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Home > Anti-aging Research > HDL
High-density Lipoproteins (HDL)
Note: I see a lot of orders for no-flush niacin.
I assume the reason people are buying this is to raise HDL cholesterol. I
couldn't find any research that no-flush niacin works to increase HDL.
It's probably a waste of money for the no-flush. Just do a Medline search
hexaniacinate HDL or
no-flush niacin. Here are the the only studies I could find:
Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity
occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin
treatment - Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jul;187(1):116-22 -
"evaluation of no-flush niacin treatment ...
Twenty-two low HDL subjects with reduced FMD were randomized into two
groups, one given 1.5 g/day niacin and a placebo group. After 3-month
treatment, plasma lipids and chylomicron kinetics were not changed by
Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin
preparations for dyslipidemia - Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec
16;139(12):996-1002 - "Commonly used
over-the-counter niacin preparations (500-mg tablets or capsules) from
the 3 categories of immediate-release, sustained-release, and no-flush
were purchased at health food stores and pharmacies and from
Internet-based vitamin companies ... The average content of free
nicotinic acid was 520.4 mg for immediate-release niacin, 502.6 mg for
sustained-release niacin, and 0 for no-flush niacin ... No-flush
preparations of over-the-counter niacin contain no free nicotinic acid
and should not be used to treat dyslipidemia. Over-the-counter
sustained-release niacin contains free nicotinic acid, but some brands
are hepatotoxic. Immediate-release niacin contains free nicotinic acid
and is the least expensive form of over-the-counter niacin"
I’ve been taking three grams per day of the
immediate release niacin (Twinlab). It raised my HDL from 39 to
57. Then I switched from Actos to Avandia (both to prevent
diabetes) and my HDL went back down to 47. I’m switching back to Actos
when I run out of Avandia. I don’t experience any flushing from the IR
anymore. I think it took a couple months to get used to it plus I built
up to three grams gradually. The IR didn’t have any noticeable effect on
my liver enzymes. My ALT is 35. My doctor thinks that’s great. Normal
goes up to 60 but I read that you want it below 30 but the 35 was about
what it was before the niacin. My father died of liver cancer so I keep
an eye on my liver enzymes but my father drank like a fish plus he was
87 when he died. See:
Elevated ALT Levels Predict Risk of Death From Liver Cancer -
Medscape, 11/2/06 - "Upper limits of normal
range from 30 IU/L to 60 IU/L, depending on the laboratory. "We want to
reset it southward of 30 IU/L," ... ALT levels are a reflection of the
general vascular condition ... If the level is above 30, then that
person probably has a problem — fatty liver or some vascular disease,
including occlusive coronary artery disease"
http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?tk=25&dpg=34 shows that with
extended release niacin, HDL peaks out at 2,500 mg.
shows immediate release crystalline niacin compared to Niaspan. There
isn't much gain in HDL with the immediate release crystalline niacin after 1,000
mg per day. After seeing that, I'll probably cut down from 3,000 mg but
from the slide it appears that there is a significant advantage to lowering
triglycerides by going to 3,000 mg plus there is a linear decrease in LDL-C by
going to 3,000 mg immediate release crystalline niacin. This graph also
shows that immediate release crystalline niacin is significantly better at
raising HDL and lowering triglycerides compared to Niaspan. Also see the
According to HDL-C Levels.
I’ve never seen any studies on Niaspan and liver
damage but it would seem like it would be similar to the slow release
niacin. The only study I’ve seen on that is:
A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs
immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients - JAMA. 1994
Mar 2;271(9):672-7 -
"None of the patients taking IR niacin developed
hepatotoxic effects, while 12 (52%) of the 23 patients taking SR niacin did"
Be sure to see a doctor to have your liver enzymes checked before and
after taking any niacin supplement. See the bottom of
http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/ for some great slide shows on
January 2007 Harvard Men's Health Newsletter has a good article on
HDL cholesterol but it is a paid subscription. See
niacin at Amazon.com
niacin at Amazon.com.
Effects of L-carnitine
supplementation on lipid profiles in patients with coronary artery disease -
Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Jun 17;15(1):107 - "LC
supplementation at a dose of 1000 mg/d showed significantly increased in HDL-C
and Apo-A1 levels and a slight decrease in TG levels but no other changes in
other lipids in CAD patients, and this lipid-lowering effect may be related to
its antioxidant ability" - See
L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
rich olive oils improve lipoprotein particle atherogenic ratios and subclasses
profile: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016
Mar 15 - "Polyphenols from olive oil and thyme modified
the lipoprotein subclasses profile and decreased the LDL-P/total HDL particle
(HDL-P), small HDL/large HDL, and HDL-cholesterol/HDL-P ratios, and decreased
the lipoprotein insulin resistance index (LP-IR)" - See
olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma
lipid concentrations - Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 25 -
"This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of supplementation with
Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C,
triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C" - See
Spirulina at Amazon.com.
Higher-Protein Diets Are Associated with Higher HDL Cholesterol and Lower BMI
and Waist Circumference in US Adults - J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):605-14 -
"Americans of all body weights typically consume protein
in excess of the RDA. Higher-protein diets are associated with lower BMI and
waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol compared to protein intakes at
RDA levels. Our data suggest that Americans who consume dietary protein between
1.0 and 1.5 g/kg BW potentially have a lower risk of developing cardiometabolic
Spirulina platensis supplementation on lipid profile in HIV-infected
antiretroviral naive patients in Yaounde - Cameroon: a randomized trial study
- Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Dec 13;13(1):191 - "Patients were randomized and
received either Spirulina supplementation combined with local diet (n = 82) or
local diet only (n = 87) ... there is a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol
and a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and
triglycerides in the group of patients who consumed Spirulina platensis"
spirulina at Amazon.com.
Administration of high dose eicosapentaenoic acid enhances anti-inflammatory
properties of high-density lipoprotein in Japanese patients with
dyslipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Oct 18 -
"Oral administration of EPA regenerated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory
functions of HDL, and promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Therefore, EPA may transform "dysfunctional HDL" to "functional", in
patients with coronary risk factors" - See
fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
- Effects of Dietary
Components on HDL Measures - Medscape, 11/26/14 -
"Dietary folate intake was positively associated
with HDL-C (p = 0.007), HDL-2 (p = 0.0011), HDL-3 (p = 0.0022), and apoA1 (p
= 0.001). Alcohol intake and myristic acid (14:0), a saturated fat, were
each significantly associated with increased levels of all HDL-related
measures studied. Dietary carbohydrate and iron intake were significantly
associated with decreased levels of all HDL-related measures. Magnesium
intake was positively associated with HDL-C, HDL-2, and HDL-3 levels, but
not apoA1 levels, while vitamin C was only associated with apoA1 levels.
Dietary fiber and protein intake were both associated with HDL-3 levels
Lipid-Lowering Effects of Curcumin in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Phytother Res. 2014
Aug 6 - "Sixty-five patients were randomized into
two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice
daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks.
At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from
40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p < 0.05), and the level of low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) was significantly reduced (120.55 ± 36.81 to
106.51 ± 25.02 mg/dL, p < 0.05). The triglyceride-lowering effect, a
reduction of 65 mg/dL, was also found in this study" - See
curcumin products at Amazon.com.
Vitamin D Insufficiency and Abnormal Hemoglobin A1c in Black and White Older
Persons - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Aug 11 -
"2,193 persons of age 70-79 years at Year 1 ...
vitamin D insufficiency was associated with an increased likelihood of
having abnormal A1c (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.03-2.37)" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Vitamin D deficiency among the elderly: insights from Qatar - Curr Med
Res Opin. 2014 Mar 13 - "A high prevalence of VitD
deficiency (72%) was observed among the elderly in Qatar. Lower VitD was
associated with higher HbA1c and lower HDL-C levels" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Consumption Alters HDL-Particle Profile - Medscape, 3/7/14 -
"Although total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol levels
did not change, for those who consumed this healthy diet rich in
polyunsaturated fatty acids, the intake of fish was strongly correlated with
an increased concentration of large HDL particles, including an increase in
the average diameter of HDL particles and an increase in the concentrations
of large HDL lipid components ... The changes that we saw in large HDL
particles could be related to those parameters that are functionally related
to reverse cholesterol transport ... Thus, our findings could partly explain
the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis"
fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
- A Low-Fat,
Plant-Based Lifestyle and Serum HDL Levels - Medscape, 12/4/13 -
"HDL levels decreased by 8.7% (p<0.001) despite
significant reductions (p<0.001) in BMI (-3.2%), systolic BP (-5.2%),
diastolic BP (-5.2%), triglycerides (TG; -7.7%), FPG (-6.3%), LDL (-13.0%),
total cholesterol (TC, -11.1%), TC: HDL ratio (-3.2%), and LDL: HDL ratio
(-5.3%). While 323 participants classified as having MetS at program entry
no longer had this status after the 30 days, 112 participants acquired the
MetS classification as a result of reduction in their HDL levels"
Anthocyanin supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity
and enhances cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with
hypercholesterolemia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 27 -
"Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with
high-density lipoprotein (HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and
cardioprotective properties ... A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects
were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of each
group) for 24 wk in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ...
Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and
decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.018
and P<0.001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the
activity of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P<0.001)" - See
anthocyanin at Amazon.com.
- Anthocyanin -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Anthocyanins ...
are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue
depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called
flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless
and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent
sensation ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as
blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black
raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant
peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet
petals" - See
Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain
polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial - Int J Food
Sci Nutr. 2013 Nov 14 - "Thirty-six children (8-13
years) were recruited. After an 8-week stabilization period on the Step I diet,
they were randomized to additionally receive for a 16-week period one capsule
(500 mg) daily of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or a DHA plus
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) mixture (45.6% DHA; 41.6% EPA) or wheat germ oil
(control). An effect size (as percentage change from baseline) of +8%, -12% and
-16% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol/HDL-C
ratio and triglycerides was observed in children supplemented with DHA, compared
to +2%, -8% and -12%, respectively, in children supplemented with DHA plus EPA"
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Here it is in table form which is easier to see:
||DHA + EPA
of human postprandial lipemia by changing ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated
(P/S) fatty acid content of blended dietary fats: a cross-over design with
repeated measures - Nutr J. 2013 Aug 16;12(1):122 -
"This human postprandial study evaluated 3 edible fat blends with differing
polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratios (POL = 0.27, AHA = 1.00,
PCAN = 1.32) ... Varying P/S ratios of test meals significantly altered prandial
high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P < 0.001) which
increased with decreasing P/S ratio (POL > AHA > PCAN)"
the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120
postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly
assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1
year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin,
and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in
placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to
56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from
108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3
to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in
genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse
effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
olive oil consumption reduces the age-related decrease in HDL and paraoxonase 1
anti-inflammatory activities - Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 19:1-13 -
"EVOO consumption increased the anti-inflammatory effect
of HDL and reduced the age-related decrease in anti-atherogenic activity"
olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in
elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Feb
22;11:29 - "A randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo
group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years ... Over a total test
period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of
200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus,
10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other
volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did
not contain any symbiotic bacteria ... The results of the symbiotic group showed
a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a
significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction
(P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the
effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol
in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized,
placebo-controlled trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun 29 -
"The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of
artichoke leaf extract (ALE) supplementation (250 mg, 2 b.i.d.) on the lipid
pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was
performed on 92 overweight subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia for
8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were randomized to supplementation (age: 54.2 +/-
6.6 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.8 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2), male/female: 20/26) and
46 subjects to placebo (age: 53.8 +/- 9.0 years, BMI: 24.8 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2),
male/female: 21/25). Verum supplementation was associated with a significant
increase in mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and in
mean change in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.004). A significantly decreased
difference was also found for the mean change in total cholesterol (p = 0.033),
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001), total cholesterol/HDL
ratio (p < 0.001) and LDL/HDL ratio (p < 0.001), when verum and placebo
treatment were compared. These results indicate that ALE could play a relevant
role in the management of mild hypercholesterolaemia, favouring in particular
the increase in HDL-C, besides decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol"
- See artichoke products
Pomegranate Juice Lowers
Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Medscape, 11/12/11 -
"HDL rose significantly (P = .005) in the juice group" - See
pomegranate at Amazon.com.
soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized
controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 28 -
"Previous clinical trials have documented that soy protein reduces low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
compared with milk protein ... Compared with carbohydrate, soy protein
supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% confidence
interval (CI)) in total cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of
-3.97 mg/dl (-7.63 to -0.31, P=0.03) and -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01, P=0.03),
respectively. Compared with milk protein, soy protein supplementation was
significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL and total/HDL
cholesterol ratio of 1.54 mg/dl (0.63 to 2.44, P=0.0009) and -0.14 (-0.22 to
-0.05, P=0.001), respectively. Compared with carbohydrate, milk protein
supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL
of -1.13 mg/dl (-2.05 to -0.22, P=0.02). Conclusions: This randomized controlled
trial indicates that soy protein, but not milk protein, supplementation improves
the lipid profile among healthy individuals"
Diet on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011
Sep 8 - "Multiple dietary factors have been shown to
increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and HDL-C
has been inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
Replacement of dietary carbohydrate with polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and
saturated fat has been associated with progressively greater increases in HDL-C
(7-12%) in addition to other lipid changes. Added sugars, but not high glycemic
carbohydrates, have been associated with decreased HDL-C. Alcohol consumption
has been associated with increased HDL-C (9.2%) independent of changes in other
measured lipids. Modest effects on HDL-C (~4-5%) among other lipid and non-lipid
CHD risk factors have also been observed with weight loss by dieting, omega-3
fatty acids, and a Mediterranean diet pattern. The CHD benefit of increasing
HDL-C is unclear given the inconsistent evidence from HDL-raising pharmacologic
trials. Furthermore, pleiotropic effects of diet preclude attribution of CHD
benefit specifically to HDL-C"
Vitamin E tocotrienols show cholesterol benefits for healthy adults: Study -
Nutra USA, 6/29/11 - "Daily supplements of a palm
oil-based tocotrienol-rich product increased the ratio of HDL cholesterol to
total cholesterol – reported to be the most specific lipid risk factor for
cardiovascular disease (CVD) – by 14 percent in people over 50, compared to a
decrease of about 5 percent in the placebo group ... HDL cholesterol increases
of the magnitude observed in this study have been associated with a 22.5 percent
reduced risk of cardiovascular events" - [Abstract]
Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes
Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons. A
population-based study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 May 20 -
"Among the participants, the prevalence of the metabolic
syndrome was 37.0%. The mean 25OHD level was 53.3 nmol/l. 47.8% had 25OHD levels
below 50 nmol/l. There was a significantly increased risk for the metabolic
syndrome in the subjects with serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l, compared to
subjects with levels over 50 nmol/l [odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95% confidence
interval (CI) 1.23-1.94]. After adjustment for confounders, age, sex, season,
years of education, alcohol use, total activity, smoking and PTH the OR was 1.29
(95% CI 1.00-1.68). The association between vitamin D deficiency and the
metabolic syndrome was mainly determined by the components low HDL and (high)
waist circumference" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among
individuals with low vitamin D concentrations - Menopause. 2011 May 17 -
"Plasma vitamin D3 concentration was positively
associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.003). Monkeys
in the high vitamin D3 group had a significantly greater plasma HDL-C
concentration (57.9 mg/dL) than did those in the low vitamin D3 group (47.1
mg/dL; P = 0.001). Although the difference was not significant (P = 0.120), the
monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a decreased total plasma
cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio compared with those in the low vitamin D3 group (5.4
and 6.2, respectively), potentially putting them at lower risk of
atherosclerosis development" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
results in reduced monocyte adhesion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec 25 - "Patients with type 2
diabetes have increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs and
monocyte adhesion mediate essential processes in atherogenesis ... Niacin 1500mg
daily raised HDL-cholesterol from 0.8mmol/l (95% CI: 0.7-0.9) to 0.9mmol/l (95%
CI: 0.8-1.1), p=0.10, and significantly reduced PECAM-1 by 24.9% (95% CI:
10.9-39.0; p<0.05), increased adiponectin by 30.5% (95% CI: 14.1-47.0; p<0.05),
with monocyte adhesion reduced by 9.2% (95%CI: 0.7-17.7; p<0.05) in endothelial
cells treated in basal conditions, and 7.8% (95% CI: 3.1-12.5; p<0.05) after
TNF-α stimulation ... Monocytes isolated from patients on niacin had reduced
adhesion to endothelial cells. Our findings suggest niacin has broad range of
effects apart from lipid-modification, and these could be important in
cardiovascular risk reduction" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects
and improves lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in normal and
hypercholesterolemic subjects - Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;30(10):689-94 -
"normolipidemic (NC) and hypercholesterolemic (HCH)
subjects ... consumed 750 mL/day OJ concentrate (1:6 OJ/water) for 60 days ...
Orange juice consumption decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (160 +/-
17 to 141 +/- 26 mg/dL, P < .01) in the HCH group but not in the NC group.
HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides remained unchanged in both groups.
Free-cholesterol transfer to HDL increased (HCH: 4.4 +/- 2 to 5.6 +/- 1%, NC:
3.2 +/- 2 to 6.2 +/- 1%, P< .05) whereas triglyceride (HCH 4.9 +/- 1 to 3.1 +/-
1%, NC 4.4 +/- 1 to 3.4 +/- 1%, P< .05) and phospholipid (HCH 21.6 +/- 2 to 18.6
+/- 3%, NC 20.2 +/- 2 to 18.4 +/- 2%, P < .05) transfers decreased in both
groups. Cholesteryl-ester transfer decreased only in HCH (3.6 +/- 1 to 3.1 +/-
1%, P < .05), but not in NC"
- Note: 750 ml is .79 quarts. Seem like it might be a problem with weight
polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients
- Diabet Med. 2010 Nov;27(11):1318-21 - "Subjects were
randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8
weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period ... HDL cholesterol
increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.26
+/- 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio
(4.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the
low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily
chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from
baseline" - The
Lindt - Excellence 90% Cocoa Bar are 3.5 ounces or 99 grams or about 90
grams of chocolate. So 45 grams would be half a bar per day.
myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome: a
perspective, randomized, placebo-controlled study - Menopause. 2010 Aug 31 -
"Myo-inositol plus diet improved systolic and diastolic
blood pressure, HOMA index, cholesterol, and triglyceride serum levels with
highly significant differences, compared with the groups treated only with diet
and placebo. In the group treated with myo-inositol, a decrease in diastolic
blood pressure (-11%), HOMA index (-75%), and serum triglycerides (-20%) and an
improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22%) were shown ...
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with myo-inositol may be considered a reliable
option in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women" -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol which claim myo-inositol and inositol
are the same. See
inositol products at iHerb.
Astaxanthin’s heart benefits get human data support - Nutra USA, 8/9/10 -
"Daily supplements of the carotenoid astaxanthin may
improve HDL ‘good’ cholesterol levels in people with mildly abnormal blood lipid
levels ... participants receiving the two highest doses experienced significant
reductions in their triglyceride levels, of 25 and 24 percent, respectively,
compared to baseline. Furthermore, people receiving 6 or 12 mg per day
experienced significant increases in their HDL-cholesterol levels of 10 and 15
percent, respectively ... Additionally, adiponectin levels increased in the two
highest dose groups, with increases over 20 percent in the 12 mg per day group,
and between 15 and 20 percent in the 18 percent group" - See
Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor
astaxanthin products at iHerb.
Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and
adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2010
Apr;209(2):520-3 - "Multiple comparison tests showed
that 12 and 18 mg/day doses significantly reduced triglyceride, and 6 and 12 mg
doses significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. Serum adiponectin was increased
by astaxanthin (12 and 18 mg/day), and changes of adiponectin correlated
positively with HDL-cholesterol changes independent of age and BMI" - See
Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor
astaxanthin products at iHerb.
HDL Cholesterol and Cancer - Medscape, 6/15/10 -
"even after adjustment for multiple variables, there was a 36% lower risk of
cancer for every 10-mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Endothelial-Vasoprotective Effects of High-Density Lipoprotein Are Impaired
in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but Are Improved After
Extended-Release Niacin Therapy - Circulation. 2009 Dec 21 -
"Patients with diabetes were randomized to a 3-month
therapy with ER niacin (1500 mg/d) or placebo ... HDL from healthy subjects
stimulated endothelial nitric oxide production, reduced endothelial oxidant
stress, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and early
endothelial progenitor cell-mediated endothelial repair. In contrast, these
beneficial endothelial effects of HDL were not observed in HDL from diabetic
patients, which suggests markedly impaired endothelial-protective properties
of HDL. ER niacin therapy improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate
endothelial nitric oxide, to reduce superoxide production, and to promote
endothelial progenitor cell-mediated endothelial repair. Further
measurements suggested increased lipid oxidation of HDL in diabetic
patients, and a reduction after ER niacin therapy ... HDL from patients with
type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome has substantially impaired
endothelial-protective effects compared with HDL from healthy subjects. ER
niacin therapy not only increases HDL plasma levels but markedly improves
endothelial-protective functions of HDL in these patients, which is
potentially more important" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Niacin Tops Zetia in Cutting Artery Plaque - WebMD, 11/16/09 -
"The question is whether ezetimibe works at all ...
Niacin has been around for 50 years. It's a well-understood drug, and in
this trial it was clearly superior ... Ultrasound images of neck arteries
showed that Niaspan reduced artery plaque by about 2%. Zetia did not slow
plaque buildup, although it did lower cholesterol" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
ARBITER 6-HALTS: HDL Raising With Niacin Superior to Ezetimibe -
Medscape, 11/16/09 - "Adding extended-release niacin
(Niaspan, Abbott) to statin therapy results in a significant regression of
atherosclerosis as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), whereas
the addition of ezetimibe (Zetia, Merck/Schering-Plough) to statin therapy
did not, according to an eagerly anticipated study" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Raising 'Good' Cholesterol Levels May Benefit Clogged Arteries - Science
Daily, 11/6/09 - "Using MRI scans, we have shown a
reduction in the size of artery walls in patients after a year of treatment
with nicotinic acid ... Nicotinic acid, sometimes known as niacin, is one of
the oldest drugs used for atherosclerosis and only fell out of favour as
statins came to prominence. It is known to raise levels of good cholesterol
in the blood" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Low HDL Levels as the Most Common Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factor in Heart
Failure - Int Heart J. 2009 Sep;50(5):571-80 -
"The most prevalent parameters were low HDL-C (69%) and hypertension (69%)
in all participants" - Note: The best way to raise HDL is with
niacin. The no flush form doesn't work and the slow release may cause liver
damage. People complain about the flush but I've been taking it for years
and the longer you take it the less flush. After a while, there is no flush
at all but be sure to take it with food.
http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?tk=25&dpg=34 shows that
with extended release niacin, HDL peaks out at 2,500 mg.
shows immediate release crystalline niacin compared to Niaspan. The numbers
are basically the same. I don't see any point in the prescription other
than that it might have less flushing when you first start taking it. See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol
concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer
protein in dyslipidemic subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 -
"Anthocyanin consumption increased HDL-cholesterol
concentrations (13.7% and 2.8% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups,
respectively; P < 0.001) and decreased LDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.6%
and -0.6% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001).
The cellular cholesterol efflux to serum increased more in the anthocyanin
group than in the placebo group (20.0% and 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.001).
Anthocyanin supplementation decreased the mass and activity of plasma
cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (10.4% and 6.3% in the anthocyanin
group and -3.5% and 1.1% in the placebo group, respectively; P < 0.001)"
blueberry extract at Amazon.com
bilberry at Amazon.com.
Biology Of Flushing Could Renew Niacin As Cholesterol Drug - Science
Daily, 4/6/09 - "Niacin, also known as nicotinic
acid or vitamin B3, has long been regarded as one of the most effective
weapons in managing cholesterol. It can lower levels of triglycerides, fatty
acids and to a lesser extent, the "bad" kind of cholesterol (LDL) while at
the same time powerfully increasing the "good" kind (HDL). But there's a
catch – a big one. Patients don't like to take niacin because in most of
them, it causes embarrassing, uncontrollable intense flushing, a rush of
blood to the face and other skin surfaces accompanied by a prickling
sensation ... One particular protein in that group, beta-arrestin1, was
found to trigger the chemical reaction that led to flushing ...
beta-arrestin1 plays no role whatsoever in niacin's ability to lower
cholesterol and fatty acids ... the discovery opens the door to the
possibility of developing a "biased ligand," a drug that would trigger
GP109A, but not the beta-arrestins"
fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young
iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 -
"Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin
sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol
significantly increased with the oily fish diet"
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes
- Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7 - "Changes in
lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic
control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and
urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo
treatment for 12 weeks ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/-
0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that
in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total
cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio
also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the
cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those
in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively) ... Cranberry
supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles,
including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total :
HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in
Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents" - See
cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
Long-term effects of resveratrol supplementation on suppression of
atherogenic lesion formation and cholesterol synthesis in apo E-deficient
mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 5 -
"The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol
(LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented
groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The
plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of
HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the
control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in
the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity
was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the
control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of
atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-)
mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and
vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was
diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results
provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic
properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet"
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
HDL Cholesterol Linked to Lower Extremity Performance in Elderly -
Medscape, 5/2/08 - "HDL-C levels were significantly
associated with all indices of function ... participants with the highest
HDL-C levels having the best physical performance"
Combination Niacin-Laropiprant Plus Simvastatin Reduces Cholesterol by
Almost 50% - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/07 - "When
patients with dyslipidemia added simvastatin to their experimental
combination of extended-release niacin and laropiprant -- a novel
anti-flushing agent -- they reported reductions in low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) of as much as 48% from baseline ... high density
liopoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by 28% and triglycerides
decreased by 33%"
The effects of extended-release niacin on carotid intimal media thickness,
endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic
syndrome - Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;61(11):1942-8 - "After
52 weeks of treatment, there was a change of carotid IMT of +0.009 +/- 0.003
mm in the placebo group and -0.005 +/- 0.002 mm in the niacin group (p =
0.021 between groups). Endothelial function improved by 22% in the group
treated with niacin (p < 0.001), whereas no significant changes were seen in
the placebo group. High sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased by 20% in
the group treated with niacin for 52 weeks (p = 0.013). Niacin increased
HDL-C (p < 0.001) and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and
triglycerides (p < 0.001) significantly, and there were no adverse effects
on fasting glucose levels after 52 weeks of treatment" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
niacin at Amazon.com.
Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with
high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk
of diabetes in the Whitehall II study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):988-994 - "At baseline, dietary GI and GL
were associated inversely with HDL cholesterol, and GI was associated
directly with triacylglycerols. Dietary GI and GL were related inversely to
fasting glucose and directly to 2-h postload glucose ... The proposed
protective effect of low-dietary GI and GL diets on diabetes risk could not
be confirmed in this study"
Vitamin E dietary supplementation significantly affects multiple risk
factors for cardiovascular disease in baboons - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Sep;86(3):597-603 - "vitamin E caused 2 paradoxical
effects on HDL metabolism: higher apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I)
concentrations and lower HDL sizes ... They also show 2 apparently
paradoxical effects on HDL metabolism: lower HDL(2), which is mediated by
genes, and higher apo A-I, which is not. These effects have contrasting
associations with CVD risk and may help account for the mixed results from
clinical trials of dietary vitamin E"
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) -- The Old Drug Is Making a Comeback With A New Act
- Medscape, 6/11/07 - "Niacin (nicotinic acid) is
well known as the most effective drug currently available for raising levels
of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raising it by 25% to 35% at
the highest doses"
Exercise May Boost 'Good' Cholesterol - WebMD, 5/29/07 -
"Participants who got at least two hours per week of
aerobic exercise had a modest rise in their HDL cholesterol level ... the
gains in HDL cholesterol levels translate to a 5% drop in men's heart
disease risk and more than a 7% drop in women's heart disease risk"
Continuous intake of polyphenolic compounds containing cocoa powder reduces
LDL oxidative susceptibility and has beneficial effects on plasma
HDL-cholesterol concentrations in humans - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Mar;85(3):709-17 - "A significantly greater increase
in plasma HDL cholesterol (24%) was observed in the cocoa group than in the
control group (5%)"
An Old Cholesterol Remedy Is New Again - New York Times, 1/23/07 -
"In its therapeutic form, nicotinic acid, niacin can
increase HDL as much as 35 percent when taken in high doses, usually about
2,000 milligrams per day. It also lowers LDL, though not as sharply as
statins do, and it has been shown to reduce serum levels of artery-clogging
triglycerides as much as 50 percent ... There’s a great unfilled need for
something that raises HDL ... Right now, in the wake of the failure of
torcetrapib, niacin is really it. Nothing else available is that effective"
niacin at Amazon.com.
What is the dietary treatment for low HDL cholesterol? - J Fam Pract.
2006 Dec;55(12):1076-8 - "Low-carbohydrate diets
raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by approximately
10%; soy protein with isoflavones raises HDL by 3% ... Dietary Approaches to
Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and multivitamin supplementation raise HDL 21%
- Research shows benefits
of cranberries -MSNBC, 11/20/06 -
"Drinking cranberry juice daily may increase levels
of HDL, or good cholesterol and reduce levels of LDL, or bad cholesterol"
cranberry supplements at Amazon.com.
Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma
HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men - Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):357-64
- "daily CJC consumption is associated with an
increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in abdominally obese men.
We hypothesise that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be
responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of
flavonoid-rich foods can be cardioprotective"
Comparative Effects on Lipid Levels of Niaspan and Statins - Medscape,
7/28/06 - "Niacin is the best HDL-cholesterol
raising drug right now"
About 5% of Long-term Niacin Users Evolve Into HDL Hyperresponders -
Doctor's Guide, 3/14/06 - "about 5% of patients on
long-term therapy become hyperresponders, increasing their HDL levels by 50%
or more ... Overall, these patients lost 4% of body weight while on niacin
Fiber Supplements May Lower Cardiovascular Risk In Type 2 Diabetics -
Science Daily, 4/30/05 - "Study participants
received 10g to 15g of BiosLife 2, an over-the-counter fiber supplement ...
total cholesterol had dropped from 215 mg/dL to 184 mg/dL, a 14.4 percent
decrease. Triglycerides also improved, dropping from 299 mg/dL to 257 mg/dL,
a 14 percent decrease ... LDL decreased from 129 mg/dL to 92 mg/dL -- a 28.7
percent improvement. HDL rose from 43 mg/dL to 55 mg/dL -- a 21.8 percent
The Effects of Niacin on Lipoprotein Subclass Distribution - Medscape,
"the combination of
niacin and a statin may be among the best
available treatment options for many patients with complex forms of
dyslipidemia ... Niacin effectively modifies all major lipids and
lipoproteins with respect to both their quantity and quality. It is the most
effective agent currently available for raising low levels of HDL
Grape Juice Raises 'Good' Cholesterol Levels - WebMD, 11/19/04 -
"Grape juice drinkers had HDL levels of 50 mg/dL,
compared with almost 45 mg/dL in the placebo group"
- Raising HDL in
Clinical Practice - Medscape, 6/10/04 -
"Niacin increases HDL-C to the greatest extent of
all available monotherapies: by 15% to 35% at higher daily doses on the
order of 3 grams ... Capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids (1.48 g of
docosahexaenoic acid + 1.88 g of eicosapentaenoic acid) have been formulated
and are commercially available in some parts of the world (as Omacor). In a
recent small study in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia,
treatment with this formulation for 8 weeks increased HDL-C by 8%"
Dietary supplementation with olive oil leads to improved lipoprotein
spectrum and lower n-6 PUFAs in elderly subjects - Med Sci Monit. 2004
Mar 23;10(4):PI49-PI54 - "The supplement was taken
for 6 weeks and involved daily consumption of 2 tablespoons ... There was
also a significant decline in the total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol
ratios" - I alternate between
Smart Balance Omega-Plus (made with omega-3 fish oil) and
Fleischmann's Olive Oil spread.
HDL: The "Quit" Cholesterol - Physician's Weekly, 2/23/04 -
"for every 1 mg/dL increase in HDL, risk for a CAD
event is reduced by 2% in men and 3% in women ... It hasn't gotten the same
attention as LDL partly because there haven't been good medicines for
raising it ... Niacin is, according to Dr. Rader, “…the best HDL-raising
agent currently available.”"
Scientists Eye Pills To Unclog Arteries - Intelihealth, 2/2/04 -
"HDL scoops up cholesterol from the arteries and
carries it back to the liver for disposal ... men's average HDL is about 45
and women's is 55. HDL under 40 is an especially bad sign, while anything
over 60 is considered good. Those with HDL over 75 may even be blessed with
what's called the "longevity syndrome." ... many specialists recommend more
use of the HDL booster already on the market, the vitamin niacin"
4 Popular Diets Heart Healthy - WebMD, 11/10/03 -
"the heart disease risk score is based on the ratio
between LDL cholesterol and HDL "good" cholesterol ... The
Atkins and Zone
diets increased HDL by 15%, while Weight Watchers posted an 18.5% gain. But
the Ornish diet increased HDL by just 2.2%"
Vitamin C Inhibits Lipid Oxidation in Human HDL - J Nutr. 2003
"In the absence of vitamin C, lipid oxidation in HDL
began immediately and proceeded rapidly ... Vitamin C (50-200 micro mol/L)
retarded initiation of lipid oxidation for at least 4 h under the same
conditions ... Our results demonstrate that vitamin C inhibits lipid
oxidation in HDL and preserves the antioxidant activity associated with this
Vitamin B12 Improves Homocysteine Levels and Lipid Profiles in Patients with
End-Stage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 -
"During Phase 1, patients were prescribed oral doses
of folic acid 5 mg/day and vitamin B12
0.6mg/day. Through out Phase 2, participants were given intravenous doses of
vitamin B12 1mg every other day in addition to folic acid 5 mg/day ... By
the completion of the study, patients exhibited significantly lower serum
tHcy (29.4 verses
21.1 mg/dL), total cholesterol (222 verses 196 mg/dL), and low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol levels (139 versus 109 mg/dL). Serum high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly among the
- Does High Cholesterol Harm
Your Kidneys? - Dr. Weil, 8/22/03 -
"apparently healthy men with low HDL (high density
lipoprotein), the “good” cholesterol, and high LDL (low density lipoprotein)
or “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides have twice the normal risk of
reduced kidney function ... You can raise HDL by increasing exercise,
drinking alcohol moderately, and eating only healthy fats (monounsaturates
such as olive oil and omega-3s from sources like salmon and sardines).
Taking prescription statin drugs also will help, although I prefer natural
alternatives such as red rice yeast"
Cholesterol: Finding Right Mix - CBS News, 7/11/03 -
"High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known
as the "good"
cholesterol. It helps move the bad
cholesterol through the body's system to get rid of excess amounts. With
enough "good" cholesterol, the "bad" cholesterol doesn't get a chance to
build up ... Your total cholesterol should be less than 200. Levels of
"good" cholesterol should be below 40. Levels of "bad" cholesterol should be
less than 130, or less than 100 if you already have heart disease ...
Certain foods such as soy, whole grain oats or fish containing omega-3 fatty
acids can lower cholesterol" - I believe that "Levels of "good"
cholesterol should be below 40" should be "above" not "below". - Ben
- Policosanol more
Effective than Lovastatin for Intermittent Claudication - New Hope
Natural Media, 5/29/03 -
policosanol had a 34% increase in pain-free walking distance, while no
change was observed in those taking lovastatin.
Quality of life was also reported as being significantly better in the
policosanol group compared with the lovastatin group. Both treatment groups
had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.
However, participants taking policosanol had a significant 32% increase in
HDL cholesterol and a 6% decrease in fibrinogen, while these parameters
remained unchanged in those receiving lovastatin" - See
policosanol products. Claudication gets my
attention because my father has it and if there is a hereditary factor, I
want to prevent it. - Ben
Cranberry Juice Fights Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/24/03 -
"Cranberry juice is
higher in phenol antioxidants than other fruit juices with the exception of
grape juice ... levels of high-density lipoprotein ("good" cholesterol)
appeared to increase significantly -- by as much as 121% -- after two or
three glasses of juice a day"
Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial
lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2
diabetes - AJCN, 3/1/03 -
triacylglycerol concentrations and higher
HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting
significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids" - Olive oil
is 76% omega-9.
Policosanol Improves Lipid Profiles - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 1/03 -
"In one eight-week study with 68 older patients who
had both elevated LDL levels and various coronary heart disease risk
factors, researchers found 10 mg of Cuban
policosanol taken once daily reduced (from baseline) LDL levels by 19
percent and triglycerides by 14 percent,
and increased HDL levels by 18 percent, all statistically significant
changes.26 The statin group (10 mg per day of pravastatin, the lowest dose
recommended) triggered a 16 percent reduction in LDL levels, no change in
triglycerides, and a 6 percent increase in HDL levels"
Ispaghula Husk [psyllium] Nearly As Effective As Simvastatin For
Hyperlipidemia - Doctor's Guide, 12/24/02 -
"One group received 3.5 grams of
twice a day and the second group received 20 milligrams of
simvastatin each day ... total cholesterol
decreased by 15.8 percent and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
decreased by 22.97 percent among patients taking ispaghula husk ...
Triglycerides decreased by 20.89 percent and high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol increased by 10.69 percent in these patients ... Among
patients taking simvastatin, total cholesterol decreased by 24.15 percent,
LDL cholesterol decreased by 36.08 percent, triglycerides decreased by 20.47
percent and HDL cholesterol increased by 11.4 percent" - I've got
that. See psyllium husk at Amazon.com.
3.5 grams is about one wafer (3.4 grams psyllium/wafer). Plus 24 wafers
for 30 of the 20 mg simvastatin.
- Eating Yogurt Daily
Increases “Good” Cholesterol in Women - New Hope Natural Media, 12/5/02
"In this study, 29 women ate 300 grams (about 10.6
ounces) of a full-fat (3.5% fat by weight) yogurt product daily for 21 weeks
... A larger, and statistically significant, 38% increase was observed in
HDL, or “good” cholesterol levels after eating the yogurt. No change was
observed in LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels ... each woman also ate the
probiotic- and prebiotic-containing product for a 7-week stretch during
the 21-week trial. During the period when the women consumed the
supplemented yogurt, there was a further increase in HDL cholesterol beyond
that seen from simply eating plain yogurt"
Genes Determine Effect of Diet, Good Cholesterol - WebMD, 10/21/02 -
"To increase HDLs, you shouldn't consume more
saturated fats. Instead, you should have more monounsaturated fats, which
are abundant in many vegetables, oils, and walnuts."
Alcohol Can Help Women's Hearts Too - WebMD, 9/16/02 -
"10 men aged 45-64 and nine women aged 49-62 drank
either regular beer or non-alcoholic beer for three weeks ... After 10 days
of drinking alcohol, HDL cholesterol levels
rose by an average of nearly 7% for both men and women ... Previous research
suggests that a 1% increase in HDL cholesterol is linked to a 2% reduction
in the risk of heart disease"
Niacin May Be Effective Therapy For Broad Range Of Diabetes-Associated
Dyslipidaemias - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/02 -
niacin treatment, the patients' LDL peak particle diameter increased from
252 +/- 7 Å to 263 +/- 7, the researchers reported. Their small, dense LDLc
particle mass decreased from 27 +/- 11 mg/dL to 15 +/- 4 mg/dL. Total HDLc
increased from 39 +/- 7 mg/dL to 51 +/- 11 mg/dL. Their HDL2, as the
percentage of total HDLc mass, increased from 29 +/- 8 percent to 45 +/- 10
percent, and their Lp(a) decreased from 43 +/- 17 mg/dL to 25 +/- 10 mg/dL
... Twenty-one percent of the patients were unable to tolerate niacin
because of reversible adverse effects. Another 14 percent were unable to
adhere to the niacin dosing regimen of three times daily"
- HDL Too High? - Dr.
Weil, 6/6/02 -
"each increase of 4 mg/dl in the HDL level results
in a 10 percent decrease in risk of adverse coronary events"
- Policosanol Helps
Reduce High Cholesterol - New Hope Natural Media, 6/6/02 -
"In a six-month study, 10 mg per day of
policosanol reduced total cholesterol by 16% and LDL
cholesterol by 24%, and increased HDL cholesterol by 29%. Several other
studies have compared policosanol with some of the conventional medications
used for lowering cholesterol and the results have shown policosanol in the
amount of 5 to 20 mg per day to be more effective than lovastatin
(Mevacor®), pravastatin (Pravachol®), and simvastatin (Zocor®), with fewer
reported side effects. While some prescription drugs used to lower
cholesterol may cause liver and muscle problems in rare instances, people
taking policosanol have not suffered any serious side effects" - See
- Health Benefits of Olive Oil
- California Olive Oil Council -
"Olive oil is 80% oleic acid, placing it at the top
of the list of monounsaturated fats ... Research has proved that using olive
oil significantly increases HDL levels"
Octacosanol Beats Statins - Dr. Janson, 4/02 -
"Taking a non-flush form of niacin, inositol hexaniacinate, provides the
same cholesterol effects without the liver changes, but it is more
expensive. Effective niacin doses are 1500 to 3000 mg daily"
Men's Fitness: Boost your good cholesterol sky-high: want to live longer?
Try raising this cholesterol with our 10 strategies - findarticles.com,
2/02 - "In a Canadian study, drinking a few glasses
of orange juice every day for four weeks increased participants' HDL by 21
percent, possibly due to a flavonoid called
hesperidin that appears extremely
Statins and Supplements - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 1/02
question regarding your new cholesterol-lowering supplement, Policosanol
- Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 -
"Studies show that niacin (B3) in doses of 1.5 grams
to 3 grams lower triglycerides levels and
raise HDL concentrations. Those who tolerated higher doses of niacin
(nicotinic acid) showed even more improvement in lipid levels. Some people
taking just 1000 mg of flush-free
niacin see an elevation in beneficial HDL. Green tea also has been shown
to elevate levels of HDL while lowering serum triglyceride levels. In the
Journal of Molecular Cell Biochemistry, curcumin
has been demonstrated, in vivo, to decrease triglycerides and increase HDL.
In a study published in 1989 by the Journal of Associated Physicians-India,
125 patients receiving
showed a drop of 16.8% in triglycerides, and a 60% increase in HDL
cholesterol within three to four weeks. Make sure you are taking at least
six Mega EPA fish oil capsules daily, as low
dose fish oil may not adequately suppress triglycerides. Finally, there are
some lifestyle changes you may wish to consider. If you are overweight,
weight loss would be recommended, as it would help to lower triglycerides
and raise HDL. Also, try reducing carbohydrates, which can raise
Product Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA) from Fish/Marine Oils
- ConsumerLabs.com, 11/20/01 -
"It's been discovered that EPA and DHA may help
prevent heart disease and atherosclerosis by lowering
triglyceride levels, raising HDL ("good") cholesterol and, possibly
"thinning" the blood ... By decreasing inflammation, EPA and DHA can also
reduce the pain of rheumatoid arthritis ... Fish
oils may also be useful in treating a host of conditions including
bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, Raynaud's phenomenon (abnormal
sensitivity of hands and feet to cold), lupus, IgA nephropathy, kidney
stones, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, and
ulcerative colitis ... EPA specifically may be helpful for schizophrenia,
while DHA may be more helpful in reducing high blood pressure ... DHA may be
helpful in the treatment of disorders such as attention deficit disorders,
dyslexia, and cognitive impairment and dementia ... experts now believe that
the American diet contains too little omega-3 fatty acids and too much
omega-6 fatty acids"
Cardiovascular Health - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 -
"HDL cholesterol was significantly increased in the
intervention [coenzyme Q10] group without affecting total cholesterol or LDL
An Antioxidant Cocktail May Prove to Be Heart Unhealthy - WebMD, 8/9/01
"Taken alone the drug combination simvastatin and
niacin increased HDL, the so-called good cholesterol by 25%, but when
antioxidants were added HDL increased by only 18%"
A Fish Story - Nutrition Science News, 4/01 -
"daily consumption of very low daily doses of
EPA/DHA (120 mg/180 mg, about one standard fish
oil capsule) in an enriched milk led to a 19 percent decrease in blood
triglycerides and a 19 percent increase in HDL cholesterol after six
weeks ... It is unclear whether EPA is superior to DHA, although EPA has
proven more potent in relaxing cow coronary arteries and producing the
vasodilator gas, nitric oxide, in vitro"
- Niacin Reduces
Triglycerides, Increases Good Cholesterol In Diabetics - Doctor's Guide,
Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia
and high coronary risk - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001
"while significantly (p é .01) increasing (p < .001)
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 14.6% and 29.1%,
respectively ... No serious adverse experiences occurred in policosanol
patients (p < .01), compared with seven adverse experiences (7.9%) reported
by placebo patients"
- Niaspan (Niacin Extended
Release Tablets) Safe And Effective For Diabetics - Doctor's Guide,
- Statin Plus Niacin Reduces
Heart Attack Risk, Reverses Arterial Build-up - Doctor's Guide, 11/13/00
Spent Yeast Improves Cholesterol Count - Nutrition Science News, 5/00
- Rimostil May Increase Bone
Density While Raising Good Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/27/99 -
"The second effect was on HDL cholesterol levels.
Falling HDL levels after menopause is one of the main reasons that older
women suffer heart disease and stroke. P-081 caused an average 28% rise in
HDL levels, essentially restoring their HDL levels to pre-menopausal levels"
Rimostil at iHerb.
Prolonged treatment with slow release nicotinic acid in patients with type
II hyperlipidemia - Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1997 Nov;98(11):391-9
- Experts Urge Physicians and
Patients To Look Beyond LDL Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/10/97
Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II):
hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat
- Farmaco. 1995 Sep;50(9):595-9 - "Hesperidin,
the most important flavanone of Citrus sp., significantly increases HDL"
A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs
immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients - JAMA. 1994
Mar 2;271(9):672-7 -
"None of the patients taking IR niacin developed
hepatotoxic effects, while 12 (52%) of the 23 patients taking SR niacin did"
Gender-specific associations between lipids and cognitive decline in the elderly
- Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Feb 17 - "In men, a
hypercholesterolemic pattern in late-life (high total cholesterol (T-C), low
HDL-C, high LDL-C levels) was associated with a 25 to 50% increased risk of
decline over 7 years in psychomotor speed, executive abilities, and verbal
fluency ... In contrast, in women, a 30% higher rate of decline was found in
psychomotor speed with high HDL-C levels and in executive abilities with low
levels of LDL-C and triglycerides, in interaction with hormonal treatment. For
men and women, vascular pathologies only slightly outweighed the risk related to
lipids. This suggests a complex gender-specific pattern of cognitive decline
involving genetic vulnerability in men and hormonal status in women" -
Note: Did I read that right? HDL-C is good for cognition in men but
bad for cognition in women?
Cholesterol levels linked to early signs of Alzheimer's in brain -
nbcnews.com, 12/30/13 - "Reed and his team studied brain
scans of 74 patients in stroke clinics and senior centers using Pittsburgh
Compound B, or PIB, a tracer dye that highlights amyloid in the brain. The
patients were, for the most part, normal and free of any symptoms of dementia
... But when the scientists measured the cholesterol in their blood, and teased
out the two types, they found that patients with high levels of low-density
lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein or HDL
cholesterol showed higher PIB levels ... That means that the good and bad
effects of the two kinds of cholesterol may occur long before people develop
Alzheimer’s symptoms, perhaps offering a new chance for early intervention ...
The American Heart Association has long said that keeping levels of HDL “good”
cholesterol up — above 60 milligrams per deciliter of blood — and levels of LDL
“bad” cholesterol — below 100 mg/dL — can prevent heart disease. But this new
study underscores the benefit for the brain" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
(to raise HDL. See my niacin page).
'good cholesterol' stops inflammation - Science Daily, 12/9/13 -
"To put it simply, high HDL levels in blood are an
important protective factor against sustained inflammation"
'Good' cholesterol controls blood glucose - Science Daily, 10/30/13 -
"without ApoA-I, burning of calories is reduced in
skeletal muscle resulting in increased blood glucose and weaker muscle
function. The scientists then determined that HDL cholesterol and its
protein ApoA-I both enhance usage of glucose and calories inside muscle
cells. Raising HDL and ApoA-I levels in animal models resulted in protection
against hyperglycemia and age-related symptoms such as decline of muscle
performance or fat mass gain. Improved calorie burning in mitochondria (the
"power plants" in each cell) was further indicated by a marked reduction of
circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, a novel biomarker for mitochondrial
dysfunction ... Our results link for the first time low HDL-cholesterol with
impaired use of glucose and burning of calories in type 2 diabetes"
- See my niacin page and
niacin at Amazon.com.
Levels of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Increased Risk of
Cardiovascular Events in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Patients: A Post Hoc
Analysis from the COURAGE Trial - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Aug 8 -
"While low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent
predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not
apply when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal
levels using intensive statin therapy ... performed a post hoc analysis in
2,193 men and women with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) from the
COURAGE trial ... In the overall population, the rate of death/MI was 33%
lower in the highest HDL-C quartile as compared with the lowest quartile,
with quartile of HDL-C being a significant, independent predictor of
death/MI (P = 0.05), but with no interaction for LDL-C category (P=0.40).
Among subjects with LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL, those in the highest quintile
of HDL-C had a 65% relative risk reduction in death or MI as compared to the
lowest quintile, with HDL-C quintile demonstrating a significant, inverse
predictive effect" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
and my niacin page.
HDL cholesterol and estimates of HDL particle composition in future
development of type 2 diabetes in the general population: The PREVEND Study
- J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 20 - "High
density lipoproteins (HDL) may directly stimulate β-cell function and
glucose metabolism ... Higher HDL cholesterol, as well as higher
HDL-cholesterol/apoA-I and HDL-cholesterol/apoA-II ratios are strongly and
independently related to lower risk of future type 2 diabetes"
HDL-C predicts risk and PCI outcomes in the Han Chinese population -
Atherosclerosis. 2012 Oct 3 - "Low HDL-C was the
most powerful lipid parameter for predicting the risk and the clinical
outcome of CHD in the Han Chinese population"
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and progression to arterial stiffness
in middle-aged and elderly Chinese - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Sep
22 - "participants in the highest quartile of HDL-c
had an odds ratio of 0.442 (95% CI 0.268-0.729) for developing high arterial
stiffness compared with participants in the lowest quartile" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Measuring HDL particles as opposed to HDL cholesterol is a a better
indicator of coronary heart disease, study suggests - Science Daily,
all 'good cholesterol' is 'good': Raising HDL not a sure route to countering
heart disease - Science Daily, 5/16/12
Raising HDL Levels May Not Lower Heart Attack Risk - WebMD, 5/16/12 -
"Many clinicians still prescribe the vitamin niacin
to help raise HDL levels, even though a government-funded trial proved
disappointing ... The trial was halted early a year ago when it was
determined that people with heart disease who had low HDL levels did not
benefit from the treatment ... The drug company Pfizer abandoned its
experimental HDL-boosting drug torcetrapib in 2006 when trials showed an
increase in heart attack and stroke risk among users ... the new research
casts even more doubt on the strategy of raising HDL to lower heart and
stroke risk ... HDL levels are related to risk, but that doesn't mean that
raising HDL is beneficial ... What we do know is that lowering LDL has a big
impact on risk, so the take-home message remains, 'Get those LDL numbers
- Erectile Dysfunction
/ Impotence - Prostate Health Guide - U. of Maryland Medicine -
"Direct risk factors for erectile dysfunction may
include the following: ... low levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein)"
Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study
of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov
16 - "Low plasma HDL cholesterol levels robustly
associated with increased risk of MI but genetically decreased HDL cholesterol
did not. This may suggest that low HDL cholesterol levels per se do not cause
HDL-cholesterol and prediction of coronary heart disease: Modified by physical
fitness?: A 28-year follow-up of apparently healthy men - Atherosclerosis.
2011 Oct 17 - "High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL) and physical fitness (PF) ... The highest HDL quartile was associated with
lower risk of CHD (HR: 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.74), fatal CHD
(HR: 0.56, CI: 0.36-0.86), fatal CVD (HR: 0.64, CI: 0.46-0.88) and all-cause
death (HR: 0.80, CI: 0.65-0.99) compared to the lowest quartile. Adjustments for
PF or changes in PF over 8.6 years did not change the results except for
all-cause death, which was not significantly different between HDL quartiles. We
found no interaction between HDL and PF"
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of subsequent hospitalization for
coronary artery disease or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Am J Cardiol. 2011 Oct 15;108(8):1124-8 - "During a
mean follow-up of 55.8 +/- 23.8 months, 3,023 patients (10.1%) experienced a CVD
hospitalization. After multivariate adjustment, each 5 mg/dl of baseline HDL
cholesterol was significantly associated with a 6% lower CVD hospitalization
risk (hazard ratio 0.94 per 5 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.95, p
<0.0001) and each 5-mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 4%
CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.99, p
<0.003). In the categorical analysis, a ≥6.5-mg/dl HDL cholesterol decrease was
associated with an 11% increased CVD risk (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence
interval 1.00 to 1.24, p = 0.047) and a ≥6.5-mg/dl increase was associated with
an 8% CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to
1.01, p = 0.077) relative to those with stable HDL cholesterol"
low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on arterial stiffening and left
ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension - J Clin
Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):710-5 - "In
univariate regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with
arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em (r=-0.23 and r=-0.27, respectively,
P<.01). The association of HDL cholesterol with arterial stiffness and LV
diastolic function was observed in both men and women. Triglycerides were weakly
correlated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em, while low-density
lipoprotein and total cholesterol were not. In multiple regression analysis,
only low HDL cholesterol was found as an independent predictor for both arterial
stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Enhanced arterial stiffness is
associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Low HDL cholesterol may lead to the
deterioration of both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function in patients
with essential hypertension"
and HDL cholesterol and risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control.
2011 Sep 14 - "After excluding the first 10 years of
follow-up, men with higher serum total cholesterol were at increased risk of
overall (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44, p-trend = 0.01) and
advanced (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.03, p-trend = 0.05)
prostate cancer. Higher HDL cholesterol was suggestively associated with a
decreased risk of prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade ... In this
population of smokers, high serum total cholesterol was associated with higher
risk of advanced prostate cancer, and high HDL cholesterol suggestively reduced
the risk of prostate cancer overall. These results support previous studies and,
indirectly, support the hypothesis that statins may reduce the risk of advanced
prostate cancer by lowering cholesterol"
cholesterol function as important as its levels - Science Daily, 6/23/11
doesn't stop heart attacks, major study finds - Health - Heart health -
msnbc.com - MSNBC, 5/26/11 - "The newest study
tested Abbott Laboratories' Niaspan, an extended-release form of niacin that is
a far higher dose than is found in dietary supplements ... the Niaspan users saw
their HDL levels rise, and their levels of risky triglycerides drop, more than
people who took a statin alone. But the combination treatment didn't reduce
heart attacks, strokes or the need for artery-clearing procedures such as
angioplasty ... That finding "is unexpected and a striking contrast to the
results of previous trials," ... Also, there was a small increase in strokes in
the high-dose niacin users — 28 among those 1,718 people given Niaspan compared
with 12 among the 1,696 placebo users. The NIH said it was not clear if that
small difference was merely a coincidence, as previous studies have shown no
stroke risk from niacin. In fact, some of the strokes occurred after the Niaspan
users quit taking that drug" - See my niacin
and HDL pages for many more studies. For one thing,
there are waaaay more arguments for raising HDL than just heart disease. Things
such as centurions having unusually high HDL, prostate cancer, bowel cancer,
impotence, Alzheimer's, etc., not to mention that it conflicts with other
of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL are associated with risk of prostate cancer in the
Swedish AMORIS study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 May 12 -
"ApoA-I and HDL were inversely associated with PCa risk
(e.g., HR for HDL: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81-1.07), 0.88 (0.76-1.01), 0.81 (0.70-0.94),
for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile; with p
for trend: 0.004; HR for apoA-I: 1.00 (0.88-1.13), 0.93 (0.82-1.05), 0.88
(0.77-0.99),), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first
quartile; with p for trend: 0.022). ApoB, LDL, and non-HDL were not associated
with PCa risk"
Concepts of the Role of High-Density Lipoprotein in Protection from
Atherosclerosis - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Mar -
"HDL is able to interact with and remove cholesterol from the lipid-laden foam
cells in the peripheral vasculature with subsequent transportation to the liver
for excretion. However, HDL has multiple other physiologic effects that may play
a significant role in protection from atherosclerosis. HDL has been demonstrated
to exhibit multiple beneficial effects on the coagulation system. Platelet
function is improved by both direct and indirect mechanisms. HDL has a complex
interaction with the protein C and protein S system. Thrombolytic balance is
also improved by HDL. HDL has been demonstrated to have a significant natural
antioxidant effect that inhibits the oxidative step required for low-density
lipoprotein uptake by the macrophage. Additionally, HDL has also been
demonstrated to exert multiple beneficial effects on endothelial function,
including decreased apoptosis and endothelial repair" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
(niacin increases HDL).
levels of 'good' cholesterol may cut bowel cancer risk - Science Daily,
3/7/11 - "Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and of 32 mg/dl
in apoA reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% and 18%, respectively, after
taking account of diet, lifestyle, and weight ... low HDL levels have been
linked to higher levels of proteins involved in inflammation, while higher
levels of proteins that dampen down the inflammatory response have also been
linked to high HDL levels ... The pro inflammatory proteins boost cell growth
and proliferation while curbing cell death, so HDL may alter the inflammatory
process in some way"
Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Survival to Age 85 Years in Men
(from the VA Normative Aging Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 4 - "We
categorized initial HDL cholesterol into <40 mg/dl (reference group), 40 to 49
mg/dl, or ≥50 mg/dl ... Treating HDL cholesterol as a continuous predictor, we
also determined the HR for each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol. Fully
adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for survival to 85 years of age for
participants with an initial HDL cholesterol level ≥50 mg/dl compared to the
reference was 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98). Each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol
was associated with a 14% (HR 0.86, 0.78 to 0.96) decrease in risk of mortality
before 85 years of age. In conclusion, after adjusting for other factors
associated with longevity, higher HDL cholesterol levels were significantly
associated with survival to 85 years of age" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
(niacin increases HDL).
dusty punch cards, new insights into link between cholesterol and heart disease
- Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "He also found an old punch
card machine to extract their data. Then, with the help of students and research
assistants, he located and contacted 97 percent of the people in Gofman's study
over the next nine years ... Their 29-year follow-up uncovered 363 cases of
coronary heart disease. They found that both HDL2 and HDL3 lowered heart disease
risk, and that a one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL2 produced a
significantly larger reduction in coronary heart disease risk than a
one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL3" - I doubt if many people
besides me even remember what punch cards were.
HDL-C Levels May Curb Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Medscape, 12/16/10 -
"There was a definite threshold effect, the researchers
say, with a clear reduction in AD risk for people in the highest HDL-C level
quartile (>56 mg/dL) ... these analyses were limited by the small number of
cases of vascular dementia (n = 16) ... the current study linking higher HDL-C
to a lower risk for incident dementia contrast with a prior study by the same
researchers. This earlier study involved 1168 participants recruited from the
same community in 1992 – 1994 and showed no association between HDL-C and AD ...
Compared with the 1992 – 1994 cohort, the 1999 – 2001 cohort had a higher
proportion of subjects receiving lipid-lowering treatment (23.4% vs 14.5%),
higher mean HDL-C levels (48.3 vs 47.2 mg/dL), and fewer individuals who smoked
(9.4% vs 10.6%) and had heart disease (18.8% vs 34.1%)"
levels of 'good' cholesterol may be associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's
disease - Science Daily, 12/13/10 - "The researchers
defined higher levels of HDL cholesterol as 55 milligrams per deciliter or more
... higher levels of HDL cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of
both probable and possible Alzheimer's disease"
lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the
best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults -
Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Dec 7;9(1):138 - "In non-obese
subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance
was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio of 0.74" - Note: I'm not sure
what I missed on that quote. See
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=183 . Ideally your
LDL should be below 100. In the average man, HDL cholesterol levels range from
40 to 50 mg/dL. So assuming an LDL of 100, for LDL/HDL to be equal to .74 your
HDL would have to be 135 which is nearly impossible. The full article is at
http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511x-9-138.pdf and says
"The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin
resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of
≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in
overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was
greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio".
pioglitazone and metformin fixed-dose combination therapy on cardiovascular risk
markers of inflammation and lipid profile compared with pioglitazone and
metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes - J Clin Hypertens
(Greenwich). 2010 Dec;12(12):973-82 - "fixed-dose
combination (FDC) of pioglitazone/metformin compared with the respective
monotherapies ... FDC and pioglitazone increased high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol by 14.20% and 9.88%, respectively, vs an increase of 6.09% with
metformin (P<.05, metformin vs FDC). Triglycerides decreased with all three
treatments -5.95%, -5.54% and -1.78%, respectively; P=not significant). FDC and
pioglitazone significantly decreased small low-density lipoprotein and increased
large low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations. Reductions in
high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were greater in the FDC and pioglitazone
groups. Increases in adiponectin were significant in the FDC and pioglitazone
groups (P<.0001 vs metformin). Overall, adverse events were not higher with the
FDC. Thus, treatment with the FDC resulted in improved levels of CV biomarkers,
which were better than or equal to monotherapy"
'good' cholesterol is not always good for your health - Science Daily,
5/25/10 - "Patients in the high-risk subgroup were
characterized as having high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a well-known
marker of inflammation, in addition to high HDL cholesterol. Study authors
believe genetics and environmental factors, particularly inflammation, influence
whether high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective or if they increase
cardiovascular risk in individual patients. Given an inflammatory environment,
an individual's unique set of genes helps determine whether HDL cholesterol
transforms from a good actor to a bad actor in the heart disease process"
Too Much Sugar Increases Heart Risks - Time Magazine, 4/21/10 -
"Compared with people consuming less than 5% of their
daily calories in added sugar, those in the highest consumption group — who got
25% or more of their daily calories in added sugar — were twice as likely to
have low levels of HDL cholesterol, the beneficial lipid that mops up
artery-clogging LDL cholesterol. According to government health guidelines, HDL
levels below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL for men are considered low; 43% of
the highest sugar consumers recorded low HDL, while only 22% of the lowest sugar
consumers did ... People eating the most added sugar also recorded the highest
triglyceride levels ... Low HDL and high triglyceride levels are two of the
primary risk factors for heart disease"
Quality of HDL Differs in Diabetics But Improves With Niacin Therapy -
Medscape, 12/22/09 - "HDL cholesterol in individuals
with diabetes has impaired endothelial protective functions compared with the
HDL from healthy subjects, although treatment with extended-release niacin can
improve these endothelial protective effects" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
HDL Cholesterol Inversely Associated With Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide,
11/16/09 - "The investigators found a significant
inverse relationship between baseline HDL-C levels and the rate of incident
cancer, reporting that every 10 mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with a
24% (95% CI: 1%-41%) relative reduction in the cancer rate ... They also found a
significant inverse relationship between baseline LDL-C and the rate of incident
cancer, with every 10-mg/dL reduction in LDL-C associated with a 14% (95% CI:
9%-18%) relative increase in the cancer rate ... There was a significant direct
relationship between both age and BMI and rate of incident cancer, with every
5-year increase in age associated with a 28% (95% CI: 16%-42%) relative increase
in cancer (P < .001) and every 1-kg/m2 increase in BMI associated with an 18%
(95% CI: 6%-31%) relative increase in the cancer rate"
Taking the Garbage Out, the More HDL the Better, but the Truck Should Function
- Medscape, 11/10/09 - Good 4 minute video on HDL cholesterol. Discusses the 5
types of HDL and that high HDL can be deceiving because it's the type of HDL
HDL-cholesterol is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly diabetic
individuals: Changes in the risk for atherosclerotic diseases at various ages
- Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun 9 - "IHD and CVD occurred in
1.59% and 1.43% of participants over 2-year period. The relation of lower
HDL-cholesterol and/or higher LDL-cholesterol to occurrence of IHD in
subjects<65 y.o. was significant. Lower HDL-cholesterol was also significantly
related to CVD in subjects >=65y.o. and especially those>=75 y.o. (n=1016; odds
ratio, 0.511*; 95%CI, 0.239- 0.918, *P<0.05). Stepwise multiple regression
analysis with onset of CVD as a dependent variable showed same result.
Conclusion: Lower HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for not only IHD
but also CVD, especially in the diabetic elderly" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
(niacin increases HDL).
Improves Endothelial Function with Increased Adiponectin and High-density
Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Type 2 Diabetes - Endocr J. 2009 Jun 9 -
"After treatment, HbA1c levels equally decreased in
both groups, but PIO-treated group had significantly increased high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and decreased triglyceride, fasting
insulin levels and HOMA-R. After treatment, increases in %FMD, plasma HDL-C and
adiponectin (APN) levels were significantly greater in PIO-treated group than
those in control group. Changes of %FMD showed significant positive correlations
with those of plasma APN and HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study
showed that treatment of T2DM improved endothelial function with greater
increases in %FMD, APN and HDL-C levels in PIO-treated group than those in
control group, suggesting the beneficial effect of PIO on endothelial function
in T2DM" - See pioglitazone at
Leukocyte telomere length is associated with HDL cholesterol levels: The
Bogalusa heart study - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jan 24 -
"Diminished levels of HDL-C are associated with an
increased risk for atherosclerosis. Shortened leukocyte telomere length
(LTL) also entails an increased atherosclerotic risk ... Multivariate
regression analyses showed that LTL was positively associated with HDL-C in
childhood (regression coefficient (bp per mg/dL) beta=3.1, p=0.024),
adulthood (beta=4.4, p=0.058) and AUC from childhood to adulthood ... A
slower rate of LTL shortening per year was associated with higher HDL-C AUC
in the total sample (p=0.033), adjusting for baseline LTL ... As HDL-C
exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and LTL registers the
accruing burden of oxidative stress and inflammation, the association
between HDL-C and LTL might be explained by the lifelong status of oxidative
stress and inflammation" - Note: Telomere length is associated with
longer lifespan. Niacin increases HDL. See
niacin at Amazon.com.
Hormones Link To Heart Risk - Science Daily, 8/31/08 -
"one of the sex hormones - estradiol - was
associated positively with total cholesterol and negatively with
HDL-cholesterol. Circulating concentrations of another sex hormone - estrone
- showed strong positive associations with both total cholesterol and
LDL-cholesterol ... Thus, men with the highest concentrations of estrone and
estradiol may have the highest level of cardiovascular risk as their levels
of detrimental LDL-cholesterol are high whilst their cardio-protective
HDL-cholesterol is low" - See my
aromatization page for ways to reduce these.
Total Cholesterol Management: Taking Complete Control - PowerPak.com,
exp. 7/31/10 - "In the Helsinki Heart Study, a
randomized, double-blind, five-year primary prevention study, a 1% increase
in HDL-C levels was shown to reduce the risk of CVD by 3% in patients
(p<0.05).26 In a secondary prevention trial, an 11% reduction in CVD events
was associated with every 5-mg/dL increase in HDL-C levels"
HDL-C Tied to Lower Extremity Performance - Physician's Weekly, 8/18/08
- "Men with HDL-C levels that were greater than 55
mg/dL had, on average, a three times greater probability of having the
highest performance indexes for lower extremities, including: ... 4-meter
fast walking speed (odds ratio, 2.57) ... 400-meter walking speed (odds
ratio, 3.74) Knee extension torque (odds ratio, 3.63)" - See
niacin at Amazon.com
(niacin increases HDL but that statement hasn't been approved by the FDA
even thought I feel that having the government have to approve a statement
is a violation of the First Amendment).
Levels Of Good Cholesterol Linked To Memory Loss, Dementia Risk -
Science Daily, 6/30/08 - "Researchers defined low
HDL as less than 40 mg/dL ... At age 60, participants with low HDL had a 53
percent increased risk of memory loss compared to the high HDL group"
- The best way to increase HDL is niacin. See
niacin at Amazon.com. Start slow maybe even with the 100
mg capsules. It took me about three months to get immune to the flush from
2000 mg per day. Taking it with soup seems to be the best.
HDL: A new, autologous option for plaque regression? - theheart.org,
5/16/08 - "the apheresis procedure did indeed
increase the proportion of pre-beta HDL (from about 5.6% in the sample to
92.8% in the sample) and reduced the proportion of alpha HDL (from about
92.8% of the sample to 20.9% in the sample). Associated with the increase in
pre-beta HDL was a fivefold rise in cholesterol efflux seen in patients
receiving the delipidated plasma vs the control group, they report. All
reinfusion sessions were well tolerated, and there was no signal of an
adverse biochemical or hemodynamic reaction to therapy"
Enough 'Good' Cholesterol Makes It Harder To Recover From Stroke -
Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "People with low levels of
HDL, high levels of homocysteine, and diabetes are twice as likely as those
without such problems to have poorer cognitive function and greater
disability after stroke"
New Combination Drug Improves Multiple Cholesterol Disorders in Single Pill
- Doctor's Guide, 11/5/07 - "Simcor combines
prescription niacin and simvastatin, two FDA-approved medications with
established safety profiles, to target good cholesterol (HDL), bad
cholesterol (LDL), and triglycerides in a single pill" - Sounds
stupid to me. Why would you pay prescription drug prices for something that
is dirt cheap like niacin. It is the Niaspan form of niacin, which they
claim has less flush. I tried Niaspan and couldn't tell any difference in
the flush plus the flush eventually stopped even with immediate release
niacin. Plus I worry about increased liver damage with Niaspan.
Click here for the study that concerns me which was sustained release
niacin, not Niaspan but it would seem to be similar. Plus immediate release
niacin is about 20% more effective at raising HDL than Niaspan.
Click here and note where Niaspan is on the graph. I'm just eye balling
Improving The Assessment Of Coronary Heart Disease Risk In Chinese -
Science Daily, 10/12/07 - "the risk of developing
coronary heart disease was more than three times as high in participants
with the highest values of both apolipoprotein B and the ratio of the total
cholesterol over HDL-C than patients who did not have the disease"
Low HDL Cholesterol, Even When LDL Levels Are Low, Is Cardiovascular
Dynamite, New TNT Analysis Shows - Medscape, 10/3/07 -
"Among patients treated with statins, including those who achieved very low
levels of cholesterol with high-dose statin therapy, high-density
lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are still predictive of major
cardiovascular (CV) events ... In the determination of the five-year risk of
major CV events across the different quintiles, univariate analysis showed
the event rate to be reduced by 40% in the highest quintile when compared
with subjects with the lowest HDL-cholesterol levels" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
"Good" Cholesterol Earns Its Name - WebMD, 9/26/07 -
"the patients with the highest HDL cholesterol
levels were the least likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or cardiac
arrest ... The higher the patients' HDL cholesterol level was, the lower
their odds of having a heart event during the study. That includes patients
who got their LDL "bad" cholesterol below 70 mg/dL"
Framingham Study: The apoB/apoA-1 ratio does not provide clinical utility
over total/HDL cholesterol - theHeart.org, 8/14/07 -
"In men, non-HDL cholesterol, apoB, the
total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, the LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and the
apoB/apoA-1 ratio were all positively associated with CHD risk of
approximately the same magnitude and statistical significance. ApoA-1 and
HDL cholesterol were associated with reduced CHD risk. Similar results were
observed for women, but apoA-1 was not significantly associated with
incident CHD. In men and women, LDL and total cholesterol were not
significantly associated with CHD risk"
Heavy Drinking Raises Blood Pressure In Older Men Regardless Of 'Good'
Cholesterol - WebMD, 8/31/07 - "When looking at
men of all ages, those with the lowest level of good cholesterol had the
highest blood pressure in all three groups: nondrinkers, moderate drinkers
and heavy drinkers. However, high levels of good cholesterol HDL did not do
as much for the heavy drinkers"
High Hostility Linked with Poor Ability to Cope With Stress, Low HDL Levels
- Medscape, 8/30/07 - "individuals who were very
hostile were more likely to perceive problems as stressful and to cope with
stress by using interpersonal hostility, self-blame, and social isolation;
they also tended to have lower levels of HDL"
HDL Levels and
Particle Size: Does Size Matter at Both Ends of the Scale? - Medscape,
8/7/07 - "very large HDL particles would be
associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease ... These data
suggest that very large HDL particles no longer seem to confer protection
against cardiovascular disease, at least when levels of apoA-1 and apoB are
kept constant, but this lack of protection does not seem to hold true for
Sex differences in the relation of HDL cholesterol to progression of carotid
intima-media thickness: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study -
Atherosclerosis. 2007 May 3 - "carotid intima-media
thickness (IMT) (an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis) in middle age
... IMT at baseline was inversely associated with serum levels of HDL-C and
the associations were comparable in women and men ... Our results suggest
that although HDL-C was protective against progression of carotid
atherosclerosis in middle-aged men, anti-atherogenic effects of HDL may
diminish in women around the age of menopause"
Improving Outcomes With HDL Cholesterol - Physician's Weekly, 4/9/07 -
"Patients who have high HDL levels appear to have
better protection against vascular disease than others and some variants of
HDL may actually reduce plaque in the coronary arteries. Essentially, HDL
acts as a scavenger compound; it moves the lipids from the blood vessel to
the liver, where they are then excreted from the body ... Currently, in the
United States, the only medication other than statins designed specifically
to help physicians raise the HDL cholesterol levels in their patients is
niacin" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
What Makes Good Cholesterol So 'Good' For Us? - Science Daily, 3/2/07 -
"High levels of good cholesterol (high density
lipoprotein (HDL)) are associated with protection from cardiovascular
disease, which remains the leading cause of death in the United States"
Study: HDL, or 'good' cholesterol looks better - USA Today, 2/6/07 -
"patients' clogged arteries began to clear when
statins drove their LDL levels down to 87.5 milligrams per deciliter of
blood and their HDL up by 7.5%"
HDL Effects of Statins Important - Medscape, 2/6/07 -
"Statins increase HDL-C by around 5% to 15% ...
Substantial atheroma regression (>5%) was observed in patients with levels
of LDL-C less than the mean (87.5 mg/dL) and increases of HDL-C greater than
the mean (7.5%; p<0.001) during treatment ... This, to our knowledge, is the
first time that increases in HDL-C levels have been shown to be an
independent predictor of a beneficial outcome with statin therapy"
Gene Tied To Longevity Also Preserves Ability To Think Clearly - Science
Daily, 12/26/06 - "Centenarians were three times
likelier to possess CETP VV compared with a control group representative of
the general population and also had significantly larger HDL and LDL
lipoproteins than people in the control group ... Researchers believe that
larger cholesterol particles are less likely to lodge themselves in blood
vessels" - Could niacin do the same thing? See:
Here's How to Get More 'Good' Cholesterol - ABC News, 7/28/06 -
"raising HDL is likely as important as lowering LDL
when it comes to reducing the risk of heart attack"
High Good Cholesterol Trumps Low Bad Cholesterol For Heart Protection -
Science Daily, 4/3/06 - "Having a high level of HDL
cholesterol -- the good cholesterol -- is more important than having a low
level of LDL -- the bad cholesterol -- in protecting individuals from heart
attack ... This study was repeated with stroke as the outcome rather than
heart disease, and the same results were the same"
Lower HDL Cholesterol Increases Risk of Cardiovascular Event - Medscape,
3/14/06 - "Our study, in which half the population
achieved LDL levels below 80 mg/dL, clearly shows that even if LDL is low,
HDL is still important ... every 1 mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol
concentration was associated with an approximate 2% reduction in the
relative risk of a major cardiovascular event ... There's diet, exercise,
and, if the patient can tolerate it, niacin"
HDL Levels and LDL-C/HDL-C Ratio Potential Targets for Future Drug Therapy
- Doctor's Guide, 3/13/06 - "major cardiovascular
event (MCVE) ... a 1 mg/dL increase in HDL-C concentration translated to an
approximate reduction of about 2% in the relative risk of an MCVE"
Raising HDL-Cholesterol and Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: An Expert
Interview With H. Bryan Brewer, Jr, MD - Medscape, 12/27/05
Adding Niacin to Lovastatin Therapy Might Improve Efficacy for Dyslipidemia
- Doctor's Guide, 10/5/05 - "Niacin
has been shown to be one of the most effective drugs for improving levels of
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or good cholesterol ...
Combining the best LDL lowering and best HDL raising drugs makes sense"
HDL-C and the diabetic patient: Target for therapeutic intervention? -
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;68 Suppl 2:S36-42. Epub 2005 Apr 7 -
"Rosuvastatin has been shown to be at least as
effective at increasing HDL-C compared with atorvastatin, pravastatin or
How HDL Keeps The Heart Healthy - Science Daily, 5/29/05
Doctors Seek Way to Boost Some Cholesterol - Intelihealth, 3/8/05 -
"HDL works like arterial Drano, clearing away
cholesterol and carrying it to the liver for disposal. The more of it, the
better: each point of increase in HDL has been found to reduce the risk of
heart disease by 2 percent to 3 percent"
Laboratory Investigations of Erectile Dysfunction - WebMD -
"men with erectile dysfunction frequently have low
levels of high-density lipoproteins, the good form of cholesterol."
Low levels of HDL cholesterol linked to breast cancer risk - US News,
"Women with high HDL levels were 25 percent less
likely to get postmenopausal breast cancer than
women with low HDL cholesterol. The difference was even bigger for women who
Two-Pronged Cholesterol Approach Works - HealthDay, 11/11/04 -
"Niacin is the most
effective treatment to treat low HDL ... Overall, combining niacin with a
statin slowed disease progression 68 percent more than a statin alone.
The combination treatment also resulted in a 60 percent reduction in heart
attacks, deaths, strokes, and other coronary events"
Effectiveness of simvastatin therapy in raising HDL-C in patients with type
2 diabetes and low HDL-C - Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Jul;20(7):1087-94 - "Both
simvastatin 80 and 40 mg significantly increased total HDL-C from baseline
(mean increases of 8%"
Benefit of 'Good' Cholesterol in Arteries Limited by Enzyme Linked to Heart
Attack Risk - Doctor's Guide, 8/17/04 -
"HDL becomes dysfunctional, Dr. Hazen said, when
myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme present in white blood cells, inhibits the
HDL's ability to keep LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, from building up in artery
Overweight? Good Cholesterol May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 8/3/04 -
"overweight, postmenopausal women with high levels
of good HDL cholesterol have 67% less breast cancer than similar women with
low HDL levels"
Non-HDL Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B Predict Cardiovascular Disease
Events Among Men With Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2004
"Non-HDL cholesterol and apoB are more potent
predictors of CVD incidence among diabetic men than LDL cholesterol.
Statistically, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is the best predictor
of CVD in this cohort of diabetic men"
Specific Plasma Lipids Appear Associated with Vascular Dementia but Not With
Alzheimer Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/04 -
"Lower levels of high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher levels of non-HDL-C and low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are associated with an increased risk of
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Raises Serum High-Density Lipoprotein
Cholesterol Levels as Monotherapy and Combined with a Statin - Doctor's
Drug Raises 'Good' HDL Cholesterol Levels - WebMD, 4/7/04 -
"researchers examined the effects of a CETP
inhibitor (torcetrapib) in 19 people with low HDL levels (below 40 mg per
deciliter). Nine of the participants were also treated with a statin ...
After four weeks of treatment with the drug, researchers found HDL
cholesterol levels increased by 61% among those treated with the CETP
inhibitor and statin and by 46% among those treated with the CETP inhibitor
Potential Heart Disease Breakthrough - WebMD, 11/4/03 -
"It's called ApoA-I Milano ... a genetically
engineered version of this "good" HDL cholesterol protein has been tested in
a small human trial ... The findings exceed even the most optimistic
expectations ... In five weeks, patients treated with ApoAI Milano had about
a 4% decrease in plaque volume. That's 10 times greater reduction than ever
Carbohydrate-Rich Diet Associated with Lower High-Density Lipoprotein Levels
- Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 -
"The researchers defined glycaemic index as the
measure of blood glucose after consumption of
carbohydrate-containing foods, ranging in values from 1 to 100.
Glycaemic load was defined as the carbohydrate content of a food multiplied
by the glycaemic index and servings per week ... Results showed an inverse
relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and
both the glycaemic index and glycaemic load"
Rosuvastatin Improves Plasma Lipid Ratios - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/03 -
significantly more effective than
and pravastatin in
improving the ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol" - See
Doctors Ignore Diabetes Guidelines - WebMD, 8/18/03 -
"Do you have diabetes?
There's a one-in-three chance that if you do, you don't know ... Testing
should be considered at a younger age -- and done more frequently -- in
certain people: ... Anyone with high blood
pressure (140/90 or higher) ... Anyone with an HDL "good" cholesterol of
35 or under and/or triglyceride levels of 250 or more ... Anyone with a
fasting blood sugar level of 100 to 125"
Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol a Risk Factor for Stroke in Elderly
Patients - Doctor's Guide, 7/22/03
Cholesterol Ratio More Indicative Than LDL - Physician's Weekly, 7/21/03
"the ratio of LDL and HDL cholesterol may be better
for identifying the risk of heart disease compared to relying solely on the
individual levels of each kind of cholesterol. The study found that the
ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and the ratio of total
cholesterol to HDL cholesterol can better predict the risk of heart
disease rather than measuring LDL levels alone. LDL/HDL ratios may more
effective at identifying high-risk individuals and tracking their progress
on cholesterol-lowering drugs. The researchers noted that despite newer
recommendations incorporating HDL into risk assessment, LDL continues to be
the major target of cholesterol-lowering therapy ... Certain low-fat diets
that reduce both LDL and HDL levels may be less beneficial than diets that
boost HDL cholesterol levels. Losing weight, quitting smoking, and
exercising more often can increase HDL cholesterol"
Lower cholesterol for healthy kidneys - USA Today, 7/20/03 -
"men who had low levels of HDL or "good cholesterol"
and elevated "bad" or LDL cholesterol were twice as likely to have evidence
of kidney malfunction"
High-Density vs Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol as the Risk Factor for
Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke in Old Age - Arch Intern Med.
"low HDL cholesterol level was associated with a
2.0-fold higher risk of fatal cardiovascular disease ... The mortality risk
of coronary artery disease was 2.0 ... and for stroke it was 2.6"
Estrogens as Antioxidants – Reducing Heart Disease in Younger Postmenopausal
Women - Doctor's Guide, 7/4/03 -
LDL becomes oxidised its ability to cause
heart disease increases. If HDL becomes oxidised its ability to protect
against heart disease is lessened ... estrogens
can act as antioxidants, which neutralise free radicals, and hence protect
HDL from oxidation. In addition, high levels of HDL are able to protect LDL
from oxidation, and this ability is strongly enhanced when estrogens are
present ... Although recent randomised control trials have shown that HRT in
older women may not reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, Dr.
Bhavnani believes that this is not the whole story"
- A Healthy Heart -
Newsweek, 6/16/03 -
"If small LDL is the kind of cholesterol you
definitely don’t want to have, then HDL2B is the kind you definitely do want
to have, and the more the better. HDL2B is a superefficient type of HDL, the
good cholesterol that helps clear partially blocked arteries. HDL2B, the
strongest possible protection against heart disease, is measured as a
percentage of total HDL, and Superko likes his patients to be above 35
percent (for postmenopausal women, above 45 percent)" - See below.
Many are recommending HDL be a lot higher than that. - Ben
Hormone Replacement Normalises Cholesterol in African-American Women -
Doctor's Guide, 5/18/03 -
"randomised to daily combination
HRT consisting of 0.625 of conjugated oestrogen and 2.5 mg of
medroxyprogesterone ... Overall, the women had an 8% increase in total HDL
cholesterol ... They found an 8% reduction in the ratio of LDL to HDL ...
LDL composition measurements were not changed"
Rosiglitazone Improves Cholesterol Profile in Patients with Type 2 diabetes
- Doctor's Guide, 4/4/03 - "Rosiglitazone increases
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels and improves the ratio of
HDLC to total cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes ... mean HDLC
levels increased 15%, from 45.3 to 51.9 mg/dL"
- Raising HDL-C Levels
Slows CAD Progression and Reduces Mortality - Medscape, 4/3/04 -
"Results of two studies of high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C)-targeted therapies indicate that attacking heart disease
by increasing HDL-C levels appears to slow progression of atherosclerosis
and reduce mortality ... Although the protective effect of HDL-C is well
known, "most researchers ignore this fact," said Henrietta Reicher-Reiss,
MD, from Sheba Medical Center in Tel Hashomer, Israel. It is a costly
oversight since "about half of heart attack victims have normal [low-density
liprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels]," ... drugs designed to target HDL-C
have a number of adverse effects. Niacin, for
example, causes flushing, and fibrates are associated with gastrointestinal
side effects. That side-effect profile might be a factor against this
approach. Statins, on the other hand, tend to be very well tolerated"
- Exercise Training,
Without Weight Loss, Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Postheparin Plasma
Lipase Activity in Previously Sedentary Adults - Medscape, 3/19/03 -
"Exercise, without weight loss, increases SI
[insulin sensitivity] and PHPL activity in previously sedentary adults,
without changing K2 or fasting lipid levels. Furthermore, increased LPL is
associated with a decreased total:HDL
ratio, and an increased LPL:HL ratio is associated with a decreased waist
circumference. Therefore, even modest amounts of exercise in the absence of
weight loss positively affect markers of glucose and fat metabolism in
previously sedentary, middle-aged adults" - I threw this out because I
didn't know that "decreased total:HDL ratio ... is associated with a
decreased waist circumference" - This might be a long shot but that
sounds like increasing insulin sensitivity via such methods as
metformin and increasing HDL via supplements such as
niacin might decrease
pot bellies. - Ben
HDL Cholesterol Level Linked To Longevity, Cognitive Function - Clinical
Psychiatry News, 2/03 -
"A group of centenarians maintained significantly
higher than normal HDL cholesterol levels, and within the group the
parameter was strongly correlated with cognitive
function ... The centenarians' offspring were also significantly
healthier than their spouses: They were half as likely to have diabetes or
heart attacks and had significantly lower blood pressure. No strokes
occurred among the offspring ... The presence of HDL might explain the
health and longevity in these families. The serum concentration of HDL
typically declines with age by a mean of 5 mg/dL every 8 years ... Had the
decline followed the normal pattern, the centenarians' HDL would have been
about 20 mg/dL. But the actual mean value in the group was 55 mg/dL"
Unhealthy Trans Fats Not Labeled on Foods - WebMD, 2/10/03 -
are there and they are not labeled ... Saturated fats are the only fats
given special treatment on a product's label. Yet trans fats are just as
bad. They may even be worse ... Trans fat increases 'bad' LDL cholesterol --
in some studies more than saturated fat ... It also has a tendency to reduce
'good' HDL cholesterol, which saturated fat doesn't
do ... Trans fat also increases blood levels of two other bad actors. One is
the kind of fat called triglycerides. The
other is a particle called lipoprotein(a), which promotes clogged arteries
... Any amount of trans fat is bad"
Exchange, Not Reduction, of Fats Improve Cholesterol Levels - Doctor's
Guide, 1/15/03 - [Abstract]
Statin-Niacin Combination Counters Dyslipidaemic Cardiovascular Risk -
Doctor's Guide, 12/20/02 -
is a safe, tolerated therapy that lowers low density lipoprotein cholesterol
and raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol ... At
niacin doses of at least 1000 (mean 1480) mg/day added to a constant
statin regimen in 29 patients, high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose
significantly (by 20 percent)"
Big gut, other factors can kill you - USA Today, 12/3/02 -
"People with this syndrome have at least three of
the following risk factors: high blood sugar; a waist circumference of
greater than 40 inches for men or 35 inches for women; lower-than-average
HDL cholesterol (the so-called good cholesterol); high
triglycerides and high blood pressure
... men who had the syndrome at the study's start had a two to three times
greater chance of dying of a heart attack or a stroke during the study than
men who did not have this collection of risk factors ... People getting a
checkup should ask their family doctor to look for
Atkins diet good for cholesterol - USA Today, 11/18/02 -
"After six months, the people on the Atkins diet had
lost an average of 31 pounds, compared with 20 pounds on the AHA diet, and
more people stuck with the Atkins regimen ... Total
cholesterol fell slightly in both groups. However, those on the Atkins
diet had an 11% increase in HDL, the good cholesterol, and a 49% drop in
triglycerides. On the AHA diet, HDL was unchanged, and triglycerides
dropped 22%. High triglycerides may raise the risk of heart disease"
- That may be true but what about a diet devoid of anti-oxidants making you
old before your time. Plus, how much of that extra 11 pounds was water
loss? - Ben
Among Treated Hypertensive Patients, Low HDL Predicts Ventricular Remodeling
- Doctor's Guide, 9/26/02 -
"While low HDL
cholesterol levels are well known to be a major risk factor for coronary
heart disease, it is unclear whether it plays a role in hypertensive heart
disease ... The findings suggest that low HDL-C may play an adverse role not
only in coronary heart disease but also in hypertensive heart disease"
Paediatric Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Data Available -
Doctor's Guide, 9/9/02 -
"They define non-HDL cholesterol as total
cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol ... non-HDL cholesterol is a better
screening tool than low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for assessing
CAD risk in adults because it includes all classes of atherogenic
Arterial Walls Thicker In Patients With Low Levels of High-Density
Lipoprotein Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 2/20/02 -
"A low plasma concentration of high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with significant pre-intrusive
atherosclerosis. However, an above average level of HDL cholesterol does not
lead to a further reduction of arterial wall thickening"
Unexplained Link Between High Density Lipoproteins And Bone Density In
Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 12/20/01
Ratio of Total to LDL Cholesterol Is Best Predictor Of Coronary Heart
Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/01 -
"The total cholesterol/ HDL-C ratio was the most
powerful lipoprotein predictor of future coronary heart disease ... Using a
total cholesterol/HDL-C cholesterol ratio of 5.0 as the cut-off point was
associated with significantly better specificity and accuracy and similar
(though lower) sensitivity than an LDL-C level of 130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/l)"
More Good News About the 'Good' Cholesterol, High Levels of HDL Cholesterol
Protect Against Stroke, Too - WebMD, 6/6/01 -
"High levels of that "good" HDL cholesterol have
been known to protect against heart disease. Now a new study shows that high
HDL levels also protect people from suffering a stroke"
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