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Home > Anti-aging Research > Lactobacillus Acidophilus

Lactobacillus Acidophilus & Other Probiotics

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News & Research:

  • Gut Bacteria Profile Remains Stable With Healthy Aging - Medscape, 10/25/17 - "The main conclusion is that if you are ridiculously healthy and 90 years old, your gut microbiota is not that different from a healthy 30-year-old in the same population ... This demonstrates that maintaining diversity of your gut as you age is a biomarker of healthy aging, just like low-cholesterol is a biomarker of a healthy circulatory system ... Whether this is cause or effect is unknown, but it suggests that resetting an elderly microbiota to that of a 30-year-old might help promote health, if the microbiota is outside the norm" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • 'Ridiculously healthy' elderly have the same gut microbiome as healthy 30 year-olds - Science Daily, 10/11/17 - "The main conclusion is that if you are ridiculously healthy and 90 years old, your gut microbiota is Whether this is cause or effect is unknown, but the study authors point out that it is the diversity of the gut microbiota that remained the same through their study groupnot that different from a healthy 30 year old in the same population ... maintaining diversity of your gut as you age is a biomarker of healthy aging, just like low-cholesterol is a biomarker of a healthy circulatory system ... The researchers suggest that resetting an elderly microbiota to that of a 30-year-old might help promote health" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Good-guy bacteria may help cancer immunotherapies do their job - Science Daily, 10/5/17 - "there were certain good-guy bacteria that are needed to optimize the effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitors. These bacteria somehow prime your immune system so that it's better able to attack cancer cells and kill them ... As a group, patients who responded well to the immunotherapy had three specific bacteria: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ... Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ... Holdemania filiformis ... All three are common normal flora in the human intestinal tract ... Is it something the bacteria are making? We examined metabolites in these subjects and found the strongest correlation between anacardic acid, present in cashews and mangoes, and the beneficial bacteria ... they may lead eventually to a probiotic cocktail that could be given along with immunotherapy to enhance the chance of response"
  • New research on probiotics in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer - Science Daily, 9/13/17 - "These results suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome with probiotics may become a new preventative or therapeutic strategy for patients at risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated CRC ... The active probiotic also reduced inflammation induced by the carcinogen plus DSS, as indicated by suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (i.e., those encoding KC, interleukin (IL)-22, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-1?) and reduced cytokine concentrations in plasma (i.e., KC, IL-22, and IL-6). The active probiotic also counteracted an increase in immature myeloid cells induced by the carcinogen"
  • Intestinal Microbiota Is Altered in Patients With Colon Cancer and Modified by Probiotic Intervention - Medscape, 8/30/17 - "Our results show promise for potential therapeutic benefits in CRC by manipulation of the microbiota"
  • Peanut Allergy: Is Oral Immunotherapy With Probiotic a Cure? - Medscape, 8/24/17 - "Four years after treatment stopped, 70% of patients who were desensitized via 18 months of treatment with combined probiotic and peanut oral immunotherapy (PPOIT) in a randomized controlled trial remain unresponsive to peanut protein despite no intervening therapy" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Gut bacteria might one day help slow down aging process - Science Daily, 6/15/17 - "Scientists at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have identified bacterial genes and compounds that extend the life of and also slow down the progression of tumors and the accumulation of amyloid-beta, a compound associated with Alzheimer's disease, in the laboratory worm C. elegans ... Our finding suggests that products from bacteria today can still chime in the communication between mitochondria in our cells. We think that this type of communication is very important and here we have provided the first evidence of this"
  • Pre-clinical study suggests Parkinson's could start in gut endocrine cells - Science Daily, 6/15/17 - "Recent research on Parkinson's disease has focused on the gut-brain connection, examining patients' gut bacteria, and even how severing the vagus nerve connecting the stomach and brain might protect some people from the debilitating disease ... Rather than using hormones to communicate indirectly with the nervous system, these gut endocrine cells physically connect to nerves, providing a pathway to communicate with the brain ... This suggests they are able to communicate directly with the nervous system and brain" - Note:  It's another reason not to kill your gut bacteria with antibiotics and possible advantages of probiotics if you've taken antibiotics.
  • Probiotic use linked to improved symptoms of depression - Science Daily, 5/23/17 - "twice as many adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reported improvements from co-existing depression when they took a specific probiotic than adults with IBS who took a placebo ... The study provides further evidence of the microbiota environment in the intestines being in direct communication with the brain" - [Abstract] [Nutra USA]
  • Link between common brain disease and gut microbiome - Science Daily, 5/10/17 - "Bacteria in the gut microbiome drive the formation of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels in the brain that can cause stroke and seizures ... altering the microbiome in CCM patients may be an effective therapy for this cerebrovascular disease"
  • Probiotic, Red Yeast Rice Extract Combo May Cut Cholesterol - Medscape, 5/5/17 - "Supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 added to red yeast rice extract improves lipid profiles in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia ... A 26% reduction in LDL was what was we had in WOSCOPS on pravastatin 40 mg. So it's a very reasonable reduction ... Overall, compliance was excellent at 97% and no adverse effects were reported" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • A probiotic stress fix - Science Daily, 3/27/17 - "U.S. sailors and Marines face continuous periods of excessive stress in "fight-or-flight" situations, triggering surges of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters, often known as an adrenaline rush. While these surges are important for relaying messages in the brain, prolonged high levels can cause long-term health problems, including anxiety and susceptibility to infection ... Tae Seok Moon, an engineer in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, is working to create a probiotic from a commercially-available, beneficial bacterial strain of Escherichia coli after receiving a three-year, $508,635 grant from the Office of Naval Research's 2017 Young Investigator Program ... We tend to think the gut and the brain are separate, but recently, more researchers think they are connected through the microbiota-gut-brain axis"
  • Vitamin D improves gut flora and metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 12/21/16 - "a high fat diet affects the balance between good and bad bacteria in the gut. This induces modest fatty liver and slightly raises blood sugar levels in mice. Remarkably, an insufficient supply of vitamin D aggravates the imbalance in gut flora, contributing to full-scale fatty liver and metabolic syndrome ... Vitamin D deficiency decreases the production of defensins, which are anti-microbial molecules essential to maintain healthy gut flora" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Common probiotics can reduce stress levels, lessen anxiety - Science Daily, 11/21/16 - "a common probiotic sold in supplements and yogurt can decrease stress-related behavior and anxiety ... bacteria in the gut altered the gene expression associated with stress- and anxiety-related pathways in the fish allowing for increased signaling of particular neurotransmitters" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Gut bacteria affect our metabolism - Science Daily, 11/21/16 - "Mice that receive gut bacteria transplants from overweight humans are known to gain more weight than mice transplanted with gut bacteria from normal weight subjects, even when the mice are fed the same diet"
  • Probiotics improve cognition in Alzheimer's patients - Science Daily, 11/14/16 - "a daily dose of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria taken over a period of just 12 weeks is enough to yield a moderate but significant improvement in the score of elderly Alzheimer's patients on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale, a standard measure of cognitive impairment ... scientists have long hypothesized that probiotics might also boost cognition, as there is continuous two-way communication between the intestinal microflora, the gastrointestinal tract, and the brain through the nervous system, the immune system, and hormones (along the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis"). In mice, probiotics have indeed been shown to improve learning and memory, and reduce anxiety and depression- and OCD-like symptoms ... Over the course of the study, the average score on the MMSE questionnaire significantly increased (from 8.7 to 10.6, out of a maximum of 30) in the group receiving probiotics, but not in the control group (from 8.5 to 8.0)"
  • Hard to do systems biology when you ignore 99% of us (the microbiome): Expert - Nutra USA, 11/8/16 - "I can tell you with 90% certainty if you're lean or obese based on your microbiome" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Sleep loss tied to changes of the gut microbiota in humans - Science Daily, 10/25/16 - "Changes in the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes in humans. These diseases have also been linked with chronic sleep loss ... we did however observe microbiota changes that parallel some of the microbiota changes observed when for instance obese subjects have been compared with normal-weight subjects in other studies, such as an increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Longer and larger clinical sleep interventions will be needed to investigate to what extent alterations of the gut microbiota may mediate negative health consequences attributed to sleep loss, such as weight gain and insulin resistance" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Body fat link to bacteria in faeces - BBC, 9/26/16 - "The researchers found the strongest links with visceral fat, where participants with a high diversity of bacteria in their faeces had lower levels of visceral fat ... This type of body fat is bad news because it is stored in the stomach area around important organs such as the liver, pancreas and intestines and is linked with higher risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes ... One theory is that a lack of variety in faecal bacteria could lead to the domination of high levels of gut microbes which are good at turning carbohydrates into fat" - [Science Daily]
  • ICU patients lose helpful gut bacteria within days of hospital admission - Science Daily, 8/31/16 - "treatments used in the ICU -- including courses of powerful antibiotics, medicines to sustain blood pressure, and lack of nutrition -- can reduce the population of known healthy bacteria ... the next step is to use the data to identify therapies -- perhaps including probiotics -- to restore a healthy bacterial balance to patients" - Note: No kidding.  Seems like they would have figured that out by now.  Every time I've gone to the hospital such as surgery for neck cancer twelve years ago, I was admitted thinking I could run a marathon that day and I left looking like the walking dead.  One reason is that even for minor surgery they give you enough antibiotics via IV to kill and elephant.  Another reason is lack of sleep.  I posted a study on the sleep issue about a year ago.
  • Antibiotics weaken Alzheimer's disease progression through changes in the gut microbiome - Science Daily, 7/24/16 - "Two of the key features of Alzheimer's disease are the development of amyloidosis, accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides in the brain, and inflammation of the microglia, brain cells that perform immune system functions in the central nervous system. Buildup of Aß into plaques plays a central role in the onset of Alzheimer's, while the severity of neuro-inflammation is believed to influence the rate of cognitive decline from the disease ... For this study, Sisodia and his team administered high doses of broad-spectrum antibiotics to mice over five to six months. At the end of this period, genetic analysis of gut bacteria from the antibiotic-treated mice showed that while the total mass of microbes present was roughly the same as in controls, the diversity of the community changed dramatically. The antibiotic-treated mice also showed more than a two-fold decrease in Aß plaques compared to controls, and a significant elevation in the inflammatory state of microglia in the brain. Levels of important signaling chemicals circulating in the blood were also elevated in the treated mice" - Note:  It would seem like changing the gut balance via probiotics would be the way to go, not taking antibiotics.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Gut bacteria can cause, predict and prevent rheumatoid arthritis - Science Daily, 7/11/16 - "Dr. Taneja treated one group of arthritis-susceptible mice with a bacterium, Prevotella histicola, and compared that to a group that had no treatment. The study found that mice treated with the bacterium had decreased symptom frequency and severity, and fewer inflammatory conditions associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment produced fewer side effects, such as weight gain and villous atrophy -- a condition that prevents the gut from absorbing nutrients -- that may be linked with other, more traditional treatments"
  • Consuming probiotics promotes weight loss, reduces BMI - Science Daily, 7/11/16 - "Researchers from the Department of Cardiology, Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou, China combined the findings of 25 randomized human trials investigating the impact of probiotic consumption on body weight and BMI in over 1,900 healthy adults. They found taking probiotics reduced BMI and body weight with the greatest reduction in BMI occurring in overweight adults. Interestingly, ingesting more than one type of probiotic and taking probiotics for 8 weeks or more resulted in increased weight loss"
  • New study shows chronic fatigue isn’t just in your head. It may have to do with your gut - Washington Post, 6/30/16 - "Cornell University researchers looked at stool and blood samples of 48 people diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (or more formally, myalgic encephalomyelitis) and at 39 healthy volunteers ... They found two main differences: Through DNA sequencing, they found the stool samples in the patients with the condition had less diversity in bacteria present in the gut and that there were fewer that were anti-inflammatory. The blood samples were also distinct: There were markers of inflammation which the researchers theorized may be due to a "leaky gut from intestinal problems that allow bacteria to enter the blood." ... it suggests that diet and things like probiotics may be a way to help treat the disease by getting the gut microbiome back in balance"
  • How altered gut microbes cause obesity - Science Daily, 6/8/16 - "Taken together these experiments demonstrate a causal link between alterations in the gut microbiota in response to changes in the diet and increased acetate production ... The increased acetate in turn leads to increased food intake, setting off a positive feedback loop that drives obesity and insulin resistance ... Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in both humans and rodents"
  • A Comparison of the Gut Microbiome Between Long-term Users and Non-users of Proton Pump Inhibitors - Medscape, 6/7/16 - "Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) ... Long-term PPIs use has an effect on the gut microbiome. The alteration in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes may pre-dispose to the development of CDI"
  • Connections between gut microbiota and the brain - Science Daily, 5/29/16 - "the gut and the brain communicate with each other via several routes including the vagus nerve, the immune system, the enteric nervous system or by way of microbial metabolic processes. For instance, intestinal bacteria convert carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, e.g. in butyric acid. This strengthens the connections between the cells and reinforces the blood-brain barrier, which serves as a cellular wall to protect the brain from infections and inflammations ... Elderly individuals who are in poor health often have a lower diversity of microorganisms in their microbiome or inflammation-promoting manifestations" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • How to feed a happy, healthy gut - Washington Post, 5/27/16 - "A healthy, balanced gut microbiota promotes a strong immune system and lower levels of chronic inflammation. An unhealthy microbiota has been linked to obesity, asthma, allergies and autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, Type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Increasingly, chronic inflammation is also thought to be a root cause of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer ... a diet high in refined, heavily processed foods will send our microbiota out of balance ... a plant-based diet with lots of fiber and regular consumption of fermented foods nourishes and stimulates beneficial bacteria, which over time can shift the balance of your microbiota in a healthier direction ... Your microbiota adapts to its environment, and if that environment doesn’t provide the fiber it needs, your microbes will instead dine on the thin layer of mucus that protects your intestinal lining, potentially leading to a “leaky gut” and all number of health problems ... Diets high in saturated fat are harmful to microbiota diversity, so opt for plant-based sources of monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, avocados, nuts and seeds"
  • Gut bacteria may contribute to poor health in patients with kidney disease - Science Daily, 5/26/16 - "There has been increasing awareness that the gut microbiota is not only pivotal for human health but is also involved in various disease processes, including obesity and diabetes mellitus ... This study adds evidence that the gut microbiota may likewise be a contributor to the disease burden in patients with a diminished kidney function. Furthermore, this knowledge may pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions by both dietary measures and drugs, thereby hopefully improving the prognosis and quality of life of kidney disease patients"
  • Probiotics stop menopause-like bone loss in mice - Science Daily, 4/27/16 - "treated female mice twice a week with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ... A month after ovary removal, mice that were not treated with probiotic bacteria had lost half of their bone density. But the bone density in probiotic-treated mice stayed the same ... In mice that did not have their ovaries removed, probiotic treatment actually led to an increase in bone density" - Note: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is one of the bacterial in the Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA I take.
  • Gut bacteria could help prevent cancer - Science Daily, 4/13/16 - "In the UCLA study the bacterium reduced gene damage and significantly reduced inflammation -- a critical goal because inflammation plays a key role in many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease, arthritis and lupus, and in the aging process ... the mice that were receiving only the beneficial microbiota produced metabolites that are known to prevent cancer. Those mice also had more efficient fat and oxidative metabolism, which the researchers believe might also lower the risk for cancer ... Among the other results, in the mice receiving only the good bacteria, lymphoma formed only half as quickly as it did in the other mice. In addition, mice with the good bacteria lived four times longer and had less DNA damage and inflammation"
  • Gut Bugs May Affect Body Fat, 'Good' Cholesterol - WebMD, 9/10/15 - "The size of your waistline may depend to some degree on the specific bacteria dwelling within your gut ... As recent research has revealed, those bugs do much more than support good digestion: They aid in everything from immune function, to metabolizing drugs to producing vitamins, anti-inflammatory compounds and even chemicals that relay messages among brain cells ... C-sections deprive newborns of beneficial bacteria from the birth canal, while breast milk feeds gut bacteria ... Diets filled with processed foods are also thought to be at fault ... the gut microbiome can be changed through diet"
  • Probiotics improve behavioral symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases in mice - Science Daily, 7/28/15 - "Mice that received the probiotics spent more time engaging in social behaviors compared to mice that received a placebo ... Mice that received the probiotics had lower blood levels of TNF-α and fewer activated immune cells in the brain compared to mice that received a placebo ... The findings suggest that probiotics improved behavioral symptoms by altering communication between the immune system and the brain"
  • Link between intestinal bacteria, depression found - Science Daily, 7/28/15 - "We are starting to explain the complex mechanisms of interaction and dynamics between the gut microbiota and its host. Our data show that relatively minor changes in microbiota profiles or its metabolic activity induced by neonatal stress can have profound effects on host behaviour in adulthood"
  • Dairy products boost effectiveness of probiotics - Science Daily, 7/17/15 - "The mice that ingested the probiotic in milk had reduced symptoms compared to those that were fed milk without the probiotic, and the ones that received the probiotic within a nonfood supplement"
  • Gut check: Does a hospital stay set patients up for sepsis by disrupting the body’s microbiome? - Science Daily, 6/1/15 - "We know that a major cause of microbiome disruption is antibiotic use. This study hints -- it does not prove, but it hints -- that profligate use of antibiotics might not just be bad because of antibiotic resistance. Profligate use of antibiotics might also, via the microbiome, put patients at increased risk of both all kinds of other infections, and to having a particularly bad response ('sepsis') to those infections" - Note:  It just seems like even if you go in for minor surgery they give you enough antibiotics via IV to kill an elephant.
  • Probiotics in Preventing Recurrent UTIs in Women - Medscape, 5/4/15 - "Lactobacillus probiotics, taken either orally or vaginally, are likely effective in reducing recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Although more research is needed, probiotics should be considered a useful and safe alternative to antibiotics. By minimizing exposure to antibiotics, nursing professionals have the potential to decrease antibiotic resistance in communities, de crease side effects in women, and in turn, improve their quality of life"
  • People less focused on recurrent bad feelings when taking probiotics - Science Daily, 4/14/15 - "Rumination is one of the most predictive vulnerability markers of depression ... Compared to subjects who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the multispecies probiotics intervention showed significantly reduced ruminative thoughts ... Even if preliminary, these results provide the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood. As such, our findings shed an interesting new light on the potential of probiotics  to serve as adjuvant or preventive therapy for depression"
  • Gut microbial mix relates to stages of blood sugar control - Science Daily, 3/5/15 - "men whose blood sugar control stayed normal over the year had more gut bacteria that are considered beneficial for metabolic health, whereas those who stayed prediabetic had fewer beneficial bacteria and more harmful bacteria ... she said it is possible that changing one's gut bacteria could prevent diabetes" - See  probiotic products at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Friendly bacteria are protective against malaria - Science Daily, 12/4/14 - "specific bacterial components in the human gut microbiota can trigger a natural defense mechanism that is highly protective against malaria transmission"
  • Proton pump inhibitors decrease diversity in gut microbiome, increase risk for complications - Science Daily, 11/25/14 - "people who regularly take proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have less diversity among their gut bacteria ... their prolonged use has been associated with iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies, hypomagnesemia, osteoporosis-related fractures, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and community-acquired pneumonia"
  • Healthy gut microbiota can prevent metabolic syndrome, researchers say - Science Daily, 11/24/14 - "These results suggest that developing a means to promote a more healthy microbiota can treat or prevent metabolic disease ... They confirm the concept that altered microbiota can promote low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome and advance the underlying mechanism ... A person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop heart disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes"
  • Critically ill ICU patients lose almost all of their gut microbes and the ones left aren't good - Science Daily, 9/23/14 - "patients with stays longer than a month had only one to four types of microbes in their gut, as measured from fecal samples -- compared to about 40 different types found in healthy volunteers ... the team found that adding an opioid drug to the mix -- which mimics stress signals released by sick patients -- could also switch behavior from a peaceful coexistence called commensalism to virulence for some microbe pairs ... doctors should try to find ways to minimize the excessive use of antibiotics and stabilize the microbes that do remain in ICU patients' guts"
  • Probiotics Cut Autoimmunity 33% in Infants at Risk for Diabetes - Medscape, 9/19/14 - "the results show a definite trend that strongly suggests a positive effect of probiotics in infants under the age of 3 months ... One theory is that the probiotics enhance the maturity of the gut barrier to help defend the body against environmental exposure…[to] viruses and foreign proteins ... [With probiotics], the infant is better prepared to process these, and in this way they may not trigger an adverse autoimmune response"
  • Artificial Sweeteners May Disrupt Body's Blood Sugar Controls - NYTimes.com, 9/17/14 - "In the initial set of experiments, the scientists added saccharin (the sweetener in the pink packets of Sweet’N Low), sucralose (the yellow packets of Splenda) or aspartame (the blue packets of Equal) to the drinking water of 10-week-old mice. Other mice drank plain water or water supplemented with glucose or with ordinary table sugar. After a week, there was little change in the mice who drank water or sugar water, but the group getting artificial sweeteners developed marked intolerance to glucose ... Glucose intolerance, in which the body is less able to cope with large amounts of sugar, can lead to more serious illnesses like metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes ... When the researchers treated the mice with antibiotics, killing much of the bacteria in the digestive system, the glucose intolerance went away ... It also suggests probiotics — medicines consisting of live bacteria — could be used to shift gut bacteria to a population that reversed the glucose intolerance" - [How Can Diet Sodas Make You Fat? Study May Explain It - NBC News] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Microbiome and Probiotics: Link to Arthritis - Medscape, 8/18/14 - "The gut microbiome plays an integral role in the development and maintenance of the host immune system ... There is intriguing yet still inconclusive evidence to support the use of probiotics as a treatment for these diseases"
  • Probiotics Benefit Blood Pressure in Meta-Analysis - Medscape, 7/21/14 - "the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study showed a 3.3 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure, along with a 1.4 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, which were associated with a 22% relative reduction in risk of cardiovascular mortality, MI, or stroke ... Probiotic species varied among the trials; four studies used yogurt as the source of probiotic bacteria, two used fermented and sour milk, one used probiotic supplements in capsule form, one used probiotic rosehip drinks, and one used probiotic cheese ... For those who ate more than one probiotic species, the reduction in systolic blood pressure was 5.8 mmHg. Those who consumed probiotics for more than eight weeks had a 4.9 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure" - [Abstract]
  • Probiotics prevent deadly complications of liver disease, study finds - Science Daily, 6/6/14 - "Hepatic encephalopathy is a deterioration of brain function that is a serious complication of liver disease ... probiotics modify the gut microbiota to prevent hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis of the liver ... These results offer a safe, well-tolerated and perhaps cheaper alternative to current treatments" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • How gut bacteria regulate weight gain: Study provides further understanding - Science Daily, 5/14/14 - "Recent work by other groups has shown that bile acids act as signalling molecules in the host, almost like a hormonal network, with an ability to influence host metabolism. What we have done is to show that a specific mechanism exists by which bacteria in the gut can influence this process with significant consequences for the host ... the findings may be used as a basis for the future selection of probiotics or dietary interventions which target this mechanism to regulate weight gain or high cholesterol"
  • Top 4 Ways to Beat Bad Breath - ABC News, 4/30/14 - "the bacteria species that dominate the tongues of those with healthy mouths are different than the species that inhabit the tongues of those with bad breath. One of the prime bacteria offenders is strain of streptococcus, but recent research has shown that consumption of probiotics reduces streptococci counts significantly ... While eating yogurt is a good way to get probiotics in your diet, you might consider a simple supplement to boost your probiotic counts. Both Flora Udo’s Choice and Garden of Life offer a good basic probiotic supplement ... chewing xylitol gum actually decreases the amount of those same stinky streptococci bacteria" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com and xylitol gum at Amazon.com.
  • Feeding gut microbiota: Nutrition, probiotics key factors for digestive health - Science Daily, 3/10/14 - "Diet is a central issue when it comes to preserving our gastrointestinal health, because by eating and digesting we literally feed our gut microbiota, and thus influence its diversity and composition ... If this balance is disturbed, it might result in a number of disorders, including functional bowel disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune mediated diseases, such as celiac disease and certain allergies. Also, metabolic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, and perhaps even behavioral disorders, such as autism and depression, can be linked to gut microbial imbalances ... an increased intake of foods with high amounts of animal fat, as well as of greasy and fried foods is not recommended, while a diet rich in vegetables, salads and fruits has proven to be beneficial to digestive health under normal circumstances. The same applies to fermented dairy products containing probiotics. These are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as live organisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer a health effect on the host"
  • NICU: Probiotics Reduce NEC, Should Be Routine, Experts Say - Medscape, 2/19/14 - "Probiotic supplementation in preterm infants is perhaps the best studied yet least used therapy in neonatal medicine"
  • Certain probiotics could help women lose weight, study finds - Science Daily, 1/28/14 - "researchers recruited 125 overweight men and women ... half the participants swallowed 2 pills daily containing probiotics from the Lactobacillus rhamnosus family, while the other half received a placebo ... After the 12-week diet period, researchers observed an average weight loss of 4.4 kg in women in the probiotic group and 2.6 kg in the placebo group. However, no differences in weight loss were observed among males in the two groups ... We don't know why the probiotics didn't have any effect on men. It may be a question of dosage, or the study period may have been too short" - Note: 4.4 kg is 9.7 pounds.
  • Effect of Probiotics on Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Medscape, 1/27/14 - "Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: either to receive multispecies probiotics (a mixture of Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, B. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, and Streptococcus thermophilus ) twice a day for 4 weeks or to receive a placebo twice a day for 4 weeks ... The proportion of patients whose IBS symptoms were substantially relieved at week 4 was significantly higher in the probiotics group than in the placebo group: 68.0% (17/25) versus 37.5% (9/24) (P < 0.05). Secondary end-points such as improvement in abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating occurred in the probiotics group but not in the placebo group"
  • The microbes in your gut may be making you fat or keeping you thin - The Washington Post, 12/6/13 - "naturally occurring bacteria and other microbes in the body, and possibly even viruses, can influence weight in ways that scientists are only just beginning to understand ... Studies in mice have shown that intestinal microbes may contribute to weight gain. A novel experiment published this fall, for example, took gut bacteria from human twins — in which one was lean and the other obese — and transferred them into lean mice. The animals with bacteria from fat twins grew fat; those that received bacteria from lean twins stayed lean"
  • Some Gut Bacteria May Affect Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 12/6/13 - "Because of the potentially modifiable nature of the gut bacteria, our findings may have implications for CRC prevention ... The researchers found decreased microbiome community diversity in patients with CRC , compared with that of healthy participants(P = .02). In an analysis by taxa, patients with CRC had lower relative abundances of Clostridia, at 68.6% compared with 77.8% in people without CRC. In contrast, patients with CRC carried a higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium (31.9% vs 11.7% for control patients) ... A higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium was associated with increased CRC risk (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 4.11 ... Actinobacteria Atopobium (OR, 14.36; 95% CI, 2.78 - 74.30; P < .001) and the Bacteriodetes Porphyromonas (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.75 - 15.25; P = .001) were also associated with CRC risk"
  • Probiotic therapy alleviates autism-like behaviors in mice - Science Daily, 12/5/13 - "the researchers treated the mice with Bacteroides fragilis, a bacterium that has been used as an experimental probiotic therapy in animal models of GI disorders ... The result? The leaky gut was corrected ... In addition, observations of the treated mice showed that their behavior had changed. In particular, they were more likely to communicate with other mice, had reduced anxiety, and were less likely to engage in a repetitive digging behavior ... The B. fragilis treatment alleviates GI problems in the mouse model and also improves some of the main behavioral symptoms ... This suggests that GI problems could contribute to particular symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders"
  • Probiotics a Potential Treatment for Mental Illness - Medscape, 11/19/13 - "although human studies are still largely lacking, they did find some with promising results on behavior, including 1 showing that healthy volunteers who received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 plus B longum for 30 days reported significantly lower stress levels than those who received placebo, as well as significantly reduced urinary free cortisol levels ... Another study of 124 volunteers (mean age, 61.8 years) showed that those who consumed probiotic-containing yogurt for 3 weeks had significantly improved mood compared with those who received placebo ... the term "psychobiotic" was created as recent studies have begun to explore a possible link between probiotics and behavior ... As a class of probiotic, these bacteria are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA] and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis ... a study of human patients with chronic fatigue syndrome showed that those who consumed an active strain of L casei 3 times a day had significantly higher improvement scores on anxiety measures than did those who received matching placebo"
  • Are probiotics a promising treatment strategy for depression? - Science Daily, 11/14/13 - "Human studies are still largely lacking, but a few have shown promising results. In one, healthy volunteers received either a probiotic combination (L.. helveticus R0052 and B. longum) or placebo for 30 days. Those who received the probiotics reported lower stress levels. In a separate study, volunteers who consumed a yogurt containing probiotics reported improved mood"
  • Microbes in the Gut Help Determine Risk of Tumors - Science Daily, 11/5/13 - "Known risk factors for developing colorectal cancer include consuming a diet rich in red meat, alcohol consumption, and chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract ... mice given the microbiota of the tumor-bearing mice had more than two times as many colon tumors as the mice given a healthy microbiota ... In all these [mouse] models the inflammation is critical, but so is the change in the communities ... We liken it to a feed-forward type mechanism where the inflammation is changing the community and the community is inducing inflammation. They make each other worse to the point that you have higher rates of tumor formation"
  • Intestinal Bacteria Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis - Science Daily, 11/5/13 - "add to the growing evidence that the trillions of microbes in our body play an important role in regulating our health ... the researchers found that P. copri was more abundant in patients newly diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis than in healthy individuals or patients with chronic, treated rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, the overgrowth of P. copri was associated with fewer beneficial gut bacteria belonging to the genera Bacteroides" - Note:  It's one more thing to think about when you ask your doctor for antibiotics for that sore throat or cold.
  • The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease - Medscape, 11/5/13 - "Disturbances to the microbial equilibrium of the gut may mean that some microbes become overrepresented while others are diminished. "It's like a garden—you're less likely to have weeds growing if you have lush vegetation, but without this vegetation the weeds can potentially take over," Mazmanian says. When the gut moves toward a state of microbial imbalance, normally benign gut microbes may begin to induce inflammation and trigger disease throughout the body, even in the nervous system ... although 70% of the immune cells in the body at any one time can be found in the intestine, they circulate throughout the body, and the microbiota of the gut environment help determine how immune cells will behave elsewhere. He gives an example: "If T-cells, while in the gut, are programmed by the microbiota to have anti-inflammatory properties, then they may suppress inflammation even after they leave the gut."" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Mesalazine and/or Probiotics for Diverticular Disease - Medscape, 10/16/13 - "Group M (active mesalazine 1.6 g/day plus Lactobacillus casei subsp. DG placebo), Group L (active Lactobacillus casei subsp. DG 24 billion/day plus mesalazine placebo), Group LM (active Lactobacillus casei subsp. DG 24 billion/day plus active mesalazine), Group P (Lactobacillus casei subsp. DG placebo plus mesalazine placebo). Patients received treatment for 10 days/month for 12 months ... Recurrence of SUDD occurred in no (0%) patient in group LM, in 7 (13.7%) patients in group M, in 8 (14.5%) patients in group L and in 23 (46.0%) patients in group P (LM group vs. M group, P = 0.015; LM group vs. L group, P = 0.011; LM group vs. P group, P = 0.000; M group vs. P group, P = 0.000; L group vs. P group, P = 0.000). Acute diverticulitis occurred in six group P cases and in one group L case"
  • Probiotics’ benefits go beyond digestion - Washington Post, 10/15/13 - "We hear about them everywhere — how they clear up everything from a bloated gut to a depressed mind. How they boost the immune system and improve skin health. How they delay allergies in children and prevent urinary tract infections in women ... Probiotics come in many forms, and they don’t need to be delivered through yogurt — particularly important for the dairy-intolerant. Probiotics can be found as fresh, refrigerated supplements at some health food stores, as well as dried and preserved ... the probiotics thrive best when prebiotics are present. Prebiotics, which are found in such foods as whole grains, bananas and onions, are nondigestible carbohydrates that create a probiotic-friendly gut environment ... The appropriate probiotic dosage, according to McCusker, is about 5 billion units for daily health maintenance and 15 billion-20 billion when you are treating a specific condition" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Lactobacillus Probiotics May Prevent Recurrent UTIs - Medscape, 9/20/13 - "randomised double-blind non-inferiority trial comparing lactobacilli to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in 252 postmenopausal women with a history of at least three self-reported symptomatic UTIs within the preceding year ... After 12 months of prophylaxis, the mean number of clinical UTI recurrence (CR) was 2.9 in the TMP-SMX group and 3.3 in the lactobacilli group (p=0.42). The mean number of microbiological recurrence (MR) was significantly less in TMP-SMX group at 1.2 compared with 1.8 in the lactobacilli group (p=0.02). For both CR and MR, a higher proportion of women in the lactobacilli group experienced at least one UTI recurrence and the median time to first recurrence was significantly shorter in the lactobacilli group. In women with complicated UTIs, the mean number of CRs was 4.4 in the TMP-SMX group compared with 3.4 in the lactobacilli group (p<0.001), suggesting a favourable effect of lactobacilli in this subgroup. With regard to adverse events, there were no significant differences between groups, although the lactobacilli group had a non-significantly higher number of treatment-related withdrawals with gastrointestinal side effects being the most common"
  • The best foods for clear skin - washingtonpost.com, 9/18/13 - "Stay away from anything that comes in a box ... both because of the added sugars and because of other additives ... gobble up produce of all colors, plus nuts and seeds, to get minerals, fiber and vitamins A, C and E ... Foods that keep your blood sugar low are also good for the skin ... avoid sugar ... omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in wild salmon, help support healthy cell membranes ... Another smart move is the addition into the diet of probiotics, which can be found in yogurt and kefir as well as nutritional supplements. (She prefers supplements over yogurt because they contain much higher amounts of probiotics.)"
  • Gut Microbes Closely Linked to Proper Immune Function, Other Health Issues - Science Daily, 9/16/13 - "Problems ranging from autoimmune disease to clinical depression and simple obesity may in fact be linked to immune dysfunction that begins with a "failure to communicate" in the human gut ... Health care of the future may include personalized diagnosis of an individual's "microbiome" to determine what prebiotics or probiotics are needed to provide balance ... Appropriate sanitation such as clean water and sewers are good. But some erroneous lessons in health care may need to be unlearned -- leaving behind the fear of dirt, the love of antimicrobial cleansers, and the outdated notion that an antibiotic is always a good idea. We live in a world of "germs" and many of them are good for us"
  • Gut Bacteria From Thin Humans Can Slim Mice Down - NYTimes.com, 9/5/13 - "Researchers found pairs of human twins in which one was obese and the other lean. They transferred gut bacteria from these twins into mice and watched what happened. The mice with bacteria from fat twins grew fat; those that got bacteria from lean twins stayed lean ... The investigators discovered that given a chance, and in the presence of a low-fat diet, bacteria from a lean twin will take over the gut of a mouse that already had bacteria from a fat twin. The fat mouse then loses weight. But the opposite does not happen. No matter what the diet, bacteria from a fat mouse do not take over in a mouse that is thin ... The fat mice that got food high in fat and low in fruits and vegetables kept the gut bacteria from the fat twins and remained fat. The thin twins’ gut bacteria only took over when the mice got pellets that were rich in fruits and vegetables and low in fat" - [WebMD / ABC News]
  • Why Smokers Gain Weight When They Quit Smoking: Changes in Intestinal Flora - Science Daily, 8/29/13 - "the Swiss IBD cohort study examined the genetic material of intestinal bacteria found in the faeces and studied stool samples which they had received from twenty different persons over a period of nine weeks -- four samples per person. The test persons included five non-smokers, five smokers and ten persons who had quit smoking one week after the start of the study ... While the bacterial diversity in the faeces of smokers and non-smokers changed only little over time, giving up smoking resulted in the biggest shift in the composition of the microbial inhabitants of the intestines. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes fractions increased at the expense of representatives of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. At the same time, the test subjects who had quit smoking gained an average of 2.2 kilos in weight although their eating and drinking habits remained the same ... Their results reflected those seen in previous studies conducted with mice"
  • Obesity and diabetes risk: One in four has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria, Danish study finds - Science Daily, 8/28/13 - "Oluf Pedersen compares the human gut and its bacteria with a tropical rainforest. He explains that we need as much diversity as possible, and -- as is the case with the natural tropical rainforests -- decreasing diversity is a cause for concern. It appears that the richer and more diverse the composition of our intestinal bacteria, the stronger our health. The bacteria produce vital vitamins, mature and strengthen our immune system and communicate with the many nerve cells and hormone-producing cells in the intestinal system. And, not least, the bacteria produce a wealth of bioactive substances which penetrate into the bloodstream and affect our biology in countless ways ... people having few and less diverse intestinal bacteria are more obese than the rest. They have a preponderance of bacteria which exhibit the potential to cause mild inflammation in the digestive tract and in the entire body, which is reflected in blood samples that reveal a state of chronic inflammation, which we know from other studies to affect metabolism and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases"
  • Probiotics Prevent Diarrhea Related to Antibiotic Use, Review Shows - Science Daily, 5/30/13 - "Antibiotics disturb the beneficial bacteria that live in the gut and allow other harmful bacteria like C. difficile to take hold. Although some people infected with C. difficile show no symptoms, others suffer diarrhea or colitis. The so-called "good bacteria" or yeast in probiotic foods and supplements may offer a safe, low-cost way to help prevent C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). This finding is important because CDAD is expensive to treat ... Probiotics taken in conjunction with antibiotics reduced the number of people who suffered diarrhea by 64%"
  • Changing Gut Bacteria Through Diet Affects Brain Function - Science Daily, 5/28/13 - "Time and time again, we hear from patients that they never felt depressed or anxious until they started experiencing problems with their gut ... Researchers divided the women into three groups: one group ate a specific yogurt containing a mix of several probiotics -- bacteria thought to have a positive effect on the intestines -- twice a day for four weeks; another group consumed a dairy product that looked and tasted like the yogurt but contained no probiotics; and a third group ate no product at all ... compared with the women who didn't consume the probiotic yogurt, those who did showed a decrease in activity in both the insula -- which processes and integrates internal body sensations, like those form the gut -- and the somatosensory cortex during the emotional reactivity task ... Further, in response to the task, these women had a decrease in the engagement of a widespread network in the brain that includes emotion-, cognition- and sensory-related areas. The women in the other two groups showed a stable or increased activity in this network"
  • Probiotics found to reduce hepatic encephalopathy - Science Daily, 4/25/13 - "Ammonia, produced by gut bacteria, is thought to be one of the main mediators of cerebral dysfunction in HE. Probiotics work by enriching the gut flora with a non-urease producing microorganisms, which decrease ammonia production ... Twice as many patients taking a placebo developed overt HE (the study's primary endpoint) compared to patients taking probiotics in the form of a capsule ... Hepatic encephalopathy is an insidious disease that's caused by an accumulation of toxins in the blood that are normally removed by the liver ... Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities including personality changes, intellectual impairment and reduced levels of consciousness in patients with liver failure, after exclusion of other known brain disease" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.  Note:  Maybe it will work for ammonia accumulation due to endurance exercise:
    • Ammonia accumulation during highly intensive long-lasting cycling: individual observations - Int J Sports Med. 1990 May;11 Suppl 2:S78-84 - "Acute quantitative ammonia production during intensive endurance exercise may be enhanced by a reduced glycogen availability in muscle. However, adequate amounts of glycogen itself do not prevent ammonia production when exercise is at high intensity and long-lasting. The continuous ammonia accumulation in blood during endurance exercise in trained individuals may be the result of a relatively low blood flow to the liver and thereby low clearance in contrast to lactate which may not accumulate due to a high clearance rate in both active and nonactive oxidative muscle fibers. In a number of subjects it was observed that exhaustion, when performing endurance exercise at high exercise intensities, occurred when plasma ammonia levels were high. Muscle cramps occurred in subjects who reached their highest individual ammonia values and seemed not to be related to serum potassium, plasma lactate, or muscle glycogen. These individual observations give rise to the hypothesis that high intramuscular ammonia levels may be related to the etiology of muscle exhaustion and muscle cramping during highly intensive endurance exercise"
  • Probiotics reduce stress-induced intestinal flare-ups, study finds - Science Daily, 3/14/13 - "while stress does not cause IBS, it does alter brain-gut interactions and induces the intestinal inflammation that often leads to severe or chronic belly pain, loss of appetite and diarrhea ... Stress has a way of suppressing an important component called an inflammasome which is needed to maintain normal gut microbiota, but probiotics reversed the effect in animal models ... The effect of stress could be protected with probiotics which reversed the inhibition of the inflammasome"
  • Natural Probiotic for Osteoporosis? Building Healthy Bones Takes Guts - Science Daily, 2/14/13 - "inflammation in the gut can cause bone loss, though it's unclear exactly why ... the researchers fed the mice Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic known to reduce inflammation, a sometimes harmful effect of the body's immune response to infection ... the male mice showed a significant increase in bone density after four weeks of treatment. There was no such effect when the researchers repeated the experiment with female mice, an anomaly they're now investigating ... People tend to think of osteoporosis as just affecting postmenopausal women, but what they don't realize is that it can occur with other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes ... You don't want to put your child on medications that reduce bone remodeling for the rest of their life, so something natural could be useful for long-term treatment of bone loss that begins at childhood"
  • Gut Bacteria Linked to Cholesterol Metabolism - Science Daily, 2/18/13 - "gut bacteria reduce bile acid synthesis in the liver by signaling through a specific protein, known as the FXR receptor, in the small intestine ... The FXR receptor not only affects cholesterol metabolism but is also involved in the body's sugar and fat metabolism ... If future research can identify the specific bacteria that affect FXR signaling in the gut, this could lead to new ways to treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease"
  • Effects of antibiotics on gut flora analyzed - Science Daily, 1/9/13 - "In the gut live one trillion bacteria, which are known as microbiota or gut flora, and that have co-evolved in symbiosis with humans. According to this study, treatment with antibiotics can alter this symbiosis from early stages of the treatment. "Although some of the changes are oscillatory and can be reversed at the end of the treatment, others seem irreversible,""
  • Metabolic Diseases and Pro- and Prebiotics - Medscape, 11/7/12 - "Recent findings that support the idea of the involvement of intestinal bacteria in the development of obesity and diabetes include: 1) the resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice,[64] 2) antibiotic-induced reduction of plasma LPS levels in obese mice fed a high-fat diet,[65] and 3) delayed onset and development of type 1 diabetes by use of antibiotics in a diabetes-prone rat model ... The control of intestinal microbial composition by use of probiotics and prebiotics is likely to impact the development of metabolic diseases through modulation of immune responses/inflammation and metabolism. Supplementation of probiotics and prebiotics may delay and/or reverse the progression of metabolic diseases"
  • Daily doses of a new probiotic reduces 'bad' and total cholesterol - Science Daily, 11/5/12 - "The study involved 127 adult patients with high cholesterol. About half the participants took L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 twice a day, while the rest were given placebo capsules ... Those taking the probiotic had LDL levels 11.6 percent lower than those on placebo after nine weeks. Furthermore, cholesterol esters were reduced by 6.3 percent and cholesterol ester saturated fatty acids by 8.8 percent, compared with the placebo group ... Furthermore, people taking the probiotic had total cholesterol reduced by 9.1 percent. HDL "good" cholesterol and blood triglycerides, a dangerous form of fat in the blood, were unchanged ... Scientists have proposed that Lactobacillus bacteria alone may impact cholesterol levels in several ways, including breaking apart molecules known as bile salts. L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 was fermented and formulated to optimize its effect on cholesterol and bile salts ... the study results suggest the probiotic broke up bile salts, leading to reduced cholesterol absorption in the gut and less LDL ... The probiotic worked at doses of just 200 milligrams a day, far lower than those for soluble fiber or other natural products used to reduce cholesterol"
  • Probiotics are secret weapon for fighting symptoms of the common cold in college students, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/22/12 - "randomized 198 college students aged 18 to 25 and living on-campus in residence halls at Framingham State University in Massachusetts. Groups received either a placebo (97 students) or a powder blend containing Chr. Hansen's probiotic strains BB-12® and LGG® (101 students) for 12 weeks. Each day, students completed a survey to assess the effect of the probiotic supplementation ... The study found that while all students caught colds at roughly the same rate, the students who took the probiotic supplementation experienced: ... A duration of colds that was two days shorter (four days vs. six days) ... Symptoms that were 34% less severe and ... A higher quality of life that resulted in fewer missed school days (15 vs. 34 missed by students taking the placebo) ... consumers need to read the label to be sure that the product contains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG] and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis BB12 [BB12]. There also are some yogurts that contain LGG and/or BB12 but check the labels, since companies change the probiotics strains often"
  • Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora - Science Daily, 10/9/12 - "consumption of high-fiber foods and better control of uremia -- a disease common in kidney failure -- by diet and dialysis may improve the composition of gut microbes and the well-being of patients ... They found marked differences in the abundance of some 190 types of bacteria in the gut microbiome of those with kidney disease -- and confirmed the results in a concurrent study of rats with and without chronic kidney disease ... One solution, Vaziri said, is to provide longer, more frequent dialysis treatments. This would let more potassium be removed by dialysis and allow for more potassium in the diet. Alternatively, packaged fiber foods that do not contain potassium could be used as a dietary supplement" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Gut bacteria could could play key role in development of type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 9/26/12 - "The 1.5 kilograms of bacteria that we each carry in our intestines have an enormous impact on our health and well being. The bacteria normally live in a sensitive equilibrium but if this equilibrium is disrupted our health could suffer. In the new study, scientists examined the intestinal bacteria of 345 people from China, of which 171 had type 2 diabetes ... The research, which was recently published in the scientific journal Nature, also demonstrated that people with type 2 diabetes have a more hostile bacterial environment in their intestines, which can increase resistance to different medicines ... The big question now is whether the changes in gut bacteria can affect the development of type 2 diabetes or whether the changes simply reflect that the person is suffering from type 2 diabetes" - Follow-up story:
  • Natural intestinal flora strengthen immune system - Science Daily, 7/2/12 - "The research team infected two groups of mice with various viral germs. One group had a normal intestinal flora and the other consisted of so-called axenic mice, which do not have any intestinal flora due to having been treated with antibiotics or bred under particularly clean conditions. The immune response in the axenic mice was greatly reduced and led the disease to take a more severe course than in the healthy mice. When the scientists artificially provided the axenic mice with a healthy intestinal flora, their immune response improved ... The team succeeded in demonstrating that signals from the intestinal bacteria lead to a conditioning of the dendritic cells. This conditioning takes place on the level of the DNA in the nucleus and enables genes that encode these soluble mediators to be read better. The scientists speak of epigenetic changes. "This is the first time anyone has shown that changes in the natural intestinal flora resulting from antibiotics, hygiene, or lifestyle can have substantial consequences for the entire immune system," says Diefenbach"
  • Early gut bacteria regulate happiness - Science Daily, 6/12/12 - "UCC scientists have shown that brain levels of serotonin, the 'happy hormone' are regulated by the amount of bacteria in the gut during early life ... normal adult brain function depends on the presence of gut microbes during development. Serotonin, the major chemical involved in the regulation of mood and emotion, is altered in times of stress, anxiety and depression and most clinically effective antidepressant drugs work by targeting this neurochemical ... Scientists at the Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre in UCC used a germ-free mouse model to show that the absence of bacteria during early life significantly affected serotonin concentrations in the brain in adulthood ... Finally, when the scientists colonized the animals with bacteria prior to adulthood, they found that many of the central nervous system changes, especially those related to serotonin, could not be reversed indicating a permanent imprinting of the effects of absence of gut flora on brain function"
  • New approach to regulating probiotics recommended - Science Daily, 5/24/12 - "the regulatory system in the US maintains that any product that claims to impact disease must be categorized as a drug. Therefore, scientists can't test if a probiotic yogurt relieves patients with inflammatory bowel disease without first registering the yogurt as a drug ... this regulation has halted a lot of great research on probiotics in North America and has ramifications for probiotic research and development in Europe"
  • Probiotics Reduce Antibiotic Diarrhea - Science Daily, 5/8/12 - "Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotic use, occurring in almost 1 in 3 people who take the drugs ... By affecting good bacteria, as well as bad, antibiotics can disrupt the delicate microbial balance in the intestines, but the live microorganisms marketed as probiotics can help restore this balance to reduce diarrhea risk ... in people taking antibiotics, those who used probiotics were 42% less likely to develop diarrhea"
  • Invisible helpers: How probiotic bacteria protect against inflammatory bowel diseases - Science Daily, 4/26/12 - "In experiments with mice, the scientists observed that lactocepin -- an enzyme produced from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei -- can selectively interrupt inflammatory processes. As the scientists observed, lactocepin degrades messengers from the immune system, known as chemokines, in the diseased tissue. As a part of the "normal" immune response, chemokines are needed to guide defense cells to the source of the infection. In chronic intestinal disorders like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the otherwise highly effective defense mechanism against infectious agents is malfunctioning. Chemokines such as "IP-10" then contribute to the tissue damage due to chronic inflammatory processes, preventing the tissue from healing"
  • Probiotic Effects in Infants Last Until 4 Years of Age - Medscape, 2/10/12 - "Infants exposed to Lactobacillus rhamnosus through diet supplements from 35 weeks' gestation through 2 years of age had a significantly lower risk for eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis. The protective effect lasted until the children were at least 4 years of age"
  • New evidence that bacteria in large intestine have a role in obesity - Science Daily 12/21/11 [but it showed up in the news on 12/28] - "trillions of bacteria live in the large intestine of healthy people, where they help digest food and make certain vitamins. In recent years, however, scientists have realized that these bacteria do more -- they interact with the rest of the body in ways that affect the use of energy and its storage as fat and finely tune the immune system. Claus and Nicholson decided to see how intestinal bacteria might affect the activity of brown fat. The "good" fat that burns calories quickly before they can be stored as fat, brown fat exists in small deposits in the neck area and elsewhere -- not like "white fat" in flab around the waist and buttocks ... the scientists uncovered evidence suggesting that the bacteria do influence the activity of brown fat"
  • Probiotics reduce infections for patients in intensive care, study finds - Science Daily, 12/1/11 - "including probiotics with nutrients, supplied via the patient's feeding tube, increased interferon levels, reduced the number of infections, and even reduced the amount of time patients spent in intensive care ... by day 15 the patients who received the probiotics had significantly higher levels of both IL-12 and IFNy than the control patients. They also showed a decrease in the Th2-associated factors IL-4 and IL-10 ... probiotic therapy reduced the number of infections occurring after seven days, reduced the number of different antibiotics needed to treat infections, and shortened the length of time the patients were required to stay in ICU"
  • Probiotics appear to mitigate pancreatitis: Surprising hypothetical mechanism warrants further investigation - Science Daily, 11/16/11 - "The major finding: in the small intestine, higher than normal numbers of the newly discovered bacterium, "commensal rat ileum bacterium" (CRIB) were correlated with reduced severity of acute pancreatitis in animals that had been fed probiotic. These animals had less infection of remote organs, less infection of dying and dead pancreatic tissues, and less severe immune response during acute pancreatitis, as demonstrated by lower plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines"
  • Probiotic protects intestine from radiation injury - Science Daily, 11/16/11 - "the therapy can kill both cancer cells and healthy ones, leading to severe bouts of diarrhea if the lining of the intestine gets damaged ... For many patients, this means radiation therapy must be discontinued, or the radiation dose reduced, while the intestine heals ... Probiotics may provide a way to protect the lining of the small intestine from some of that damage ... the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), among other Lactobacillus probiotic strains, protected the lining of the small intestine in mice receiving radiation ... the probiotic was effective only if given to mice before radiation exposure ... The bacteria we use is similar to what's found in yogurt or in commercially available probiotics ... So theoretically, there shouldn't be risk associated with this preventative treatment strategy any more than there would be in a patient with abdominal cancer eating yogurt"
  • Some Probiotics Effectively Reduce Common GI Symptoms - Medscape, 11/8/11 - "Mounting evidence is building a strong case for the use of probiotics, or "good" bacteria, to alleviate common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as diarrhea, bloating, and inflammation, according to several studies highlighted during a press briefing here at the American College of Gastroenterology 2011 Annual Scientific Meeting and Postgraduate Course ... By giving a specific probiotic orally, we could actually reduce the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines and actually enhance the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which is the exact replication of what we identified in animal models and more basic models ... Plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 rose significantly in healthy volunteers and patients with psoriasis, but not in those who took the placebo for 8 weeks ... Plasma levels of 2 proinflammatory cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 — dropped in all patients who received B infantis. C-reactive protein levels were also significantly lower in patients with psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and chronic fatigue after treatment with the bacterium than after treatment with placebo"
  • Some Doctors Warming Up to Probiotics - WebMD, 11/4/11 - "A review of 22 studies involving 3,096 patients presented at the meeting showed that taking probiotics while on antibiotics may cut the risk of developing antibiotic-associated diarrhea by about 60% ...antibiotics kill "good" bacteria along with the bacteria that cause illness. A decrease in beneficial bacteria may lead to digestive problems. Taking probiotics may help replace the lost beneficial bacteria and help prevent diarrhea ... Probiotics also appeared to provide protection against potentially deadly bouts of diarrhea caused by the bug Clostridium difficile, or C. diff. ... Look for a brand you trust and whose label offers that information"
  • Gut bacteria may affect whether a statin drug lowers cholesterol - Science Daily, 10/13/11 - "Among the group who had a strong response to the drug, three bile acids appeared to play a role. The bile acids are produced by certain gut bacteria, which are increasingly understood as factories for chemicals that can contribute to a state of health. Among the people who responded poorly to the statin, five different bile acids were commonly evident ... new strategies could be developed to manipulate the gut microbiome using probiotics to spur different gut bacteria, which could then give the drugs a boost"
  • Probiotic intake linked to fewer birth complications - Nutra USA, 9/13/11 - "The Norwegian researchers analyzed data from 33,399 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ... The intake of lactobacilli-containing milk-based products was determined using a food frequency questionnaire, while pre-eclampsia was determined using the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry ... the daily intake of at least 140 mL of probiotic milk products was associated with a 20% reduced risk of pre-eclampsia ... The effects were more pronounced for severe pre-eclampsia, with daily and weekly intakes of probiotic products associated with a 39% and 25%, respectively" - [Abstract]
  • New polymer research could boost probiotics industry - Science Daily, 9/5/11 - "One of the challenges for manufacturers of probiotic foods is getting high enough numbers of these bacteria into the intestines; most perish under the heavy acidic conditions of the stomach ... The novel biopolymer is completely biodegradable and is able to remain intact in the stomach and continue to the intestine, where it disintegrates, releasing the bacteria ... The researchers believe their findings could have a major impact on the probiotics industry"
  • Mind-altering microbes: Probiotic bacteria may lessen anxiety and depression - Science Daily, 8/29/11 - "Probiotic bacteria have the potential to alter brain neurochemistry and treat anxiety and depression-related disorders ... mice fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 showed significantly fewer stress, anxiety and depression-related behaviours than those fed with just broth. Moreover, ingestion of the bacteria resulted in significantly lower levels of the stress-induced hormone, corticosterone ... regular feeding with the Lactobacillus strain caused changes in the expression of receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA in the mouse brain, which is the first time that it has been demonstrated that potential probiotics have a direct effect on brain chemistry in normal situations"
  • Antibiotic Overuse May Be Bad for Body's Good Bacteria - WebMD, 8/24/11 - "Antibiotic overuse doesn’t just lead to drug-resistant superbugs, it may also permanently wipe out the body’s good bacteria ... in a developed country like the U.S., the average child gets 10 to 20 courses of antibiotics by age 18 ... doctors often prescribe antibiotics before they know whether an infection is viral or bacterial. If the problem is a virus, antibiotics don't help ... a 2003 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that doctors prescribed antibiotics for more than 60% of adults with upper respiratory tract infections, which are usually caused by viruses ... Antibiotics, he thinks, may also be contributing to obesity in humans, though Blaser says no one yet understands how ... a child’s risk for inflammatory bowel disease increases with the number of courses of antibiotics taken ... antibiotics may be a factor behind the unexplained rises in allergies, asthma, and type 1 diabetes in children ... There’s really only a limited number of studies that have been done on this so far, but I think we’re going to see more because I think it’s going to be a big deal for us to understand this ... effective probiotics are needed to replace lost good bacteria"
  • A gut-full of probiotics for your neurological well-being - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "A recent study in mice, for example, showed that the presence of neurochemicals such a serotonin in the bloodstream was due to direct uptake from the gut ... Until recently the idea that probiotic bacteria administered to the intestine could influence the brain seemed almost surreal ... Yet in Lyte's paper the concept is supported by studies showing that microbes can produce and respond to neurochemicals, which can induce neurological and immunological effects on the host ... The research presents an idea for selecting probiotic strains with neurological applications and linking this with immune-modulatory effects, while highlighting the fact that microbial strains already being widely ingested in fermented food can produce neurochemicals" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.
  • ‘Level 1’ evidence that probiotics boost ‘transit time’: Danisco & Fonterra - Nutra USA 6/22/11 - "the benefits were “at least equivalent to that of dietary fiber” ... The researchers recruited 100 healthy people with an average age of 44 and randomly assigned them to receive high or low daily doses of B. lactis HN019, or placebo for 14 days. High dose was defined as 17.2 billion colony forming units (CFU), while the low dose was 1.8 billion CFU ... At the end of the study results showed an improvement in transit time in the high dose group of 33 percent, and 25 percent in the low dose group. There was no change in the placebo group, added the researchers" - [Abstract]
  • Prebiotics may keep students healthy during stressful periods - Nutra USA, 5/26/11 - "A daily dose of 5.0 grams of the commercially available Purimmune prebiotic product from GTC Nutrition was associated with a 40 percent reduction in the number of days with cold or flu, according to findings published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... In addition, the prebiotic supplement – based on galactooligosaccharides – was also associated with a reduction in the occurrence of gut upsets in students around the time of fall final exams" - [Abstract] - See galactooligosaccharide products at iHerb (see the abstract).  I could have used that in college.  I remember that it worked out that I had two or three finals on the same day and I was up late studying for all three and got a stomach ache so bad I had to go to the campus nurse.  I never got much studying done but made it through the exams OK.
  • Healthy gut flora could prevent obesity, rat study suggests - Science Daily, 5/25/11 - "Poor gut flora is believed to trigger obesity. In the same way, healthy gut flora could reduce the risk. This has shown to be the case in tests on rats. Daily intake of a lactic acid bacteria, which has been given the name Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19, appears to be able to prevent obesity and reduce the body's low-level inflammation ... Rats who were given this specific lactic acid bacterium from their time in the uterus up to adult age put on significantly less weight than other rats. Both groups ate the same amount of high-energy food ... A third group of rats were given the inflammation-causing Escherichia coli bacteria in their drinking water, in addition to the same high-energy food as the other rats. The E. coli supplement led to changes in gut flora and increased body fat ... A healthy gut flora at an early stage appears to play a part in children's wellbeing later in life"
  • Comfort food: Protein from probiotic bacteria may alleviate inflammatory bowel disorders - Science Daily, 5/23/11 - "A protein isolated from beneficial bacteria found in yogurt and dairy products could offer a new, oral therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD) ... the protein supports intestinal epithelial cell growth and function, and reduces inflammatory responses that can cause intestinal cells to die. Importantly, the investigators showed that oral consumption of p40 by mice in a protective delivery system prevents and treats colitis in multiple models of the disease ... Many of the hundreds of bacterial species that live in our gut (known as the "human microbiome") are helpful to us: they help us digest certain substances, produce vitamins and fight off more dangerous bacteria. But miscommunication between these bacteria and our gut lining can lead to conditions like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease"
  • Gut bacteria linked to behavior: That anxiety may be in your gut, not in your head - Science Daily, 5/17/11 - "For each person, the gut is home to about 1,000 trillium bacteria with which we live in harmony. These bacteria perform a number of functions vital to health: They harvest energy from the diet, protect against infections and provide nutrition to cells in the gut. Any disruption can result in life-threatening conditions, such as antibiotic-induced colitis from infection with the "superbug" Clostridium difficile ... Working with healthy adult mice, the researchers showed that disrupting the normal bacterial content of the gut with antibiotics produced changes in behaviour; the mice became less cautious or anxious. This change was accompanied by an increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been linked, to depression and anxiety ... When oral antibiotics were discontinued, bacteria in the gut returned to normal. "This was accompanied by restoration of normal behaviour and brain chemistry,""
  • Probiotics may ease bowel movements for elderly: Study - Nutra USA, 5/13/11 - "The probiotic product (VSL Pharmaceuticals) reportedly contained 450 billion viable lyophilized bacteria from eight different strains, including Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, B. infantis, and Streptococcus thermophilus ... people consuming the probiotic experienced a lower incidence of diarrhea (60 percent lower), compared to placebo ... In addition, laxative use decreased by 26 percent amongst people in the probiotic group, compared to placebo, added the Israeli scientists ... A significant reduction of Clostridium difficile prevalence was found in the probiotic group" - [Abstract]
  • Probiotics may ease bloating for people with bowel disorders: Study - Nutra USA, 5/12/11 - "Compared to results at the start and end of the study, bloating symptoms were reduced by 15 percent in the probiotic group"
  • C. difficile colonization accompanied by changes in gut microbiota: Study hints at probiotics as treatment - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "Asymptomatic colonization by Clostridium difficile, absent the use of antibiotics, is common in infants and when it happens changes occur in the composition of the gut microbiota ... The adult human gut is an ecosystem containing several pounds of bacteria, including hundreds of species and more than 100 trillion (100,000,000,000,000) individuals. A healthy microbial ecosystem protects the host against Clostridium difficile, which frequently colonizes the gut after its ecological balance has been disrupted by broad spectrum antibiotics ... Our results suggest that Bifidobacterium species, which are used as probiotics, can participate in that barrier effect against C. difficile"
  • Antibiotics disrupt gut ecology, metabolism - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "carry several pounds of microbes in our gastro-intestinal tracts. Recent research suggests that this microbial ecosystem plays a variety of critical roles in our health ... antibiotics profoundly disrupt intestinal homeostasis ... Intestinal microbes help us digest our food, provide us with vitamins that we cannot make on our own, and protect us from microbes that make us sick, amongst other things ... administered antibiotics to the mice, to kill off most of their gut microbiota, and analyzed the feces anew ... The levels of 87 percent of the molecules detected had been shifted up or down by factors ranging from 2-fold to 10,000-fold ... the unnecessary use of antibiotics has deleterious effects on human health that were previously unappreciated ... our gut microbes control these important molecules raises the possibility that manipulating these microbes could be used to modulate diseases that have hormonal or metabolic origins (such as inmmunodeficiency, depression, diabetes and others)"
  • Probiotic may reduce rate of recurrent urinary tract infections in women, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/15/11 - "Of the 100 women who participated in the study, 50 received LACTIN-V, and 50 received the placebo. Seven of the women who received LACTIN-V had at least one urinary tract infection, compared to 13 in the placebo group"
  • Bacteria supplements may affect weight gain: Rat study extends microflora-obesity link - Nutra USA, 4/12/11 - "Early exposure to bacterial strains during pregnancy, breast feeding, and early life has a profound impact on weight gain in the offspring, says a new study with rats ... supplementation of a high-energy-dense diet with the bacterial strain Lactobacillus plantarum resulted in less weight gain, compared to rats fed only the high energy diet ... animals fed the high energy diet and supplemented with less friendly Escherichia coli bacteria experienced significantly higher levels of body fat, compared to the control animals ... the L. plantarum supplemented animals had significantly lower weight gain than both the control and E. coli-supplemented groups. This difference was observed at birth (indicating a potential influence of the mother’s diet) with the L. plantarum pups having an average birth weight of 7.5 grams, compared with 8.2 and 9.6 grams for the control and E.coli animals, respectively ... After six months, a similar trend was observed, with L. plantarum animals having an average weight of 304 grams, compared with 340 and 352 grams for the control and E.coli animals, respectively" - [Abstract]
  • 'Knowing it in your gut' is real - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "the "cross-talk" between bacteria in our gut and our brain plays an important role in the development of psychiatric illness, intestinal diseases and probably other health problems as well including obesity ... Using germ-free mice, Foster's research shows gut bacteria influences how the brain is wired for learning and memory ... genes linked to learning and memory are altered in germ-free mice and, in particular, they are altered in one of the key brain regions for learning and memory -- the hippocampus ... The take-home message is that gut bacteria influences anxiety-like behavior through alterations in the way the brain is wired"
  • Gut bacteria can control organ functions - Science Daily, 2/28/11 - "The gut microbiota enhances the host's metabolic capacity for processing nutrients and drugs and modulates the activities of multiple pathways in a variety of organ systems ... Here we describe the first evidence of an in vivo association between a family of bacteria and hepatic lipid metabolism. These results provide new insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate host-gut microbiota interactions and are of wide interest to microbiological, nutrition, metabolic, systems biology and pharmaceutical research communities ... Another important finding in the paper, according to Claus, is that gut colonization strongly stimulated the expression and activity of the cytochrome P450 3A11, an essential enzyme in drug-detoxification pathways"
  • Probiotic identified to treat ulcers - Science Daily, 2/24/11 - "H. pylori is considered one of the major risk factors underlying the development of gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcers ... Currently, antibiotic-based treatment for H. pylori infection is neither sufficient nor satisfactory, with the most successful treatments reaching 75 to 90% eradication rates ... Among probiotics Bifidobacterium is one of the favorite genera in studies focused on the prevention of gastrointestinal infection and is often used in fermented dairy products or food supplements ... They identified one strain (Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7366) that under certain conditions had an inhibition level of nearly 95% in vitro and tested its activitity against infection in mi ... After 21 days, mice treated with the potentially probiotic strain developed significantly less ulcers than the control group" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Bacteria in the gut may influence brain development - Science Daily, 2/1/11 - "The research team compared behavior and gene expression in two groups of mice -- those raised with normal microorganisms, and those raised in the absence of microorganisms (or germ-free mice). The scientists observed that adult germ-free mice displayed different behavior from mice with normal microbiota, suggesting that gut bacteria may have a significant effect on the development of the brain in mammals"
  • New probiotic combats inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "Northwestern Medicine researchers deleted a gene in the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and fed the new form to mice with two different models of colitis. After 13 days of treatment, the novel probiotic strain nearly eliminated colon inflammation in the mice and halted progression of their disease by 95 percent ... In the study, the modified Lactobacillus acidophilus entered the gut, which is akin to a battlefield of friendly fire with immune cells attacking the intestine. The Lactobacillus acidophilus acted as the gut's peacekeeping force, calming the overstimulated immune cells ... The probiotic restored intestinal peace by mobilizing messenger immune cells, called dendritic cells. The dendritic cells, in turn, enhanced the production of other functional immune cells, regulatory T-cells that rebalanced intestinal and systemic inflammation"
  • Specific populations of gut bacteria linked to fatty liver - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "A new research finding showing a strong relationship between complex microbial ecologies in human intestines and the common but serious medical condition known as fatty liver illustrates this paradox ... Choline deficiency also implicates genetics, since many people lack the genes to efficiently make choline internally ... The implication of the finding is that these groups of bacteria may be influencing the body's ability to properly use the choline available in food ... bioinformatics researchers at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte found a strong correlation between the relative abundances of two specific classes of bacteria and the development of fatty liver ... Those patients with the highest abundance of Gammaproteobacteria at the beginning of the study seemed to have the lowest fatty liver development. The ones with the least developed the most fatty liver ... Erysipeoltrichi showed exactly the opposite association, though this relationship was not quite as strong. So there seemed to be change going on in opposite directions"
  • Synbiotics may protect kids from asthma: Danone study - Nutra USA, 1/12/11 - "probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". Prebiotics are "nondigestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect on the host by selectively stimulating the favourable growth or activity of a limited number of indigenous bacteria". Synbiotics are a combination of the two ... One year after the study, data was available for 75 children, and this showed that the absolute risk of asthma symptoms 'frequent wheezing' and 'wheezing and/or noisy breathing apart from colds' were 20 and 28 percent lower, respectively, in the synbiotic group" - [Abstract] - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - "engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). When this engineered bacterial strain was fed to mice, the researchers found that the composition of the mice's fat tissue was significantly altered ... One type, called t10, c12 CLA, has been shown to be associated with decreased body fat in humans and other animals. t10, c12 CLA also has the ability to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells and induce their death. However, this type of CLA is only produced by certain types of bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes -- a skin bacterium that can cause acne ... In this study, an enzyme-encoding gene from P. acnes was transferred to the Lactobacillus strain allowing it to produce t10, c12 CLA ... CLA has already been shown to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that often accompanies obesity. Therefore, increasing levels of CLA in the liver by ingestion of a probiotic strain is of therapeutic relevance ... The same group of researchers previously found that microbially produced CLA was able to reduce the viability of colon cancer cells by 92%"
  • Dannon's Activia, DanActive health claims draw $21M fine - USATODAY.com, 12/15/10 - "Dannon will stop claiming that one daily serving of Activia yogurt relieves irregularity and that DanActive helps people avoid catching colds" - Here's the reason I used Activia to make my own yoghurt (first bullet).  This article doesn't address it.  I never did buy off on the irregularity claim but there might be some support for colds:
    • Dannon Activia | How Activia Helps - Activia.com - "This is where Activia, with Bifidus Regularis®, can help! Activia is shown in several clinical studies to survive passage through the digestive system and arrive in the gut in enough quantities to help have a positive impact on slow intestinal transit"
    • Probiotics show potential against common cold: Study - Nutra USA 9/21/10 - "daily consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 (DSM 15312) and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (DSM 13434) reduced the incidence of one or more episodes of the common cold from 67 percent in the placebo group to 55 percent, according to findings published in the European Journal of Nutrition ... Furthermore, the number of days of symptoms for the cold was significantly reduced in people taking the probiotic supplements, from an average of 8.6 to 6.2, compared with placebo ... the total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group"
  • Probiotics shorten diarrhea episodes, review suggests - Science Daily, 11/9/10 - "Giving probiotics in conjunction with rehydration fluids reduced the duration of diarrhea by around a day and reduced the risk of diarrhea lasting four or more days by 59%"
  • Lactobacillus reuteri good for health, Swedish study finds - Science Daily, 11/2/10 - "several different strains of Lactobacillus reuteri have a positive effect on health, including various types of gastrointestinal disorders and oral health. It is also believed that lactobacilli play a role in the development of allergies ... Gabriela Sinkiewicz has also studied how L. reuteri affects oral health and has established that the occurrence of both plaque and bleeding from the gums declined after only two weeks of using chewing gum containing certain strains of L. reuteri"
  • Probiotics show potential against stress-related conditions - Nutra USA 10/29/10 - "Results showed that levels of psychological distress, including measures of depression, anger-hostility, anxiety, and problem solving, were significantly improved in the probiotic group, compared with placebo" - [Abstract]
  • Probiotics show potential against common cold: Study - Nutra USA 9/21/10 - "daily consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 (DSM 15312) and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (DSM 13434) reduced the incidence of one or more episodes of the common cold from 67 percent in the placebo group to 55 percent, according to findings published in the European Journal of Nutrition ... Furthermore, the number of days of symptoms for the cold was significantly reduced in people taking the probiotic supplements, from an average of 8.6 to 6.2, compared with placebo ... the total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group" - [Abstract]
  • Cutting fat and calories can lower cancer risk in dogs and people - Science Daily, 7/22/10 - "adding quality prebiotics to pet foods can enhance their gut health"
  • Probiotics use in mothers limits eczema in their babies - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "compared mothers who drank one glass of probiotic milk a day to women who were given a placebo. Use of the probiotic milk -- which the mothers drank beginning at week 36 in their pregnancy up through to three months after birth -- reduced the incidence of eczema by 40 percent in children up to age two, the researchers found"
  • Of bugs and brains: Gut bacteria affect multiple sclerosis - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "This study shows for the first time that specific intestinal bacteria have a significant role in affecting the nervous system during MS -- and they do so from the gut, an anatomical location very, very far from the brain ... Perhaps treatments for diseases such as multiple sclerosis may someday include probiotic bacteria that can restore normal immune function in the gut… and the brain"
  • Probiotics in pregnancy could have diabetes benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 7/16/10 - "those women who had taken probiotics had a reduced frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): 13 percent for the diet/probiotics group, compared to 36 percent for the diet/placebo group and 34 percent for the control group ... In addition, the dietary counseling during pregnancy reduced the risk of fetal overgrowth, which is thought to predispose to later obesity" - [Abstract]
  • Gut bacteria could be key indicator of colon cancer risk - "a shift in the balance between the "good" bacteria and the "bad" bacteria that populate our gut could be a harbinger of colon cancer ... We think something happens to tip the balance away from the beneficial bacteria and in favor of microbes that make toxic metabolites and are detrimental to our health ... By pinpointing these bacterial culprits, we can not only identify people at risk, but also suggest that they include the good bacteria in their diet .. And what a great way to address colon cancer -- you could know your risk and lower it by eating your yogurt every day" - Note:  Dannon claims that only their Activia brand reaches the gut.  see:
    • Activia by Dannon - "Specialists at Dannon® selected Bifidus Regularis™ for Activia® because it survives passage through the digestive tract, arriving in the colon as a living culture. Once there, it plays a beneficial role in your intestinal ecosystem"
  • Oral bacteria may offer probiotic potential against upper respiratory infections - Science Daily, 6/18/10 - "So far, the benefits of probiotics have been predominantly explored in the intestinal tract, however, other initial studies suggest probiotics may contribute to wellness in the stomach, vaginal tract, skin and mouth ... A probiotic strategy effective in the prophylaxis of pharyngitis, therefore, could provide a significant social benefit"
  • Probiotic therapy cuts risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in half for some in ICU, study finds - Science Daily, 6/17/10 - "daily use of probiotics not only decreased VAP infections by about 50 percent compared to placebo, but also reduced the amount of antibiotics needed in comparison to placebo-treated patients. This reduction in antibiotic consumption led to significantly fewer Clostridium difficile infections in patients given probiotics. No side effects attributable to the probiotics were observed"
  • Probiotic Reduces Crying Time in Infants With Colic - Medscape, 6/17/10 - "One week of supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis reduced crying time in colicky babies by 74%, compared with 38% with placebo" - See lactobacillus at Amazon.com.
  • Gut-residing bacteria trigger arthritis in genetically susceptible individuals - Science Daily, 6/17/10 - "A single species of bacteria that lives in the gut is able to trigger a cascade of immune responses that can ultimately result in the development of arthritis ... In the absence of all bacteria, these mice didn't develop arthritis, but the introduction of a single bacterium was enough to jump-start the immune process that leads to development of the disease ... bacteria in the gut could influence the development of an autoimmune disease affecting tissues distant from the gut. Diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome have been linked to gut-residing bacteria" - See Garden of Life Primal Defense HSO Probiotic Formula at Amazon.com.  Also see my section in last week's newsletter on making you own Activa.
  • 15 best age-erasing superfoods - MSNBC, 5/25/10 - "Yogurt ... Various cultures claim yogurt as their own creation, but the 2,000-year-old food’s health benefits are not disputed: Fermentation spawns hundreds of millions of probiotic organisms that serve as reinforcements to the battalions of beneficial bacteria in your body, which keep your digestive tract healthy and your immune system in top form, and provide protection against cancer. Not all yogurts are probiotic, though, so make sure the label says “live and active cultures.”"
  • Probiotics may help fat and weight loss: Study - Nutra USA, 6/11/10 - "Twelve weeks of consuming a fermented milk product containing the Lactobacillus strain was associated with a 4.6 per cent reduction in abdominal fat, and a 3.3 per cent reduction in subcutaneous fat" - [Abstract]
    • See Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker - I've had a lot of yogurt makers over the years but this is the best one I've found.  I mix two cups of Nestle Nido Instant Dry Whole Milk (available at Amazon) with two cups of dry skim milk in a blender.  Lately I've been making it with Activa. I believe it's only sold flavored but I've been using the strawberry flavored Activa.  I put the milk powders in a blender then fill it with water and blend.  Then add one container of the Activa and blend fast one more time (not to kill the culture).  Then pour it into the jar and fill the jar to the top with additional water and leave it in the yoghurt maker for 13 hours.  I mix the finished product with Smucker's Strawberry Orchard's Finest.  If your worried about the BPA's from the plastic container, see Widemouth Clear Half Gallon Glass Jar (64oz) w/ White Metal Lid  at specialtybottles.com.
    • Activia by Dannon - "Specialists at Dannon® selected Bifidus Regularis™ for Activia® because it survives passage through the digestive tract, arriving in the colon as a living culture. Once there, it plays a beneficial role in your intestinal ecosystem"
  • Yogurt-like drink DanActive reduced rate of common infections in daycare children - Science Daily, 5/19/10 - "Researchers found a 19 percent decrease of common infections among the children who drank the yogurt-like drink with L. casei DN-114 001 compared to those whose drink did not have the probiotic. More specifically, those who drank DanActive had 24 percent fewer gastrointestinal infections (such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting), and 18 percent fewer upper respiratory tract infections (such as ear infections, sinusitis and strep). However, the reduction in infections did not result in fewer missed school days or activities -- also a primary outcome of the study" - [Abstract] - Note:  For what it's worth, I tried Activa in my yogurt maker and it worked fine however Activa has fruit mixed with it but most of it flouted to the top and I was able to skim it off.
  • Probiotics for mum during pregnancy may cut obesity in child: Study - Nutra USA, 2/16/10
  • Prebiotic-soy combination may boost heart health: Study - Nutra USA, 2/11/10
  • 'Good' bacteria keep immune system primed to fight future infections - Science Daily, 1/27/10 - "The investigators show that "good" bacteria in the gut keep the immune system primed to more effectively fight infection from invading pathogenic bacteria. Altering the intricate dynamic between resident and foreign bacteria -- via antibiotics, for example -- compromises an animal's immune response, specifically, the function of white blood cells called neutrophils"
  • Promising probiotic treatment for inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 1/21/10 - "Several recent studies have identified butyric acid as a potential therapeutic agent for IBD. Some gut bacteria produce butyric acid naturally in the intestines, but in IBD patients some of these strains are heavily depleted. Trials in mice have shown that injecting one such strain Faecalibacterium prausnitzii into the digestive tract is effective at restoring normal levels of gut bacteria and treating the symptoms of IBD. In addition, novel identified butyrate-producing strains, such as Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, have been shown to exert similar effects"
  • Another Cause of Obesity: The Bacteria in Your Gut? - Time Magazine, 11/12/09 - "When one group of mice was fed a typical Western diet, high in fat and sugars, they tended to gain weight and grow more Firmicutes gut bacteria and fewer Bacteroidetes. In mice given a low-fat, plant-based chow, the distribution of the two groups of bugs flipped and the animals remained lean. It's not clear whether the balance of gut bugs causes weight gain or is a result of it, but the findings suggest that a "gut profile" could potentially serve as a diagnostic tool for identifying who might have a propensity for obesity. If, for instance, your gut environment contains a preponderance of Firmicutes, then your body may be predisposed to digest calories in a way that leads to greater fat storage. In fact, in Gordon's earlier work with identical twins of different weights, he found that the obese twin tended to have more Firmicutes colonies than the leaner sibling ...factors like gut microbes, which scientists traditionally would not think of exerting influence on genes, may have a surprisingly powerful effect, changing how a body's genes would normally control the way it digest food and breaks it down into energy"
    • Gut microflora and obesity: Study highlights potential for pre-, probiotics - Nutra USA, 11/12/09 - "One approach could involve searching for nutritional interventions to modify specific gut microbial species. Dietary components (prebiotics) might be found that alter growth of specific microbial species capable of affecting host physiology, and the Turnbaugh model can be used to pinpoint these elements and decipher the mechanisms of the host-microbe collaboration"
  • Probiotics May Help Treat IBD Symptoms - WebMD, 10/29/09 - "A new study shows treatment with the probiotic Bacillus polyfermenticus reduced rectal bleeding, lessened tissue inflammation, and promoted weight gain in mice with colitis. The mice also had increased blood vessel growth in their intestinal lining, which is important for healing damaged tissue. The probiotic also encouraged the growth process of new blood vessels in laboratory tests with human intestinal cells"
  • Diet And Intestinal Bacteria Linked To Healthier Immune Systems - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "Insoluble dietary fibre, or roughage, not only keeps you regular, say Australian scientists, it also plays a vital role in the immune system, keeping certain diseases at bay ... Similarly, probiotics and prebiotics, food supplements that affect the balance of gut bacteria, reduce the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, also inflammatory diseases"
  • Probiotics may protect against gum disease: Yakult study - Nutra USA, 9/30/09 - "One group was required to drink 65 ml of Yakult daily, giving a daily probiotic dose of 100 billion bacteria per 100 ml. The other group was given no product to consume at all ... analysis of the fluid between the gum and the tooth (gingival crevicular fluid) showed that the probiotic was associated with reductions were in elastase activity, and enzyme linked to inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), an enzyme that is responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components and known to have increased activity during inflammation" - [Abstract]
  • Prebiotics may stop early stage colon cancer: Study - Nutra USA, 9/4/09
  • Could probiotics protect us from gut parasites? - Nutra USA, 8/20/09
  • Probiotics may reduce cold and 'flu symptoms for children - Nutra USA, 7/30/09 - "A daily supplement of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains may reduce the incidence of cold and 'flu-like symptoms in children by 50 per cent ... A combination of the two strains was linked to reductions in fever incidence by 73 per cent, a reduction in the occurrence of runny noses by 59 per cent, and drop in the incidence of coughing by 62 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Antibiotics Take Toll On Beneficial Microbes In Gut - Science Daily, 6/18/09 - "Normally, a set of thousands of different kinds of microbes lives in the gut – a distinctive mix for each person, and thought to be passed on from mother to baby. The microbes, including many different bacteria, aid digestion and nutrition, appear to help maintain a healthy immune system, and keep order when harmful microbes invade ... Mice, which normally develop a diverse set of microbes after being born without one, then were given either cefoperazone, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, or a combination of three antibiotics (amoxicillin, bismuth and metronidazole) ... Both antibiotic treatments caused significant changes in the gut microbial community. However, in the mice given cefoperazone, there was no recovery of normal diversity. In other mice given the amoxicillin-containing combination, the microbiota largely recovered, but not completely ... Probiotics may be part of the solution, but we don’t know that yet"
  • Probiotics may reduce eczema risk by 60 per cent - Nutra USA, 5/15/09 - "The Dutch researchers report that parental-reported eczema was 58 per cent lower in the intervention group compared with placebo during the first three months of life, after which the incidence of eczema was similar between the groups" - [Abstract]
  • Study In Pregnant Women Suggests Probiotics May Help Ward Off Obesity - Science Daily, 5/7/09 - "One year after giving birth, women were less likely to have the most dangerous kind of obesity if they had been given probiotics from the first trimester of pregnancy, found new research that suggests manipulating the balance of bacteria in the gut may help fight obesity ... Central obesity, where overall obesity is combined with a particularly fat belly, is considered especially unhealthy ... We found it in 25% of the women who had received the probiotics along with dietary counselling, compared with 43% in the women who received diet advice alone"
  • How Probiotics Can Prevent Disease - Science Daily, 4/1/09 - "In each instance the protection was linked to a particular bacterial species, and the mechanism of action varied from direct antagonism (where the probiotic directly kills the pathogenic bacteria) to effects mediated by the host immune system. For example Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 protected mice against listeriosis (a disease which can affect pregnant women) by producing an antimicrobial peptide that eliminates Listeria monocytogenes in the gut of the animal. In another mechanism, Lactococcus lactis could be used to treat mastitis by eliciting an immune response that overwhelmed the infectious bacterium"
  • Probiotics May Relieve Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Medscape, 3/20/09 - "In patients with IBS, probiotics showed a modest improvement in overall symptoms, using both dichotomous and continuous data"
  • New Yogurt Fights Stomach Ulcers - WebMD, 3/22/09 - "H. pylori uses an enzyme called urease to attach to and infect the inside of the stomach. This latest yogurt, designed to fight stomach ulcers, contains an antibody called IgY-urease. The yogurt is marketed as Dr. Piro in Japan and as Gut in Korea. Researchers are hopeful that their clinical trial will pave the way for approval in the United States ... For the trial, scientists recruited 42 people who tested positive for H. pylori. Some participants ate the yogurt with the antibody three times a day for four weeks. Some participants ate the same amount of regular yogurt that didn't contain the antibody. H. pylori activity was significantly reduced in the antibody yogurt group"
  • Supplement Of Probiotics Provides A New Therapy For Ulcerative Colitis - Science Daily, 2/27/09
  • Probiotics May Help People Taking Antibiotics - Science Daily, 12/17/08 - "Up to one in five people on antibiotics stop taking their full course of antibiotic therapy due to diarrhea. Physicians could help patients avoid this problem by prescribing probiotics"
  • Yoghurt can benefit bladder cancer, say researchers - Nutra USA, 10/21/08 - "yoghurt consumption reduced the risk of cancer in men by 36 per cent and in women by 45 per cent. Other dairy products did not reveal such benefits and the researchers suggested this was down to the inherent functionality present in many yoghurts and not just those with boosted probiotic levels ... Cultured milk products, such as yoghurt, contain lactic acid bacteria, which have been shown to suppress bladder cancer in rats" - [Abstract] - See Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker and Nestle Nido Instant Milk Powder Mexico 1600g (3.5 Pounds) - Case of 6.  I mix the Nido full fat and Carnation non-fat (50/50).
  • Probiotic May Help Treat Crohn's Disease - WebMD, 10/20/08 - "A gut bacterium called F. prausnitzii may make a good probiotic treatment for Crohn's disease"
  • Cultured milk, yogurt, and dairy intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in a prospective study of Swedish women and men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1083-7 - "Total dairy intake was not significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer [> or =7.0 servings/d compared with < 3.5 servings/d: multivariate rate ratio (RR) = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.15; P for trend = 0.33]. However, a statistically significant inverse association was observed for the intake of cultured milk (sour milk and yogurt). The multivariate RRs for the highest category of cultured milk intake (> or =2 servings/d) compared with the lowest category (0 serving/d) were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.85; P for trend = 0.006) in women and men combined, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.25, 1.22; P for trend = 0.06) in women, and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.89; P for trend = 0.03) in men. The intake of milk or cheese was not associated with bladder cancer risk ... These findings suggest that a high intake of cultured milk may lower the risk of developing bladder cancer"
  • 'Friendly' Bacteria Protect Against Type 1 Diabetes, Researchers Find - Science Daily, 9/21/08 - "mice exposed to common stomach bacteria were protected against the development of Type I diabetes ... if they were raised in a germ-free environment, lacking "friendly'' gut bacteria, the mice developed severe diabetes. NOD mice exposed to harmless bacteria normally found in the human intestine were significantly less likely to develop diabetes"
  • Does Probiotic Intervention Induce The Serum Global Lipid Profile Change? - Science Daily, 9/18/08 - "investigated the effect of a three weeks intervention of a probiotic LGG intervention on serum global lipidomics profiles in healthy adults. The result showed that there were decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho), sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho), and increases in triacylglycerols (TAG) in the probiotic LGG group. These changes may contribute, for example, to the metabolic events behind the beneficial effects of LGG on gut barrier function seen in previous studies"
  • Is Probiotic Yakult Helpful In The Treatment Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome? - Science Daily, 9/10/08 - "A pilot study was undertaken to determine the effect of L. strain Shirota (Yakult®) on intestinal fermentation patterns of IBS patients. After 6 week of treatment with 1 x 65 mL dose of Yakult(R) daily, 9 of 14 patients (64%) completing the study had reversal of ERBHAL, with the median time of first rise increasing from 45 to 75 min (P = 0.03). Furthermore, symptoms improved in those in whom ERBHAL was corrected"
  • How Friendly Bacteria Avoids Immune Attack To Live Happily In The Gut - Science Daily, 9/2/08
  • 'Good' Bacteria May Ease Hay Fever - WebMD, 6/4/08
  • Hayfever Hope: Probiotic Drink Can Modify Immune System's Response To Grass Pollen - Science Daily, 6/4/08 - "contained Lactobacillus casei ... The probiotic strain we tested changed the way the body's immune cells respond to grass pollen, restoring a more balanced immune response"
  • Probiotics may offer hay fever hope - Nutra USA, 6/3/08 - "Hayfever is an allergic reaction to pollen or fungal spores, most commonly grass pollen. The immune system mistakes the spores for harmful invaders and white blood cells - T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes - produce protein-like cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-6, which in turn promote the synthesis of the immune chemicals immunoglobulins (Ig) to bind to the pollen and fight them off ... However, supplementation with the probiotic led to reduced production of IL-5 and IL-6, as well as decreased in the production of IgE ... The probiotic-supplemented volunteers had significantly reduced levels of IL-5 and IL-6" - [Abstract]
  • What Else May Probiotics Do In Adults? - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "It was found that probiotics have an anti-inflammatory potential seen as a decrease in serum CRP levels and as a reduction in bacteria-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells"
  • Probiotic hope for kidney stones - BBC News, 3/9/08 - "People naturally carrying the bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes were found to be 70% less likely to have problems"
  • Probiotic Cuts Respiratory Illness Rates In Endurance Athletes, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/18/08 - "The probiotic Lactobacillus substantially cuts the rate and length of respiratory illness in professional long distance runners ... athletes taking the probiotic had less than half the number of days of symptoms of their colleagues taking the placebo ... Respiratory symptoms while taking Lactobacillus lasted 30 days compared with 72 days while taking the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See my favorite Garden of Life Primal Defense HSO Probiotic Formula at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics 'protect top athletes' - BBC News, 2/14/08 - "Over the four months, all 20 received two month-long courses of pills - one containing the bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum, and the other containing no active ingredients ... a total of 72 days in which people taking the "dummy" pills complained of symptoms ... When the same number of "probiotic" days was examined, only 30 were hit by illness"
  • Infants With Poor Intestinal Flora Often Develop Eczema - Science Daily, 1/23/08 - "children with only a limited variety of bacteria in their feces one week after birth more often developed atopical eczema by the age of 18 months"
  • Probiotics 'have effects on gut' - BBC News, 1/16/08 - "Our study shows that probiotics can have an effect and they interact with the local ecology and talk to other bacteria"
  • Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of IBS and stabilises intestinal microbiota - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Oct 6 - "The composite IBS score had at five months decreased 14 points (95% CI: -19 to -9) from baseline with the multispecies probiotic versus 3 points (95% CI: -8 to 1) with placebo (p=0.0083). Especially distension and abdominal pain were affected"
  • Appendix Isn't Useless At All: It's A Safe House For Good Bacteria - Science Daily, 10/8/07
  • Probiotics work out against constipation, says study - Nutra USA, 8/10/07 - "the frequency of bowel movements doubled over the weeks following the start of probiotic supplementation, increasing from two per week to 4.2 after two weeks, to 3.8 after four weeks" [Abstract]
  • Probiotic Supplements (Including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, and Others) review - ConsumerLab.com, 12/13/06
  • Elderly 'should take probiotics' - BBC News, 8/7/06 - "the drinks, yoghurts or capsules could help protect older people against bowel conditions, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) ... as people get older they have reduced levels of friendly bacteria and increased levels of disease-causing bacteria ... at about the age of 60 there was a big drop in bacteria levels, and older people had 1,000-fold less friendly bacteria than other younger adults"
  • Probiotics May Help Stressed Gut - WebMD, 4/25/06 - "Harmful bacteria latched onto cells in the intestinal wall and nearby lymph nodes of stressed rats with sterile drinking water ... Stressed rats that had gotten probiotics in their drinking water showed no signs of harmful bacteria leaking to their lymph nodes"
  • Probiotic Yogurt May Help Eradicate H. pylori Infection - Medscape, 4/17/06 - "Four weeks of pretreatment with AB-yogurt before quadruple therapy improves eradication rate of residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy"
  • 'Good' Bacteria: Good for Colds? - WebMD, 11/7/05
  • Workers On Daily Probiotics Less Likely To Take Time Off Sick - Science Daily, 11/7/05 - "workers who took a daily dose of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri were 2.5 times less likely to take sick leave than workers who took a placebo"
  • SA, 3/31/05
  • A Healthy Gut May Resist Allergies, Asthma - WebMD, 12/23/04 - "People need a mix of healthy bacteria and fungi in their guts. Microflora in humans can be thrown off by antibiotics and a sugary, high-fat, low-fiber diet"
  • Good Bacteria Trigger Proteins To Protect The Gut - Science Daily, 7/23/04 - "the practice of giving antibiotics to cancer patients to prevent infections might render the gut more vulnerable to damage – a danger that might be overcome by administering substances that mimic the protective presence of gut bacteria"
  • Probiotics, dead or alive, can relieve gut disease - Nutra USA, 2/2/04
  • Probiotic Therapy May Be Effective for Treating Ulcerative Colitis - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/03 - "adding a probiotic with multiple strains and a high concentration of bacteria to the treatment regimen may have the potential to stop this disease in its tracks and avoid any treatment-related side effects"
  • Quality of Probiotic Supplements Questioned: Are You Getting What You Pay For? - New Hope Natural Media, 1/16/02 - "laboratory testing of 12 refrigerated and 8 non-refrigerated, randomly selected probiotic supplements obtained from different health food stores revealed that only one product contained the same bacteria as those listed on the label. Many of the refrigerated products had some beneficial bacteria, but contained fewer species of organisms than the label claimed. More than 30% of all supplements were contaminated with other microorganisms and 50% of the non-refrigerated products were completely dead. Dead probiotics have no impact on improving intestinal function or restoring the balance of normal intestinal flora"
  • Lactobacillus Preparation Prevents Complications in Acute Pancreatitis - New Hope Natural Media, 1/2/03
  • Eating Yogurt Daily Increases “Good” Cholesterol in Women - New Hope Natural Media, 12/5/02 - "In this study, 29 women ate 300 grams (about 10.6 ounces) of a full-fat (3.5% fat by weight) yogurt product daily for 21 weeks ... A larger, and statistically significant, 38% increase was observed in HDL, or “good” cholesterol levels after eating the yogurt. No change was observed in LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels ... each woman also ate the probiotic- and prebiotic-containing product for a 7-week stretch during the 21-week trial. During the period when the women consumed the supplemented yogurt, there was a further increase in HDL cholesterol beyond that seen from simply eating plain yogurt"
  • Probiotics—Good Bacteria Meet Functional Foods - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 11/02
  • “Friendly Bacteria” Help Eradicate the Peptic-Ulcer Organism - New Hope Natural Media, 10/17/02 - "Taking a supplement of “friendly bacteria” (probiotics) increases the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the organism that causes peptic ulcers"
  • New Research Validates Use Of Once-Daily High Dose "Good" Bacteria In Patients With Recurrent Or Refractory Pouchitis - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/02 - "We are excited about the results of this study because a specific amount and type of probiotic has demonstrated that it can dramatically improve patient outcome for pouchitis," said lead investigator, Dr. Mimura. "Furthermore, because pouchitis may be considered a model for other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), these findings indicate we may have found an effective, inexpensive, and widely available therapeutic treatment for various forms of IBD, such as ulcerative colitis."
  • Headaches-Germ Link Suggested - Intelihealth, 4/29/02 - "about 18 percent of chronic migraine sufferers were infected with the stomach bug helicobacter pylori and antibiotics appeared to clear the headaches ... Adding the friendly bacteria Lactobacillus seemed to work even better ... Helicobacter pylori, the bug that causes gut ulcers, has recently been linked to a growing list of diseases, including heart disease, autoimmune diseases and skin conditions"
  • Lactobacillus Safe, Effective For Infectious Diarrhoea In Children - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/02
  • Probiotics During Pregnancy, Lactation May Promote Immunoprotection Against Atopic Eczema - Doctor's Guide, 2/8/02 - "Probiotics administered during pregnancy and lactation appears to promote the immunoprotective potential of breast-feeding ... The probiotics also protect infants against atopic eczema during the first two years"
  • Feeling Fit: Good bacteria - CNN, 2/5/02
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Probiotic LP299V Could Help Patients With Irritable Bowel - Doctor's Guide, 10/31/01 - "The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299V (LP299V) appears to have a beneficial effect on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ... All patients treated with LP299V reported resolution of their abdominal pain as compared to 11 patients from the placebo group"
  • Can lactobacillus prevent viral infections? - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "Probiotic supplement use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diarrhea; only three children (6.7 percent) in the group given probiotics had diarrhea, yet 12 children (33.3 percent) in the placebo group experienced diarrhea"
  • Going With the Gut May Prevent Allergy, Asthma, Good Bacteria May Help a Child's Immune System - WebMD, 4/5/01 - "kids who were given the probiotics were only half as likely to have common allergic diseases as those who received the placebo"
  • Study Suggests Probiotics Could Reduce Childhood Eczema - Intelihealth, 4/5/01 - "Supplements of friendly bacteria could halve the chances of infants developing eczema, an incurable skin disease some babies never outgrow, scientists have found"
  • Missing Intestinal Bacterium Linked To Kidney Stones In CF Patients - Doctor's Guide, 9/25/98 - "The study is one of the first to directly link an absence of the organism, known as Oxalobacter formigenes, to the formation of the painful crystals ... O. formigenes appears to break down calcium oxalate before it can form crystals that evolve into kidney stones ... Peck and colleagues suspect prolonged antibiotic use and other high-dose drug regimens may preclude natural colonisation with the organism, or may irreversibly destroy the colonies"
Abstracts:
  • A preliminary examination of gut microbiota, sleep, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults - Sleep Med. 2017 Oct;38:104-107 - "Better sleep quality was associated with better Stroop performance and higher proportions of the gut microbial phyla Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Stroop Word and Color-Word performance correlated with higher proportions of Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Partial correlations suggested that the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop Color-Word performance was better accounted for by sleep quality; sleep quality remained a significant predictor of Color-Word performance, independent of the Lentisphaerae proportion, while the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop performance was non-significant. Verrucomicrobia and sleep quality were not associated with Stroop Word performance independent of one another" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 27;9(11) - "Participants who took probiotics or prebiotics showed significant improvements in the H1N1 strain seroprotection rate (with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.83 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.19-2.82, p = 0.006, I² = 0%), the H3N2 strain seroprotection rate (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.59-5.10, p < 0.001, I² = 0%), and the B strain seroconversion rate (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.38-3.21, p < 0.001, I² = 0%). This meta-analysis suggested that probiotics and prebiotics are effective in elevating immunogenicity by influencing seroconversion and seroprotection rates in adults inoculated with influenza vaccines" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 on the gut microbiota of hyperlipidaemic rats -  Br J Nutr. 2017 Oct;118(7):481-492 - "microcapsulation enhanced the colon colonisation of LIP-1 cells, which subsequently exhibited more pronounced effects in improving the gut microbiota composition of hyperlipidaemic rats and lipid reduction" - See microencapsulated probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of probiotics as a treatment for constipation in elderly people: A systematic review - Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017 Jul;71:142-149 - "Overall, our analysis of the randomised and placebo-controlled trials suggests that administration of probiotics significantly improved constipation in elderly individuals by 10-40% compared to placebo controls in which no probiotic was administered" - [Nutra USA]
  • Synbiotic supplementation and the effects on clinical and metabolic responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2017 May 11:1-8 - "After the 8-week intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (-1427·8 (sd 3267·2) v. +2833·4 (sd 5639·7) ng/ml, P=0·001). In addition, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation improved disease activity score-28 joints (DAS-28) (-1·6 (sd 0·8) v. -0·3 (sd 0·5), P<0·001) and visual analogue scales (VAS) pain (-30·4 (sd 18·7) v. -11·5 (sd 15·9), P<0·001). In addition, a significant elevation in plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+0·8 (sd 4·4) v. -2·6 (sd 4·5) µmol/l, P=0·008), and significant reductions in insulin values (-13·8 (sd 26·4) v. +4·2 (sd 28·2) pmol/l, P=0·01), homoeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0·5 (sd 1·0) v.+0·1 (sd 1·1), P=0·03) and homoeostatic model assessment-β-cell function (HOMA-B) (-9·4 (sd 17·9) v. +3·3 (sd 18·9), P=0·01) following supplementation with the synbiotic compared with the placebo. Compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in plasma GSH (+36·6 (sd 63·5) v. -58·5 (sd 154·4) µmol/l, P=0·005). Overall, our study demonstrated that synbiotic supplementation for 8 weeks among patients with RA had beneficial effects on hs-CRP, DAS-28, VAS, NO, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and GSH levels" - See synbiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Cognitive Function in Adult Females - fasebj, Apr 2017 - "These results indicate that women with greater relative abundances of Bacteriodetes exhibited greater ability to maintain cognitive performance when faced with greater task demands. These findings are among the first to relate bacterial phylogenetic characteristics to executive function among adult humans. Further study is required to elucidate a causal relationship between dietary manipulation of microbiota composition and changes in selective aspects of cognitive performance" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Age-Associated Microbial Dysbiosis Promotes Intestinal Permeability, Systemic Inflammation, and Macrophage Dysfunction - Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Apr 12 - "Levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation are known to increase with age, but the underlying cause of this age-associated inflammation is debated ... These data suggest that aging-associated microbiota promote inflammation and that reversing these age-related microbiota changes represents a potential strategy for reducing age-associated inflammation and the accompanying morbidity" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Feb 22 - "The probiotic group reported an improvement in the MRQLQ global score from baseline to pollen peak (-0.68 ± 0.13) when compared with the placebo group (-0.19"
  • Probiotics and Subclinical Psychological Symptoms in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Nov 14 - "These results show that probiotic consumption may have a positive effect on psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in healthy human volunteers"
  • Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults—Randomized Controlled Trial - j.ebiom.2016.10.036 - "We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters ... For relative change in body fat mass, LU + B420 showed a − 4.5% (−1.4 kg, P = 0.02, N = 37) difference to the Placebo group, whereas LU (+0.3%, P = 1.00, N = 35) and B420 (−3.0%, P = 0.28, N = 24) alone had no effect (overall ANOVA P = 0.095, Placebo N = 35). A post-hoc factorial analysis was significant for B420 (−4.0%, P = 0.002 vs. Placebo). Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar changes in waist circumference. B420 and LU + B420 also significantly reduced energy intake compared to Placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com and polydextrose at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-obese effects of two Lactobacilli and two Bifidobacteria on ICR mice fed on a high fat diet - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Nov 11;480(2):222-227 - "high fat diet (HFD) ... The beneficial effects of the probiotic bacteria are suggested to be strain dependent. In this study, two candidate lactobacteria strains, Lactobacillus casei IBS041, Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 and two bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI, were individually administered to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks. B. longum BORI significantly suppressed mouse weight gain without affecting food intake. L. acidophilus and B. bifidum BGN4 significantly decreased triglyceride levels in mouse liver while B. longum BORI significantly lowered total cholesterol levels in liver. L. acidophilus and B. bifidum BGN4 significantly inhibited serum activities of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. Diet supplementation with L. acidophilus, B. bifidum BGN4 and B. longum BORI efficiently improved hepatocyte hydropic degeneration and hepatic steatosis. Of the four probiotic candidates, the bifidobacteria B. longum BORI and B. bifidum BGN4, developed in our laboratory, and L. acidophilus AD031showed excellent anti-obesity effects and suppressed lipid deposition in liver"
  • The use of probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 containing Reg'Activ Cholesterol supplement for 4 weeks has a positive influence on blood lipoprotein profiles and inflammatory cytokines: an open-label preliminary study - Nutr J. 2016 Oct 28;15(1):93 - "Reg'Activ Cholesterol (RAC) ... Forty-five clinically asymptomatic participants consumed an RAC containing an antioxidative and antiatherogenic probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (LFME-3) for 4 weeks ... The reduction of total cholesterol (from 6.5 ± 1.0 to 5.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l, p = 9.90806E-11) was on the account of LDL cholesterol as the HDL cholesterol level rose from 1.60 ± 0.31to 1.67 ± 0.34mml/l, p = 0.01. HbA1c% was reduced from 5.85 ± 0.28 to 5.66 ± 0.25 p = 4.64E-05 and oxLDL decreased from 84 ± 20 to 71 ± 15 U/l" - See Reg'Activ Cholesterol at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise - Nutrients. 2016 Oct 14;8(10) - "Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA 180 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of Synbiotics in Patients with Slow Transit Constipation: A Prospective Randomized Trial - Nutrients. 2016 Sep 28;8(10) - "A total of 100 patients with slow transit constipation were randomized to receive either a synbiotic or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks ... Over 12 weeks, 64.6% of the patients who received the synbiotic experienced clinical improvement, compared to 29.2% of the patients in the placebo group (p < 0.01). During the intervention period, patients who were treated with the synbiotic exhibited increased stool frequency, improved stool consistency, decreased CTT, and improved constipation-related symptoms" - [Nutra USA] - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of synbiotic supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2016 Sep 29:1-8 - "Patients in the synbiotic group received a daily capsule that contained three viable and freeze-dried strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum (2×109 colony-forming units/g each) plus 800 mg inulin for 6 weeks ... After 6 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation led to a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (-1·5 (sd 5·9) v. +4·8 (sd 11·5) µIU/ml, P=0·005), homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (-0·4 (sd 1·3) v. +1·1 (sd 2·7), P=0·003) and homoeostatic model assessment for β cell function (-5·1 (sd 24·2) v. +18·9 (sd 45·6), P=0·008) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·01 (sd 0·01) v. -0·007 (sd 0·02), P=0·02). In addition, synbiotic intake significantly decreased serum TAG (-14·8 (sd 56·5) v. +30·4 (sd 37·8) mg/dl, P<0·001) and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations (-3·0 (sd 11·3) v. +6·1 (sd 7·6) mg/dl, P<0·001) compared with the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of Chlorhexidine Pretreatment Followed by Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius Strain K12 on Halitosis in Children: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial - Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016;14(4):305-13 - "Probiotic therapy following oral disinfection with chlorhexidine may reduce the severity of halitosis over longer periods" - [Nutra USA]
  • Probiotic and synbiotic therapy in critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Crit Care. 2016 Aug 19;19:262 - "Thirty trials that enrolled 2972 patients were identified for analysis. Probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in infections (risk ratio 0.80, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 0.95, P = 0.009; heterogeneity I (2) = 36 %, P = 0.09). Further, a significant reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was found (risk ratio 0.74"
  • Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Dec 28;25(12):2160-8 - "Participants took 1 × 10(10) CFU/day of HY7714 (probiotic group) or a placebo (placebo group) for 12 weeks. Skin hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and skin elasticity were measured every 4 weeks during the study period. There were significant increases in the skin water content in the face (p < 0.01) and hands (p < 0.05) at week 12 in the probiotic group. Transepidermal water loss decreased significantly in both groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p < 0.001 compared with baseline), and was suppressed to a greater extent in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Finally, skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% (p < 0.05 vs. controls) after 4 weeks and by 21.73% (p < 0.01 vs. controls) after 12 weeks. These findings are preliminary confirmation of the anti-aging benefit to the skin of L. plantarum HY7714 as a nutricosmetic agent" - [Nutra USA] - See Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA, 180 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic mixture VSL#3 reduce high fat diet induced vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice - AMB Express. 2016 Dec;6(1):61 - "ApoE(-/-) mice were fed high fat diet alone or with VSL#3 or a positive control treatment, telmisartan or both for 12 weeks. All treatments reduced atherosclerotic plaques significantly compared to high fat diet alone. VSL#3 significantly reduced proinflammatory adhesion molecules and risk factors of plaque rupture, reduced vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis to a comparable extent to telmisartan; and VSL#3 treated mice had the most distinctly different intestinal microbiota composition from the control groups. Combining the VSL#3 and telmisartan brought no further benefits. Our findings showed the therapeutic potential of VSL#3 in reducing atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2016 Aug 6;8(8) - "It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder ... Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = -0.25, 95% CI (-0.47--0.03), p = 0.03) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (MD = -0.73, 95% CI (-1.37--0.09), p = 0.03) ... probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression"
  • Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery - PeerJ Jul 21, 2016 - "The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%) ... The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery, and maintains physical performance subsequent to damaging exercise" - [Nutra USA]
  • Probiotics for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Jun 18 - "fasting blood glucose (FBG) ... When compared to placebo, FBG was significantly lower with probiotic consumption (MD=-0.98mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.17, 0.78, p<0.00001), with moderate but insignificant heterogeneity noted"
  • Pterostilbene-induced changes in gut microbiota composition in relation to obesity - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jul 5 - "gut microbiota (GM) ... Pterostilbene exerted protective anti-obesity effects, improved metabolic function (insulin sensitivity) and induced structural changes in GM composition ... Pterostilbene modifies intestinal bacteria composition towards a healthier microbial profile and suggests that the anti-obesity effects induced in Zucker rats could be associated with an enrichment of the mucin-degrading bacterial members, namely Akkermansia and Odoribacter genus"
  • Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 improves glucose tolerance and reduces body weight gain in rats by stimulating energy expenditure - Br J Nutr. 2016 Jun 8:1-8 - "Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood ... Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of high doses of vitamin D3 on mucosa-associated gut microbiome vary between regions of the human gastrointestinal tract - Eur J Nutr. 2016 Jun;55(4):1479-89 - "We sampled stomach, small bowel, colon, and stools before and after 8 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation ... Vitamin D3 modulates the gut microbiome of the upper GI tract which might explain its positive influence on gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease or bacterial infections" - [Nutra USA]
  • Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile and cytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized trial. Effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome - Nutrition. 2016 Jun;32(6):716-9 - "Daily ingestion of 80 mL fermented milk with 2.72 × 10(10) colony-forming units of B. lactis HN019 showed significant reduction in body mass index (P = 0.017), total cholesterol (P = 0.009), and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.008) compared with baseline and control group values. Furthermore, a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.033) and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044) proinflammatory cytokines was observed" - [Nutra USA] - Note: Bifidobacterium lactis is one of the bacterial in the Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA I take.
  • Effect of probiotics on body weight and body-mass index: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 May 5 - "Probiotic consumption significantly reduced body weight by 0.59 kg (95% CI, 0.30-0.87) and BMI by 0.49 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.24-0.74). A greater reduction in BMI was found with multiple species of probiotics. Subgroup analysis of trials with intervention duration ≥8 weeks found a more significant reduction in BMI. Limiting analysis to trials with a baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 showed a greater reduction in BMI" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice - Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 205 - "Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotic ... few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile ... LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects" - [Nutra USA] -Note:  Lactobacillus plantarum is the top probiotic in the Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra that I take.
  • Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Mar 23 - "Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls"
  • Clinical efficacy of probiotic as an adjunctive therapy to non-surgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis - J Clin Periodontol. 2016 Mar 1 - "root planing (SRP) ... chronic periodontitis (CP) ... Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant CAL gain (-0.42 mm, p=0.002) and bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction (-14.66, p=0.003) for SRP + probiotic treatment versus SRP at short-term. Only a tendency (p=0.06) has been observed in terms of overall PPD reduction, whereas results were significant when stratified for moderate (-0.18, p=0.001) and deep pockets (-0.67" - [Nutra USA]
  • 'Psychobiotic' May Help Ease Stress, Improve Memory - Medscape, 10/20/15 - "The emerging concept of the gut microbiome as a key regulator of brain and behavior represents a paradigm shift in neuroscience. Precise targeting of the microbiome-gut-brain axis with psychobiotics — live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit — is a novel approach for the management of stress-related conditions ... 22 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.5 years) ingested a capsule containing B longum NCIMB 41676 daily for 4 weeks and a matching placebo capsule for another 4 weeks ... B longum NCIMB 41676 led to a reduction in cumulative output of the stress hormone cortisol, as well as a blunted increase in subjective anxiety. On the questionnaire, the men reported being less stressed and anxious while taking the probiotic. They also showed subtle improvement on a visual memory task after receiving the probiotic, as well as altered EEG output" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Glycemic and Inflammatory Indices in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Oct 2:1-6 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition defined by exceeding triglycerides accumulation in the liver. The condition can develop into fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma ... Subjects in the intervention and control groups consumed 2 capsules/day probiotic or placebo, respectively, for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ... Means of FBS, insulin, insulin resistance, and IL-6 were significantly different between groups after intervention (p < 0.05), whereas TNF-α was not significantly modified (p > 0.05). In the probiotic group, insulin, insulin resistance, TNF-α, and IL-6 decreased significantly at the end of the study compared to the beginning of study" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 18 - "The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50 % of the time was 1.31 (95 % CI 0.98, 1.75), P=0.071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1.55 ... A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0.0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0.05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • The impact of gut microbiota on brain and behaviour: implications for psychiatry - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Sep 12 - "Recently, the gut microbiota has been profiled in a variety of conditions including autism, major depression and Parkinson's disease ... The current narrative suggests that certain neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics"
  • Probiotics Improve Inflammation-Associated Sickness Behavior by Altering Communication between the Peripheral Immune System and the Brain - J Neurosci. 2015 Jul 29 - "Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior ... This research shows that probiotics, when eaten, can improve the abnormal behaviors (including social withdrawal and immobility) that are commonly associated with inflammation. Probiotics are able to cause this effect within the body by changing how the immune system signals the brain to alter brain function. These findings broaden our understanding of how probiotics may beneficially affect brain function in the context of inflammation occurring within the body and may open potential new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of these alterations in behavior that can greatly affect patient quality of life"
  • Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Jun 18 - "After the treatment, the probiotic group showed an 18.3% (P < 0.001) reduction in TGs and increases of 21.1% (P = 0.001) and 15.6% (P < 0.001) in the apo A-V and LDL particle size, respectively. The probiotic group had a significant reduction in TGs (P = 0.040) and increases in the plasma apo A-V (P = 0.003) and LDL particle size (P < 0.001) compared with the placebo group"
  • Symbiotics in irritable bowel syndrome - better than probiotics alone? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jun 23 - "Probiotics appear to be beneficial in IBS. Data supporting the use of symbiotics is sparse. Whether symbiotics are superior to probiotics is unclear"
  • The triglyceride-lowering effect of supplementation with dual probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032: Reduction of fasting plasma lysophosphatidylcholines in nondiabetic and hypertriglyceridemic subjects - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 May 14 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, the probiotic group displayed a 20% reduction (p = 0.001) in serum TGs and 25% increases (p=0.001) in apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V). At the 12-week follow-up assessment, the following 11 plasma metabolites were significantly reduced in the probiotic group than the placebo group"
  • Probiotics as beneficial agents on the management of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 May 11 - "We found that probiotics have beneficial effects on glycemic controls, as all human studies showed significant reductions in at least one of the primary outcome endpoints which were the levels of fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, insulin resistance and onset of diabetes; similarly, all the animal reports, except for two, documented significant changes in these parameters"
  • The effects of probiotics on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in petrochemical workers - Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Apr 16 - "divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured ... After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS)"
  • Gut Dysbiosis Is Linked to Hypertension - Hypertension. 2015 Apr 13 - "These observations demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension"
  • People less focused on recurrent bad feelings when taking probiotics - Science Daily, 4/14/15 - "Rumination is one of the most predictive vulnerability markers of depression ... Compared to subjects who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the multispecies probiotics intervention showed significantly reduced ruminative thoughts ... Even if preliminary, these results provide the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood. As such, our findings shed an interesting new light on the potential of probiotics"
  • Probiotic supplementation prevents high-fat, overfeeding-induced insulin resistance in human subjects - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan 29:1-7 - "The purpose of the present study was to determine whether probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS)) prevents diet-induced insulin resistance in human subjects. A total of seventeen healthy subjects were randomised to either a probiotic (n 8) or a control (n 9) group ... Glucose AUC values increased by 10 % (from 817 (se 45) to 899 (se 39) mmol/l per 120 min, P< 0.05) and whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 27 % (from 5.3 (se 1.4) to 3.9 (se 0.9), P< 0.05) in the control group, whereas normal insulin sensitivity was maintained in the probiotic group (4.4 (se 0.8) and 4.5 (se 0.9) before and after overeating, respectively (P>0.05). These results suggest that probiotic supplementation may be useful in the prevention of diet-induced metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes"
  • Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan 21:1-9 - "B. bifidum resulted in a greater proportion of healthy days than placebo (P≤ 0·05). The percentage of participants reporting ≥ 1 d of cold/flu during the 6-week intervention period was significantly lower with B. bifidum than with placebo (P< 0·05) ... The proportion of participants reporting a cold on any given day was lower at weeks 2 and 3 with B. bifidum and B. infantis than with placebo for the average level of stress and the most commonly reported number of hours of sleep. Daily intake of bifidobacteria provides benefit related to cold/flu outcomes during acute stress"
  • The Protective Effects Of Selenium-enriched Probiotics On Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Fibrosis In Rats - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Dec 16 - "Se-enriched probiotics (SP) ... SP significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (48.2%), aspartate aminotransferase (26.8%), hepatic hydroxyproline (29.3%) and malondialdehyde (30.1%) levels" - See se-methyl l-selenocysteine at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 20 - "Thirteen trials, representing 513 adult participants with Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m² were included. Prebiotic supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.48, -0.02) and LDL-c (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.44, -0.00) concentrations in overall analysis, and reduced triglycerides (SMD -0.72; 95% CI -1.20, -0.23) and increased HDL-c (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.01, 0.97) concentrations in diabetic trials. Synbiotic supplementation reduced plasma fasting insulin (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.75, -0.02) and triglycerides (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.70, -0.15) concentrations"
  • Impact of personalized diet and probiotic supplementation on inflammation, nutritional parameters and intestinal microbiota - The "RISTOMED project": Randomized controlled trial in healthy older people - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 8 - "Addition of VSL#3 increased bifidobacteria and supported adequate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in subjects with low-grade inflammation. Decrease in homocysteine with VSL#3 was clinically relevant. suggesting protective potentials for aging-associated conditions, e.g. cardiovascular or neurological diseases"
  • Brain and liver fatty acid composition changes upon consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Nov 28:1-5 - "This study was designed to test the effects of a particular Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 on fatty acid composition of the liver and the brain of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of an underlying pathological condition. Female mice were supplemented with live L. rhamnosus LA68 bacteria for the duration of 1 month ... Significant changes in liver and brain fatty acid composition were detected. In the liver tissue we detected an increase in palmitoleic acid (p = 0.038), while in the brain compartment we found an increase in palmitic (p = 0.042), stearic (p = 0.017), arachidonic acid (p = 0.009) and docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.004) for control versus experimental group. These results show discrete changes caused by LA68 strain consumption. Even short duration of administration of LA68 influences the fatty acid composition of the host which adds to the existing knowledge about Lactobacillus host interaction, and adds to the growing knowledge of metabolic intervention possibilities"
  • Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice - Benef Microbes. 2014 Dec 1;5(4):437-45 - "Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05)" - [Nutra USA] - See Bifidobacterium animalis products at Amazon.com.
  • A 10-Patient Case Study on the Influence of Two Different Probiotics on Individual Intestinal Microbiota - J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Sep 24 - "Ten outpatients were enrolled. Study A: Five patients took Lactobacillus buchneri (SU) for 4 weeks and mixed probiotics (NS) for the following 4 weeks. Study B: One year after study A, the other five patients took NS for 4 weeks at first and SU for the following 4 weeks ... Study A: Three of the five patients had a decreased percentage of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillales, Bifidobacteria species) after taking SU ... All five patients had increased beneficial bacteria after taking NS" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep 10 - "children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34 (NCIMB 30172) plus 50 mg vitamin C or a placebo daily for 6 months.Results:Significant reductions in the incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 33%, P=0.002), the number of days with URTI symptoms (mean difference: -21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):-35.9, -6.0, P=0.006) and the incidence rate of absence from preschool (30%, P=0.007) were observed in the active group compared with the placebo. The number of days of use of antibiotics, painkillers, cough medicine or nasal sprays was lower in the active group and reached significance for use of cough medicine (mean difference: -6.6, 95% CI: -12.9, -0.3, P=0.040)" - [Nutra USA]
  • Consuming probiotics for a month helps diminish fat accumulation in the liver, according to a new study - Science Daily, 7/18/14 - "In this current study, the strains were administered during thirty days in the diet of Zucker rats ... the administration of probiotics led to an accumulation of lipids (most of them triacylglycerides) in the liver which was significantly lower than that occurring in rats fed with a placebo" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Br J Nutr. 2014 May 22:1-8 - "placebo-controlled pilot study on thirty-eight subjects with the metabolic syndrome; they were supplemented with either synbiotic capsules containing 200 million of seven strains of friendly bacteria plus fructo-oligosaccharide or placebo capsules twice a day for 28 weeks ... After 28 weeks of treatment, the levels of fasting blood sugar and insulin resistance improved significantly in the G1 group" - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and fructo-oligosaccharide at Amazon.com.
  • Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 29:1-14 - "Meta-analysis revealed significantly fewer numbers of days of illness per person (standardised mean difference (SMD) - 0.31 (95 % CI - 0.41, - 0.11), I 2= 3 %), shorter illness episodes by almost a day (weighted mean difference - 0.77 (95 % CI - 1.50, - 0.04), I 2= 80 %) (without an increase in the number of illness episodes), and fewer numbers of days absent from day care/school/work (SMD - 0.17 (95 % CI - 0.31, - 0.03), I 2= 67 %) in participants who received a probiotic intervention than in those who had taken a placebo"
  • Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces postprandial and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid levels in Japanese hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects - Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Feb 19;13(1):36 - "Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) inhibits dietary fat absorption in rats and exerts preventive effects on abdominal adiposity in rats and human ... non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) ... The consumption of probiotic LG2055 reduced postprandial and fasting serum NEFA levels, suggesting its possible contribution to the reduction of the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus"
  • Synbiotic supplementation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 8 - "52 patients with NAFLD were supplemented twice daily for 28 wk with either a synbiotic or a placebo capsule ... Synbiotic supplementation in addition to lifestyle modification is superior to lifestyle modification alone for the treatment of NAFLD, at least partially through attenuation of inflammatory markers in the body" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
    • Synbiotics - Wikipedia - "Synbiotics refer to nutritional supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics"
  • Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women - Br J Nutr. 2013 Dec 3:1-13 - "The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks ... The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P= 0.02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0.53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com which includes Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
  • Probiotic supplementation for respiratory and gastrointestinal illness symptoms in healthy physically active individuals - Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 10 - "Four hundred and sixty five participants (241 males; age 35 ± 12 y (mean ± SD) and 224 females; age 36 ± 12 y) were assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 - Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (Bl-04) 2.0 × 109colony forming units per day, CFU per day, Group 2 - Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07 (NCFM & Bi-07) 5 × 109 CFU each per day) or Group 3 - placebo mixed in a drink ... The risk of an upper respiratory illness episode was significantly lower in the Bl-04 group (hazard ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.95; P = 0.022) compared to placebo. There was no significant difference in illness risk between the NCFM & Bi-07 group (hazard ratio 0.81; 0.62-1.08; P = 0.15) and the placebo group. There was a 0.7 and 0.9 month delay in the median time to an illness episode in the Bl-04 and NCFM & Bi-07 groups respectively compared to placebo (placebo 2.5 months; Bl-04 3.2 months; NCFM & Bi-07 3.4 months). There were insufficient GI illness episodes for analysis" - See Bifidobacterium animalis products at iHerb.
    • Activia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Activia products thus contain Bifidobacterium animalis DN 173,010, a proprietary strain of Bifidobacterium, a probiotic which is marketed by Dannon under the trade names Bifidus Regularis, Bifidus Actiregularis, Bifidus Digestivum and Bifidobacterium Lactis" - See my yogurt recipe which is made with Activia on my yogurt page.
  • Probiotics determine hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlipidemic hamsters - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 - "probiotic mix (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis) ... Male Golden Syrian hamsters developed hyperlipidemia after 21 weeks of fat diet. For the last 5 weeks of experiment, ten HL were treated with the probiotic mix (HLP), ten received water (HL). Ten animals received standard chow (N). Increase of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), oxidized LDL, glucose, of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in plasma, liver, and myocardium, and of intestinal Niemann Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) and microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) expression was observed in HL versus N. The probiotic mix decreased plasma TC, TG, PL, oxidized LDL, 4-HNE, and glucose levels and increased paraoxonase-1 activity, decreased NPC1L1 and MTTP protein expression compared to HL. In HLP liver, a significant reduction of TC, TG, and fatty acids was observed. PL increased and 4-HNE levels decreased in the liver and myocardium of HLP versus HL"
  • Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus - Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4:1-8 - "diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) ... In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of probiotic fermented milk on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 3:1-7 - "PubMed, Cochrane library and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to March 2012 to identify eligible studies ... probiotic fermented milk, compared with placebo, produced a significant reduction of 3.10 mmHg (95 % CI - 4.64, - 1.56) in systolic BP and 1.09 mmHg (95 % CI - 2.11, - 0.06) in diastolic BP. Subgroup analyses suggested a slightly greater effect on systolic BP in hypertensive participants than in normotensive ones ( - 3.98 v. - 2.09 mmHg). Analysis of trials conducted in Japan showed a greater reduction than those conducted in European countries for both systolic BP ( - 6.12 v. - 2.08 mmHg) and diastolic BP ( - 3.45 v. - 0.52 mmHg)"
  • Effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic status of diabetic patients: A double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial - Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun 7 - "This randomized double-blinded cross-over controlled clinical trial was performed among 62 diabetic patients aged 35-70 y. After a 2-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 62) or control food (n = 62) for 6 weeks ... The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 107 CFU), 0.04 g inulin (HPX) as prebiotic with 0.38 g isomalt, 0.36 g sorbitol and 0.05 g stevia as sweetener per 1 g. Control food (the same substance without probiotic bacteria and prebiotic inulin) was packed in identical 9-gram packages. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods three times a day ... In conclusion, consumption of a synbiotic food for 6 weeks among diabetic patients had significant effects on serum insulin, hs-CRP, uric acid and plasma total GSH levels" - Note:  I not sure whether they are talking about probiotic supplements added to the food or something like yogurt.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com and my yogurt recipe at the top of my Yogurt Page.
  • Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2013 Apr 25:1-8 - "Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) ... A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas ... These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 108cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect"
  • Lactobacilli versus antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women - Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157(7):A5674 - "In postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 do not meet the noninferiority criteria in the prevention of UTIs when compared with CTX. However, unlike CTX, lactobacilli do not increase antibiotic resistance"
  • Attenuation of post-myocardial infarction depression in rats by n-3 fatty acids or probiotics starting after the onset of reperfusion - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 15:1-7 - "Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in depression-like behaviour and apoptosis in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). A PUFA n-3 diet or the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 probiotics, when given before the ischaemic period, reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines as well as apoptosis in the limbic system ... These results indicate that a high-PUFA n-3 diet or the administration of probiotics, starting after the onset of reperfusion, are beneficial to attenuate apoptosis in the limbic system and post-MI depression in the rat" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-9 - "College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI ... randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks ... The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34 % with probiotics v. placebo (P < 0.001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P = 0.429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0.2 d) compared to the placebo group (P = 0.002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL"
  • Immunoprotective effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 in elderly adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 5:1-10 - "Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240) has been shown to enhance the secretion of salivary secretory IgA in elderly adults ... 300 eligible elderly adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups, namely a placebo, low-dose or high-dose b240 group. Participants in the low-dose and high-dose b240 groups were given tablets containing 2 × 109 or 2 × 1010 cells, respectively, of heat-killed b240, while those in the placebo group were given tablets without b240. Each group consumed their respective tablets once daily for 20 weeks ... The accumulated incidence rate of the common cold was 47.3, 34.8 and 29.0 % for the placebo, low-dose b240 and high-dose b240 groups, respectively (P for trend = 0.012). Lower incidence rates were consistently observed throughout the experimental period in the b240 groups (log-rank test, P = 0.034). General health perception, as determined by the SF-36®, dose-dependently increased in the b240 groups (P for trend = 0.016). In conclusion, oral intake of b240 significantly reduced the incidence rate of the common cold in elderly adults, indicating that b240 might be useful in improving resistance against infection through mucosal immunity" - Note:  I calculate that as a 39% reduction in colds [(47.3 - 29)/47.3] = .39
  • Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Feb 22;11:29 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years ... Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria ... The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group"
  • Lactobacilli vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-blind, Noninferiority Trial in Postmenopausal Women - Arch Intern Med. 2012 May 14;172(9):704-12 - "Growing antibiotic resistance warrants studying nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Use of lactobacilli appears to be promising ... Between January 2005 and August 2007, we randomized 252 postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs taking part in a double-blind noninferiority trial to receive 12 months of prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 480 mg, once daily or oral capsules containing 109 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 twice daily ...The mean number of symptomatic UTIs in the year preceding randomization was 7.0 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 6.8 in the lactobacilli group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, after 12 months of prophylaxis, these numbers were 2.9 and 3.3, respectively. The between-treatment difference of 0.4 UTIs per year (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.5) was outside our noninferiority margin. At least 1 symptomatic UTI occurred in 69.3% and 79.1% of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lactobacilli participants, respectively; median times to the first UTI were 6 and 3 months, respectively. After 1 month of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin had increased from approximately 20% to 40% to approximately 80% to 95% in E coli from the feces and urine of asymptomatic women and among E coli causing a UTI. During the 3 months after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole discontinuation, resistance levels gradually decreased. Resistance did not increase during lactobacilli prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS In postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, L rhamnosus GR-1 and L reuteri RC-14 do not meet the noninferiority criteria in the prevention of UTIs when compared with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. However, unlike trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, lactobacilli do not increase antibiotic resistance" - See lactobacillus products at iHerb.
  • Preoperative Probiotics Decrease Postoperative Infectious Complications of Colorectal Cancer - Am J Med Sci. 2011 Dec 23 - "The preoperative oral bifid triple viable probiotics minimize the postoperative occurrence of infectious complications, with possible mechanisms attributed to the maintenance of the intestinal flora and restriction of bacterial translocation from the intestine. It was representative of the enhancement of systemic/localized immunity and concurrent attenuation of systemic stress response"
  • Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults - Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 9:1-9 - "Over the intervention period, subjects consuming yoghurts containing microencapsulated L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 attained significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of 8.92 % (P = 0.016), total cholesterol (TC) of 4.81 % (P = 0.031) and non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) of 6.01 % (P = 0.029) over placebo, and a significant absolute change in apoB-100 of - 0.19 mmol/l (P = 0.049). Serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-C were unchanged over the course of the study. Present results show that consumption of microencapsulated BSH-active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt is efficacious and safe for lowering LDL-C, TC, apoB-100 and non-HDL-C in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. The efficacy of microencapsulated BSH-active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurts appears to be superior to traditional probiotic therapy and akin to that of other cholesterol-lowering ingredients"
  • Comparative effects of six probiotic strains on immune function in vitro - Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 7:1-12 - "The present study compared the immunomodulatory properties of six probiotic strains of different species and two genera in a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model in vitro. Live cells of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei Shirota, L. rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum NCIMB 8826 and L. reuteri NCIMB 11951) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3 and B. bifidum MF 20/5) were individually incubated with PBMC from seven healthy subjects for 24 h. Probiotic strains increased the proportion of CD69+ on lymphocytes, T cells, T cell subsets and natural killer (NK) cells, and increased the proportion of CD25+, mainly on lymphocytes and NK cells. The effects on activation marker expression did not appear to be strain specific. NK cell activity was significantly increased by all six strains, without any significant difference between strains. Probiotic strains increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α to different extents, but had no effect on the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 or TNF-β. The cytokines that showed strain-specific modulation included IL-10, interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The Lactobacillus strains tended to promote T helper 1 cytokines, whereas bifidobacterial strains tended to produce a more anti-inflammatory profile. The results suggest that there was limited evidence of strain-specific effects of probiotics with respect to T cell and NK cell activation or NK cell activity, whereas production of some cytokines was differentially influenced by probiotic strains"
  • Lactobacillus gasseri suppresses Th17 pro-inflammatory response and attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 14:1-10 - "Our results showed that oral administration of a high dose of L. gasseri (4 × 106 CFU) decreased airway responsiveness to methacholine, attenuated the influx of inflammatory cells to the airways and reduced the levels of TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and IL-17A in BAL fluids of Der p-sensitised and -challenged mice. Moreover, L. gasseri decreased IL-17A production in transforming growth factor-α and IL-6 stimulated splenocytes and cell numbers of IL-17 producing alveolar macrophages in L. gasseri-treated mice as compared to non-treated, Der p-sensitised and -challenged mice. In conclusion, oral administration with L. gasseri can attenuate major characteristics of allergen-induced airway inflammation and IL-17 pro-inflammatory immune response in a mouse model of allergic asthma, which may have clinical implication in the preventive or therapeutic potential in allergic asthma"
  • Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 30:1-12 - "Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50.3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465.5 (sem 1290.4) v. 4950.9 (sem 1689.3) mm3, P < 0.001)"
  • Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-9 - "The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33.2 (sd 13.1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 109 colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0.01 for IgG; P < 0.001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ≥ 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0.001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0.001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0.017; L. casei 431®, P = 0.035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge"
  • Probiotics and prebiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical trials and systematic reviews - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Sep 1 - "Most systematic reviews indicate that probiotics have a beneficial impact on global IBS symptoms, abdominal pain and flatulence. However, recent trials indicate that different probiotics can improve, have no effect, or even worsen symptoms, confirming that benefits are likely to be strain and symptom-specific. There are no recent clinical trials of prebiotics in IBS, although previous studies indicate potential benefit at lower doses ... Clearly, some probiotics have considerable potential in the management of IBS; however, the benefits are likely to be strain-specific. Preliminary studies suggest low doses of prebiotics may improve symptoms of IBS, although further robust clinical trials are required"
  • Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study - Nutr J. 2011 Feb 23;10(1):19 - "Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) showed a significant increase in defecation frequency ... The defecation frequency per week significantly increased from 0.9 (0-2) at baseline to 4.9 (0-21) in week 4 (p< 0.01). The mean stool consistency score increased from 2.6 (2-4) at baseline to 3.5 (1-6) in week 4 (p = 0.03). The number of faecal incontinence episodes per week significantly decreased from 9.0 (0-35) at baseline to 1.5 (0-7) in week 4 (p <0.01). Abdominal pain episodes per week significantly decreased from 4.2 (0-7) at baseline to 1.9 (0-7) in week 4 (p = 0.01). No side effects occurred" - See Bifidobacterium breve products at iHerb.
  • Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota reduces incidence of hard or lumpy stools in healthy population - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Feb 15 - "Healthy subjects with Bristol Stool Form Scale (BS) score < 3.0 were randomized to fermented milk treatment for 3 weeks or non-intervention control. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects that produced hard or lumpy stools (HLS) ≥ 25% of bowel movements (H-HLS). Secondary endpoints included changes in BS score, constipation-related symptom scores and stool parameters. Efficacy was analyzed in 39 subjects. After 3 weeks of treatment the proportion of H-HLS subjects had significantly decreased from 73.7% to 36.8%, whereas in the control group the proportion had increased from 75.0% to 85.0% during the same period (P = 0.002). The BS score was significantly improved after the treatment compared with the control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, daily consumption of fermented milk containing LcS reduced the incidence of HLS" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense, HSO Probiotic Formula, 180 + 36 = 216 Caplets at iHerb which includes the Lactobacillus casei strain.
  • Synbiotics prevent asthma-like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis - Allergy. 2011 Feb;66(2):170-177 - "The prevalence of 'frequent wheezing' and 'wheezing and/or noisy breathing apart from colds' was significantly lower in the synbiotic than in the placebo group (13.9%vs 34.2%, absolute risk reduction (ARR) -20.3%, 95% CI -39.2% to -1.5%, and 2.8%vs 30.8%, ARR -28.0%, 95% CI -43.3% to -12.5%, respectively). Significantly less children in the synbiotic than in the placebo group had started to use asthma medication after baseline (5.6%vs 25.6%, ARR -20.1%, 95% CI -35.7% to -4.5%)" - See synbiotic products at iHerb.
  • Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation ( Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects - Br J Nutr. 2010 Oct 26:1-9 - "In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30 d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P < 0.05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P < 0.05; somatisation, P < 0.05; depression, P < 0.05; and anger-hostility, P < 0.05), the HADS (HADS global score, P < 0.05; and HADS-anxiety, P < 0.06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P < 0.05) and the UFC level (P < 0.05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers" - Note, in case you missed it, it's saying that it also reduced cortisol.
  • The colonic microflora and probiotic therapy in health and disease - Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 1 - "Reciprocal signalling between the immune system and the microbiota plays a pivotal role in linking alterations in gut microbiota with risk of metabolic disease in the host, notably insulin resistance, obesity, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Loss of ancestral indigenous organisms consequent upon a modern lifestyle may contribute to an increased frequency of various metabolic and immuno-allergic diseases. The potential to address this underpins the science of pharmabiotics"
  • Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits - Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104(S2):S1-S63 - "Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections - Eur J Nutr. 2010 Aug 28 - "The incidence of acquiring one or more common cold episode was reduced from 67% in the control group to 55% in the probiotic group (p < 0.05). Also, the number of days with common cold symptoms were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 8.6 days in the control group to 6.2 days, in the probiotic group, during the 12-week period. The total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group. The reduction in pharyngeal symptoms was significant (p < 0.05). In addition, the proliferation of B lymphocytes was significantly counteracted in the probiotic group (p < 0.05) in comparison with the control group"
  • Pilot study of probiotic dietary supplementation for promoting healthy kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease - Adv Ther. 2010 Aug 16 - "Oral ingestion of probiotics (90 billion colony forming units [CFUs]/day) was well tolerated and safe during the entire trial period at all sites. BUN levels decreased in 29 patients (63%, P<0.05), creatinine levels decreased in 20 patients (43%, no statistical significance), and uric acid levels decreased in 15 patients (33%, no statistical significance). Almost all subjects expressed a perceived substantial overall improvement in QOL (86%, P<0.05)"
  • The Use of Probiotics in Healthy Volunteers With Evacuation Disorders and Hard Stools: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study - J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Aug 6 - "Subjects treated with the mixed probiotic strains L. plantarum LP01 and B. breve BR03 or B. animalis subsp. lactis BS01 reported a significant improvement in the number of weekly bowel movements and in the main troubles associated with evacuations, particularly consistency of feces and ease of expulsion. Discomfort items such as abdominal bloating and anal itching, burning, or pain also registered a relevant improvement in the active groups receiving probiotics"
  • Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun;103(12):1792-9 - "Firstly, probiotic intervention reduced the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 13 % (diet/probiotics) v. 36 % (diet/placebo) and 34 % (control); P = 0.003. Secondly, the safety of this approach was attested by normal duration of pregnancies with no adverse events in mothers or children. No significant differences in prenatal or postnatal growth rates among the study groups were detected. Thirdly, distinctive effects of the two interventions were detected; probiotic intervention reduced the risk of GDM and dietary intervention diminished the risk of larger birth size in affected cases; P = 0.035 for birth weight and P = 0.028 for birth length. The results of the present study show that probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary counselling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic. In view of the fact that birth size is a risk marker for later obesity, the present results are of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable"
  • Clinical evidence of skin benefits of a dietary supplement containing probiotic and carotenoids on UV- induced damage - Br J Dermatol. 2010 Jun 9 - "Lactobacillus johnsonii (La1) ... dietary supplement (DS) combining La1 and nutritional doses of carotenoids ... A 10 week DS intake prevented the UV-DL induced decrease in Langerhans cell density and the increase in Factor XIIIa+ type I dermal dendrocytes while it reduced dermal inflammatory cells. Clinical and instrumental MED rose by 20% and 19% respectively, and skin colour was intensified, as shown by the increase in DeltaE parameter. The efficacy of DS was confirmed by dermatologists and subjects in real conditions of use. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation combining a specific probiotic (la1) and nutritional doses of carotenoids reduced early UV-induced skin damage caused by simulated or natural sun exposure in a large panel of subjects (n=139). Altogether, these results support the use of this nutritional supplement for a global approach in photoprotection, in combination with a sunscreen" - See probiotics at Amazon.comand Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;64(6):636-43 - "fermented milk (FM) ... In the active FM group, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas significantly (P<0.01) decreased from baseline by an average of 4.6% (mean (confidence interval): -5.8 (-10.0, -1.7) cm(2)) and 3.3% (-7.4 (-11.6, -3.1) cm(2)), respectively. Body weight and other measures also decreased significantly (P<0.001) as follows: body weight, 1.4% (-1.1 (-1.5, -0.7) kg); BMI, 1.5% (-0.4 (-0.5, -0.2) kg/m(2)); waist, 1.8% (-1.7 (-2.1, -1.4) cm); hip, 1.5% (-1.5 (-1.8, -1.1) cm). In the control group, by contrast, none of these parameters decreased significantly. High-molecular weight adiponectin in serum increased significantly (P<0.01) in the active and control groups by 12.7% (0.17 (0.07, 0.26) microg/ml) and 13.6% (0.23 (0.07, 0.38) microg/ml), respectively. CONCLUSION: The probiotic LG2055 showed lowering effects on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures, suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders"
  • Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 - Br J Nutr. 2010 May 21:1-9 - "90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group" - See Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker at Amazon.com.
  • The influence of a probiotic milk drink on the development of gingivitis: a pilot study - J Clin Periodontol. 2009 Oct;36(10):850-6 - "Interproximal PI and papillary bleeding were not different between the groups. In the test group, elastase activity and MMP-3 amount were significantly lower after the intake of the probiotic milk drink (p<0.001 and 0.016). There was a significant increase of MPO activity in the control group; both groups were different at the end of the study (p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest a beneficial effect of the probiotic milk drink on gingival inflammation"
  • Probiotic Effects on Cold and Influenza-Like Symptom Incidence and Duration in Children - PEDIATRICS Vol. 124 No. 2 August 2009, pp. e172-e179 - "Relative to the placebo group, single and combination probiotics reduced fever incidence by 53.0% (P = .0085) and 72.7% (P = .0009), coughing incidence by 41.4% (P = .027) and 62.1% (P = .005), and rhinorrhea incidence by 28.2% (P = .68) and 58.8% (P = .03), respectively. Fever, coughing, and rhinorrhea duration was decreased significantly, relative to placebo, by 32%"
  • The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (the PandA study) - Allergy. 2009 Apr 9 - "This particular combination of probiotic bacteria shows a preventive effect on the incidence of eczema in high-risk children, which seems to be sustained during the first 2 years of life. In addition to previous studies, the preventive effect appears to be established within the first 3 months of life"
  • Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits IL-6 synthesis and suppresses transsignaling by enhancing soluble gp130 production - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 16 - "Results from in vivo studies using a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model showed specific inhibition of IL-6 levels in the serum and joints of EGCG-treated rats by 28% and 40%, respectively, with concomitant amelioration of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. We also observed a marked decrease in membrane-bound gp130 protein expression in the joint homogenates of the EGCG-treated group. In contrast, quantitative RT-PCR showed that the gp130/IL-6Ralpha mRNA ratio increased by approximately 2-fold, suggesting a possible mechanism of sgp130 activation by EGCG. Gelatin zymography results showed EGCG inhibits IL-6/soluble IL-6R-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts and in joint homogenates, possibly via up-regulation of sgp130 synthesis. The results of these studies provide previously undescribed evidence of IL-6 synthesis and transsignaling inhibition by EGCG with a unique mechanism of sgp130 up-regulation, and thus hold promise as a potential therapeutic agent for RA" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis - Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 May 28 - "Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) ... Volunteers treated with LcS showed a significant reduction in levels of antigen-induced IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-gamma production compared with volunteers supplemented with placebo. Meanwhile, levels of specific IgG increased and IgE decreased in the probiotic group"
  • Efficacy of Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials - Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May 9 - "Pooling of eight trials for the outcome of clinical improvement yielded a significant relative risk of 1.22 ... Probiotics may improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and can be used as supplement to standard therapy"
  • Probiotic, as well as conventional yogurt, can enhance the stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines - J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007 Dec;20(6):590-598 - "Both conventional and probiotic yogurt enhanced the stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines"
  • Anti-ageing effect of a lactococcal strain: analysis using senescence-accelerated mice - Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 9;:1-9 - "Oral administration of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) to aged SAMP6 mice was associated with reduced bone density loss, a suppression of incidence of skin ulcers and reduced hair loss, compared with controls"
  • Major depressive disorder: probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy - Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):533-8 - "Stress, a significant factor in MDD [major depressive disorder], is known to alter GI microflora, lowering levels of lactobacilli and bifidobacterium. Research suggests that bacteria in the GI tract can communicate with the central nervous system, even in the absence of an immune response. Probiotics have the potential to lower systemic inflammatory cytokines, decrease oxidative stress, improve nutritional status, and correct SIBO. The effect of probiotics on systemic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress may ultimately lead to increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It is our contention that probiotics may be an adjuvant to standard care in MDD"
  • Probiotics and prebiotics in the elderly - Postgrad Med J. 2004 Aug;80(946):447-51 - "Probiotics have been shown clearly to boost immunity in the elderly"
  • Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):737-41 - "Regular intake of yogurt containing Bb12 and La5 effectively suppressed H. pylori infection in humans"
  • Dietary factors protecting women from urinary tract infection - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "Frequent consumption of fresh juices, especially berry juices, and fermented milk products containing probiotic bacteria was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence of UTI"
  • Ingested probiotics reduce nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and ß-hemolytic streptococci) - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "The results indicate that regular intake of probiotics can reduce PPB [potentially pathogenic bacteria] in the upper respiratory tract. The results also indicate a linkage of the lymphoid tissue between the gut and the upper respiratory tract"
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