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Anti-aging Research > ApoA-I.
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) & ApoA-1 Milano
News & Research:
cholesterol controls blood glucose - Science Daily, 10/30/13 -
"without ApoA-I, burning of calories is reduced in
skeletal muscle resulting in increased blood glucose and weaker muscle function.
The scientists then determined that HDL cholesterol and its protein ApoA-I both
enhance usage of glucose and calories inside muscle cells. Raising HDL and
ApoA-I levels in animal models resulted in protection against hyperglycemia and
age-related symptoms such as decline of muscle performance or fat mass gain.
Improved calorie burning in mitochondria (the "power plants" in each cell) was
further indicated by a marked reduction of circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor
21, a novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction ... Our results link for the
first time low HDL-cholesterol with impaired use of glucose and burning of
calories in type 2 diabetes" - [Abstract]
- See my niacin page
niacin at Amazon.com.
Combination of niacin extended-release and simvastatin results in a less
atherogenic lipid profile than atorvastatin monotherapy - Vasc Health Risk
Manag. 2010 Nov 24;6:1065-75 - "niacin extended-release
+ simvastatin (NER/S) ... NER/S treatment significantly improved apo A-I levels
and the apo B:A-I ratio, significantly lowered the number of atherogenic LDL
particles and VLDL and chylomicron particles, and increased the mean size of LDL
and VLDL particles, compared with atorvastatin" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
of tomato consumption on serum glucose, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I,
homocysteine and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients - Int J Food Sci
Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "32 type 2 diabetes patients received
200 g raw tomato daily for 8 weeks ... There were significant decreases in
systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also a significant increase in apoA-I
at the end of study compared with initial values"
ratio is better than LDL-C in detecting cardiovascular risk - Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb 18 - "An unfavourable
apoB/apoA-I (>/=0.9 for males and >/=0.8 for females) was present in 13.9% of
108 patients with LDL-C <100mg/dL: compared to subjects with lower apoB/apoA-I
(<0.9 for males and <0.8 for females), they had more elements of MetS and their
lipid profile strongly correlated with high CV risk. Out of 314 patients with
lower apoB/apoA-I, 40.12% had LDL-C >/=130mg/dL: these retained a more
favourable lipid profile than corresponding subjects with elevated apoB/apoA-I
ratio. Finally, we found a significant correlation between LDL-C and apoB/apoA-I
ratio (r=0.48, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In NGT with LDL-C <100mg/dL, a higher
apoB/apoA-I exhibited an atherogenic lipid profile, indicating that LDL-C alone
is insufficient to define CV risk. Independent from LDL-level, when apoB/apoA-I
is lower, the lipid profile is, in fact, less atherogenic. This study
demonstrates that apoB/apoA-I is at least complementary to LDL-C in identifying
the "effective" CV risk profile of asymptomatic NGT subjects"
apoB/apoA-I ratio is associated with increased progression rate of carotid
artery intima-media thickness in clinically healthy 58-year-old men: Experiences
from very long-term follow-up in the AIR study - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Dec 3
"The results indicate that apoB/apoA-I ratio is an
important risk factor for predicting atherosclerotic progression rate during
very long-term follow-up in clinically healthy middle-aged men"
Resveratrol attenuates the expression of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA in hamsters
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Dec 28 - "The
concentrations of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly
lower in the resveratrol-fed group than in the control group. The resveratrol
contained diet significantly decreased Apo B, Lp(a), and
cholesterol-ester-transport protein (CETP) concentrations, but increased Apo A-I
levels and the Apo A-I/Apo B ratio. The contents of cholesterol and triglyceride
in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the
control group. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that HMGR mRNA expression was
significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the control group" -
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Vitamin E dietary supplementation significantly affects multiple risk factors
for cardiovascular disease in baboons - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Sep;86(3):597-603 - "vitamin E caused 2 paradoxical
effects on HDL metabolism: higher apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) concentrations
and lower HDL sizes ... They also show 2 apparently paradoxical effects on HDL
metabolism: lower HDL(2), which is mediated by genes, and higher apo A-I, which
is not. These effects have contrasting associations with CVD risk and may help
account for the mixed results from clinical trials of dietary vitamin E"
ApoB/apoA-I ratio: an independent predictor of insulin resistance in US
non-diabetic subjects - Eur Heart J. 2007 Sep 1 -
"In the US population, apoB/apoAI ratio is significantly associated with insulin
resistance in non-diabetic subjects"
HDL Levels and
Particle Size: Does Size Matter at Both Ends of the Scale? - Medscape,
8/7/07 - "very large HDL particles would be
associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease ... These data
suggest that very large HDL particles no longer seem to confer protection
against cardiovascular disease, at least when levels of apoA-1 and apoB are
kept constant, but this lack of protection does not seem to hold true for
Low vitamin D levels may increase metabolic syndrome risk - Nutra USA,
7/17/07 - "The most relevant finding in our study
was the association of vitamin D concentrations with lipid levels. Our
results are in concordance with the concept that vitamin D appears to be
necessary to maintain adequate apolipoprotein A-I concentrations, the main
component of HDL cholesterol"
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
- The apo B/A-I Ratio
-- A Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than LDL, HDL, or Total
Cholesterol, Triglycerides, or Lipid Ratios - Medscape, 7/28/06 -
"the predictive power of the apo B/A-I ratio is superior to, and cannot be
improved by adding, any other lipid parameter or ratio"
Novel Dietary Supplement [Sytrinol™] Shows Dramatic Effects in Lowering
Cholesterol, LDL, and Triglycerides - Life Extension Magazine, 11/04 -
"those with the highest ratios of apolipoprotein B
to apolipoprotein A were at the greatest risk of dying from a heart attack"
Sytrinol at Amazon.com.
Scientists Tout New Cholesterol Test - Intelihealth, 9/1/04 -
"Globally, 50 percent of the risk of a heart attack
is predicted by the apo B/apo A1 ratio"
- Raising HDL in
Clinical Practice - Medscape, 6/10/04 -
"The HDL particle is
actually a protein complex consisting of several apolipoproteins, including
... apoA-I, which is abundant in all HDL particles"
Simvastatin Increases HDL-C And Apo A-I More Than Atorvastatin in Patients
With Hypercholesterolemia - Doctor's Guide, 11/10/03 -
appears to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and
apolipoprotein (apo) A-I significantly more than does
atorvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolaemia ... Liver toxicity
occurred in significantly fewer patients treated with simvastatin compared
- ‘Liquid Drano’ for the arteries
- MSNBC, 11/4/03 - Note: The article calls it "HDL" but I believe they are
referring to the synthetic version of ApoA-I. See the next article.
- Potential Heart
Disease Breakthrough - WebMD, 11/4/03 -
"It's called ApoA-I Milano ... a genetically
engineered version of this "good" HDL cholesterol protein has been tested in
a small human trial ... The findings exceed even the most optimistic
expectations ... In five weeks, patients treated with ApoAI Milano had about
a 4% decrease in plaque volume. That's 10 times greater reduction than ever
- Cholesterol Carriers May
Offer Predict Second Heart Attack More Accurately - Doctor's Guide,
"ApoA-1 and apo B carry cholesterol in the
bloodstream. Apo B is a cholesterol donor, while apoA-1 is a cholesterol
Effects of L-carnitine
supplementation on lipid profiles in patients with coronary artery disease -
Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Jun 17;15(1):107 - "LC
supplementation at a dose of 1000 mg/d showed significantly increased in HDL-C
and Apo-A1 levels and a slight decrease in TG levels but no other changes in
other lipids in CAD patients, and this lipid-lowering effect may be related to
its antioxidant ability" - See
L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
of apolipoprotein B and incidence of metabolic syndrome in Korean men: A
5-years' follow-up study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 12 -
"Incidence of MetS increased according to quintiles of
serum ApoB levels [quintile 1-5: 9.1%, 16.4%, 22.1%, 27.3%, 36.4%, respectively
(P for trend <0.001)]. Even after adjusting for various covariates including
non-HDL-cholesterol, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for MetS increased in proportion
to the quintiles of serum ApoB levels, compared to quintile 1 [quintile 2-5:
1.64 (1.43-1.89), 1.98 (1.71-2.31), 2.32 (1.96-2.75) and 2.92 (2.37-3.60),
respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. These associations were apparent still in
the clinically relevant subgroup analyses"
Effect of a
traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: A
randomized, controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 6 -
ApoA-I, and their ratio could predict
coronary heart disease (CHD) risk more accurately than conventional lipid
measurements. Our aim was to assess the effect of a traditional
Mediterranean diet (TMD) on
apolipoproteins ... Participants assigned to a low-fat diet (control) (n=177),
or TMDs (TMD+virgin olive oil (VOO), n=181 or TMD+nuts, n=193) received
nutritional education and either free VOO (ad libitum) or nuts (dose: 30g/day).
A 3-month evaluation was performed ... Both TMDs promoted beneficial changes on
classical cardiovascular risk factors. ApoA-I increased, and ApoB and
ApoB/ApoA-I ratio decreased after TMD+VOO, the changes promoting a lower
cardiometabolic risk. Changes in TMD+VOO versus low-fat diet were -2.9mg/dL (95%
CI, -5.6 to -0.08), 3.3mg/dL (95% CI, 0.84 to 5.8), and -0.03mg/dL (-0.05 to
-0.01) for ApoB, ApoA-I, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, respectively ... Individuals at
high-cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern rich in
virgin olive oil, reduced their Apo B and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and improved ApoA-I
concentrations" - The question is; is it the polyphenols or the omega-9
or both in the virgin olive oil responsible for the benefit? See
olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
levels of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL are associated with risk of prostate
cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 May 12
- "ApoA-I and HDL were inversely associated with PCa
risk (e.g., HR for HDL: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81-1.07), 0.88 (0.76-1.01), 0.81
(0.70-0.94), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first
quartile; with p for trend: 0.004; HR for apoA-I: 1.00 (0.88-1.13), 0.93
(0.82-1.05), 0.88 (0.77-0.99),), for second, third, and fourth quartiles
compared with the first quartile; with p for trend: 0.022). ApoB, LDL, and
non-HDL were not associated with PCa risk"
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