (AD) ... vascular dementia (VaD) ... The pooled relative risks (RRs) of AD, VaD, and Any dementia for light to moderate drinkers compared with nondrinkers were 0.72 (95% CI = 0.61-0.86), 0.75 (95% CI = 0.57-0.98), and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.61-0.91), respectively. When the more generally classified "drinkers," were compared with "nondrinkers," they had a reduced risk of AD (RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47-0.94) and Any dementia (RR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.53-0.82) but not cognitive decline. There were not enough data to examine VaD risk among "drinkers." Those classified as heavy drinkers did not have an increased risk of Any dementia compared with nondrinkers, but this may reflect sampling bias. Our results suggest that alcohol drinkers in late life have reduced risk of dementia. It is unclear whether this reflects selection effects in cohort studies commencing in late life, a protective effect of alcohol consumption throughout adulthood, or a specific benefit of alcohol in late life"
  • Statins Can Protect Against Alzheimer’s Disease, According To New Study - Science Daily, 6/22/09 - "They clearly demonstrated that treatment with a statin called Lovastatin could prevent the death of nerve cells under these conditions. The statins not only prevented cells from dying but also prevented the loss of memory capacity that normally occurs after such cell death. In a previous study Dolga had showed that these statins stimulate the protective capacity of tumor necrosis factor, which is a key player in the brain’s immune response" - [Abstract] - Note:  Lovastatin is in red yeast rice.  See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Pretreatment with Lovastatin Prevents N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Neurodegeneration in the Magnocellular Nucleus Basalis and Behavioral Dysfunction - J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 Mar 6 - "From these studies we conclude that treatment with lovastatin may provide protection against neuronal injury in excitotoxic conditions associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease" - Note:  Lovastatin (that's the generic name and therefore shouldn't be capitalized) is in red yeast rice.  See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Is Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Dementia? - Science Daily, 5/26/09 - "Several studies have correlated tooth loss with development of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. There are two primary ways that people lose teeth: dental caries and periodontal disease. Both conditions are linked to low vitamin D levels, with induction of human cathelicidin by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D being the mechanism ... There is also laboratory evidence for the role of vitamin D in neuroprotection and reducing inflammation, and ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function ... those over the age of 60 years should consider having their serum 25(OH)D tested, looking for a level of at least 30 ng/mL but preferably over 40 ng/mL, and supplementing with 1000-2000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or increased time in the sun spring, summer, and fall if below those values" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose Vitamin E Slows Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 5/4/09 - "The clinical-effectiveness study enrolled 540 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (324 women) who had a mean age of nearly 74 years. All were receiving 1 of the following cholinesterase inhibitors: donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine (800 to 1000 U twice daily). In addition, 208 patients received vitamin E (800 to 2000 IU/day) ... Vitamin E treatment showed small to medium effect sizes in slowing functional decline, the abstract reports. For vitamin E, the ADL Cohen's d significantly increased, from 0.20 in year 1 (P = .02) to 0.42 by year 5 (P < .001)"
  • Cholinesterase Inhibition Combined With Antioxidants May Help Alzheimer's Disease Outcomes - Doctor's Guide, 3/17/09 - "Addition of a defined antioxidants formulation (Formula F) to donepezil treatment of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) substantially reduces oxidative stress and provides significant benefits over treatment with donepezil alone"
  • Folate Deficiency May Triple Dementia Risk in the Elderly - Medscape, 3/3/09 - "individuals who were folate deficient at study outset were 3.5 times more likely to develop dementia" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Role of Huperzine A in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Feb 24 - "AD is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder for which there is no cure; available therapies only decrease cognitive decline. Huperzine A, an alkaloid derived from Chinese club moss (H. serrata), acts as a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and may also display neuroprotective properties. Preliminary data suggest that huperzine A may improve cognition; studies ranging from 8 to 12 weeks have found improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination score of 1-5 points ... Although use of huperzine A has shown promising results in patients with AD, data supporting its use are limited by weak study design" - See huperzine at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet May Preserve Memory - WebMD, 2/9/09 - "The Mediterranean diet consists of larger doses of fish, vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereals, and unsaturated fatty acids; low amounts of dairy products, meat, and saturated fats; and a moderate amount of alcohol ... average 4.5 year follow-up period. Those in the top one-third of Mediterranean diet scores had a 28% lower risk (compared to those in the bottom third) of developing a cognitive impairment"
  • Coffee lovers face lower dementia risk - MSNBC, 2/3/09 - "among 1,400 Finnish adults followed for 20 years, those who drank three to five cups of coffee per day in middle-age were two-thirds less likely than non-drinkers to develop dementia, including Alzheimer's disease"
  • Apple Juice Can Delay Onset Of Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "drinking apple juice helped mice perform better than normal in maze trials, and prevented the decline in performance that was otherwise observed as these mice aged ... mice receiving the human equivalent of 2 glasses of apple juice per day for 1 month produced less of a small protein fragment, called "beta-amyloid" that is responsible for forming the "senile plaques" that are commonly found in brains of individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease"
  • Low Levels Of Vitamin D Link To Cognitive Problems In Older People - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "Researchers from the Peninsula Medical School, the University of Cambridge and the University of Michigan, have for the first time identified a relationship between Vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin", and cognitive impairment in a large-scale study of older people ... as levels of Vitamin D went down, levels of cognitive impairment went up. Compared to those with optimum levels of Vitamin D, those with the lowest levels were more than twice as likely to be cognitively impaired" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Midlife Coffee And Tea Drinking May Protect Against Late-life Dementia - Science Daily, 1/14/09 - "coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk for dementia and AD later in life compared to those drinking no or only little coffee. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found among moderate coffee drinkers (drinking 3-5 cups of coffee/day). Adjustments for various confounders did not change the results. Tea drinking was relatively uncommon and was not associated with dementia/AD"
  • Neuroprotective Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose - Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Jan;32(1):55-60 - "aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea ... Oral administration of EGCG (2 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly improved the cognitive deficits in mice and elevated T-SOD and GSH-Px activities, decreased MDA contents in the hippocampus, and reduced the cell apoptosis index and expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the mouse hippocampus. The results suggest that EGCG has potent neuroprotective effects on aging mice induced by D-gal through antioxidative and antiapoptotic mechanisms, indicating that EGCG is worthy of further study in aging" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blood Sugar Linked To Normal Cognitive Aging - Science Daily, 12/30/08 - "Beyond the obvious conclusion that preventing late-life disease would benefit the aging hippocampus, our findings suggest that maintaining blood sugar levels, even in the absence of diabetes, could help maintain aspects of cognitive health. More specifically, our findings predict that any intervention that causes a decrease in blood glucose should increase dentate gyrus function and would therefore be cognitively beneficial" - [WebMD]
  • Moderate Drinking Can Reduce Risks Of Alzheimer's Dementia And Cognitive Decline - Science Daily, 12/29/08 - "Alcohol is a two-edged sword ... Too much is bad. But a little might actually be helpful"
  • Berry Compound Reduces Aging Effect - Science Daily, 12/28/08 - "in aging rats, pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive decline and that improved working memory was linked to pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus region of the brain"
  • Berry extracts may ease age-related mental decline: Study - Nutra USA, 12/12/08 - "The results indicated that in aging rats, pterostilbene was effective in reversing the decline in cognitive function that occurs with naturally with age, and that precedes diseases such as Alzheimer's" - [Abstract]
  • Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14 community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
  • Exercise Increases Brain Growth Factor And Receptors, Prevents Stem Cell Drop In Middle Age - Science Daily, 11/27/08 - "exercise significantly slows down the loss of new nerve cells in the middle-aged mice. They found that production of neural stem cells improved by approximately 200% compared to the middle-aged mice that did not exercise. In addition, the survival of new nerve cells increased by 170% and growth by 190% compared to the sedentary middle-aged mice. Exercise also significantly enhanced stem cell production and maturation in the young mice. In fact, exercise produced a stronger effect in younger mice compared to the older mice"
  • How Red Wine Compounds Fight Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 11/23/08 - "Teplow's lab has been studying how amyloid beta (Aß) is involved in causing Alzheimer's. In this work, researchers monitored how Aß40 and Aß42 proteins folded up and stuck to each other to produce aggregates that killed nerve cells in mice. They then treated the proteins with a polyphenol compound extracted from grape seeds. They discovered that polyphenols carried a one-two punch: They blocked the formation of the toxic aggregates of Aß and also decreased toxicity when they were combined with Aß before it was added to brain cells" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid and the Aging Brain - J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2510-2514 - "Deficits in DHA or its peroxidation appear to contribute to inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD), a common and progressive age-related neurological disorder unique to structures and processes of the human brain" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgo biloba has no benefits against dementia: Study - Nutra USA, 11/19/08 - "The GEM Study involved 3,069 community volunteers with an average age of 79.1 ... Commenting on the study, Dr Fabricant said the study had two major limitations: “One, it looks exclusively at people almost 80 years old who are far more likely to have Alzheimer’s, while ignoring those in middle ages, where the risk for developing the disease rises quickly and prevention could best be analyzed,” ... Two, it excludes completely any consideration of the strong and established role that family history plays with Alzheimer’s. You can’t do a study on the weather without looking at wind and rain.”"
  • Most ginkgo products fail quality testing - Nutra USA, 11/18/08 - "Some companies put less of it in their products than they claim or use ingredient that has been adulterated with inexpensive material that can fool non-specific tests ... companies continued to make products with little to no ginkgo in them, leading Consumerlab to suggest “ginkgo is among the most adulterated herbs.”" - That's why I stay with the top brand names.  They have more to loose with bad  press.  I also think that's why some studies show benefits with certain supplement while other studies don't.  I've been taking Nature's Way, Ginkgold.  I get the paid version of Consumerlab and I thought it was strange that they didn't test that brand. - Ben
  • Ginkgo Biloba Does Not Reduce Dementia Risk, Study Shows - Science Daily, 11/18/08 - "The researchers found no statistical difference in dementia or Alzheimer's disease rates between the groups. Among those taking G. biloba, 277 developed dementia. Among those in the placebo group, 246 developed dementia. Mortality rates also were similar" - I read this after the above article and comments but like I said.
  • Form of Vitamin B3 May Help Alzheimer's - WebMD, 11/4/08 - "Researchers from the University of California, Irvine dissolved nicotinamide in drinking water and fed it to mice with Alzheimer's. The researchers found that nicotinamide prevented mental deficits in mice with Alzheimer's. It also seemed to improve short-term memory of mice without Alzheimer's" - [Science Daily} - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • High-fat Diet Could Promote Development Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/28/08 - "the main neurological markers for Alzheimer's disease are exacerbated in the brains of mice fed a diet rich in animal fat and poor in omega-3s"
  • Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta -protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity - J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 24 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... studies showed that a commercially-available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and depressive symptomatology are independent predictors of dementia risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):714-21 - "A high plasma EPA concentration may decrease the risk of dementia, whereas high ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and of AA to DHA may increase the risk of dementia, especially in depressed older persons. The role of EPA in dementia warrants further research" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Walking Boosts Brainpower - WebMD, 9/2/08 - "Those in the exercise group scored higher on cognitive tests and had better delayed recall. For example, they could more accurately remember a list of words after a certain amount of time had passed than those in the other group ... Unlike medication, which was found to have no significant effect on mild cognitive impairment at 36 months, physical activity has the advantage of health benefits that are not confined to cognitive function alone, as suggested by findings on depression, quality of life, falls, cardiovascular function, and disability"
  • Eating Fish May Reduce the Risk for Subclinical Brain Abnormalities - Medscape, 8/7/08 - "Dietary intake of tuna and other fish appear to lower the prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white-matter abnormalities ... We also found that broiled and baked fish appeared to be beneficial, while fried fish was not ... The findings add to prior evidence suggesting fish with higher eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content appear to have clinically important health benefits" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise May Prevent Brain Shrinkage In Early Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/14/08 - "People with early Alzheimer's disease who were less physically fit had four times more brain shrinkage when compared to normal older adults than those who were more physically fit"
  • Nutrient cocktail may boost memory and learning: study - Nutra USA, 7/10/08 - "It may be possible to use this [combination] to partially restore brain function in people with diseases that decrease the number of brain neurons, including, for example, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's, strokes and brain injuries. Of course, such speculations have to be tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials ... supplemented the diets of gerbils with uridine (in its monophosphate form, 0.5 per cent) and choline (0.1 per cent), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 300 mg/kg/day) for four weeks ... At the end of the study, significant increases in phospholipid levels in the brain were observed when the compounds were given together, while administration of only DHA or UMP or UMP plus choline produced smaller increases" - [Abstract] - See citicholine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary uridine enhances the improvement in learning and memory produced by administering DHA to gerbils - FASEB J. 2008 Jul 7 - "These findings demonstrate that a treatment that increases synaptic membrane content can enhance cognitive functions in normal animals" - See citicholine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Panax Ginseng Enhances Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer Disease - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jun 17 - "ginseng group was treated with Panax ginseng powder (4.5 g/d) for 12 weeks ... After ginseng treatment, the cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and continued up to 12 weeks (P=0.029 and P=0.009 vs. baseline, respectively). After discontinuing ginseng, the improved ADAS and MMSE scores declined to the levels of the control group. These results suggest that Panax ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of AD patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Grape Seed Extract May Reduce Cognitive Decline Associated With Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 6/17/08 - "Chemical analysis showed that the major polyphenol components in the study's grape seed extract product are catechin and epicatechin, which are also abundant in tea and cocoa. These components differ from resveratrol, a polyphenol that has been reported to reduce amyloid beta secretion in cells and generally increase lifespan by mimicking calorie restriction. Resveratrol appears to be effective only at extremely high doses, which may limit its use in people. In contrast, the catechins in the extract product studied appear to be effective at much lower doses" - My favorite is the Jarrow OPC + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise May Cut Risk of Dementia - WebMD, 6/3/08 - "In a study of more than 1,400 adults, those who were physically active in their free time during middle age were 52% less likely to develop dementia 21 years later than their sedentary counterparts. Their chance of developing Alzheimer's disease was slashed even more, by 62%"
  • DHA and Dementia: Preserving Cognition in the Aging Patient (Slides With Audio) - Medscape, 5/22/08 - Good slide show on DHA omega-3 for prevention of dementia and Alzheimer's.  It's 58 minutes though an a bit difficult to get quotes from it.
  • Plant Flavonoid In Celery And Green Peppers Found To Reduce Inflammatory Response In The Brain - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "The new study looked at luteolin (LOO-tee-OH-lin), a plant flavonoid known to impede the inflammatory response in several types of cells outside the central nervous system ... Those cells that were also exposed to luteolin showed a significantly diminished inflammatory response. Jang showed that luteolin was shutting down production of a key cytokine in the inflammatory pathway, interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effects of luteolin exposure were dramatic, resulting in as much as a 90 percent drop in IL-6 production in the LPS-treated cells ... Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 are very well known to inhibit certain types of learning and memory that are under the control of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is also very vulnerable to the insults of aging ... If you had the potential to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in the brain you could potentially limit the cognitive deficits that result" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • Plants' Flavonoids Have Beneficial Effect On Alzheimer's Disease, Study In Mice Suggests - Science Daily, 5/7/08 - "Researchers administered molecules called flavonoids, which are found in certain fruits and vegetables, to a mouse model genetically programmed to develop Alzheimer's disease. Using two of these molecules, luteolin and diosmin, they were able to reduce the levels of a protein called amyloid-beta, which forms the sticky deposits that build up in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's" - See bioflavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Ibuprofen May Cut Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 5/5/08 - "Use of ibuprofen pain relievers like Advil and Motrin for more than five years reduced Alzheimer's risk by 44% in a study reported in the May issue of Neurology"
  • Green tea's Alzheimer protection gets more support - Nutra USA, 4/25/08 - "Polyphenon E (PE) ... The animals receiving the green tea extract should significantly decreased beta-amyloid-induced changes to the reference and working memory, while levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were 42 per cent less than the controls animals infused with the protein ... a person (with a body weight of 50 kg) would have to drink about three litres of PE per day to get similar effects ... However, humans consume antioxidants (including vitamins A, B, C and E as well as polyphenols, etc.) from various food sources everyday. Therefore, a lower amount (less than three litres) of 0.5 per cent PE-mixed water volume intake may be effective in humans to ensure the similar effects" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea catechins prevent cognitive deficits caused by Abeta(1-40) in rats - J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb 14 - "Polyphenon E (PE) .. PE administration for 26 weeks significantly decreased the Abeta-induced increase in the number of reference and working memory errors, with a concomitant reduction of hippocampal lipid peroxide (LPO; 40%) and cortico-hippocampal reactive oxygen species (ROS; 42% and 50%, respectively). Significantly reduced levels of LPO in the plasma (24%) and hippocampus (25%) as well as those of ROS in the hippocampus (23%) and cortex (41%) were found in the PE+Vehicle group as compared with the Vehicle group ... long-term administration of green tea catechins provides effective prophylactic benefits against Abeta-induced cognitive impairment" - [Nutra USA] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chinese Club Moss Extract (Huperzine A) May Improve Cognition In Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 4/17/08 - "Existing evidence suggests that patients with Alzheimer's disease who have taken Huperzine A have improved general cognitive function, global clinical status, functional performance and reduced behavioural disturbance compared to patients taking placebos" - See huperzine at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E May Help Alzheimer's Patients Live Longer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/15/08 - "people who took vitamin E, with or without a cholinesterase inhibitor, were 26 percent less likely to die than people who didn't take vitamin E"
  • Wine May Protect Against Dementia, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/10/08 - "among those women who reported that they drank wine a considerably lower proportion suffered from dementia, whereas this correlation was not found among those who had reported that they regularly drank beer or liquor"
  • Cup Of Coffee A Day Could Help Protect Against Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/2/08 - "Caffeine appears to block several of the disruptive effects of cholesterol that make the blood-brain barrier leaky ... High levels of cholesterol are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, perhaps by compromising the protective nature of the blood-brain barrier. For the first time we have shown that chronic ingestion of caffeine protects the BBB from cholesterol-induced leakage"
  • Vitamin C can keep you healthy, looking younger - CNN.com, 2/27/08 - "Pairing vitamins C and E is smart for another reason: It may lessen your Alzheimer's risks by as much as 64 percent ..." - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Folate Deficiency Associated With Tripling Of Dementia Risk, Study Shows - Science Daily, 2/5/08 - "Folate deficiency is associated with a tripling in the risk of developing dementia among elderly people" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Late-onset Alzheimer's slowed by DHA omega-3 - Nutra USA, 1/25/08 - "In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems ... DHA may be most useful for early intervention and prevention of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) ... Because reduced LR11 is known to increase beta-amyloid production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in [LR11] levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid increases SorLA/LR11, a sorting protein with reduced expression in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD): relevance to AD prevention - J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26;27(52):14299-307 - "late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) ... DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems ... Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Abeta production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus flavanones show neuroprotection potential - Nutra USA, 1/21/08 - "These results first demonstrate that the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells ... These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases ... One such disease that is mentioned Alzheimer's disease" - [Abstract] - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-Alzheimer's Mechanism In Omega-3 Fatty Acids Found - Science Daily, 1/2/08 - "the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil increases the production of LR11, a protein that is found at reduced levels in Alzheimer's patients and which is known to destroy the protein that forms the "plaques" associated with the disease" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Prevents Alzheimer's Plaques - WebMD, 12/26/07 - "the fish-oil compound DHA causes brain cells to make lots more LR11 ... Because reduced LR11 is known to increase beta amyloid production and may be a significant genetic cause of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, our results indicate that DHA increases in LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing late-onset Alzheimer's disease" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Exercise May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD,12/19/07- "Moderate physical activity (such as walking and climbing stairs) may help prevent dementia in people aged 65 and older"
  • Moderate beer intake may cut Alzheimer's risk: study - Nutra USA, 12/17/07 - "After three months the researchers report that animals receiving the supplementary silicon, whether from beer or the silicic acid, had significantly lower blood aluminium levels, and higher faecal excretion of aluminium ... The lower blood levels resulted in slower accumulation of aluminium in the tissue, including the brain, which could have benefits for the prevention of Alzheimer's" - See Jarrow BioSil at Amazon.com.  I've been taking about 9 drops of this per day for years.  I stir it with my orange juice every morning.
  • Sugar and Alzheimer's: Are They Linked? - WebMD, 12/7/07 - "The brains of the sugar-fed mice had about twice as many plaque deposits as the mice fed regular water" - [Science Daily]
  • Increased B12 levels could ward off dementia - Nutra USA, 11/16/07 - "The longitudinal cohort study followed 1648 participants for 10 years, and found a doubling in holotranscobalamin (holoTC) concentrations was associated with a 30 per cent slower rate of cognitive decline ... increased levels of the amino acid homocysteine doubled the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment" - [Abstract] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy, and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30% slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and (-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Fish for brain health supported by trio of studies - Nutra USA, 11/14/07 - "These recent reports are novel in that they address the association of n-3 fatty acid intake and cognitive function in non-demented individuals and, thus, present a shift in the attention to earlier stages of cognitive decline with the hope of preventing progression to states of dementia and disability before they become irreversible" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish, Omega-3 Oils, Fruits And Veggies Lowers Risk Of Memory Problems - Science Daily, 11/13/07 - "people who regularly consumed omega-3 rich oils, such as canola oil, flaxseed oil and walnut oil, reduced their risk of dementia by 60 percent compared to people who did not regularly consume such oils. People who ate fruits and vegetables daily also reduced their risk of dementia by 30 percent compared to those who didn't regularly eat fruits and vegetables ... people who ate fish at least once a week had a 35-percent lower risk of Alzheimer's disease and 40-percent lower risk of dementia, but only if they did not carry the gene that increases the risk of Alzheimer's, called apolipoprotein E4, or ApoE4 ... Given that most people do not carry the ApoE4 gene, these results could have considerable implications in terms of public health" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1470-8 - "In the elderly, a diet high in fish and fish products is associated with better cognitive performance in a dose-dependent manner" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • n 3 Fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1479-85 - "In this population, plasma n-3 PUFA proportions were associated with less decline in the speed-related cognitive domains over 3 y" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Staving Off Alzheimer's Disease With The Right Diet, Prescriptions - Science Daily, 11/7/07 - "Fish oil elevated the level of a protein that prevents the formation of amyloid, the tell-tale protein found in Alzheimer's. Caffeine reversed memory impairment in animal models of the disease. In addition, environmental copper reduced the clearance of amyloid, from the brain to blood ... scientists have identified ways that essential omega-3 fatty acid -- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or fish oil -- can help prevent Alzheimer's ... DHA also reduced pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid in brains of Alzheimer's model mice, consistent with the anti-inflammatory effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are associated with reduced Alzheimer's in people" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 17 - "controlling the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be an effective way to curtail the risk of developing AD"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Help Alzheimer's Patients Live Longer - Science Daily, 9/10/07 - "Alzheimer's patients who adhered to the diet to a moderate degree lived an average 1.3 years longer than those people who least adhered to the diet. And those Alzheimer's patients who followed the diet very religiously lived an average four years longer"
  • Curry Spice May Counter Alzheimer's - WebMD, 7/16/07 - "In preliminary lab tests, the chemical helped rid the blood of a key ingredient in Alzheimer's brain plaque"
  • Omega-3 Supplements Can Help With Alzheimer's Symptoms, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/21/07 - "There was no observable difference in therapeutic effect between the patients receiving the omega-3 and the placebo group. However, when the researchers took into account which of the patients carried the susceptibility gene APOE4 and which did not, an appreciable difference appeared. Carriers of the gene who had received active treatment responded positively to the omega-3 as regards agitation symptoms, while non-bearers of the gene showed an improvement in depressive symptoms" - See Twinlab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com or Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Slows Alzheimer’s - WebMD, 4/18/07 - "One received supplemental DHA only, and the other two groups received DHA plus additional omega-6 fatty acids ... After three months, all of the mice on the DHA diets had lower levels of beta-amyloid and tau proteins than those in the control group. But at nine months, only those on the DHA-only diet had lower levels of both proteins" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid May Help Prevent Alzheimer's Brain Lesions - Science Daily, 4/17/07 - "One of these groups received supplemental DHA only, and two groups received DHA plus additional omega-6 fatty acids. After three months, mice in all of the test groups had lower levels of beta amyloid and tau than mice in the control group, but at nine months, only mice on the DHA diet had lower levels of both proteins" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • High Folate Intake May Lower AD Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/07 - "The risk of AD decreased with increasing intake of folate but not of vitamins B6 or B12"
  • Little Proof That Brain Exercises Slow Mental Decline - Intelihealth, 1/9/07 - "there is little evidence that the brain training programs are worth the time and price"
  • Higher Folate Levels Linked To Reduced Risk For Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 1/9/07 - "Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6, are important in the body's processing of homocysteine--therefore, deficiencies in these nutrients increase homocysteine levels and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia ... When the individuals were divided into four groups based on the total level of folate they took in through food and supplements and the analysis was adjusted for patient characteristics, comorbid diseases and B12 and B6 intake, the risk of Alzheimer's disease was lower in the groups with higher intake" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Can Fish Intake Predict Chances Of Developing Dementia? - Science Daily, 1/3/07 - "the participants who reported consuming an average of about three servings of oily fish a week--equivalent to blood levels of DHA at 180 milligrams daily--were associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing dementia of all types, including Alzheimer's disease. No other fatty acid blood level was independently linked to the risk of dementia" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • There's Hope in the Drug Pipeline [for Alzheimer's] - US News, 12/11/06 - "A compound called huperzine A seems to combine some memory-saving effects of drugs like Aricept and Namenda with an ability to protect neurons from beta amyloid. It's currently being tested for safety and effectiveness in people" - See huperzine A at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Level Of Certain Fatty Acid Associated With Lower Dementia Risk - Science Daily, 11/28/06 - "men and women in the quartile with the highest DHA levels had a 47 percent lower risk of developing dementia and 39 percent lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than the other three quartiles with lower DHA levels ... those in the top quartile of blood DHA levels reported that they ate an average of .18 grams of DHA a day and an average of three fish servings a week. Participants in the other quartiles ate substantially less fish" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • B-vitamins reduce plasma levels of beta amyloid - Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Nov 17 - "Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and thus B vitamins may have a role in the prevention of AD. The objective of this study was to determine if tHcy lowering vitamins decrease the circulating levels of A-beta protein 1-40 (Abeta40). We randomized 299 older men to treatment with 2mg of folate, plus 25mg of B6 and 400mug of B12, or placebo. After 2 years of treatment the mean (S.E.) increase of Abeta40 was 7.0pg/ml (8.4) in the vitamin group (4.9%), and 26.8pg/ml (7.7) (18.5%) in the placebo group. We conclude that B vitamins may decrease the plasma level of Abeta40 and have a role in the prevention of AD"
  • Fat in Fish May Help Prevent Dementia - WebMD, 11/13/06 - "participants with the highest DHA levels at the beginning of the study were 47% less likely to get dementia and 39% less likely to get Alzheimer's disease during the study than the rest of the group" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Docosahexaenoic Acid Content and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease: The Framingham Heart Study - Arch Neurol 2006;63 1545-1550 - "Subjects in the upper quartile of plasma PC DHA levels had a mean DHA intake of 0.18 g/d and a mean fish intake of 3.0 servings per week ... The top quartile of plasma PC DHA level was associated with a significant 47% reduction in the risk of developing all-cause dementia"
  • Can caffeine protect against Alzheimer's? - USA Today, 11/5/06 - "Lesko and others are betting on research suggesting that caffeine will offer protection not just against Alzheimer's, but also against Parkinson's ... Alzheimer-stricken mice that had guzzled caffeine could easily find their way through a maze. Mice that got just water had more signs of brain disease and got confused in the maze"
  • {omega}-3 Fatty Acid Treatment in 174 Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: OmegAD Study: A Randomized Double-blind Trial - Arch Neurol. 2006 Oct;63(10):1402-8 - "Administration of omega-3 fatty acid in patients with mild to moderate AD did not delay the rate of cognitive decline according to the MMSE or the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale. However, positive effects were observed in a small group of patients with very mild AD (MMSE >27 points)"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Slow Cognitive Decline In Some Patients With Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/11/06 - "For six months, 89 patients (51 women and 38 men) took 1.7 grams of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and .6 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), while 85 patients (39 women and 46 men) took placebo ... among a subgroup of 32 patients with very mild cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study, those who took the fatty acids experienced less decline in six months compared with those who took placebo" - See Twinlab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Diet May Influence Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 10/9/06 - "Long suspected of lowering the risk of heart disease and diabetes, the Mediterranean diet consists of large amounts of fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and nuts. Red meats are eaten only rarely and poultry, eggs, and dairy products are eaten in moderation. Olive oil and fatty fish are the main sources of fat in the diet ... People who most closely adhered to the diet had an Alzheimer's risk that was 40% to 65% lower than people who were least likely to follow the diet"
  • Chemical Found In Curry May Help Immune System Clear Amyloid Plaques Found In Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/3/06 - "curcumin -- a chemical found in curry and turmeric -- may help the immune system clear the brain of amyloid beta, which form the plaques found in Alzheimer's disease" - See curcumin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Red Wine May Prevent Alzheimer's - WebMD, 9/20/06 - "After seven months of sipping their designated drinks, the mice individually were placed in a maze and challenged to find their way out ... Those in the red wine group performed best. The mice in the ethanol group weren't better at mastering the maze than the teetotalers ... The mice in the red wine group were quicker to adapt to that change"
  • Drinking Juice May Stall Alzheimer's - WebMD, 8/31/06 - "people who drank fruit and vegetable juices more than three times a week were 76% less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those who drank juices less than once a week"
  • Calorie Restriction May Prevent Alzheimer's Through Promotion Of Longevity Program In The Brain - Science Daily, 6/14/06 - "a high caloric intake based on saturated fat promotes AD type beta-amyloidosis, while caloric restriction based on reduced carbohydrate intake is able to prevent it"
  • Novel Strategy to Restore Brain Cell Function - Life Extension Magazine, 5/06 - "Alzheimer’s patients taking 300 mg of phosphatidylserine daily performed significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than did the study participants who received placebo. Importantly, those patients who were the least afflicted by dementia demonstrated the greatest benefit from phosphatidylserine therapy. These results suggest that beginning supplementation very early on, or perhaps even before the appearance of symptoms, can help prevent age-related loss of memory and other cognitive impairments"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Cut Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/18/06 - "Scores ranged from 0-9, with higher scores showing greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet ... those with middle scores were 15% less likely to have been found to have developed Alzheimer's disease, and those with the highest scores were 40% less likely to have been found to have Alzheimer's disease"
  • Can Exercise Protect Against Alzheimer’s? - Physician's Weekly, 4/17/06 - "the rate of dementia development was significantly lower for those who exercised at least three days a week"
  • Staying active helps keep the mind sharp - MSNBC, 1/16/06 - "healthy people who reported exercising regularly had a 30 to 40 percent lower risk of dementia"
  • Does Green Tea Ingredient Protect Against Alzheimer’s? - Physician's Weekly, 11/28/05 - "The results suggest that an EGCG dietary supplement may help in preventing the disease in the future"
  • High-Fat, Low-Carb Diet May Help Alzheimer's - WebMD, 10/18/05
  • Low Vitamin E Serum Levels Correlate With Dementia Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/05 - "those individuals in the bottom tertile of vitamin E plasma levels were at significantly higher risk not only of being demented (OR 2.6, 95% CI) but also of having impaired cognitive function (OR 2.2, 95% CI), compared with the highest vitamin E tertile"
  • Fish Fights Aging in the Brain - WebMD, 10/10/05 - "eating fish at least once a week slowed the rate of mental or cognitive decline in elderly people by 10%-13% per year ... Researchers attribute the protective effects of fish on the brain to omega-3 fatty acids" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Obesity at Midlife Raises Dementia Risk Later - WebMD, 10/10/05 - "people who were obese at midlife were nearly 2.5 times more likely to develop dementia more than 20 years later than those who were normal weight ... high blood pressure and total cholesterol levels at midlife also doubled the risk of dementia in later life ... when a person had all three of these risk factors at midlife, the risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease was six times higher"
  • Preserving and Restoring Brain Function - Life Extension Magazine, 10/05 - "Clinical trials using small groups of patients with cognitive decline demonstrated significant improvements with phosphatidylserine supplementation, especially among patients in the early stages"
  • Antioxidant in Green Tea May Fight Alzheimer's - WebMD, 9/20/05 - "high doses of the green tea ingredient -- known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) -- significantly reduced the formation of beta-amyloid proteins in the brains of mice that were altered to develop Alzheimer's disease" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Acids: Good For The Brain, Good For Alzheimer Disease - Science Daily, 9/11/05 - "DHA can decrease levels of the pathogenic Abeta peptides that are associated with Alzheimer disease pathology in human brain cells"
  • Scientists Discover How Fish Oil Protects the Brain - Intelihealth, 9/9/05 - "docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid found in coldwater fish such as mackerel, sardines and salmon, reduces levels of a protein known to cause damaging plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients"
  • Fish Fat May Help Fight Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 9/8/05 - "DHA helped brain cells in two ways: ... Curbing production of beta-amyloid proteins, which are seen in Alzheimer's brain plaque ... Boosting production of another protein called NPD1 that helps brain cells stay alive" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Folates More Effective In Limiting Alzheimer's Disease Risk Than Antioxidants, Other Nutrients - Science Daily, 8/17/05 - "folates appear to have more impact on reducing Alzheimer's risk than vitamin E, a noted antioxidant, and other nutrients considered for their effect as a brain-aging deterrent" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate May Reduce Risk of Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 8/15/05 - "older adults whose total folate intake (diet and supplement) equaled or exceeded the 400 microgram RDA reduced their chances of developing Alzheimer's disease by 55%" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Complementary and Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 - "Ginkgo biloba, an herbal product long used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been studied extensively and found to be well tolerated with mild benefit, approximating that of the 2nd generation cholinesterase inhibitors ... Huperzine A is a potent plant-based alkaloid with reversible acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory ... There have been several controlled clinical trials suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD" - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com, ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and huperzine A at Amazon.com.
  • Alzheimer's Risk May Be Cut - washingtonpost.com, 6/20/05 - "Middle-aged sons and daughters of people with Alzheimer's disease may be able to reduce their risk of getting the disorder through lifestyle measures such as exercise, avoiding gum disease, moderate alcohol consumption and drinking fruit and vegetable juice"
  • Fish Oil Holds Promise In Alzheimer's Fight - Science Daily, 5/29/05 - "one group of the mice DHA-fortified chow ... After three to five months--the equivalent of several years in human biology--the high-DHA group had 70-percent less buildup of amyloid protein in the brain" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Preventing Age-Related Cognitive Decline - Life Extension Magazine, 4/05 - "Free radicals are a significant culprit, interfering with energy metabolism, blood flow, and nerve structure and function. Mitochondrial energy boosters, vitamins, hormones, and other antioxidants are effective weapons in the war against oxidative stress, safely enhancing energy production and blood flow, suppressing inflammation, maintaining the structural integrity of nerve cell components, and facilitating neuronal activity"
  • Vitamin E From Food Sources May Reduce Risk of AD - Medscape, 2/11/05 - "High intake of vitamin E from food (tocopherol), but not from supplements (which usually contain α-tocopherol), is inversely associated with Alzheimer disease ... various tocopherol forms rather than α-tocopherol alone may be important in the vitamin E protective association with Alzheimer disease"
  • Do Carbs, Calories Affect Alzheimer's Risk? - WebMD, 1/13/05 - "mice eating fewer calories and carbohydrates than those allowed to eat all they wanted showed no signs of Alzheimer's-like disease, even though they had been bred to have the condition"
  • Curry Spice May Fight Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 1/5/04 - "the curry pigment curcumin slows the formation of, and even destroys, accumulated plaque deposits in mouse brains"
  • DHA Protects Against Alzheimer’s Disease? - Physician's Weekly, 1/3/05 - "DHA intake should be considered as a potential neuroprotective strategy for AD" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fewer Calories Could Slow Alzheimer’s - Science Daily, 12/24/04 - "Restricting the diets of mice reduces the build-up of plaques in the brain that are linked to Alzheimer’s disease"
  • Low-Fat Diet May Protect Against Alzheimer's - WebMD, 12/7/04 - "mice fed a low-fat diet rich in the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and soy, produced more of a protein that helps eliminate the amyloid peptides that cause plaque in the brain"
  • Food for thought: Can diet protect memory? - MSNBC, 12/6/04 - "research increasingly suggests that diet may be important in preventing Alzheimer's ... older dogs fed a diet rich in antioxidants over several years were able to perform tasks — and learn new tricks — far better than fellow canines fed a normal diet ... scientists believe that curcumin, a spice used in India and known for its anti-inflammatory effects, may prevent memory loss"
  • Good for the heart, good for the brain - MSNBC, 12/6/04 - "While diets high in cholesterol are bad for the brain, getting plenty of omega 3 fatty acids, found primarily in fish, is vital for a healthy noggin ... In particular, a component of omega 3 fatty acids known as DHA, or docosahexaenoic acid, is key"
  • Can Curcumin Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? - Life Extension Magazine, 12/04
  • Apples May Ward Off Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 11/18/04 - "The results suggest that quercetin "contributes significantly" to the protection of brain cells from free radicals in conditions like Alzheimer's disease" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Mental Exercises Slow Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 10/27/04
  • Black, Green Tea May Slow Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 10/27/04
  • A Pill to Prevent Alzheimer's? - Dr. Weil, 9/30/04
  • Testosterone Loss May Raise Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 9/24/04 [Science Daily] - "testosterone levels were significantly lower in the men with Alzheimer's disease compared with the men who did not have the disease ... the findings are significant because only testosterone levels appeared related to Alzheimer's risk ... It protects neurons from injury, and it reduces levels of beta-amyloid, the protein widely implicated as a causal factor in the disease"
  • Physical Activity, Including Walking, Associated With Better Mental Functioning in Older Women - Doctor's Guide, 9/22/04 - "higher levels of physical activity, including walking, are associated with better cognitive function and less cognitive decline"
  • Walking May Protect Elderly Men From Dementia, New Study By U. Va. Researcher Shows - Science Daily, 9/22/04 - "Elderly men who are sedentary or walk less than a quarter of a mile per day are nearly twice as likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease compared to men who walk more than two miles per day"
  • Long-Term Use of Beta Carotene Beneficial - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/04 - "there was a highly significant improvement in cognitive scores—particularly in verbal memory—among the 2,029 men with long-term exposure to the supplements, compared with the 2,020 who had been taking placebo for nearly two decades"
  • Lifestyle Changes Could Cut Alzheimer's Cases - HealthDay, 9/9/04 - "he put 10 people on a lifestyle program that includes mental exercise, physical exercise, stress reduction, and a "healthy brain" diet, including such foods as fish that are rich in healthy fats ... In just two weeks, 75 percent of those on the program had a 20 to 30 percent improvement in memory scores"
  • Why Fish Seems to Prevent Alzheimer's Damage - WebMD, 9/1/04 - "DHA may prevent or slow Alzheimer's progression by protecting against damage to the area where brain cells communicate" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Diet, Activity May Help Prevent Alzheimer's - WebMD, 7/19/04 - "eating vegetables (especially broccoli or spinach), staying active mentally and socially, and keeping a trim waistline can all help prevent or delay Alzheimer's disease"
  • Curry May Protect Aging Brain - WebMD, 4/19/04 - "Small doses of curry could help protect the brain against Alzheimer's disease -- at least that's the effect in rats" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Memory enhancer named best new ingredient - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 4/04 - "Citicoline is a form of choline that helps replenish the brain with phosphatidylserine ... In a double-blind trial of 84 elderly patients with mild to moderate memory loss, subjects who took 1000mg of citicoline daily for six weeks showed improvement in the acquisition of new information and its recall and improvement in global memory efficiency"
  • Health Benefits of Folic Acid - PowerPak.com (CME), exp. 11/15/05 - "there is growing evidence to suggest that folic acid supplementation may be beneficial in patients with depression, as well as those with dementia and Alzheimer's disease"
  • High DHA Intake Linked to Less Alzheimer's, Other Dementia - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/04 - "People who ate an average of 180 mg or more a day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fatty acid found in fish oil, had about 40% less Alzheimer's disease and other dementia, compared with people who consumed less DHA" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Disease in Users of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements - Arch Neurol. 2004;61:82-88 - "Conclusions Use of vitamin E and vitamin C supplements in combination is associated with reduced prevalence and incidence of AD. Antioxidant supplements merit further study as agents for the primary prevention of AD"
  • Chelation Therapy May Ease Alzheimer's - WebMD, 12/15/03
  • Eat Your B's - Wellness Insider, 11/25/03 - "In the elderly population, B12 deficiencies are not uncommon and can result in an impaired cognitive state that closely mimics Alzheimer's disease" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Fish And N-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease - Life Extension Foundation, 11/03 - "A new study, from the Rush-Presbyterian, St. Lukes Medical Center, in Chicago, shows that people who consumed at least one serving of fish a week dramatically reduced their risk of Alzheimer’s disease, compared to those who rarely or never ate fish. Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a similar risk-lowering effect" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Leisure Activity May Prevent Alzheimer's - WebMD, 10/2/02
  • Antioxidants May Protect Women From Alzheimer's - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/03 - "Compared with women in the lowest quartile of overall antioxidant consumption, those in the highest quartile had an OR of 0.39 for Alzheimer's disease ... When their diets were analyzed for specific antioxidants, women who consumed the most vitamin C and lycopene also had a significantly lower risk of cognitive decline"
  • Prevent Alzheimer's With Healthy Living - WebMD, 9/12/03 - "The same risk factors linked to heart disease and stroke -- high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and diabetes -- also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease ... statins, and in particular, Lipitor, help destroy the other telltale sign of Alzheimer's disease -- increased levels of amyloid, a sticky substance not unlike cholesterol that forms plaques in the brain ... Deal with depression, now ... Try to limit "free radical" damage"  - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.  See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Herb Sage Improves Memory - WebMD, 8/28/03 - "44 healthy, young adults took either sage oil capsules or a placebo. The participants then took a series of word recall tests ... The people who had taken the sage oil consistently had better word recall -- a sign that sage may help improve memory ... sage's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could be valuable in Alzheimer's treatment" - See sage at Amazon.com.
  • Study Supports Potential of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs to Protect Against Alzheimer's - Doctor's Guide, 7/22/03 - "The pooled combined data from the cohort and case-control studies showed a relative risk of Alzheimer's disease was 0.72 among NSAID users ... The analysis specific to aspirin users included eight studies that showed a pooled relative risk of 0.87 for developing Alzheimer's disease"
  • Fish Once a Week Cuts Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 7/21/03 - "Weekly fish eaters had a 60% lower risk of Alzheimer's than people who rarely or never ate fish ... The beneficial effects of [fatty acids] from fish may be counterbalanced by toxins ... A high antioxidant/low saturated fat diet pattern with a greater amount of fish, chicken, fruits, and vegetables and less red meat and dairy products is likely to lower the risk of AD, as well as that for heart disease and stroke ... Furthermore, B vitamin supplements, containing vitamins B12 and B6 and folic acid, lower plasma total homocysteine levels, possibly decreasing the risk of stroke, heart disease and perhaps Alzheimer's disease" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Disappointing Data Confound Claims For DHEA Effectiveness [against Alzheimer's] - Psychiatric News, 6/6/03 - "Twenty-eight patients were blindly chosen to receive 50 mg of DHEA twice a day for six months ... The dose of DHEA, Wolkowtiz said, was targeted to achieve blood levels of the hormone at or slightly above the top of the normal range of DHEA levels found in healthy young adults ... numerically, DHEA did have a benefit on cognitive ratings, but overall, on the CIBIC-Plus, there was no significant benefit shown ... at three months, the DHEA group, compared with placebo, showed a trend toward improvement on the ADAS-Cog, but the improvement only narrowly missed being statistically significant ... DHEA has been reported to reduce cortisol, the so-called "stress hormone," which in response to stress is released in large quantities that have been linked to neuronal stress and damage" -  Does anyone detect bias in that title?  I don't know if DHEA helps Alzheimer's or not but I feel the title should have been something like "Alzheimer's Shows Trend Toward Improvement with DHEA at 3 Months".  Their attitude seems to be that nothing works except what we write prescriptions for.  The way I understand it, Alzheimer's usually gets worse, not better and cholinesterase inhibitors slow the disease, they don't reverse it and three months is a short time to determine if it is working.  For example, see the following  in the same issue of Clinical Psychiatry News.  See DHEA at Amazon.com. - Ben
  • NSAIDs May Protect Against Alzheimer's - Clinical Psychiatry News, 6/03 - "Long-term use of NSAIDs—24 months or longer—was associated with a significant protective effect"
  • NSAIDs No Help as Alzheimer's Treatment - WebMD, 6/3/03 - "Aisen's team tested the two drugs in 351 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. They looked for signs that the drugs might slow mental decline or improve quality of life ... There was "no consistent benefit of either treatment,""
  • Novelty Seeking Tied to Lower Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 6/03
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia and Vitamin Score: Correlations with Silent Brain Ischemic Lesions and Brain Atrophy - Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2003;16:39-45 - "In subjects with minor brain ischemic lesions (n = 21), tHcy was higher by 5.6 µM, whereas vitamin score and cognitive function were lower than in controls"
  • NSAIDs and Amyloid Plaques Have Close Relationship - Psychiatric News, 5/2/03
  • Plasma vitamin C, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people - Neurosci Lett 2003 May 8;341(3):173-6 - "We found that lower grey matter volume was associated with lower plasma vitamin C and higher homocysteine, cholesterol and LDL. Lower blood cell folate was also associated with lower grey matter volume ... These data are consistent with the putative benefits of dietary vitamin C and folate intake and the role of cholesterol in age related neurodegeneration"
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Appear To Protect Against Alzheimer's - Doctor's Guide, 4/1/03 - "compared with non-users, people who took any type of NSAID were 28% less likely to develop Alzheimer's, which was statistically significant. But, among aspirin-only users, the risk of Alzheimer's was cut by 13%, which was not significant" - See ibuprofen at Amazon.com and aspirin at Amazon.com.
  • NSAIDS May Help in Alzheimer's Prevention - WebMD, 4/1/03 - "For those using aspirin, the reduction in risk was 13%, a finding that was not considered significant ... Those on an NSAID for one to 23 months had a risk reduction of 17%, and those termed long-term users, beyond 23 months, reduced the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by 73%" - See ibuprofen at Amazon.com and aspirin at Amazon.com.
  • High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "Long-term, current users of vitamin E with vitamin C had significantly better mean performance, as judged by a global score that combined individual test scores, than did women who had never used vitamin E or C (P = 0.03); there was a trend for increasingly higher mean scores with increasing durations of use (P = 0.04). These associations were strongest among women with low dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol. Benefits were less consistent for women taking vitamin E alone, with no evidence of higher scores with longer durations of use. Use of specific vitamin C supplements alone had little relation to performance on our cognitive tests"
  • Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes - Am. J. of Clinical Nutr., 4/03 - "studied the relation between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and cognitive decline in free-living volunteers ... Higher proportions of both stearic acid (saturated, 18:0) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were associated with greater risk of cognitive decline ... Conversely, a higher proportion of total n-3 fatty acids was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline"
  • Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: Vitamins Can Help Prevent - WebMD, 2/28/03 - "High levels of a substance in the blood called homocysteine tops the list of potentially new risk factors for heart disease, stroke, and now dementia. A new study suggests that high homocysteine levels are linked with mental declines associated with Alzheimer's disease in elderly people ... High homocysteine levels can be treated very easily with vitamins, including folate, niacin, and B-12"
  • Dietary Fats and the Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease - Archives of Neurology, 2/03 - "Intakes of saturated fat and trans-unsaturated fat were positively associated with risk of Alzheimer disease, whereas intakes of -6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were inversely associated. Persons in the upper fifth of saturated-fat intake had 2.2 times the risk of incident Alzheimer disease compared with persons in the lowest fifth" - See the tables on my fatty acids page.  For example, palm oil is 51% saturated fat while canola oil is 8% saturated.
  • NSAID Use Linked to Lower Incidence of Alzheimer's - Clinical Psychiatry News, 1/03 - "The largest reduction in risk was among former users of NSAIDs or aspirin who had taken the medications for 2 years or more. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease in that group was 29% of the rate seen in nonusers"
  • Eating Fish May Prevent Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease - New Hope Natural Media, 12/12/02 - "People who consumed fish or seafood at least once a week reduced their risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by 34% and 31%, respectively, compared with those who never ate fish ... Nutritional supplements that may help slow the progression of dementia or AD include acetyl-L-carnitine, vitamin E, thiamine (vitamin B1), melatonin, Ginkgo biloba and Huperzine A"
  • Ginkgo for Alzheimer's Disease - Clinical Psychiatry News, 12/02 - "A 4-point gain on the ADAS-Cog is roughly equivalent to a 6-month delay in disease progression. “It is noteworthy that 29% of the patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with EGb for at least 26 weeks improved by 4 or more points, compared with 13% treated with the placebo,” ... In a German multicenter study, 156 patients with Alzheimer's or multi-infarct dementia were randomized to 240 mg/day of EGb 761 or placebo; efficacy was assessed by three validated scales. By the end of the 24-week study, 28% of patients in the ginkgo group were classified as responders, compared with 10% in the placebo group, a significant difference" - I've got that, see ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Deficiency Harms Brain - WebMD, 11/8/02 - "Too little iron may be the cause of at least some cases of Alzheimer's disease ... As people age, their red blood cells have less of the stuff that makes them red. It's called heme, a cellular form of iron ... It's fairly common for people to get too little iron or vitamin B6 in their diets. Exposure to aluminum or other toxic metals is also quite common. All these things block heme in brain cells" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish Cuts Risk of Dementia - WebMD, 10/24/02 - "Those who ate fish or seafood at least once a week had a significantly lower risk of being diagnosed with dementia during the seven-year study period ... The fatty acids in fish oils provide protection for arteries, which could improve blood flow to the brain. In addition, the fatty acids may reduce inflammation in the brain. They may also have a specific role in brain development and regeneration of nerve cells, the authors suggest" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidants May Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Use of vitamins E and C together—which is what most subjects did—was associated with an eightfold reduction in prevalence and a fivefold lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease"
  • More Antioxidants, Less Fat May Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Data are now strong enough to recommend a dietary strategy for reducing Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk that includes low fat intake and high consumption of fish and antioxidants, along with vitamin E, folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 supplements"
  • MEDLINE Abstracts: Antioxidants and the Aging Brain - Medscape, 9/27/02 - "Combinations of antioxidants might be of even greater potential benefit for AD, especially if the agents worked in different cellular compartments or had complementary activity (e.g. vitamins E, C and ubiquinone). Naturally-occurring compounds with antioxidant capacity are available and widely marketed (e.g. vitamin C, ubiquinone, lipoic acid, beta-carotene, creatine, melatonin, curcumin) and synthetic compounds are under development by industry" - Again, a broad spectrum of anti-oxidants, not just one or two.
  • Exercise, Eating to Enhance Memory? - Dr. Weil, 9/26/02 - "We know that the incidence of Alzheimer’s is higher than normal among people whose diets are high in saturated fat, which causes free radical damage leading to inflammation of the brain. On the other hand, omega-3 fatty acids found in salmon, sardines and flax seeds appear to be protective. Blueberries are another food that seems to help ... Dr. Khalsa explains that in addition to age, chronic stress can harm the hippocampus via the release of high levels of the hormone cortisol from the adrenal gland"
  • Pain Relievers May Prevent Alzheimer's - WebMD, 9/23/02 - "The study found people who took aspirin or other NSAIDs for more than two years before the study began were 45% less likely to develop Alzheimer's than those who didn't. And the longer the participants had taken the drugs, the more protected they were against the disease ... previous studies have suggested that aspirin and other NSAIDs might protect against Alzheimer's disease by reducing inflammation in the brain ... their findings show that the beneficial effects of NSAIDs in preventing Alzheimer's take a long time to accumulate and don't become apparent until years later"
  • Phosphatidylserine (PS) The Essential Brain Nutrient - Life Extension Magazine, 9/02 - "In Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine has been said to influence changes in the brain that can help alleviate the symptoms of senile dementia related to this disease"
  • Eat Your Way to a Healthy Brain - WebMD, 7/25/02 - "carrots, broccoli, and fish really are good for your brain, especially if you want to protect it from Alzheimer's disease ... High fat and high salt are two components of a brain-unhealthy diet, but the main problem is "eating too much meat," ... Trying to eliminate all fat from the diet is a mistake, says Petot, because both mind and body need a diet that gets 25-30% of its calories from fat ... people who have the Alzheimer's gene and eat a high-fat diet during their 40s are seven times more likely to develop Alzheimer's than people who don't have the gene. When these same genetically predisposed people ate a low-fat diet in midlife, their risk of developing Alzheimer's dropped to four and a half times that of people without the ApoE gene" - Something for the Atkin's diet people to think about. - Ben
  • High Dose Vitamin E Appears to Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Doctor's Guide, 7/24/02 - "An analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging suggests that vitamin E intake is associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... People with the highest quartile of vitamin E intake, 46.5 mg, had a 26 percent reduction in risk for developing AD."
  • An Indian Spice for Alzheimer’s? - Dr. Weil, 6/12/02 - "Curcumin blocked the accumulation of beta-amaloid plaque and also appeared to reduce inflammation related to Alzheimer’s disease in neurologic tissue. The rats fed curcumin also performed better on memory tests than rats on normal diets ... Researchers at the University of Illinois have also found that it helps prevent plaque formation. And preliminary studies at Vanderbilt University suggest that curcumin may block the progression of multiple sclerosis ... only low dose curcumin reduced plaque in the Alzheimer’s disease studies ... Turmeric appears to have significant anti-inflammatory and cancer-protective effects as well"
  • Low Vitamin B Status Prevalent In Alzheimer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/4/02 - "low vitamin B6 status is prevalent in patients with AD"
  • High Oxidative Stress, Low Antioxidant Status In Alzheimer Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/3/02 - "Lymphocyte DNA 8-OHdG content in people AD may thus reflect a condition of increased oxidative stress related to a poor antioxidant status ... researchers also noted a significant inverse relationship between lymphocyte DNA 8-OHdG content [a marker of oxidative damage to DNA] and plasma levels of lycopene, lutein, a-carotene and b-carotene, respectively"
  • Vitamins Fight Alzheimer's - WebMD, 5/28/02 - "There's new evidence that a substance found in blood can cause the type of brain and blood vessel deterioration that leads to dementia. But those same studies also show that taking certain vitamins can lower levels of this substance -- homocysteine -- and ward off the damage, possibly preventing Alzheimer's disease ... This is exciting information, because homocysteine levels can be reduced by taking the vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid"
  • Active Life Keeps Brain Healthy - WebMD, 5/21/02 - "An active lifestyle -- even if begun only in middle age -- spurs brain-cell growth and lowers risk of Alzheimer's disease ... In another study published in the same issue of the Annals of Neurology, researchers find that a particular chemical in the blood may be linked to Alzheimer's and other dementing diseases ... The chemical is called hs-CRP. It is a sign of inflammation -- the body's protective response to injury or infection" - See my inflammation page for natural ways to reduce it.
  • Lymphocyte Oxidative DNA Damage and Plasma Antioxidants in Alzheimer Disease - Archives of Neurology, 5/02 - "Markers of oxidative damage are increased in AD and correlate with decreased levels of plasma antioxidants. These findings suggest that lymphocyte DNA 8-OHdG content in patients with AD reflects a condition of increased oxidative stress related to a poor antioxidant status"
  • Serum Folate And Estradiol Levels Interact In Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/13/02 - "a high ratio of estradiol to total estrogens is linked with AD. At the same time, in women with a high ratio, the severity of dementia is lower in those with high serum folate levels ... If this association is causal, then supplementation with folic acid may have a role in future studies of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD)"
  • Nutrition Affects Thinking in Elderly - WebMD, 4/25/02 - "In this study of healthy elderly people, higher concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B-12 were associated with increased memory and thinking ability"
  • In Praise of Folic Acid - Time Magazine, 2/25/02 - "folic acid plays a crucial role in the development of just about every cell in the body ... subjects who had high levels of a particular amino acid called homocysteine in their blood were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's as those who didn't. The finding is important because one of the easiest ways to lower homocysteine levels is to get plenty of folic acid ... There is no risk of overdose, although high levels of folic acid can mask the signs of pernicious anemia in people who have developed the disorder" - The way I understand it, taking vitamin B12 with the folic acid will avoid that problem. - Ben
  • Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease - JAMA, 2/13/02 - "These results suggest that frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities is associated with reduced risk of AD"
  • New Alzheimer's Risk Factor Identified - WebMD, 2/13/02 - "High blood levels of a substance called homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk for both heart attack and stroke. Now, new research finds it to be a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related dementias ... It is known that B-vitamins like folic acid, B-6, and B-12 lower homocysteine levels"
  • Alcohol Helps Guard Against Dementia - WebMD, 1/24/02 - "One to three drinks a day decreased the chance of developing Alzheimer's disease by more than 30%"
  • Leisure Activity Decreases Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/27/01 - "Even when controlling for factors like ethnic group, education and occupation, subjects with high leisure activity had 38 percent less risk of developing dementia ... the study also showed that participation in leisure activities may have a cumulative effect, with an additional 8 percent risk reduction associated with each leisure activity engaged ... intellectual activities were associated with highest risk reduction"
  • Antioxidant Boosts Cognitive Function In Alzheimer's Patients - Intelihealth, 11/15/01 - "the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may improve certain cognitive skills in people with Alzheimer's disease ... Although participants in the NAC group did not outperform placebo patients in day-to-day activities, they did fare significantly better than the placebo group on certain cognitive tests"
  • Everbody's Getting Alzheimer's, Decline Can Happen Fast in Those Over 65 - WebMD, 11/12/01 - "We know that dementia is extremely common, especially as we age ... He recommends 800IU twice a day for people who are already have dementia; for older people at risk, 400IU twice a day. Younger people and people at low risk are advised to take 400 IU once a day"
  • Alcohol's effect on the brain a 'mixed' bag - USA Today, 9/6/01 - "Moderate drinking may reduce the risk of certain types of stroke and scarring in the core of elderly people's brains, a study found. But alcohol may also promote shrinkage of the brain — a condition seen in Alzheimer's patients"
  • Alzheimer's Disease May Be Linked to Deficiencies in Vitamin B12 or Folate - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/01 - "Study authors theorized that vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies affect Alzheimer's disease by influencing neurotransmitters or the levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the body. Either vitamin B12 or folate deficiency can increase homocysteine levels. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to cell death or neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease"
  • Exercise Shown to Help Keep Elderly Minds More Alert - WebMD, 4/10/01 - "after taking into consideration factors such as age, sex, and level of education, people who engaged in all levels of physical activity from low to high had lower risks for thinking impairment, and were also less likely to have Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia"
  • Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "In a double-blind Italian study, 236 elderly patients with mild senility were treated with either 1,500 mg ALC or placebo. The ALC group showed significant improvements in memory and cognition compared with controls"
  • Can L-carnitine help reverse Alzheimer's disease? - Nutrition Science News, 8/00 - "The use of acetyl-L-carnitine at 1 g three times a day provided statistically significant benefit in slowing the cognitive decline in those patients with early onset of the disease--61 years of age or younger"
  • Alzheimer's: Take Two Ibuprofen and Call Me in the Morning? - WebMD, 8/10/00 - "Taking a few tablets of ibuprofen every day may help prevent Alzheimer's disease"
  • Ginkgo Extract Efficacious for Alzheimer's/Dementia - Medscape, 8/3/00 - "New analysis of the breakthrough study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) shows that a patented Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, effectively improves the mental function of patients with Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia within the first 26 weeks of treatment"
  • Integrated medicine and the prevention and reversal of memory loss - Altern Ther Health Med 1998 Nov;4(6):38-43 - "The program includes a diet consisting of 15% fat and supplementation with brain-specific nutrients such as vitamin B complex, vitamin E, ubiquinone, ginkgo biloba, and phosphatidylserine. In addition, stress-relieving meditation, mind-body and cognitive exercise, antiaging drugs like L-deprenyl citrate, as well as hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone complete the program"

Other News:

  • More amyloid in the brain, more cognitive decline - Science Daily, 6/14/17 - https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170614211221.htm
  • Sugar's 'tipping point' link to Alzheimer's disease revealed - Science Daily, 2/23/17 - "Excess sugar is well known to be bad for us when it comes to diabetes and obesity, but this potential link with Alzheimer's disease is yet another reason that we should be controlling our sugar intake in our diets"
  • Cholesterol-fighting drugs lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 12/13/16 - "The greatest drop in incidence of Alzheimer's disease -- 29 percent -- was among Hispanic men. Among white men, high users of statins had an 11-percent lower risk of incidence of the disease. A similar reduction in risk -- 12-percent -- was found among Hispanic women ... The risk of Alzheimer's disease was also lower for white women who were high users (15 percent lower than women who took statins less frequently)"
  • New link found between diabetes, Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 6/21/16 - "Alzheimer's Disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease ... around 80% of people with Alzheimer's disease also have some form of diabetes or disturbed glucose metabolism. This is hugely relevant as Alzheimer's is in the vast majority of cases not inherited, and lifestyle factors and comorbidities must therefore be to blame"
  • Link between gum disease and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s - 3/10/16 - "The presence of gum disease at baseline was associated with a six-fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline in participants over the six-month follow-up period of the study ... growing evidence from a number of studies links the body's inflammatory response to increased rates of cognitive decline, suggesting that it would be worth exploring whether the treatment of gum disease might also benefit the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease" - Here's a cut and paste with my solution in addition to dental cleaning:
  • Common Prostate Cancer Treatment May Double Risk for Alzheimer's -NBC News, 12/7/15 - "The study of more than 16,000 men being treated for prostate cancer showed that those who got any kind of androgen deprivation therapy had nearly twice the risk of developing Alzheimer's over the next 2 ½ years as men getting other treatments"
  • Blood Pressure Meds May Cut Alzheimer’s Risk - WebMD, 9/14/15 - "People with early thinking and memory issues who took an ACE inhibitor or an ARB medication for their high blood pressure were less likely to get Alzheimer’s disease than those on other BP drugs ... A 2009 study also found that people taking ACE inhibitors that were crossing the brain barrier had a 65% lower risk of getting the disease compared to people taking other kinds of BP drugs"
  • High blood pressure linked to reduced Alzheimer's risk, meds may be reason: Study authors say its likely protective effect comes from antihypertensive drugs - Science Daily, 6/26/15 - "It may be that high blood pressure is protective, or it may be that something that people with high blood pressure are exposed to more often, such as antihypertensive medication, is protecting them from Alzheimer's disease ... This is to date the most authoritative paper looking at causal relationships between Alzheimer's disease and these potentially modifiable factors"
  • New link between diabetes, Alzheimer's found - Science Daily, 5/4/15 - "elevated glucose in the blood can rapidly increase levels of amyloid beta, a key component of brain plaques in Alzheimer's patients. The buildup of plaques is thought to be an early driver of the complex set of changes that Alzheimer's causes in the brain" - See my Insulin and Aging page.
  • Anxiety Medications May Be Tied to Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 9/9/14 - "The drugs in question are benzodiazepines, a widely prescribed group of sedatives that include lorazepam (Ativan), diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax) ... They found that people who'd been prescribed benzodiazepines for more than three months were 51 percent more likely to develop Alzheimer's ... The risk was almost doubled if they'd taken the medications for more than six months ... people in the early stages of Alzheimer's can have symptoms like sleep problems and anxiety. That raises the possibility that benzodiazepine use is the result of Alzheimer's, and not the cause of the disease ... her study was designed to counter this possibility. They only considered prescriptions that were started at least five years before a person's Alzheimer's diagnosis"
  • Diabetes Drug Linked to Lower Dementia Risk - Medscape, 7/24/14 - "they studied the association of pioglitazone and dementia incidence in a prospective cohort study of 145,717 adults age 60 years and older who were free of dementia at baseline in 2004 and followed until 2010. The information on prescriptions of pioglitazone on a quarterly basis was expressed as a linear variable covering the time-dependent number of quarters of prescriptions, which ranged between 0 and 28 quarters ... With each additional quarter of pioglitazone prescription, the relative risk for dementia fell by 6%" - Note:  Pioglitazone is another one I've been taking in low doses for years for anti-aging.
  • Diabetes duration, severity associated with brain atrophy - Science Daily, 4/29/14 - "used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the association between severity and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and brain structure in 614 patients (mean age 62 years) at four participating centers ... longer duration of diabetes was associated with brain volume loss, particularly in the gray matter ... Diabetes duration correlated primarily with brain atrophy ... for every 10 years of diabetes duration, the brain of a patient with diabetes looks approximately two years older than that of a non-diabetic person, in terms of gray matter volume" - See my Insulin and Aging page.
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 and risk of Alzheimer dementia and brain atrophy - Neurology. 2014 Apr 4 - "Mean IGF-1 levels were 144 ± 60 μg/L in generation 1 and 114 ± 37 μg/L in generation 2. We observed 279 cases of incident dementia (230 AD dementia) over a mean follow-up of 7.4 ± 3.1 years. Persons with IGF-1 in the lowest quartile had a 51% greater risk of AD dementia (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.00; p = 0.004). Among persons without dementia, higher IGF-1 levels were associated with greater total brain volumes (β/SD increment in IGF-1 was 0.55 ± 0.24, p = 0.025; and 0.26 ± 0.06, p < 0.001, for generations 1 and 2, respectively)"
  • Angiotension receptor blockers reduce the risk of dementia - J Hypertens. 2014 Jan 8 - "a population-based cohort study with data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 24 531 matching pairs (1 : 1) of ARB-exposed and non-ARB-exposed patients were included. Each patient was individually tracked from 1997 to 2009 to identify incident cases of dementia (onset in 1999 or later) ... The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia were 0.54 (95% CI 0.51-0.59), 0.53 (95% CI 0.43-0.64) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.54-0.73) for patients with ARB treatments, respectively. In terms of cumulative dosage, patients with more than 1460 defined daily dose of ARBs had less risk than those patients with less than 1460 defined daily dose (hazard ratio 0.37 vs. 0.61; P < 0.05) ... These results suggest that ARB may be associated with a reduced risk of dementia in high vascular-risk individuals. Patients exposed to ARBs for higher cumulative doses experienced more protection from dementia and the subtypes" - See my telmisartan (an ARB) as a first line treatment page.
  • Increased risk of dementia in patients with osteoporosis: a population-based retrospective cohort analysis - Age (Dordr). 2013 Dec 18 - "Using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database ... After adjustment for potential risk factors, the osteoporosis patients exhibited 1.46-fold and 1.39-fold higher risk of dementia (95 % CI = 1.37-1.56) and Alzheimer's disease (95 % CI = 0.95-2.02), respectively, compared with the matched nonosteoporosis patients"
  • High Blood Sugar Makes Alzheimer’s Plaque More Toxic to the Brain - Science Daily, 10/29/13 - "While neuronal involvement is a major factor in Alzheimer's development, recent evidence indicates damaged cerebral blood vessels compromised by high blood sugar play a role. Even though the links among Type 2 diabetes, brain blood vessels and Alzheimer's progression are unclear, hyperglycemia appears to play a role ... Researchers studied cell cultures taken from the lining of cerebral blood vessels, one from normal rats and another from mice with uncontrolled chronic diabetes. They exposed the cells to beta amyloid and different levels of glucose and later measured their viability. Cells exposed to high glucose or beta amyloid alone showed no changes in viability. However, when exposed to hyperglycemic conditions and beta amyloid, viability decreased by 40 percent"
  • Blood pressure drugs decrease risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/16/13 - "people over the age of 75 with normal cognition who used diuretics, angiotensin-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors showed a reduced risk of AD dementia by at least 50 percent ... Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers did not show a link to reduced risk"
  • Long-term use of statins reduces the risk of hospitalization for dementia - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Oct;230(2):171-6 - "A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 152,729 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 40 years or older who were newly treated with statins between 2003 and 2004. Cases were the 1380 patients who experienced hospitalization for dementia disease from initial prescription until 2010 ... Compared with patients who had very short statins coverage (less than 6 months), those on 7-24, 25-48, and >48 months of coverage respectively had risk reductions of 15% (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.98), 28% (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.85), and 25% (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.94). Simvastatin and atorvastatin were both associated with a reduced risk of dementia, while no similar evidence was observed for fluvastatin and pravastatin"
  • High Blood Sugar and Dementia: No Diabetes Needed - Medscape, 9/19/13 - "The group who did not have diabetes had an average blood sugar of about 100 mg/dL as opposed to the diabetics whose levels were in the 170s. There was a J-shaped relationship between blood sugar and dementia in the diabetics. People who had a blood sugar of 140 mg/dL on average had more dementia, but the rates of dementia then went down to essentially zero and then went up again as the blood sugar rose higher. The nondiabetics had more of a straight-line correlation from the lowest level to the highest level"
  • Statins and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults with Normal Cognition or Mild Cognitive Impairment - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Sep 3 - "Research volunteers with normal cognition at baseline evaluated an average 4.1 times over 3.4 years (1,244 statin users, 2,363 nonusers) and with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline evaluated an average 3.9 times over 2.8 years (763 users, 917 nonusers) ... Cognitive performance was assessed according to 10 neuropsychological indices and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) ... Of participants with normal cognition at baseline, statin users performed significantly better across all visits in attention (Trails A) and had significantly slower annual worsening in CDR-SOB scores (P = .006) and slower worsening in Mini-Mental State Examination scores than nonusers (which was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons, P = .05). For participants with MCI, statin users performed significantly better across all visits on attention measures (Trail-Making Test Part A), verbal skills (Category Fluency), and executive functioning (Trail-Making Test Part B, Digit Symbol, and Digits Backward), but there were no differences in cognitive decline between users and nonusers"
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Older Adults: Results from the Réseau sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Français Cohort - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Sep 3 - "Memory clinics from 16 university hospitals in France ... Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ... Continuous ACE-Is users had a 4-year decline in MMSE of 6.4 +/- 1.6 points (P < .001), intermittent ACE-Is users of 7.9 +/- 1.1 points (P < .001), continuous or intermittent users of other antihypertensive drugs of 8.8 +/- 0.7 points (P < .001), and never-users of 10.2 +/- 0.6 points (P < .001). MMSE decline between the four groups was significantly different (adjusted P = .02) ... The use of ACE-Is in older adults with AD is associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline independent of hypertension"
  • High dose statins prevents dementia, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/31/13 - "the current study examined whether statin use was associated with new diagnoses of dementia. The researchers used a random sample of 1 million patients covered by Taiwan's National Health Insurance ... The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for dementia were significantly inversely associated with increased daily or total equivalent statin dosage. The HRs for the three tertiles of mean equivalent daily dosage (lowest to highest) were 0.622, 0.697 and 0.419 vs control ... Patients who received the highest total equivalent doses of statins had a 3-fold decrease in the risk of developing dementia ... Almost all the statins (except lovastatin) decreased the risk for new onset dementia when taken at higher daily doses. A high mean daily dosage of lovastatin was positively associated with the development of dementia, possibly because lovastatin is a lipophilic statin while the anti-inflammatory cholesterol lowering effect of lovastatin is not comparable to that of atorvastatin and simvastatin" - Note: The brand names are Mevacor (lovastatin), Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium), Zocor (simvastatin), etc.
  • Plasma cortisol in Alzheimer's disease with or without depressive symptoms - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Aug 19;19:681-9 - "Cortisol is presumed to be a risk factor for stress- and age-related disorders, such as depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... Plasma cortisol concentration was measured in 80 AD patients (35 of them with depressive symptoms), 27 elderly depressive patients without AD, and 37 elderly controls ... Compared to controls, a significant increase of mean plasma cortisol was found in AD patients but not in depressive patients. Plasma cortisol was positively correlated with cognitive impairment in AD patients. We confirmed a U-shaped association between plasma cortisol and major depression and a linear association between plasma cortisol and AD without depressive symptoms. Significantly increased relative risk of disease in people with high plasma cortisol was found for AD with depressive symptoms and for AD with mild dementia"
  • Dementia risk tied to blood sugar level, even with no diabetes - Science Daily, 8/7/13 - "more than 2,000 Group Health patients age 65 and older in the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study ... in people without diabetes, risk for dementia was 18 percent higher for people with an average glucose level of 115 milligrams per deciliter compared to those with an average glucose level of 100 mg/dl. And in people with diabetes, whose blood sugar levels are generally higher, dementia risk was 40 percent higher for people with an average glucose level of 190 mg/dl compared to those with an average glucose level of 160 mg/dl ... The most interesting finding was that every incrementally higher glucose level was associated with a higher risk of dementia in people who did not have diabetes" - [Abstract]
  • Antihypertensive drugs decrease risk of Alzheimer disease: Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study - Neurology. 2013 Aug 2 - "Secondary longitudinal data analysis of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study in older adults at least 75 years of age with normal cognition (n = 1,928) or MCI (n = 320) over a median 6.1-year period ... Hazard ratio for incident AD dementia among participants with normal cognition was 0.51 in diuretic (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.82), 0.31 in ARB (95% CI 0.14-0.68), 0.50 in ACE-I (95% CI 0.29-0.83), 0.62 in CCB (95% CI 0.35-1.09), and 0.58 in BB (95% CI 0.36-0.93) users and was not significantly altered when mean systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg" - Note:  Sounds like the ARB's left the others in the dust.  See my telmisartan as a first line treatment page.
  • Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle-Aged Adults - Diabetes Care. 2012 Oct 15 - "Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle-aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease-sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance ... higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance ... These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle-aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe"
  • ARBs May Curb Amyloid Deposition in the Brain - Medscape, 9/13/12 - "In 2011, a large British study confirmed this result, finding a 53% lower risk for AD in older adults prescribed an ARB compared with those prescribed other antihypertensive agents ... until now, the mechanism for the apparent protective effect of ARBs on the brain was unclear ... Compared with use of other antihypertensive medications, use of ARBs was associated with a 32% to 35% lower likelihood of AD diagnosis, depending on the criteria used. This was also true when the researchers compared patients treated with ARBs vs untreated patients ... Patients treated with ARBs, with or without a diagnosis of AD, also had significantly less amyloid deposition than untreated patients and those treated with non-ARB antihypertensive medications" - See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Even in normal range, high blood sugar linked to brain shrinkage - Science Daily, 9/3/12 - "The study involved 249 people age 60 to 64 who had blood sugar in the normal range as defined by the World Health Organization. The participants had brain scans at the start of the study and again an average of four years later ... Those with higher fasting blood sugar levels within the normal range and below 6.1 mmol/l (or 110 mg/dL) were more likely to have a loss of brain volume in the areas of the hippocampus and the amygdala, areas that are involved in memory and cognitive skills, than those with lower blood sugar levels. A fasting blood sugar level of 10.0 mmol/l (180 mg/dL) or higher was defined as diabetes and a level of 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dL) was considered impaired, or prediabetes ... blood sugar on the high end of normal accounted for six to 10 percent of the brain shrinkage"
  • Link between metabolic disorders and Alzheimer's disease examined - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "individuals with T2D have a nearly twofold higher risk of AD than nondiabetic individuals"
  • Brain insulin resistance contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 3/23/12 - "This is the first study to directly demonstrate that insulin resistance occurs in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease ... Our research clearly shows that the brain's ability to respond to insulin, which is important for normal brain function, is going offline at some point ... We believe that brain insulin resistance may be an important contributor to the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease ... The risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by 50 percent in people with diabetes ... insulin resistance of the brain occurs in Alzheimer's disease independent of whether someone has diabetes ... The investigators used samples of postmortem brain tissue from non-diabetics who had died with Alzheimer's disease, stimulated the tissue with insulin, and measured how much the insulin activated various proteins in the insulin-signaling pathways ... three insulin-sensitizing medicines are already approved by the FDA for treatment of diabetes. These drugs readily cross the blood-brain barrier and may have therapeutic potential to correct insulin resistance in Alzheimer's disease and MCI" - Note:  I suspected this for a long time.  It doesn't say what those three drugs are but I'm guessing metformin and Actos are two of them.  I don't have diabetes but I take low doses of both.  My doc says I'm crazy.  See metformin and pioglitazone (Actos) at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • More Evidence That ARBs Have Cognitive Benefits - Medscape, 3/23/12 - "After stopping their antihypertensive medications, the patients were randomly assigned to the ARB candesartan (n = 20), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) lisinopril (n = 18), or the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (n = 15) ... After adjustment for age and baseline score on the Mini-Mental State Examination, patients taking candesartan showed the greatest improvements on tests assessing executive function ... Our findings further support observational data showing that ARB use is associated with lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease compared with the use of ACEIs or other antihypertensives ... As reported previously by Medscape Medical News, Dr. Kehoe and colleagues recently published a study showing a 53% lower risk for Alzheimer's disease in older adults prescribed an ARB compared with those prescribed other antihypertensive agents"
  • Flu may boost Alzheimer's risk, research suggests - MSNBC, 2/16/12 - "Viruses such as influenza and herpes may leave brain cells vulnerable to degeneration later in life, and increase the risk of developing diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, research suggests. That's because these the viruses can enter the brain and trigger an immune response — inflammation — which can damage brain cells"
  • Diabetes linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, study suggests - Science Daily, 11/8/11 - "in older patients with diabetes, two adhesion molecules -- sVCAM and sICAM -- cause inflammation in the brain, triggering a series of events that affect blood vessels and, eventually, cause brain tissue to atrophy. Importantly, they found that the gray matter in the brain's frontal and temporal regions -- responsible for such critical functions as decision-making, language, verbal memory and complex tasks -- is the area most affected by these events ... at the age of 65, the average person's brain shrinks about one percent a year, but in a diabetic patient, brain volume can be lowered by as much as 15 percent ... Diabetes develops when glucose builds up in the blood instead of entering the body's cells to be used as energy. Known as hyperglycemia, this condition often goes hand-in-hand with inflammation ... Once chronic inflammation sets in, blood vessels constrict, blood flow is reduced, and brain tissue is damaged"
  • Diabetes may significantly increase the risk of dementia - Science Daily, 9/19/11 - "people with diabetes were twice as likely to develop dementia as people with normal blood sugar levels ... the risk of developing dementia significantly increased when blood sugar was still high two hours after a meal"
  • Link between high cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease revealed in new study - Science Daily, 9/12/11 - "high cholesterol levels were significantly related to brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease ... the cholesterol levels were tested for 2,587 people age 40 to 79 who had no signs of Alzheimer's disease. Then they examined 147 autopsied people who died after a long observation period (10 to 15 years) ... People with high cholesterol levels, defined by a reading of more than 5.8 mmol/L, had significantly more brain plaques when compared to those with normal or lower cholesterol levels. A total of 86 percent of people with high cholesterol had brain plaques, compared with only 62 percent of people with low cholesterol levels ... insulin resistance, a sign of diabetes, may be another risk factor for brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease"
  • Humans Alone See Brains Shrink With Age, Researchers Find - WSJ, 7/26/11 - "they found the human brains lost significant volume over time, while the chimpanzees didn't ... Stress can affect brain size. So can depression, research shows. Diet can be a factor, too. More broadly, though, humanity's unusual shrinking brain just may be the price our species pays for living so much longer than other primates ... During those extra decades of life, natural cell-repair mechanisms may wear out and neural circuits wither, the researchers said. As the brain normally ages, it acquires the neural equivalent of sore knees and stiff fingers. Natural grooves in the brain widen. Healthy swellings subside. And tangles of damaged neurons become dense thickets of dysfunctional synapses"
  • Hemoglobin level in older persons and incident Alzheimer disease: Prospective cohort analysis - Neurology. 2011 Jul 13 - "When compared to participants with clinically normal hemoglobin (n = 717), participants with anemia (n = 154) had a 60% increased hazard for developing AD (95% CI 1.02-2.52), as did participants with clinically high hemoglobin (n = 10, HR 3.39, 95% CI 1.25-9.20). Linear mixed-effects models showed that lower and higher hemoglobin levels were associated with a greater rate of global cognitive decline (parameter estimate for quadratic of hemoglobin = -0.008, SE -0.002, p < 0.001). Compared to participants with clinically normal hemoglobin, participants with anemia had a -0.061 z score unit annual decline in global cognitive function (SE 0.012, p < 0.001), as did participants with clinically high hemoglobin (-0.090 unit/year, SE 0.038, p = 0.018) ... In older persons without dementia, both lower and higher hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased hazard for developing AD and more rapid cognitive decline"
  • Stress may increase risk for Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 5/26/11 - "Fewer than ten percent of Alzheimer cases have a genetic basis. The factors that contribute to the rest of the cases are largely unknown ... life events (stress) may be one trigger ... stress, and the hormones released during stress, can accelerate the development of Alzheimer disease-like biochemical and behavioural pathology"
  • Plasma homocysteine and cognitive decline in older hypertensive subjects - Int Psychogeriatr. 2011 May 6:1-9 - "Higher homocysteine showed an independent association with greater cognitive decline in three domains: speed of cognition (β = -27.33, p = 0.001), episodic memory (β = -1.25, p = 0.02) and executive function (β = -0.05, p = 0.04). The association with executive function was no longer significant after inclusion of folate in the regression model (β = -0.032, p = 0.22). Change in working memory and attention were not associated with plasma homocysteine, folate or B12. High homocysteine was associated with greater decline with a Cohen's d effect size of approximately 0.7 compared to low homocysteine. Conclusions: In a population of older hypertensive patients, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with cognitive decline"
  • Midlife and Late-Life Blood Pressure and Dementia in Japanese Elderly: The Hisayama Study - Hypertension. 2011 May 9 - "We followed up a total of 668 community-dwelling Japanese individuals without dementia, aged 65 to 79 years, for 17 years and examined the associations of late-life and midlife hypertension with the risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease using the Cox proportional hazards model ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of vascular dementia significantly increased with elevated late-life blood pressure levels (normal: 2.3, prehypertension: 8.4, stage 1 hypertension: 12.6, and stage 2 hypertension: 18.9 per 1000 person-years; P(trend)<0.001), whereas no such association was observed for Alzheimer disease (P(trend)=0.88). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects with prehypertension and stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension had 3.0-fold, 4.5-fold, and 5.6-fold greater risk of vascular dementia, respectively, compared with subjects with normal blood pressure. Likewise, there was a positive association of midlife blood pressure levels with the risk of vascular dementia but not with the risk of Alzheimer disease. Compared with those without hypertension in both midlife and late life, subjects with midlife hypertension had an ≈5-fold greater risk of vascular dementia, regardless of late-life blood pressure levels. Our findings suggest that midlife hypertension and late-life hypertension are significant risk factors for the late-life onset of vascular dementia but not for that of Alzheimer disease in a general Japanese population. Midlife hypertension is especially strongly associated with a greater risk of vascular dementia, regardless of late-life blood pressure levels"
  • Packing on the pounds in middle age linked to dementia - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "people who were overweight or obese at midlife had an 80 percent higher risk of developing dementia, Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in late life compared to people with normal BMI"
  • Treating high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes may lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "After five years, 298 people developed Alzheimer's disease. The others still had mild cognitive impairment. People with risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and high cholesterol were two times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those without vascular risk factors. A total of 52 percent of those with risk factors developed Alzheimer's disease, compared to 36 percent of those with no risk factors ... Of those with vascular risk factors, people who were receiving full treatment were 39 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those receiving no treatment. Those receiving some treatments were 26 percent less likely to develop the disease compared to people who did not receive any treatment ... Although this was not a controlled trial, patients who were treated for their high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes had less progression of their memory or thinking impairment and were less likely to develop dementia"
  • Study links inflammation in brain to some memory decline - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "adults with measureable levels of C reactive protein recalled fewer words and had smaller medial temporal lobes ... Scientists don't know if the inflammation indicated by the C reactive protein is the cause of the memory loss, if it reflects a response to some other disease process or if the two factors are unrelated. But if inflammation causes the cognitive decline, relatively simple treatments could help"
  • Indications of Alzheimer's disease may be evident decades before first signs of cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 3/28/11
  • Hearing loss associated with development of dementia - Science Daily, 2/14/11 - "follow-up of 11.9 years ... for every 10 decibels of hearing loss, the extra risk increased by 20 percent ... "A number of mechanisms may be theoretically implicated in the observed association between hearing loss and incident dementia," the authors write. Dementia may be overdiagnosed in individuals with hearing loss, or those with cognitive impairment may be overdiagnosed with hearing loss. The two conditions may share an underlying neuropathologic process. "Finally, hearing loss may be causually related to dementia, possibly through exhaustion of cognitive reserve, social isolation, environmental deafferentation [elimination of sensory nerve fibers] or a combination of these pathways.""
  • Insulin metabolism and the risk of Alzheimer disease: The Rotterdam Study - Neurology. 2010 Nov 30;75(22):1982-7 - "Diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but how it exerts its effect remains controversial ... Levels of insulin and insulin resistance were associated with a higher risk of AD within 3 years of baseline. After 3 years, the risk was no longer increased. Glucose was not associated with a higher risk of AD"
  • Bilingualism delays onset of Alzheimer's symptoms - Science Daily, 11/8/10
  • New findings pull back curtain on relationship between iron and Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "there is a very close link between elevated levels of iron in the brain and the enhanced production of the amyloid precursor protein, which in Alzheimer's disease breaks down into a peptide that makes up the destructive plaques ... it had been known that an abundance of iron in brain cells somehow results in an abundance of amyloid precursor protein, or APP, and its destructive peptide offspring"
  • Low testosterone linked to Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/5/10 - "Low levels of the male sex hormone, testosterone, in older men is associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Mild memory loss is not a part of normal aging, new research finds - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "Simply getting older is not the cause of mild memory lapses often called senior moments ... even the very early mild changes in memory that are much more common in old age than dementia are caused by the same brain lesions associated with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias ... The very early mild cognitive changes once thought to be normal aging are really the first signs of progressive dementia"
  • Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes linked to plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/25/10 - "People with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes appear to be at an increased risk of developing plaques in the brain that are associated with Alzheimer's disease ... people who had abnormal results on three tests of blood sugar control had an increased risk of developing plaques. Plaques were found in 72 percent of people with insulin resistance and 62 percent of people with no indication of insulin resistance" -  [Abstract]
  • Gum inflammation linked to Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/3/10 - "cognitively normal subjects with periodontal inflammation are at an increased risk of lower cognitive function compared to cognitively normal subjects with little or no periodontal inflammation ... subjects with Alzheimer's disease had a significantly higher level of antibodies and inflammatory molecules associated with periodontal disease in their plasma compared to healthy people ... the Digit Symbol Test, or DST, a part of the standard measurement of adult IQ ... periodontal inflammation at age 70 was strongly associated with lower DST scores at age 70. Subjects with periodontal inflammation were nine times more likely to test in the lower range of the DST compared to subjects with little or no periodontal inflammation" - Note:  See my dental page.  Gum disease has been linked to several other heath conditions including diabetes and heart disease.  Over the years I've tried several methods for gum disease including floss, Periostat and Arestin and here is the only method that worked:
  • Abdominal fat at middle age associated with greater risk of dementia: Obesity linked to lower total brain volume - Science Daily, 5/20/10 - "excess abdominal fat places otherwise healthy, middle-aged people at risk for dementia later in life ... 24.3 million people have some form of dementia, with 4.6 million new cases annually"
  • Lowering Systolic BP in Midlife Reduces the Risk of Late-Life Dementia - Medscape, 5/17/10 - "17.7% of cases could be attributed to prehypertension (systolic BP 120 to <140 mm Hg), regardless of treatment status, or 11 excess cases per 1000"
  • Homocysteine is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with mild hypertension - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Apr 7:1-8 - "In older hypertensives, plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased rates of progressive white matter and hippocampal atrophy"
  • Severe Hypoglycemia Raises Dementia Risk in Type 2 Elderly - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/10 - "compared with patients who had no severe hypoglycemic episodes were 1.7 for those with at least one episode, 2.2 for two or more, and 2.6 for three or more episodes. Further adjustment for diabetes-related comorbidity, HbA1c level, diabetes treatment, and years of insulin use modestly attenuated the effect but it remained “statistically significant and clinically relevant” with hazard ratios of 1.3, 1.8, and 1.9, respectively"
  • Diabetes Accelerates Conversion of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia - Medscape, 1/11/10 - "Our study demonstrates that individuals with mild cognitive impairment and diabetes are at increased risk of developing dementia"
  • Hypertension Drugs May Cut Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 1/12/10 - "The patients taking an angiotensin receptor blocker had a 19% lower risk of developing dementia compared to those taking lisinopril and a 24% lower risk compared to use of other blood pressure/heart medications. People taking both an ACE inhibitor and an angiotensin receptor blocker, which both target the angiotensin system, had a 46% lower risk of dementia compared with those taking other medications"
  • Dementia linked to high blood pressure years earlier - Science Daily, 1/12/10 - "Women who, at the start of the study, were hypertensive, meaning a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher, had significantly more white matter lesions on their MRI scans eight years later than participants with normal blood pressure. Lesions were more common in the frontal lobe, the brain's emotional control center and home to personality, than in the occipital, parietal or temporal lobes"
  • Hypertension Linked to White-Matter Disease Progression: Study - Medscape, 1/7/10 - "Long-standing hypertension is strongly associated with progression of white-matter hyperintensity (WMH), which is known to be associated with new or worsening cognitive impairment and dementia"
  • Delaying the aging process protects against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 12/10/09 - "Aging is the single greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In their latest study, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies found that simply slowing the aging process in mice prone to develop Alzheimer's disease prevented their brains from turning into a neuronal wasteland ... he slowed the aging process in a mouse model for Alzheimer's by lowering the activity of the IGF-1 signaling pathway ... mice with reduced IGF-1 signaling live up to 35 percent longer than normal mice ... Although long-lived mice didn't show any of the cognitive or behavioral impairments typical of Alzheimer's disease till very late in life, their brains were riddled with highly compacted plaques"
  • Alzheimer's: Destructive amyloid-beta protein may also be essential for normal brain function - Science Daily, 11/23/09 - "Alzheimer's disease is thought to be caused by the build-up of a brain peptide called amyloid-beta. That's why eliminating the protein has been the focus of almost all drug research pursuing a cure for the devastating neurodegenerative condition ... amyloid-beta is also necessary to maintain proper brain functioning"
  • NSAIDs Prevent Early Sign Of Alzheimer Disease In Mice - Science Daily, 11/9/09
  • Statins Show Dramatic Drug And Cell Dependent Effects In The Brain - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "Besides their tremendous value in treating high cholesterol and lowering the risk of heart disease, statins have also been reported to potentially lower the risks of other diseases, such as dementia ... statin drugs can have profoundly different effects on brain cells -both beneficial and detrimental ... simvastatin reduced the expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 by approximately 80% in astrocytes, while pravastatin lowered expression by only around 50%. Another interesting difference was that while both statins decreased expression of the Tau protein -associated with Alzheimer's disease -- in astrocytes, they increased Tau expression in neurons; pravastatin also increased the expression of another Alzheimer's hallmark, amyloid precursor protein (APP)"
  • Antihypertensive Therapy Slows Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer Disease - Medscape, 9/29/09 - "patients using antihypertensive treatments had significantly higher MMSE scores at 1, 2, and 3 years, compared with patients not taking antihypertensive treatments"
  • High Cholesterol Linked to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 8/4/09 - "Adults with even moderately elevated cholesterol in their early to mid-40s appear to have an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias decades later ... Total cholesterol in the high range at study entry was associated with a 66% increase in Alzheimer's risk, while having borderline high cholesterol raised the risk for vascular dementia by 52% ... total cholesterol of 240 or higher is considered high, and a cholesterol of 200 to 239 is considered borderline high"
  • Cognitive Deficit in Amyloid-{beta}-Injected Mice Was Improved by Pretreatment With a Low Dose of Telmisartan Partly Because of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} Activation - Hypertension. 2009 Jul 27 - "Taken together, our findings suggest that even a low dose of telmisartan had a preventive effect on cognitive decline in an Alzheimer disease mouse model, partly because of PPAR-gamma activation"
  • Statin Drugs May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD, 7/14/09 - "people who took statin drugs were 58% less likely to develop dementia than those who did not ... So what is going on? A risk factor for dementia is high insulin; one theory is that statins may lower the high insulin levels in the brain. Statins have also been shown to reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation that has been linked to the pathology that can lead to dementia"
  • Inflammation May Trigger Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/8/09 - "Inflammation, which is part of the body's natural immune response, occurs when the body activates white blood cells and produces chemicals to fight infection and invading foreign substances ... We induced inflammation in mice and found that it turned off the LRP pump that lets amyloid beta protein exit the brain into the bloodstream. It also revved up an entrance pump that transports amyloid beta into the brain. Both of these actions would increase the amount of amyloid beta protein in the brain"
  • Very Low Blood Sugar Linked to Dementia - WebMD, 4/17/09 - "Compared to patients with no history of low blood sugar requiring treatment, patients with a single episode of hospital-treated hypoglycemia were found to have a 26% increase in dementia risk ... Patients treated three or more times for hypoglycemia had nearly double the dementia risk of patients who had never been treated"
  • Diabetes Linked To Cognitive Deterioration - Science Daily, 3/5/09 - "people with diabetes were 1.5 more likely to experience cognitive decline, and 1.6 more likely to suffer from dementia than people without diabetes ... suggests that higher-than-average levels of blood glucose (blood sugar) may have a role in this relationship ... in people with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of haemoglobin A1C (a measure of average blood glucose) are significantly associated with poorer performance on three cognitive tasks which require memory, speed and ability to manage multiple tasks at the same time. A higher A1C level was also associated with a lower score on a test of global cognitive function ... lowering A1C levels could slow the accelerated rate of cognitive decline experienced by people with diabetes"
  • Drug Found That Could Reduce Risk Of Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/2/09 - "daily injections of hydroxyfasudil ... Both dosed groups performed significantly better than control-group rats given saline solution. On this same test, the high-dose group showed the best learning (fewest total errors) and best working memory (measured two different ways)"
  • Getting Diabetes Before 65 More Than Doubles Risk For Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 1/28/09 - "getting diabetes before the age of 65 corresponds to a 125 percent increased risk for Alzheimer's disease"
  • Antipsychotic Drugs Double Risk Of Death Among Alzheimer's Patients - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "New research into the effects of antipsychotic drugs commonly prescribed to Alzheimer’s patients concludes that the medication nearly doubles risk of death over three years"
  • Old Gastrointestinal Drug Slows Aging, Researchers Say - Science Daily, 1/6/08 - "Recent animal studies have shown that clioquinol – an 80-year old drug once used to treat diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disorders – can reverse the progression of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases ... clioquinol acts directly on a protein called CLK-1, often informally called "clock-1," and might slow down the aging process ... Because clock-1 affects longevity in invertebrates and mice, and because we're talking about three age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesize that clioquinol affects them by slowing down the rate of aging ... clioquinol was withdrawn from the market after being blamed for a devastating outbreak of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan in the 1960s. However, because no rigorous scientific study was conducted at the time, and because clioquinol was used safely by millions before and after the Japanese outbreak, some researchers think its connection to SMON has yet to be proven" - I Googled clioquinol and I don't think it's available anywhere.
  • Rosiglitazone reverses memory decline and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 22 - "An early down-regulation of GR, not related to elevated plasma corticosterone levels, was found in different hippocampal subfields of the transgenic mice and this decrease was prevented by rosiglitazone. In parallel with behavioural studies, rosiglitazone also normalized GR levels in older animals. This effect may contribute to explain the attenuation of memory decline by PPARgamma activation in an AD mouse model" - Note:  That's another reason I take rosiglitazone's competitor, pioglitazone which has less chance of causing heart problems.
  • Drug Reduces Aggression, Wandering And Paranoia In Alzheimer's Patients - Science Daily, 12/9/08
  • Epilepsy Drug Shows Potential For Alzheimer’s Treatment - Science Daily, 12/8/08 - "Sodium valproate - which is marketed as the anti-seizure drug Epilim - has been shown by scientists at the University of Leeds to reactivate the body’s own defences against a small protein called amyloid beta peptide, which is the main component of the brain plaques characteristic in Alzheimer’s"
  • Does Growth Hormone Drug Slow Alzheimer's Disease? - Science Daily, 11/17/08 - "A new study shows that a drug that increases the release of growth hormone failed to slow the rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease in humans"
  • Statins Reduce Dementia & Cognitive Impairment Risk - Physician's Weekly Article, 10/13/08 - "Patients who had used statins were about half as likely as those who did not use the drugs to develop dementia or CIND"
  • Possibilities -- But No Proof -- To Prevent Alzheimer’s - Science Daily, 10/8/08 - "Physical activity and healthy living ... Diet ... Alzheimer’s vaccine ... Cardiovascular therapies ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ... Estrogen ... Mental fitness"
  • Statins May Prevent Dementia in Older Adults - Doctor's Guide, 7/29/08 - "People at high risk for dementia who took statins were half as likely to develop dementia as those who do not take statins"
  • Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Are Lower Incidence, Progression Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/27/08 - "Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have, for the first time, found that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)—a particular class of anti-hypertensive medicines—are associated with a striking decrease in the occurrence and progression of dementia" - Note:  Telmisartan, which I've been saying should be a first line treatment, is an ARB.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • New Drug Reverses Alzheimer's Disease Within Days In Mouse Models - Science Daily, 7/9/08
  • To Avoid Dementia, Watch Your Weight - WebMD, 5/8/08 - "obese people have an 80% increased risk for Alzheimer's disease compared to those with normal weight"
  • Using Anti-cholinergic Drugs May Increase Cognitive Decline In Older People - Science Daily, 4/17/08 - "Anticholinergic drugs, such as medicines for stomach cramps, ulcers, motion sickness, and urinary incontinence, may cause older people to experience greater decline in their thinking skills than people not taking the drugs"
  • High Cholesterol In Your 40s Increases Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 4/16/08 - "people with total cholesterol levels between 249 and 500 milligrams were one-and-a-half times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those people with cholesterol levels of less than 198 milligrams. People with total cholesterol levels of 221 to 248 milligrams were more than one-and-a-quarter times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease"
  • Alzheimer's Starts Earlier For Heavy Drinkers, Smokers - Science Daily, 4/16/08 - "the combination of heavy drinking and heavy smoking reduced the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease by six to seven years, making these two factors among the most important preventable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease"
  • Insulin Trouble Tied to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/9/08 - "the men took fasting glucose tests to show how well their body used insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar ... Men who had a weaker insulin response to that test were 31% more likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease later in life" - See my Insulin and Aging page.
  • Big Bellies Linked to Alzheimer's Disease - washingtonpost.com, 3/26/08 - "People who have big bellies in their 40s are much more likely to get Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in their 70s" - [Science Daily]
  • More Brain Research Suggests 'Use It Or Lose It' - Science Daily, 2/7/08 - "It appears that if a cell is not appropriately stimulated by other cells, it self-destructs ... This self-destruct process is also known to be an important factor in stroke, Alzheimer's and motor neuron diseases, leading to the loss of essential nerve cells from the adult brain"
  • Telomere length in white blood cells, buccal cells and brain tissue and its variation with ageing and Alzheimer's disease - Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Jan 31 - "We observed a significantly lower telomere length in white blood cells (P<0.0001) and buccal cells (P<0.01) in Alzheimer's patients relative to healthy age-matched controls (31.4% and 32.3%, respectively)"
  • Rosiglitazone increases dendritic spine density and rescues spine loss caused by apolipoprotein E4 in primary cortical neurons - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 22 - "rosiglitazone significantly increased dendritic spine density in a dose-dependent manner in cultured primary cortical rat neurons. This effect was abolished by the PPAR-gamma-specific antagonist, GW9662, suggesting that rosiglitazone exerts this effect by activating the PPAR-gamma pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal-truncated fragment of apoE4 significantly decreased dendritic spine density. Rosiglitazone rescued this detrimental effect. Thus, rosiglitazone might improve cognition in AD patients by increasing dendritic spine density"
  • High Blood Pressure Associated With Risk For Mild Cognitive Impairment - Science Daily, 12/12/07 - "Hypertension (high blood pressure) was associated with an increased risk of all types of mild cognitive impairment that was mostly driven by an increased risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment ... Preventing and treating hypertension may have an important impact in lowering the risk of cognitive impairment"
  • High Blood Pressure May Heighten Effects Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 11/28/07 - "Having hypertension, or high blood pressure, reduces blood flow in the brains of adults with Alzheimer's disease"
  • Copper Damages Protein That Defends Against Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 11/7/07 - "Copper can damage a molecule that escorts out of the brain a substance called amyloid beta that builds up in toxic quantities in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease ... having appropriate levels of copper in our body is crucial for our health. Copper helps keep our bones our strong and our skin toned, and it helps our nerves fire crisply and our cells to generate the energy we need to live. It helps keep our blood healthy so we can get the oxygen we need to all our organs. And it plays a role in keeping our immune system strong"
  • Maternal Link to Alzheimer's Disease Found - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/07 - "People who have a mother with Alzheimer's disease appear to be at higher risk for getting the disease than those individuals whose fathers are afflicted ... People with an affected parent have a 4- to 10-fold higher risk compared to individuals with no family history. It isn't known why people with a family history are more susceptible to the disease"
  • High Blood Pressure Or Irregular Heartbeat Linked To Alzheimer's Disease Progression - Science Daily, 11/5/07 - "10 with high blood pressure (systolic pressure over 160) at the time of AD diagnosis showed a rate of memory loss roughly 100 percent faster than those with normal blood pressure ... 10 with atrial fibrillation at the time of the diagnosis showed a rate of memory decline that was 75 percent faster than those with normal heartbeats"
  • Pet Scan Helps Distinguish Alzheimer's from Other Dementia - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/07
  • Drugs For Hypertension May Help Prevent And Treat Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 10/26/07 - "mice genetically determined to develop Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid production and subsequent cognitive deterioration, significantly benefit from the treatment with the anti-hypertensive agent Valsartan, found to pharmacologically prevent beta-amyloid production in the brain even when delivered to Alzheimer's disease mice at doses 3-4 fold lower than the minimal equivalent dose prescribed for the treatment of hypertension in humans. Other anti-hypertension drugs with beneficial results included Propranolol HCI, Carvedilol, Losartan, Nicardipine HCI, Amiloride HCI and Hydralazine HCI" - Note:  I'm big on Micardis (telmisartan).  Valsartan and losartan (generic names so they shouldn't have been capitalized) are also ARBs.  I'm wondering if telmisartan was in the study.
  • Statins May Help Alzheimer's Patients - washingtonpost.com, 9/11/07 - "Those patients who had taken statins before they died showed significantly lower levels of tangles in their brains ... Our data says these drugs appear to be doing something in the human brain ... Whether this will translate into behavioral changes, we can't say ... subjects had taken statins for only five years or less. It may be that longer use of statins would offer more protection"
  • New Alzheimer's findings: High stress and genetic risk factor lead to increased memory decline - Doctor's Guide, 8/27/07 - "High stress levels may contribute to memory loss among people at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease"
  • Statins May Cut Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 8/27/07 - "participants who had taken statins were 80% less likely to have brain changes typical of Alzheimer's disease than those who hadn't taken statins"
  • Zocor vs. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's - WebMD, 7/18/07 - "In patients over age 64, those who took Zocor were 54% less likely to get Alzheimer's disease and 49% less likely to get Parkinson's disease than were matched patients not taking statin drugs ... Those who took Lipitor were 9% less likely to get Alzheimer's disease"
  • Blood Inflammation Plays Role in Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/07 - "The participants' blood was tested for levels of cytokines, which are protein messengers that trigger inflammation. Those with the highest amount of cytokines in their blood were more than twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease as those with the lowest amount of cytokines"
  • Some Hypertension Drugs May Help Reduce Dementia Risk - Science Daily, 5/5/07 - "Centrally acting drugs include captropril (Capoten®), fosinopril (Monopril®), lisinopril (Prinivil® or Zestri®), perindopril (Aceon®), ramipril (Altace®) and trandolapril (Mavik®) ... The study found a link between taking centrally active ACE inhibitors and lower rates of mental decline as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam, a test that evaluates memory, language, abstract reasoning and other cognitive functions"
  • Estrogen Use Before 65 Linked To Reduced Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 5/2/07 - "women who used any form of estrogen hormone therapy before the age of 65 were nearly 50 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease or dementia"
  • Testosterone May Slow Alzheimer's - WebMD, 12/19/06 - "The mice that couldn't make testosterone developed more brain plaque, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Those mice also had more trouble in a maze test"
  • High Cholesterol Linked to Increased AD Risk - Medscape, 11/6/06 - "With a 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of memory errors, normal mice on the high-fat diet had significantly poorer memory performance than controls ... This finding indicates it may not be increased cholesterol levels per se that adversely affect memory but the associated inflammation"
  • Antidiabetic Agents Show Some Promise in Treating Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 7/27/06 - "The findings in these studies clearly support the growing paradigm shift regarding the pathogenesis of AD, ie, that AD is caused by insulin resistance and insulin deficiency in the brain"
  • Prediabetes May Raise Risk for Alzheimer's - Intelihealth, 7/17/06 - "people who had prediabetes at the beginning of the study had a 70% increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's ... doctors tend to ignore the slightly high sugar levels until the levels reach the stage of full-blown diabetes"
  • Diabetes Drug Shows Promise in Treating Alzheimer's - Doctor's Guide, 7/17/06 - "Treatment of high blood sugar may have a scientific connection to memory loss that could, one day, benefit millions of people with Alzheimer's Disease ... The drug, called pioglitazone HCl"
  • Antihypertensive Agents May Be Linked to Decreased Risk for Alzheimer Disease - Medscape, 5/9/06 - "The use of any antihypertensive medications significantly reduced the risk of developing AD (adjusted HR, 0.64). This result did not vary by sex, APOE status, subjects' blood pressure values, or the duration of antihypertensive use ... potassium-sparing diuretics had the most significant affect on the risk of AD ... this effect was almost entirely due to the effects of potassium-sparing agents"
  • Alzheimer's patients put diabetes pill [Avandia] to the test - MSNBC, 5/1/06 - "The new theory: The metabolism of neurons’ internal power factors, called mitochondria, go awry so that those cells don’t use enough sugar. That eventually leads to impaired brain cell function, including the buildup of that gunky beta-amyloid. It also means that neurons in youth and middle age don’t sprout enough communication connections, providing less “cognitive reserve” once their neurons start dying off" - See my Avandia page.
  • Sustained Blood Pressure Treatment Lowers Dementia Risk In Elderly - Science Daily, 4/10/06 - "each year of treatment reduced the risk of developing dementia during the follow-up period by about 3 percent. Compared with men who were never treated for hypertension, the risk of developing dementia during the follow-up period was: ... 60 percent lower in those treated more than 12 years -- similar to the risk in a control group of 446 men with normal blood pressure"
  • Insulin Sensitizers Cut Cognitive Decline in AD - Clinical Psychiatry News, 4/06 - "There is a critical relationship between insulin resistance and key aspects of brain function ... patients taking rosiglitazone performed significantly better than those taking placebo on a delayed memory task (the Buschke Selective Reminding Test)" - See OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Use of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Cuts AD Risks - Clinical Psychiatry News, 4/06 - "The risk of developing AD was significantly smaller in those who took antihypertensive medications than in those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.64). When the results were broken down by drug class, diuretics showed the greatest protective effect against AD"
  • Hypertension Drugs May Cut Alzheimer's - WebMD, 3/13/06 - "People taking drugs for high blood pressure -- especially certain diuretics -- were less likely to have developed Alzheimer's"
  • Alzheimer's Found To Be Mostly Genetic: Largest Twin Study Ever Undertaken Confirms Highest Estimates Of Genetic Risk - Science Daily, 2/7/06 - "Alzheimer disease has a genetic cause in up to 80 percent of cases"
  • Alzheimer Patients Treated With Testosterone In UCLA-led Study Show Improved Quality Of Life - Science Daily, 1/10/06 - "Alzheimer patients treated with testosterone showed significant improvement on a quality-of-life instrument that encompasses memory, interpersonal relationships, physical health, energy, living situation and overall well-being compared with patients who received a placebo"
  • Testosterone May Ease Alzheimer's - WebMD, 12/12/05 - "testosterone replacement therapy improved the mood, overall well-being, and personal relationships of men with Alzheimer's disease"
  • Effects of Testosterone on Cognition and Mood in Male Patients With Mild Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Elderly Men - Arch Neurol. 2006;63 - "For the patients with AD, the testosterone-treated group had significantly greater improvements in the scores on the caregiver version of the quality-of-life scale"
  • Cholesterol Drugs May Slow Alzheimer's - WebMD, 11/17/05 - "Those taking cholesterol drugs had the smallest drop in test scores ... No one was assigned to take any drug. The researchers just tracked the patients' medications and test scores"
  • Hypertension Control May Lower Risk of Dementia - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/05 - "effective antihypertensive therapy may reduce cognitive decline in these patients"
  • High Cholesterol May Raise Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 10/10/05 - "If further studies confirm these results, researchers say cholesterol management may be incorporated in to treatments for Alzheimer's disease"
  • Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43 - "Elevated plasma tHcy concentrations and low serum folate concentrations are independent predictors of the development of dementia and AD"
  • Blood Flow to Brain Linked to Dementia - WebMD, 8/30/05 - "The average blood flow into the brain among the dementia group was 443 milliliters per minute, which was 108 milliliters per minute lower than older adults of the same age with good brain function. In comparison, average blood flow in the brain was 742 milliliters per minute among the healthy, young adults"
  • Obesity Today, Alzheimer's Disease Tomorrow? - WebMD, 8/8/05 - "people with high insulin levels -- long before they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease"
  • Elevated Insulin Levels Appear to Increase Levels of Inflammatory Markers and Beta-Amyloid, Which May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/05 - "Moderately elevated levels of insulin increase the levels of inflammatory markers and beta-amyloid in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and these markers may contribute to Alzheimer's disease"
  • Signs found 10 years in advance of Alzheimer's - USATODAY.com, 7/31/05 - "The first hints of impending Alzheimer's include not just forgetfulness but lags in attention and other subtle problems that can show up 10 years before an official diagnosis"
  • Are Animals Who Exercise Slower to Develop AD? - Physician's Weekly, 7/25/05 - "short-term and long-term physical activity appear to reduce the processing of plaque-forming ß-amyloid protein"
  • Next Alzheimer's Disease Drug: Lipitor? - WebMD, 5/9/05 - "How could Lipitor help Alzheimer's patients? Excess cholesterol in the brain seems to play a role in Alzheimer's disease progression"
  • New Study Shows That Most Older People With Mild Cognitive Impairment Have Alzheimer’s Disease Or Cerebral Vascular Disease - Science Daily, 3/17/05 - "Mild cognitive impairment in older people is not a normal part of growing old but rather appears to be an indicator of Alzheimer's disease or cerebral vascular disease"
  • Drugs Used To Treat Alzheimer's In Nursing Homes Are Worsening Sufferers' Illness - Science Daily, 3/8/05 - "Quetiapine, a drug commonly used in nursing homes to treat agitation and related symptoms in people with Alzheimers' disease actually worsens patients' illness, speeding up their rate of decline significantly"
  • Diabetes Drug Appears to Slow Cognitive Decline - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/05 - "subjects who received rosiglitazone remembered significantly more words than did the placebo subjects at 4 months (5.7 vs. 5.4) and 6 months"
  • Cholesterol Drugs May Lower Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 1/10/05 - "long-term use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs may help reduce risk of memory-robbing deposits and Alzheimer's disease"
  • Cholesterol-lowering Drug May Slow Alzheimer's Progression - Science Daily, 11/17/04 - "The cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin slowed down mental decline and improved depressive symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease"
  • Blood Pressure Drug May Slow Alzheimer's - WebMD, 10/11/04 - "patients who took blood pressure pills known as ACE inhibitors showed a slower deterioration in thinking and memory than patients who took other types of high blood pressure drugs ... particularly Aceon and Capoten"
  • Drinking and Dementia: Is There a Link? - WebMD, 9/3/04 - "Drinking alcohol in middle age may increase the risk of late-life dementia in people who are genetically predisposed to develop Alzheimer's disease"
  • No Clear-Cut Answers on Statins as Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/19/04 - "Alzheimer mice treated with simvastatin regain their ability to navigate mazes"
  • Estrogen and Estrogen-Related Drugs May Protect Against Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/21/04 - "the researchers believe the results support the use of estrogen, or SERMs, for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease"
  • Depression Liked to Alzheimer's Risk - Physician's Weekly, 7/28/03 - "People who have experienced depression are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than their relatives who have never shown signs of depression ... People who have experienced depression are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than their relatives who have never shown signs of depression"
  • Common Drugs May Raise Alzheimer's Risk - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/03 - "The drugs -- called anticholinergic agents -- slow electrical impulses in nerve cells. They're used to help Parkinson's disease patients control unwanted movement such as tremors. These drugs also help with bladder control and dizziness. But other common drugs have anticholinergic activities, too. These include older allergy drugs and tricyclic antidepressants ... examined the brains of deceased Parkinson's patients for the plaques and tangles seen in the brains of Alzheimer's patients ... Those who took anticholinergic drugs for more than two years had significantly more plaque and tangles than those who never took the drugs"
  • Simvastatin May Retard Progression of Severe White Matter Changes - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/03 - "Simvastatin may slow down the progression of severe white matter changes in the brain, and may therefore retard cognitive decline ... The most common type of vascular dementia is due to the hardening of the arteries deep inside the brain which causes white matter changes... and its been shown that this can lead to executive dysfunction" - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Antipsychotics Effective for Elderly Patients With Dementia - Psychiatric News, 4/18/03 - "atypical antipsychotics have been used to alleviate deteriorating behavioral symptoms in dementia patients, such as agitation and aggression. New research that she cited shows some atypical antipsychotics can actually improve cognition through activating the release of acetylcholine in the cortex. Clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, she reported, robustly increased acetylcholine release in the cortex, while ziprasidone only moderately increased levels, compared with haloperidol and thioridazine, which did not elevate acetylcholine levels at all ... atypical antipsychotics increase cortical dopamine and cholinesterase inhibitors at the very least increase cortical acetylcholine action, leading to an improvement in memory and thinking, as well as improvement in psychosis and behavior"
  • Diabetes Linked to Development of Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/03 - "people with diabetes had a 73% greater chance of developing Alzheimer s disease compared to controls ... people with diabetes had a 51% greater rate of decline in perceptual speed" - See my diabetes page for preventative measures.
  • Cholesterol Metabolism May Provide Alzheimer’s Clue - Psychiatric Times, 3/21/03 - "The CYP46 enzyme regulates levels of brain cholesterol ... a change of just one base in the CYP46 gene from cytosine (C) to thymine (T)—leads to a decrease in functioning of CYP46, causing cholesterol levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid to reach higher-than-normal levels ... other research has shown that depletion of brain cholesterol leads to a reduction in Aß ... The results, he wrote, "suggest the possibility that LOAD [late onset Alzheimer's disease], the most common degenerative disease of the brain, is a general end point for abnormalities that increase the amount of cholesterol in the central nervous system. If so, inhibiting cholesterol metabolism in the brain might represent a viable treatment for LOAD.""
  • Higher Pulse Pressure Tied To Dementia Risks - Doctor's Guide, 3/17/03 - "Higher pulse pressure in older adults is linked with increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia, which is probably caused by artery stiffness and severe atherosclerosis" - Note:  Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic (high number) and diastolic (low number).
  • HDL Cholesterol Level Linked To Longevity, Cognitive Function - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/03 - "A group of centenarians maintained significantly higher than normal HDL cholesterol levels, and within the group the parameter was strongly correlated with cognitive function ... The centenarians' offspring were also significantly healthier than their spouses: They were half as likely to have diabetes or heart attacks and had significantly lower blood pressure. No strokes occurred among the offspring ... The presence of HDL might explain the health and longevity in these families. The serum concentration of HDL typically declines with age by a mean of 5 mg/dL every 8 years ... Had the decline followed the normal pattern, the centenarians' HDL would have been about 20 mg/dL. But the actual mean value in the group was 55 mg/dL" - See my HDL page for ways to raise it.
  • Targeting 5HT Receptors Might Control Alzheimer's Dementia - Doctor's Guide, 2/19/03 - "Compromised serotonergic function might contribute significantly to cognitive decline in senile dementia and in ageing ... acute tryptophan depletion impaired tasks of working memory in both groups"
  • Studies have mixed message for diet and Alzheimer's risks - USA Today, 2/17/03 - "The study of antioxidants involved 980 Medicare patients in New York, averaging age 75, who were asked about their food intake during the first year of the four-year study ... Thies said the results don't rule out the possibility of an Alzheimer's-related benefit from antioxidants ... it is not what you're doing in your late 70s that's going to affect your risk of dementia, it's what you're doing in your 50s and 60s"
  • Low Blood Pressure and Risk of Dementia in the Kungsholmen Project: A 6-Year Follow-up Study - Archives of Neurology, 2/03 - "Subjects with very high systolic pressure (>180 vs 141-180 mm Hg) had an adjusted relative risk of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.3; P = .07) for Alzheimer disease, and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.2) for dementia ... high diastolic pressure (>90 mm Hg) was not associated with dementia incidence, whereas extremely low diastolic pressure (65 vs 66-90 mm Hg) produced an adjusted relative risk of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1-2.4) for Alzheimer disease and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P = .03) for dementia"
  • Biological Marker [p-tau(231)] Could Differentiate Alzheimer's, Geriatric Depression - Doctor's Guide, 2/12/03
  • Alzheimer's, Dementia Not Inevitable With Age - WebMD, 2/11/03 - "In their study, fully one-half of the 111 nonagenarians -- people 90-99 years old -- had no signs of clinically measurable memory loss, while another 12% had only mild cognitive impairment. Only about one in three had dementia ... One of the things that struck me is that most of the people we studied who lived into their 90s -- whether or not they had dementia -- had at least one parent who lived into their 80s or 90s ... And while some were obese, the vast majority of the study participants and those who had no signs of memory loss were thin"
  • Statin Therapy Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline - Clinical Psychiatry News, 1/03 - "pravastatin showed no effect at all on cognition in PROSPER. Similarly, simvastatin exerted no impact upon cognitive decline in the earlier 20,536-patient randomized double-blind Heart Protection Study ... It might be better to look at the use of antihypertensives in the elderly to prevent cognitive decline” based upon accumulating extremely promising clinical trials data on that score ... Prior statin trials in middle-aged patients have shown stroke prevention but not until after 5-6 years of treatment"
  • Serum insulin-like growth factor I regulates brain amyloid-beta levels - Nat Med 2002 Dec;8(12):1390-7 - "Because IGF-I treatment of mice overexpressing mutant amyloid markedly reduces their brain Abeta burden, we consider that circulating IGF-I is a physiological regulator of regulator of brain amyloid levels with therapeutic potential"
  • More Evidence That Statins Cut Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 11/02
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy and Incidence of Alzheimer Disease in Older Women: The Cache County Study - JAMA, 11/6/02 - "Prior HRT use is associated with reduced risk of AD, but there is no apparent benefit with current HRT use unless such use has exceeded 10 years"
  • Implanted Device May Improve Alzheimer's Effects: "Low-Flow" Shunt Constantly Removes Fluid Buildup, Linked To Dementia - Intelihealth, 10/23/02
  • Brain Shunts Slow Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 10/22/02
  • Cholesterol, Blood Pressure Problems Outweigh Genetics for Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "having a cholesterol level of 250 mg/dL or greater increased the risk for Alzheimer's disease by threefold, compared with cholesterol levels below that ... Systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 160 mm Hg increased the risk by 2.4, compared with SBP less than 140 mm Hg"
  • Smoking Significantly Increases Risk of Alzheimer's Disease Among Those Who Have No Genetic Predisposition - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/02 - "a history of cigarette smoking doubled the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease among individuals who were not apolipoprotein E (ApoE) carriers but did not influence risk among ApoE genotype individuals"
  • Osteoporosis Drug May Protect Brain - WebMD, 7/24/02 - "when elderly women were given Evista at twice the approved osteoporosis dose, their risk for developing a pre-Alzheimer's condition was cut by 33% compared with women taking a placebo"
  • Systolic Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia Identified as Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/23/02 - "persons who have apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 allele as well as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have an eight-fold increase in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease"
  • Hormone Replacement Linked to Lower Plasma Concentrations of Beta-Amyloid - Doctor's Guide, 7/23/02 - "Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with lower plasma concentrations of beta-amyloid 1-40 in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... When treatment with estradiol was discontinued, plasma concentrations of beta-amyloid 1-40 returned towards baseline in previously HRT-naïve women"
  • Cholesterol drugs may work on brain - USA Today, 7/9/02 - "too much cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries in a process that can lead to a heart attack. But many researchers now think that high blood cholesterol also affects the brain ... Excess cholesterol may be instrumental in the formation of senile plaque ... That plaque, the hallmark of Alzheimer's, is an abnormal cluster of dead or dying brain cells and toxic proteins that short-circuit memory and other crucial brain functions ... People taking statins reduced their risk of developing Alzheimer's by nearly 80%" - Note: Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Urine Test Predicts Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/13/02 - "One hypothesis is that, in AD, healthy brain tissue is damaged by the local formation of large amounts of free radicals," said Praticò. "Isoprostanes are the byproducts of fats in the human body that were warped by free radical attack. They then accumulate in CSF, blood, and urine as the body works to get rid of them."
  • Lipoprotein (a) May Be Tied To Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/13/02 - "Researchers found a significant non-linear association between Lp(a) serum concentrations and increased risk for AD"
  • Lower Engrogen Estradiol In Aged Tied To Cognitive And Behavioural Ills - Doctor's Guide, 3/22/02 - "Lower endogenous estradiol levels are linked in older people with poor cognitive function as well as with upsets in behaviours and activities of daily living"
  • Statins May Preserve Brain Power - WebMD, 3/18/02 - "The study also found that statin use was associated with a lower risk of memory problems or dementia, regardless of total cholesterol level. The authors say more research is needed to understand exactly how statins seem to protect the brain, but they suspect that the drugs may work by improving muscle function and reducing inflammation"
  • Testosterone May Help Fight Alzheimer's - Intelihealth, 1/25/02 - "There is increasing evidence that stress plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's ... Hormones such as testosterone have been shown to regulate the brain's stress response ... stress leads to a biochemical change in a brain protein, which is a primary culprit in Alzheimer's disease ... his findings suggest that giving testosterone to aging men or to postmenopausal women may help to delay, prevent and possibly treat Alzheimer's disease. The research was supported by the Alzheimer's Association"
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy May Delay Cognitive Decline In Older Women - Doctor's Guide, 12/27/01 - "Lifetime exposure to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be associated with better maintenance of cognitive function in older women free of dementia ... those who also stand to lose the most cognitively -- women over age 85 -- appear to gain the most from HRT exposure"
  • Putting Alzheimer's Study Into Perspective - WebMD, 11/8/01 - "The researchers also found that only certain anti-inflammatory drugs appear to have what it takes in preventing Alzheimer's disease -- ibuprofen, indomethacin, and sulindac. But aspirin, also an anti-inflammatory drug, did not do the trick ... But what you may have missed from the story is the fact that the doses of ibuprofen given were at levels that could likely lead to problems down the road if taken for a long time"
  • Estrogen Patch Found to Improve Memory - WebMD, 8/27/01 - "after two months of wearing an estrogen patch, postmenopausal women with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease showed some improvement in both memory and thinking ability"
  • Brain Trauma May Increase Risk of Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 8/22/01
  • Keeping Life Normal With Alzheimer's - WebMD, 8/13/01 - "What it shows is that patients treated with [Aricept] are much less likely to experience a significant loss of function over a period of at least a year"
  • Metal Remover Clears Alzheimer's Plaques in Mice - WebMD, 6/21/01 - "A drug [clioquinol] once accused of causing blindness and brain damage may be able to dissolve the plaques clogging the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease"
  • High Blood Pressure, Cholesterol Linked to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 6/14/01 - "The message is to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia early."
  • Galantamine Approved for Alzheimer's Dementia - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/01 - "treated with galantamine had significant improvements in their cognitive performance, compared with those on placebo ... Treatment also was associated with improved behavior and the ability to function in the real world"
  • Alzheimer's Drug: Benefits Seen for Two Years, Advantages of Reminyl Are Modest, Though - WebMD, 5/16/01 - "At the end of two years, those who took the drug throughout the study had on average slightly less than half the degree of decline in mental function and physical abilities of those who initially received the placebo pill"
  • Donepezil Better Tolerated Than Rivastigmine, Efficacy Comparable - Doctor's Guide, 5/11/01 - "both drugs to provide effective cognitive improvement in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia, but donepezil to have fewer cholinergic side effects"
  • New Alzheimer Guidelines Issued - Intelihealth, 5/8/01 - "People diagnosed with persistent short-term memory loss have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and should be aggressively monitored by their physicians"
  • Cholesterol drug may prevent Alzheimer's - CNN, 5/1/01 - "What we found was that patients taking statins have a 60 to 70 percent reduction in the risk of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Decreased Memory After Age 60 Linked To High Homocysteine Levels - Doctor's Guide, 4/26/01 - "High circulating levels of homocysteine, especially with increasing age, have been associated with cognitive impairment. In recent studies, Alzheimer disease and dementia after multiple strokes have been linked to extremely high serum homocysteine concentrations ... The folate status of the participants was an important consideration because folate has been shown to significantly modify homocysteine levels"
  • Brain Cells May Die In Alzheimer's From Failed Try At Replication, Study Says - Intelihealth, 4/26/01 - "Cells normally duplicate their chromosomes before they divide, so that each daughter cell ends up with the right number. But in the case of Alzheimer's, it appears the cells never reach the dividing step. Instead, researchers propose, they die from the double load of chromosomes"
  • Alzheimer's Vaccine Works in Mice, Vaccinated Mice Learn Better, Have Healthier Brains - WebMD, 4/25/01
  • Donepezil Provides Cognitive Benefit in Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 4/24/01 - "significant cognitive improvements were shown by mean increases in MMSE scores from baseline at week 4 (+1.31) and week 12 (+1.79)"
  • Dementia deadlier than first thought - CNN, 4/12/01 - "Most people don't think of dementia as a deadly condition, but "as time goes on they (patients) have difficulty swallowing, they may have difficulties walking," wrote Kawas, "and they become more susceptible to malnutrition and to infections."
  • Researchers Find Link For Estrogen's Power To Protect The Brain - Intelihealth, 4/12/01 - "Dubal used female rats whose ovaries were surgically removed - thereby eliminating estradiol production - and induced strokes in the animals by blocking an artery carrying blood to the brain. The rats given supplemental estrogen had far less brain damage than those from whom the hormone supplement was withheld"
  • Is Alzheimer's Disease More Deadly Than Thought? - WebMD, 4/11/01 - "Each year nearly one in 10 Americans over the age of 65 get the devastating news that they have Alzheimer's disease"
  • Can skin cells repair brains? - USA Today, 4/11/01
  • Alzheimer's Drug Aricept (Donepezil) May Delay Need For Nursing Home Placements - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/01 - "may have delayed dementia-related nursing home placement for Alzheimer's patients for close to two years (21 months)"
  • Don't Chalk Forgetfulness Up to Normal Aging, Memory Loss May Really Be a Sign of Early Alzheimer's - WebMD, 3/14/01 - "older people who have repeated memory lapses may actually have an early form of Alzheimer's disease, even if they do not have the dementia characteristic of the disease"
  • Cavemen Don't Get Alzheimer's, We May Be Too Lazy for Our Own Good - WebMD, 3/5/01 - "people who are inactive in their 20s to their 60s may increase their risk of getting Alzheimer's by a whopping 250%"
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