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sHome > Health Conditions > Hardening of the Arteries

Hardening or Stiffening of the Arteries

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  • Mediterranean-Style Diet Improves Systolic Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults - Hypertension. 2019 Jan 14 - "The intervention group received individually tailored standardized dietary advice and commercially available foods to increase adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The control group continued on their habitual diet and was provided with current national dietary guidance. In the 1142 participants who completed the trial (88.2%), after 1 year the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-5.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, -10.7 to -0.4; P=0.03), which was evident in males (-9.2 mm Hg, P=0.02) but not females (-3.1 mm Hg, P=0.37). The -1.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.3 to 0.9) decrease in diastolic pressure after intervention did not reach statistical significance. In a subset (n=225), augmentation index, a measure of arterial stiffness, was improved following intervention (-12.4; 95% CI, -24.4 to -0.5; P=0.04) with no change in pulse wave velocity"
  • Novel antioxidant makes old blood vessels seem young again - Science Daily, 4/19/18 - "Half took 20 milligrams per day of a supplement called MitoQ, made by chemically altering the naturally-occurring antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 to make it cling to mitochondria inside cells ... The other half took a placebo ... The researchers found that when taking the supplement, dilation of subjects' arteries improved by 42 percent, making their blood vessels, at least by that measure, look like those of someone 15 to 20 years younger. An improvement of that magnitude, if sustained, is associated with about a 13 percent reduction in heart disease, Rossman said. The study also showed that the improvement in dilation was due to a reduction in oxidative stress" - See MitoQ at Amazon.com.
  • High doses of vitamin D rapidly reduce arterial stiffness in overweight/obese, vitamin-deficient African-Americans - Science Daily, 1/2/18 - "In just four months, high-doses of vitamin D reduce arterial stiffness in young, overweight/obese, vitamin-deficient, but otherwise still healthy African-Americans ... The 4,000 upper-limit dose restored healthy blood level quicker -- by eight weeks -- and was also better at suppressing parathyroid hormone, which works against vitamin D's efforts to improve bone health by absorbing calcium ... More than 80 percent of Americans, the majority of whom spend their days indoors, have vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A need for bananas? Dietary potassium regulates calcification of arteries - Science Daily, 10/5/17 - "Bananas and avocados -- foods that are rich in potassium -- may help protect against pathogenic vascular calcification, also known as hardening of the arteries" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Type of sugar may treat atherosclerosis, mouse study shows - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "a natural sugar called trehalose revs up the immune system's cellular housekeeping abilities. These souped-up housecleaners then are able to reduce atherosclerotic plaque that has built up inside arteries. Such plaques are a hallmark of cardiovascular disease and lead to an increased risk of heart attack"  - See trehalose at Amazon.com.
  • Variations in Echogenicity in Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaques with Pycnogenol + Centella Asiatica Supplementation - Int J Angiol. 2017 Jun;26(2):95-101 - "Supplementation with the combination Pycnogenol-CA (centella asiatica) on the echogenicity of plaques was assessed at 6 months ... t 6 months, plasma free radicals were decreased with the supplements (17.64%; p < 0.05; vs <2% in controls). The plaque stability index increased from 11.22;2.3 to 22.4;1.1 (p < 0.05) with the supplements; no significant changes were seen in controls. Plaque echogenicity (% of "whiter" component in images) increased with supplementation from 16.7;1.7% to 34.2;2% (p < 0.05); no variations were observed in controls. The maximum plaque height decreased (p < 0.05) with the supplements. No significant variations were observed in controls. Plaque length was decreased (p < 0.05) in the supplement group with no changes in controls. The number of plaques (carotid, femoral bifurcations) decreased with supplementation; no significant changes were observed in controls" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) at Amazon.com.
  • Healthy arteries may be possible with aging - AHA, 5/30/17 - "The most important factors of achieving healthy vascular function were staying lean, or having a low body mass index, and avoiding diabetes ... The other lifestyle measures, such as maintaining favorable cholesterol levels, also came into play ... those who achieved six out of seven of the American Heart Association’s Life Simple 7 healthy heart goals were 10 times more likely to achieve healthy vascular aging than those who achieved zero to one of the measures"
  • Can the antioxidant resveratrol reduce artery stiffness in diabetics? - American Heart Association, 5/4/17 - "As the body’s largest artery, the aorta, becomes stiffer, the risk of heart attacks and strokes increases. In the current study, researchers used a test called the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) to measure aortic stiffness in 57 patients with Type-2 diabetes (average age 56 years, 52 percent female, 67 percent African-American and on average rating as obese on standard height/weight charts). Tests were performed after patients consumed daily doses of 100 mg/day of resveratrol for two weeks followed by 300 mg/day of resveratrol for two weeks and after comparable placebo dosing for a total of four weeks ... In a subset of 23 patients with high arterial stiffness at the start of the study, the 300 mg dose of resveratrol reduced aortic stiffness by 9.1 percent, the 100 mg lowered reduced aortic stiffness to a lesser extent, 4.8 percent, while stiffness increased with the placebo treatment ... We found that resveratrol also activates the longevity gene SIRT1 in humans, and this may be a potential mechanism for the supplements to reduce aortic stiffness" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Inactive Matrix Gla-Protein and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Am J Hypertens. 2016 Dec 7 - "Large artery stiffness is increased in diabetes mellitus and causes an excessive pulsatile load to the heart and to the microvasculature. The identification of pathways related to arterial stiffness may provide novel therapeutic targets to ameliorate arterial stiffness in diabetes. Matrix Gla-Protein (MGP) is an inhibitor of vascular calcification. Activation of MGP is vitamin K dependent. We hypothesized that levels of inactive MGP (dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP; dp-ucMGP) are related to arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes ... In our cross-sectional analysis, circulating dp-ucMGP was independently associated with CF-PWV in type 2 diabetes. This suggests that deficient vitamin K-dependent activation of MGP may lead to large artery stiffening and could be targeted with vitamin K supplementation in the patients with diabetes" - [Nutra USA] - See MK7 at Amazon.com.  Other article mentioned in the Nutra USA article:
  • Oral magnesium supplementation improves endothelial function and attenuates subclinical atherosclerosis in thiazide-treated hypertensive women - J Hypertens. 2016 Oct 18 - "Diuretics commonly cause hypomagneseamia ... Hypertensive women (40-65 years) on hydrochlorothiazide and mean 24-h BP at least 130/80 mmHg were divided into placebo and supplementation (magnesium chelate 600 mg/day) groups ... The magnesium group had a significant reduction in SBP (144 ± 17 vs. 134 ± 14 mmHg, P = 0.036) and DBP (88 ± 9 vs. 81 ± 8 mmHg, P = 0.005) at 6 months, without effect on plasma glucose, lipids, or arterial stiffness parameters. The placebo group showed a significant increase in carotid intima-media thickness (0.78 ± 0.13 vs. 0.89 ± 0.14 mm, P = 0.033) without change in the magnesium group (0.79 ± 0.16 vs. 0.79 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.716) after 6 months. The magnesium group demonstrated a significant increase in variation of FMD vs. the placebo group (+3.7 ± 2.1 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2%" - See magnesium chelate at Amazon.com.  I'm sticking with the Magtein form to kill more birds with the same stone.  See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Arterial Elasticity in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia on Statin Therapy - Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, Oct. 2016 - "We carried out an 8-week randomized, crossover intervention trial to test the effect of 4 g/d ω3-FA supplementation (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) on arterial elasticity in 20 adults with FH on optimal cholesterol-lowering therapy. Large and small artery elasticity were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. ω3-FA supplementation significantly (P<0.05 in all) increased large artery elasticity (+9%) and reduced systolic blood pressure (-6%) and diastolic blood pressure (-6%), plasma triglycerides (-20%), apoB concentration (-8%). In contrast, ω3-FAs had no significant effect on small artery elasticity" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic mixture VSL#3 reduce high fat diet induced vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice - AMB Express. 2016 Dec;6(1):61 - "ApoE(-/-) mice were fed high fat diet alone or with VSL#3 or a positive control treatment, telmisartan or both for 12 weeks. All treatments reduced atherosclerotic plaques significantly compared to high fat diet alone. VSL#3 significantly reduced proinflammatory adhesion molecules and risk factors of plaque rupture, reduced vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis to a comparable extent to telmisartan; and VSL#3 treated mice had the most distinctly different intestinal microbiota composition from the control groups. Combining the VSL#3 and telmisartan brought no further benefits. Our findings showed the therapeutic potential of VSL#3 in reducing atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • The Effects of Folate Supplementation on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Metabolic Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome -Ann Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul 23;69(1):41-50 - "Folate supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (-0.05 ± 0.13 vs. +0.02 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.01) compared with the placebo" - See methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term magnesium supplementation improves arterial stiffness in overweight and obese adults: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 6 - "Our data indicate that a daily magnesium supplement of 350 mg for 24 wk in overweight and obese adults reduces arterial stiffness, as estimated by a decrease in PWVc-f, suggesting a potential mechanism by which an increased dietary magnesium intake beneficially affects cardiovascular health" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with carotid intima-media thickness and risk of incident coronary artery disease according to apolipoprotein E phenotype in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb 10 - "common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were not associated with the risk of CAD ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were also not associated with increased CCA-IMT"
  • New study shows aged garlic extract can reduce dangerous plaque buildup in arteries - Science Daily, 1/21/16 - "the participants were given either a placebo or a dose of 2,400 milligrams of Aged Garlic Extract every day. A follow-up screening conducted a year after the initial screening found those who had taken Aged Garlic Extract had slowed total plaque accumulation by 80%, reduced soft plaque and demonstrated regression (less plaque on follow-up) for low-attenuation plaque" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin Suppresses Progression of Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Vascular Inflammation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells - Med Sci Monit. 2015 Dec 29;21:4081-9 - "Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation and apoptosis of VSMCs via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and the FAK signaling pathway, respectively, thus protecting ApoE-/- mice against atherosclerosis" - See Life Extension Vitamin B3 Niacin 500 Mg 100 capsules.
  • Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in prediabetic subjects identified according to HbA1c - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Oct 9;243(2):395-401 - "Subjects with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% and NFG/NT) had significantly reduced 25(OH)D levels compared with controls. Reduction of 25(OH)D levels is inversely associated with arterial stiffness independently of classical risk factors and inflammatory markers" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and ambulatory arterial stiffness index in newly diagnosed and never-treated hypertensive patients - Blood Press Monit. 2015 Oct 12 - "ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) ... Arterial stiffness measured by AASI in newly diagnosed and untreated patients with essential hypertension were significantly related to vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations are Inversely Associated with Elevated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2015 Oct 1 - "Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent elevated C-IMT. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated C-IMT was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99, P=0.04) when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Higher Plasma Phospholipid n-3 PUFAs, but Lower n-6 PUFAs, Are Associated with Lower Pulse Wave Velocity among Older Adults - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 26 - "Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by GC at baseline, and fish oil intake was assessed at 3 time points, namely, early life (ages 14-19), midlife (ages 40-50), and late life (ages 66-96, AGES-Reykjavik baseline) with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... Our results show a positive association between plasma n-6 PUFAs and arterial stiffness, and suggest that higher concentrations of plasma long-chain n-3 PUFAs are associated with less arterial stiffness and therein may be one of the mechanisms behind n-3 PUFAs and lower CVD risk" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Secoiridoids delivered as olive leaf extract induce acute improvements in human vascular function and reduction of an inflammatory cytokine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 8 - "The leaves of the olive plant (Olea europaea) are rich in polyphenols, of which oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT) are most characteristic. Such polyphenols have been demonstrated to favourably modify a variety of cardiovascular risk factors ... trial was conducted with eighteen healthy volunteers (nine male, nine female), who consumed either OLE (51 mg oleuropein; 10 mg HT), or a matched control (separated by a 4-week wash out) on a single occasion ... DVP-stiffness index and ex vivo IL-8 production were significantly reduced (P< 0·05) after consumption of OLE compared to the control" - [Nutra USA] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • The Role of CD36 in the Effect of Arginine in Atherosclerotic Rats - Med Sci Monit. 2015 May 24 - "The addition of arginine has a significant effect on reducing rat atherosclerosis development, which may be attributed to both the down-regulation of CD36 expression in rat aortic endothelial and blood mononuclear cells and the NO pathway" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls - J Hum Hypertens. 2015 May 14 - "Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) ... Periodontitis patients showed a significantly increased PWV compared with the reference group (8.01±0.20 vs 7.36±0.22 m s-1 respectively; P=0.029) and this remained significant after adjustments for ACVD risk factors (P=0.019). After periodontal therapy, no significant reduction in PWV was seen (8.00±1.8 to 7.82±1.6 m s-1; P=0.13), but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced (119.8±14.6 to 116.9±15.1 mm Hg; P=0.040). It can be concluded that periodontitis is associated with increased AS"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Feb 25 - "Low levels of Vitamin D were associated with high BMI (p < 0.001), high total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p < 0.001 for all) in both diabetics and non-diabetics. Among non-diabetic patients, low Vitamin D was also associated independently with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.005). Low Vitamin D levels were independently associated with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (p < 0.005) and increased left atrial diameter (p < 0.03) measured by cardiac ultrasound by 2-dimensional echo. In the non-diabetic group, low Vitamin D levels were associated with impaired LV filling (high E/E') (p < 0.03) and low E/A mitral flow pattern measured by Doppler echocardiography (p < 0.05). Among diabetics, low Vitamin D levels were also related to increased LV end-systolic diameter (p < 0.05) and right ventricular diameter (p < 0.005). The association between LV diastolic filling (E/E') and Vitamin D levels was significant (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the commonly recognized risk factors of diastolic dysfunction in linear regression analysis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women: double-blind randomised clinical trial - Thromb Haemost. 2015 Feb 19 - "Healthy postmenopausal women (n=244) received either placebo (n=124) or MK-7 (n=120) for three years ... In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness" - [Nutra USA] - See MK-7 at Amazon.com.
  • Antiatherosclerotic effect of korean red ginseng extract involves regulator of g-protein signaling 5 - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:985174 - "In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr(-/-) mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries may help reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness - Science Daily, 1/8/15 - "Over an eight-week period, 48 postmenopausal women with pre- and stage-1 hypertension were randomly assigned to receive either 22 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder -- the equivalent to one cup of fresh blueberries -- or 22 grams of a placebo powder ... At the end of the eight weeks, participants receiving the blueberry powder on average had a 7 mmHg (5.1 percent) decrease in systolic blood pressure, which is the top number in the blood pressure reading that measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats. They also saw a 5 mmHg (6.3 percent) reduction in diastolic blood pressure, or the bottom number measuring the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats ... Additionally, participants in the blueberry-treated group had an average reduction of 97 cm/second (6.5 percent) in arterial stiffness" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • The Effects of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fish Oils and Multivitamins on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Function: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Jan 7:1-11 - "Absolute increases in the red blood cell omega-3/6 ratio were associated with improvements in spatial working memory. The group receiving 6 g fish oil without the multivitamin displayed a significant decrease in aortic pulse pressure and aortic augmentation pressure, two measures of aortic blood pressure and aortic stiffness" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association between periodontal disease and its treatment, flow-mediated dilatation and carotid intima-media thickness: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jun 17;236(1):39-46 - "Meta-analysis demonstrated that the diagnosis of PD was associated with a mean increase in c-IMT of 0.08 mm (95% C.I. = 0.07-0.09) and a mean difference in FMD of 5.1% compared to controls (95% C.I. = 2.08-8.11%). A meta-analysis of the effects of periodontal treatment on FMD showed a mean improvement of 6.64% between test and control (95% C.I. = 2.83-10.44%)"
  • Serum free thyroxine levels are positively associated with arterial stiffness in the SardiNIA study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Jun 23 - "Like several other known risk factors, serum FT4 levels are associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, suggesting that high FT4 levels have a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and may contribute to aging process of the vascular system. This finding may help to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and contribute to improve prevention therapy" - Note:  Yet you talk to a doctor about substituting some of the T4 with T3 and they think you're crazy.  See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • 'Tomato pill' improves function of blood vessels in patients with cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 6/9/14 - "One component of the Mediterranean diet thought to play a role in reducing this risk is lycopene, a powerful antioxidant which is ten times more potent than vitamin E. Lycopene is found in tomatoes and other fruits, and its potency appears to be enhanced when it is consumed pureed, in ketchup or in the presence of olive oil ... Thirty-six cardiovascular disease patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers were given either Ateronon (an off-the-shelf supplement containing 7mg of lycopene) or a placebo treatment ... 7mg of oral lycopene supplementation improved and normalised endothelial function in the patients, but not in healthy volunteers. Lycopene improved the widening of the blood vessels by over a half (53%) compared to baseline in those taking the pill after correction for those who took the placebo" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr 18;235(1):31-35 - "Our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation can significantly improve endothelial dysfunction as assessed by FMD in the brachial artery in patients with coronary heart disease" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Novel antioxidant makes old arteries seem young again, study shows - Science Daily, 5/6/14 - "When the research team gave old mice -- the equivalent of 70- to 80-year-old humans -- water containing an antioxidant known as MitoQ for four weeks, their arteries functioned as well as the arteries of mice with an equivalent human age of just 25 to 35 years ... MitoQ completely restored endothelial function in the old mice. They looked like young mice ... Biochemists manufactured MitoQ by adding a molecule to ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q10), a naturally occurring antioxidant. The additional molecule makes the ubiquinone become concentrated in mitochondria ... the MitoQ treatment increased levels of nitric oxide, reduced oxidative stress and improved the health of the mitochondria in the arteries of old mice" - See MitoQ at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of vitamin C on endothelial function in health and disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr 18;235(1):9-20 - "endothelial function (EF) ... Pooling the data from 44 clinical trials showed a significant positive effect of vitamin C on EF (SMD: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.66, P < 0.001). Stratification of the analysis by health outcome revealed improved EF in atherosclerotic (SMD: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.41, 1.26, P < 0.001), diabetic (SMD: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.82, P < 0.001) and heart failure patients (SMD: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.88, P < 0.02) after vitamin C supplementation ... The meta-regression showed a significant positive association between vitamin C dose and improvement in EF" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Lower potassium intake is associated with increased wave reflection in young healthy adults - Nutr J. 2014 Apr 28;13(1):39 - "Thirty-six young healthy adults (21 M, 15 F; 24 +/- 0.6 yrs; systolic BP 117 +/- 2; diastolic BP 63 +/- 1 mmHg) recorded their dietary intake for 3 days and collected their urine for 24 hours on the 3rd day ... These data suggest that lower potassium intakes are associated with greater wave reflection and stiffer arteries in young healthy adults" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Vitamin D Inadequacy Accelerates Calcification and Osteoblast-Like Cell Formation in the Vascular System of LDL Receptor Knockout and Wild-Type Mice - J Nutr. 2014 Mar 19 - "Vitamin D insufficiency is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We have demonstrated enhanced vascular calcification in LDL receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice fed a diet low in vitamin D ... Collectively, the findings imply low vitamin D status as a causal factor for vascular calcification and atherosclerosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid levels and carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese men and women - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan;232(1):79-85 - "A comparison in the highest and lowest tertiles gave odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for thickening in the walls of the common carotid artery of 0.58 (0. 34-0.97; P-trend = 0. 037) for DHA, and 0.39 (0.23-0.67; P-trend < 0.001) for ALA. However, EPA was not significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.  ALA is another omega-3.
  • Habitual fish intake and clinically silent carotid atherosclerosis - Nutr J. 2014 Jan 9;13(1):2 - "participants were divided into three groups: non-consumers or consumers of less than 1 serving a week (24.0%), consumers of 1 serving a week (38.8%), and consumers of >= 2 servings a week (37.2%). Age-adjusted prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (presence of plaques or intima media thickness >= 0.9 mm) was higher in the low fish consumption group (13.3%, 12.1% and 6.6%, respectively; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis evidenced that carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.09-1.14), hypertension on pharmacologic treatment (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.16-2.82), and pulse pressure (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04), while consuming >=2 servings of fish weekly was protective compared with the condition of consumption of <1 serving of fish weekly (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.80)"
  • An Increase in the EPA/AA Ratio is Associated with Improved Arterial Stiffness in Obese Patients with Dyslipidemia - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013 Nov 22 - "88 patients received either highly purified EPA treatment(1.8g daily, n=45) or treatment without EPA(control, n=43) ... These findings suggest that EPA improves the arterial stiffness in association with an increase in the EPA/AA ratio and a decrease in inflammation in obese patients with dyslipidemia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Hawthorn Fruit Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Improving the Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activities in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013 Oct 11 - "ApoE-/- mice were divided into a control group (n=10) and hawthorn fruit group (n=10) ... The hawthorn fruit group mice developed significantly decreased (p<0.05) atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of serum lipids decreased significantly (p<0.05) and the levels of cholesterol/triglycerides, including very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreased in the hawthorn fruit group ... The hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA levels were reduced by 42% (p<0.05) and 23% p<0.05) in the mice fed the hawthorn fruit diet compared with that observed in the mice fed a standard diet" - See hawthorn products at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 18 - "To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women ... A total of 190 premenopausal women (30-40 y old) and 182 postmenopausal women (50-60 y old) with dyslipidemia were given 800 mg Ca/d or a placebo for 2 y in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ... Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia increases serum total cholesterol concentrations and CIMT. In postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia, calcium supplements should be prescribed with caution"
  • Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 19:1-7 - "carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) ... All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months ... The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly by 0.035 mm (P= 0.042) and 0.073 mm (P< 0.001) in the lutein and combination groups at month 12, respectively" - Note: Some studies indicate that supplementing with just a few of the over 600 carotenoids can cause a deficiency of the others so I stick with supplements that have a broad array of carotenoids.  See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Consumption of coffee, not green tea, is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in Japanese men - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "540 eligible men who enrolled in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan ... Coffee consumption was inversely associated with arterial stiffness independent of known atherosclerotic risk factors, and this association was partly mediated by reduced circulating triglycerides"
  • Salt loading and potassium supplementation: effects on ambulatory arterial stiffness index and endothelin-1 levels in normotensive and mild hypertensive patients - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2013 Jul;15(7):485-96 - "The authors investigated effects of excessive salt intake and potassium supplementation on ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in salt-sensitive and non-salt-sensitive individuals. AASI and symmetric AASI (s-AASI) were used as indicators of arterial stiffness. Plasma ET-1 levels were used as an index of endothelial function ... After 3 days of baseline investigation, participants were maintained sequentially for 7 days each on diets of low salt (51.3 mmol/d), high salt (307.7 mmol/d), and high salt+potassium (60 mmol/d) ... High-salt intervention significantly increased BP, AASI, s-AASI (all P<.001); potassium supplementation reversed increased plasma ET-1 levels. High-salt-induced changes in BP, s-AASI, and plasma ET-1 were greater in salt-sensitive individuals. Potassium supplementation decreased systolic BP and ET-1 to a significantly greater extent in salt-sensitive vs non-salt-sensitive individuals ... dietary salt and increasing daily potassium improves arterial compliance and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of watermelon supplementation on arterial stiffness and wave reflection amplitude in postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2013 May;20(5):573-7 - "In a randomized cross-over study, 12 postmenopausal women (mean [SE] age, 57 [1] y; mean [SE] body mass index, 38.1 [2.1] kg/m; mean [SE] SBP, 153 [4] mm Hg) were assigned to watermelon supplementation (L-citrulline/L-arginine 6 g/d) or placebo supplementation for 6 weeks ... baPWV (-1.2 [0.3] m/s, P < 0.001), aortic SBP (-10 [3] mm Hg, P < 0.01), and aortic diastolic blood pressure (-7 [1] mm Hg, P < 0.001) decreased after watermelon supplementation compared with placebo ... Watermelon supplementation reduces arterial stiffness and aortic SBP by reducing pressure wave reflection amplitude in obese postmenopausal women with hypertension" - Note:  A -10 on the systolic is about what you'd get with prescription medications. - See Stimulin at Amazon.com (1,875 mg of L-citrulline) and L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Supplementation with n3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Increases Large and Small Arterial Elasticity in Obese Adults on a Weight Loss Diet - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "carry out a 12-wk randomized, single-blind trial to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit weight loss diet alone (WL) (n = 12) or WL plus 4 g/d Omacor (46% EPA and 38% DHA) supplementation (WL+FAEE) (n = 13) on arterial elasticity in obese adults. Large (C1) and small artery elasticity (C2) were measured ... Supplementation with n3 FAEEs improves C1 and C2 independent of weight loss in obese adults" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Lutein Supplement on Serum Inflammatory Cytokines, ApoE and Lipid Profiles in Early Atherosclerosis Population - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012 Nov 15 - "Early atherosclerosis patients (n= 65) were randomized to receive placebo (A+P, n= 31) or 20 mg/d lutein (A+L, n= 34) for 3 months ... An increase in serum lutein after supplementation can reduce inflammatory cytokines and regulate serum lipids, which may pay important roles in early atherosclerosis" - See lutein at Amazon.com or Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.  Note:  There are over 600 carotenoids.  I read at least one study that claims that taking large doses of just one carotenoid can cause a deficiency of the others.
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in ischemic stroke: Importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the risk for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep 20 - "intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) ... no cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis, NCAS ... Age, coexistence of hypertension/diabetes were significantly different among the groups. Phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between non-stroke control and ischemic stroke patients, and interestingly, between NCAS and ICAS in stroke patients. Pattern analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the ω3-polyunsaturated FAs were important FAs in distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Particularly, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with levels of DHA contents in phospholipids (OR: 0.590, 95% CI: 0.350-0.993, p < 0.05), indicating that the risk may be increased at lower levels of DHA contents ... DHA and EPA are important FAs for distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Additionally, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with the levels of phospholipid DHA, which indicates that sufficient amounts of DHA in plasma or in diet may reduce the risk of ICAS" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • New link between high-fat 'Western' diet and atherosclerosis identified - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "endothelial lipase (EL), an enzyme associated with the development of atherosclerosis ... In the current study, a strain of mice susceptible to atherosclerosis was fed a normal diet enriched with either palmitic acid (a common saturated fat) or eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid, or polyunsaturated fat, found in fish oil, among other foods). After 12 weeks, the mice's aortas were examined for changes in the expression of EL and inflammatory factors. Aortas of mice fed the saturated fat diet showed a significant increase in EL and detrimental changes in inflammatory factors, while those of mice fed the polyunsaturated fat diet showed a significant decrease in EL and beneficial changes in inflammatory factors ... when the macrophages were given rosiglitazone, the expression of EL increased markedly. The addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the cells blocked this increase. "This would suggest that besides raising LDL cholesterol levels, rosiglitazone can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing EL,"" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratios on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin-Treated Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 2 - "A low ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with cardiovascular events ... Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions in the percutaneous coronary intervention vessel was evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in 101 patients at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention and 8 months after statin therapy ... decreases in serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios are associated with progression in coronary atherosclerosis evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich olive oil in patients with early atherosclerosis - Eur J Nutr. 2012 Aug 8 - "Eighty-two patients with early atherosclerosis (presence of endothelial dysfunction) were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized trial with 52 completing the study. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a daily intake of 30 ml simple OO, with 30 ml of EGCG-supplemented OO, on endothelial function as well as on inflammation and oxidative stress after a period of 4 months ... After 4 months, when OO and EGCG-supplemented OO groups were combined, OO significantly improved endothelial function (RHI, 1.59 +/- 0.25-1.75 +/- 0.45; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in results between the two olive oil groups. Interestingly, with OO supplementation there was a significant reduction in inflammatory parameters: sICAM (196 to 183 ng/mL, p = < 0.001); white blood cells (WBCs) (6.0 × 10(9)/L-5.8 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.05); monocytes (0.48 × 10(9)/L to 0.44 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.05); lymphocytes (1.85 × 10(9)/L to 1.6 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.01); and platelets (242-229 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.047)" - [Nutra USA] - Click here for my method of making olive oil mayonnaise.  Make sure all the ingredients are at room temperature.  Note:  The so called olive oil mayonnaise you see in the store is mostly omega-6. If you read the ingredients, it might have olive oil near the beginning but then you see about three omega-6 oils after it. For example, if it contained 1/3 cup of olive oil and 1/4 cup soy oil and 1/4 cup of palm oil and 1/4 cup of corn oil you’d have over a cup of oil consisting of 1/3 cup omega-9 oils and 3/4 cup of omega-6 oils. The omega-9 is still the top one.
  • Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid Increases Interleukin-10 Levels of Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Obese Patients With Dyslipidemia - Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 21 - "Peripheral blood monocytes were prepared from 26 obese patients without and 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia. Of the latter 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia, 82 patients were treated with or without EPA treatment (1.8 g daily) for 3 months ... This study is the first to show that EPA increases the monocyte IL-10 expression in parallel with decrease of arterial stiffness, which may contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of EPA in obese dyslipidemic patients" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Egg yolk consumption almost as bad as smoking when it comes to atherosclerosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "regular consumption of egg yolks is about two-thirds as bad as smoking when it comes to increased build-up of carotid plaque ... The study looked at data from 1,231 men and women, with a mean age of 61.5, who were patients attending vascular prevention clinics at London Health Sciences Centre's University Hospital ... The researchers found carotid plaque area increased linearly with age after age 40, but increased exponentially with pack-years of smoking and egg yolk-years" - Note:  See my eggs page.  There's a lot of controversy over this.
  • Lower lifetime dietary fiber intake is associated with carotid artery stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):14-23 - "This was a longitudinal cohort study among 373 participants in whom dietary intake was assessed between the ages of 13 to 36 y (2-8 repeated measures, median of 5), and arterial stiffness estimates of 3 large arteries (ultrasonography) were ascertained at age 36 y ... After adjustment for sex, height, total energy intake, and other lifestyle variables, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries consumed less fiber (in g/d) during the 24-y study than did those with less stiff carotid arteries, as defined on the basis of the highest compared with the lowest sex-specific tertiles of the distensibility and compliance coefficients (reversed) and Young's elastic modulus: -1.9 (95% CI: -3.1, -0.7), -2.3 (-3.5, -1.1), and -1.3 (-2.5, -0.0), respectively. Furthermore, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries were characterized by a lower lifetime consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains-deleterious associations that could be explained, to a great extent, by related low fiber intake"
  • Arterial Stiffness and Vitamin D Levels: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul 5 - "The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) is an independent cross-sectional correlate of central arterial stiffness in a normative aging study population ... Vitamin D levels are inversely associated with increased arterial stiffness in a normative aging population, irrespective of traditional risk factor burden. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of this association and to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation can reduce arterial stiffness" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of folic acid supplementation on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Dec 9 - "Our analysis showed that folic acid supplementation significantly reduces the progression of CIMT (WMD: -0.04mm; 95%CI: -0.07, -0.02; P<0.001), particularly in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (WMD: -0.16mm; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.07; P=0.0006) or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (WMD: -0.05mm; 95%CI: -0.11, 0.00; P=0.06) but not in subjects who were generally healthy with only elevated homocysteine concentrations (WMD:0.00mm; 95%CI: -0.01, 0.01; P=0.35). Furthermore, meta-regression analysis of the data showed that the baseline CIMT levels (P=0.011) and the percent reduction of homocysteine (P<0.001) were positively related to the effect size. Consistently, a greater beneficial effect was seen in those trials with baseline CIMT levels ≥0.8mm (WMD: -0.14mm; 95%CI: -0.19, -0.08; P<0.0001), and a reduction in the homocysteine concentration ≥30% (WMD: -0.22mm; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.06; P=0.009)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • The association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased aortic stiffness - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Oct 20 - "Subjects in the bottom 25(OH)D quartile (<20 ng ml(-1)) showed the highest aortic PWV (9.04 m s(-1)), compared with 2nd-4th quartile (8.07 m s(-1), 7.93 m s(-1) and 7.70 m s(-1), respectively; P for trend <0.0001). The association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV remained significant after adjustment for age, gender and other potential confounders; subjects in the first 25(OH)D quartile had adjusted odds ratio 2.04 (1.26-3.30) for having aortic PWV 9 m s(-1) (top quartile) in multiple regression. In conclusion, we found a clear significant and independent negative association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV. Subjects with lowest vitamin D status showed the highest arterial stiffness" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):974-80 - "A total of ten n-3 trials met the final inclusion criteria; four using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and six using arterial compliance, measured as capacitive compliance or systemic arterial compliance, as respective outcome measures. Meta-analysis revealed that n-3 was statistically significant in effectively improving both PWV (g = 0.33; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.56; P < 0.01) and arterial compliance (g = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.72; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • High serum level of lutein may be protective against early atherosclerosis: The Beijing atherosclerosis study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug 10 - "The case-control study comprised 125 subjects with early atherosclerosis and 107 controls aged 45-68 years. We simultaneously measured common carotid IMT and arterial stiffness by carotid ultrasonography, and serum carotenoids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC) ... In cases of early atherosclerosis, serum level of lutein was significantly lower than that in controls. Serum lutein was inversely associated with carotid IMT. Zeaxanthin and β-carotene were both negatively correlated with right common carotid artery stiffness β, elastic modulus (E(p)), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). After adjusting for age and gender, the associations remain significantly (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference for zeaxanthin and β-carotene between the cases and controls" - see lutein at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Atherosclerosis, Study Finds - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "They found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with both intima-media thickness (beta, -0.01 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .05) and maximal carotid plaque thickness (beta, -0.10 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .03) ... In a model containing traditional cardiac risk factors and indices of mineral metabolism, 25-hydroxyvitamin D accounted for 13% of the variance in both intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Differential Association of Docosahexaenoic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness - Stroke. 2011 Jul 14 - "Japanese compared to U.S. whites had significantly lower IMT (mean+/-SD, 618+/-81 and 672+/-94 μm for Japanese and whites, respectively; P<0.001) and had >2-fold higher levels of DHA and EPA. DHA, but not EPA, had an inverse association with IMT in both Japanese and U.S. whites. The inverse association remained only in Japanese men after adjusting for risk and other factors. The significant difference in multivariable-adjusted IMT became nonsignificant after further adjusting for DHA (mean difference, 17 μm; 95% CI, -8 to 43; P=0.177) but not EPA. In this multivariable-adjusted model, DHA but not EPA was a significant predictor of IMT (P=-0.032 versus 0.863, respectively) ... These data suggest that DHA may have a more potent antiatherogenic effect than EPA, especially in levels observed in the Japanese, independent of risk factors" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Association between yogurt, milk, and cheese consumption and common carotid artery intima-media thickness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "Total dairy product, milk, and cheese consumption was not associated with CCA-IMT (P > 0.05), whereas yogurt consumption was negatively associated with CCA-IMT (unadjusted standardized β = -0.081, P = 0.008; baseline risk factor-adjusted standardized β = -0.075, P = 0.015). Participants who consumed >100 g yogurt/d had a significantly lower CCA-IMT than did participants with lower consumption (unadjusted = -0.024 mm, P = 0.002). This relation remained significant after adjustment for baseline, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors (multivariable analysis = -0.023 mm, P = 0.003) ... Increased consumption of yogurt, but not of other dairy products, is associated with a lower CCA-IMT, independent of other risk factors"
  • Amazing acai alleviates atherosclerosis: Study - Nutra USA, 4/6/11 - "The study, published in Atherosclerosis , presents evidence to suggest that the athero-protective effect of the açaí juice is in part due to reduced break down of lipids (lipid peroxidation) – which may be due to increasing the levels and activity of two antioxidant enzymes ... Markers of oxidative stress were found to be significantly lower in the serum and liver of açaí juice fed animals ... Results from analysis of 17 genes related to oxidation/antioxidant enzymes also showed that expression of two antioxidant enzyme genes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GSR) – considered important antioxidant enzymes in vascular systems – were significantly up-regulated in the aorta of açaí juice fed mice ... The activities of GSR in serum and liver and GPX in serum were also reported to increase in açaí juice fed mice ... Hence, these two antioxidant enzymes may act synergistically to reduce lipid peroxidation ... In further experiments, mice fed açaí juice for 5 weeks were reported to have significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α" -[Abstract] - See acai berry products at iHerb.
  • Açaí juice attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Feb 24 - "ApoE(-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 5% freeze-dried açaí juice powder (AJ) for 20 weeks. The mean lesion areas in the aorta for apoE(-/-) mice fed AJ were 58% less (P<0.001) compared to that for CD fed mice. HDL-cholesterol was higher in AJ fed mice. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F(2)-isoprostanes and isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were significantly lower in serum and in liver of AJ fed mice. Expression of the two antioxidant enzyme genes, Gpx3 and Gsr, were significantly up-regulated in the aorta from AJ fed mice. The activity of GPX, GSR and PON1 increased in serum and/or liver of mice fed AJ. In the second experiment, ApoE(-/-) mice were fed CD or AJ for 5 weeks. Serum levels, gene expression and protein levels of the two proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the resident macrophages with or without LPS stimulation were lower in mice fed AJ. SEAP reporter assay determined that AJ reduced NF-κB activation" - See acai berry products at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D levels linked with health of blood vessels - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "A lack of vitamin D, even in generally healthy people, is linked with stiffer arteries and an inability of blood vessels to relax ... people with vitamin D deficiency had vascular dysfunction comparable to those with diabetes or hypertension ... It could be strengthening endothelial cells and the muscles surrounding the blood vessels. It could also be reducing the level of angiotensin, a hormone that drives increased blood pressure, or regulating inflammation ... Forty-two study participants with vitamin D insufficiency whose levels later went back to normal had an average drop in blood pressure of 4.6 millimeters mercury" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Sleep duration is significantly associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis incidence in a Japanese population - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Feb 24 - "Sleep duration ≥7h correlated significantly with the incidence of IMT≥1.2mm when compared with a sleep duration of 6h (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.263; 95% confidence interval, 1.031-1.546, P=0.024). Shorter sleep duration ≤5h did not correlate significantly with the risk compared with a sleep duration of 6h"
  • Bacteria eyed for possible role in atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "a chronic infection may underlie the process of atherosclerosis, an infection that can be initiated by the systemic dissemination of bacteria though different "gates" in the vascular wall -- as in the case of a septic patient, through intestinal infection. The data support Dr. Kozarov's previous studies, where his team identified periodontal bacteria in carotid artery, thus pointing to tissue-destructing periodontal infections as one possible gate to the circulation"
  • The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "Of the 75 relevant studies located, we considered 38 studies to be appropriate for review. Results revealed support for intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fish oils (Cohen's d = 0.21-0.81) and soy isoflavones (Cohen's d = 0.35-0.39) in the treatment of arterial stiffness. There was limited but consistent evidence to suggest that salt restriction (Cohen's d = 0.28-0.37) as well as consumption of fermented-milk products (Cohen's d = 0.15-0.33) that contain bioactive peptides improved arterial stiffness. The evidentiary support for intakes of vitamins, micronutrients, and herbal medicines was insufficient. Limited but consistent evidence suggested that caffeine intake acutely increased arterial stiffness (Cohen's d = 0.34-0.51) ... Current evidence from several small studies suggests that omega-3 and soy isoflavone supplementation provides an effective means of reducing arterial stiffness" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Lifetime Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Arterial Pulse Wave Velocity in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Circulation. 2010 Nov 29 - "Vegetable consumption in childhood was inversely associated with adulthood PWV (β=-0.06, P=0.02), and this association remained significant (β=-0.07, P=0.004) when adjusted for traditional risk factors (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking). Vegetable consumption was also an independent predictor of PWV in adulthood when adjusted for lifestyle or traditional risk factors (β=-0.08, P=0.002 and β=-0.07, P=0.0007, respectively). Persistently high consumption of both fruits and vegetables from childhood to adulthood was associated with lower PWV compared with persistently low consumption (P=0.03 for both). The number of lifestyle risk factors (the lowest quintile for vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, physical activity, and smoking) in childhood was directly associated with PWV in adulthood (P=0.001). This association remained significant when adjusted for the number of lifestyle risk factors in adulthood ... lifetime lifestyle risk factors, with low consumption of fruits and vegetables in particular, are related to arterial stiffness in young adulthood"
  • Protective effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rabbits via alleviating inflammatory injury in endothelial cells - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Aug 3 - "The risk for atherosclerosis is increased in postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is postulated to have anti-atherogenic properties ... DHEA administration alleviates efficiently the early pathologic damage of atherosclerosis, increases the serum NO level, and up-regulates the endothelial cell estrogen receptor (ER) expression of ovariectomized rabbits. DHEA in vitro significantly promotes NO synthesis, suppresses MDA and MCP-1 secretion of endothelial cells, and decreases ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression in HUVECs; neither selective ERα antagonist (methyl-piperidino-pyrazole, MPP) nor ERβ antagonist (R,R-tetrahydrochrysene, R,RTHC) can abolish these effects. Furthermore, DHEA reduces CCR2, LFA-1 and VLA-4 expression in U937 cells, which in turn inhibits the adherence of monocytes to the injured endothelial cells. DHEA significantly decreased the LPS-induced NF-κB transcription" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • New evidence for nicotinic acid treatment to reduce atherosclerosis - Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010 Oct;8(10):1457-1467 - "Emerging evidence from clinical and basic research studies indicates that novel direct antiatherosclerotic properties might mediate nicotinic acid-induced cardiovascular protection. Despite some limitations in its clinical use (mainly due to the incidence of adverse events, such as cutaneous flushing and hepatotoxicity), nicotinic acid should be considered as a very potent therapeutic approach to reduce atherosclerosis. Promising research developments are warranted in the near future" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries help fight artery hardening, lab animal study indicates - Science Daily, 9/29/10 - "Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of two forms of cardiovascular disease--heart attacks and strokes. Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of Americans ... Lesion size, measured at two sites on aorta (arteries leading from the heart), was 39 and 58 percent less than that of lesions in mice whose diet did not contain blueberry powder ... The blueberry-spiked diet contained 1 percent blueberry powder, the equivalent of about a half-cup of fresh blueberries" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years independently of common cardiovascular risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep 21 - "Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790+/-0.003mmol/l, mean+/-SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years (p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)<=0.73mmol/l), LVM (187.4+/-3.1g at baseline) increased by 14.9+/-1.2g, while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85mmol/l) LVM (186.7+/-3.4g at baseline) decreased by -0.5+/-2.8g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This association remained highly significant after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and oxfenicine on aorta stiffness in diabetic rats - Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul 29 - "Oxfenicine, but not acetyl-L-carnitine, increased total peripheral resistance in diabetes, which paralleled its elevation in plasma levels of free fatty acids. By contrast, acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, resulted in a significant increase in wave transit time and a decrease in wave reflection factor, suggesting that acetyl-L-carnitine may attenuate the diabetes-induced deterioration in systolic loading condition for the left ventricle. This was in parallel with its lowering of MDA/TBARS content in plasma and aortic walls in diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine therapy also prevented the diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by the reduction in ratio of the left ventricular weight to body weight. Conclusion Acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, attenuates aortic stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy, possibly through its decrease of lipid oxidation-derived MDA/TBARS in the rats with insulin deficiency" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidants do help arteries stay healthy - Science Daily, 7/5/10 - "Long-term supplementation with dietary antioxidants has beneficial effects on sugar and fat metabolism, blood pressure and arterial flexibility in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors ... receive either antioxidants or placebo capsules for six months. Tests at the beginning of the trial, after three months and at the six month mark revealed that the patients in the antioxidant group had more elastic arteries (a measure of increased cardiovascular health) and better blood sugar and cholesterol profiles"
  • Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 7 - "large artery elasticity index (LAEI) ... Although large artery elasticity index (LAEI) did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (10.64.3 vs.11.64.5 ml/mm HgX100, p=0.346), at the end of the study LAEI was significantly greater in patients treated with L-arginine than in the placebo group (12.73.4 vs. 8.02.8 ml/mm HgX10, p<0.0001). Systemic vascular resistance was significantly lower in patients treated with L-arginine than in the placebo group after 6 months. Small artery elasticity index (SAEI) did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline or at the end of the study. Serum aldosterone decreased significantly in Group 1 from 10.76.3 to 8.45.0 ng/ml (p=0.008), but did not change in the placebo group. CONCLUSION:: L-arginine supplementation improves LAEI in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This improvement was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance as well as a decrease in aldosterone levels. The results suggest that long term L-arginine supplementation has beneficial vascular effects in pathologic disease states associated with endothelial dysfunction" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary zinc intake is inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness - Br J Nutr. 2010 May 21:1-10 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean carotid IMT in the low Zn intake group was higher than that in the high Zn intake group. When subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as >80th percentile value of IMT or >/= 1 mm of carotid IMT, after adjustment for potential confounders, Zn intake was inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis (5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.90, P for trend = 0.069; 5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.70, P for trend = 0.005, respectively). In persons free of clinical CVD, dietary Zn intake was inversely correlated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The present findings suggest a putative protective role of dietary Zn intake against the development of atherosclerosis" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (zinc supplementation can cause a copper deficiency.
  • Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections in Marathon Runners - Am J Hypertens. 2010 May 20 - "Marathon runners had significantly higher systolic, diastolic, pulse (both aortic and brachial), and mean pressures compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). Marathon runners had significantly higher PWV (6.89 m/s vs. 6.33 m/s, P < 0.01), whereas there was no difference in AIx and AIx corrected for heart rate (AIx@75) compared to controls (13.8% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.985 and 8.2% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.340, respectively). Marathon race caused a significant fall in both AIx (12.2% vs. -5.8%, P < 0.001) and AIx@75 (7.0% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.01), whereas PWV did not change significantly (6.66 m/s vs. 6.74 m/s, P = 0.690). Aortic and brachial systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures were also decreased (P < 0.05).Conclusions A significant fall in wave reflections was observed after marathon race, whereas aortic stiffness was not altered. Moreover, marathon runners have increased aortic stiffness and pressures, whereas wave reflections indexes do not differ compared to controls"
  • Effects of continuous vs. interval exercise training on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in treated hypertension - Hypertens Res. 2010 Apr 9 - "Continuous and interval exercise training were beneficial for blood pressure control, but only interval training reduced arterial stiffness in treated hypertensive subjects"
  • Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and Its Isolated Ginsenosides and Polysaccharides on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Individuals - Am J Hypertens. 2010 Feb 4 - "Although preliminary, this study is the first to demonstrate that KRG may improve arterial stiffness as measured by AI" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Extended-Release Niacin or Ezetimibe and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness - N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 15 - "This comparative-effectiveness trial shows that the use of extended-release niacin causes a significant regression of carotid intima-media thickness when combined with a statin and that niacin is superior to ezetimibe"
  • Independent inverse relationship between serum lycopene concentration and arterial stiffness - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug 13 - "brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation ... Subjects in middle tertile (T2) and upper tertile (T3) had lower baPWV (1263+/-23 and 1265+/-14cm/s vs. 1338+/-21cm/s; p=0.009) and lower oxidized LDL (oxLDL) (53+/-3 and 55+/-3U/L vs. 66+/-3U/L; p<0.001) than those in lower tertile (T1). Subjects in T3 showed higher LDL particle size (24.3+/-0.08nm vs. 24.0+/-0.07nm, p=0.005) and lower C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (0.80+/-0.25mg/dL vs. 1.27+/-0.24mg/dL, p=0.015), compared with those in T1. Logistic regression analysis showed that baPWV decreased with the increment of lycopene concentration; log baPWV decreased by 0.21cm/s (95% CI -0.168;-0.045, p=0.001) per unit change in lycopene ... the estimated effect was attenuated by 35% ... This study supports the presence of an independent inverse relationship between circulating lycopene and baPWV. Additionally, reduced oxidative modification of LDL may be one of mediators on the mechanisms how lycopene reduces arterial stiffness" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli extract’s heart health benefits pinpointed? - Nutra USA, 9/7/09 - "Researchers from Imperial College London (ICL) report that sulforaphane, a compound most widely associated with broccoli, may activate a protein called Nrf2 in arteries ... the natural compound sulforaphane reduced inflammation at the high-risk areas by 'switching on' Nrf2 ... Atherosclerosis, known as hardening or furring of the arteries is a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the cause of over 50 per cent of deaths in Europe and the US ... When these cells were exposed to sulforaphane, a re-activation of Nrf2 in the disease-prone regions of the artery was observed. This indicated that the cells’ ability to protect themselves from becoming inflamed was restored" - [Abstract] - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Activation of Nrf2 in Endothelial Cells Protects Arteries From Exhibiting a Proinflammatory State - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Sep 3 - "Treatment with sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant, activated Nrf2 and suppressed p38-VCAM-1 signaling at the susceptible site in wild-type but not Nrf2(-/-) animals, indicating that it suppresses EC activation via Nrf2 ... Nrf2 prevents ECs at the atheroprotected site from exhibiting a proinflammatory state via the suppression of p38-VCAM-1 signaling. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 reduces EC activation at atherosusceptible sites and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or reduce atherosclerosis" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • How Much Omega-3 Fatty Acid Do We Need To Prevent Cardiovascular Disease? - Science Daily, 9/1/09 - "a 200 mg dose of DHA per day is enough to affect biochemical markers that reliably predict cardiovascular problems, such as those related to aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. This study is the first to identify how much DHA is necessary to promote optimal heart health" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Low-carb Diets Linked To Atherosclerosis And Impaired Blood Vessel Growth - Science Daily, 8/25/09 - "Even as low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets have proven successful at helping individuals rapidly lose weight, little is known about the diets' long-term effects on vascular health ... mice placed on a 12-week low carbohydrate/high-protein diet showed a significant increase in atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries and a leading cause of heart attack and stroke ... our research suggests that, at least in animals, these diets could be having adverse cardiovascular effects that are not reflected in simple serum markers"
  • Why Low Vitamin D Raises Heart Disease Risks In Diabetics - Science Daily, 8/21/09 - "Low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes ... When people are deficient in vitamin D, the macrophage cells eat more cholesterol, and they can't get rid of it. The macrophages get clogged with cholesterol and become what scientists call foam cells, which are one of the earliest markers of atherosclerosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene linked to healthier blood vessels - Nutra USA, 8/13/09 - "Higher levels of lycopene in the blood are associated with lower stiffness in the arteries ... women with the highest average lycopene blood levels (more than 0.0431 millimoles per litre) had the lowest baPWV values, compared to people with the lowest average lycopene blood levels (less that 0.0342 mmol/L) ... According to their results, women with the highest average lycopene blood levels (more than 0.0431 millimoles per litre) had the lowest baPWV values, compared to people with the lowest average lycopene blood levels (less that 0.0342 mmol/L) ... these women also had lower oxidised LDL levels, as well as larger LDL particles ... Levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, were also lower in the women with the highest lycopene levels" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol prevents hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 7 - "Endothelial dysfunction secondary to persistent hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetic vascular disease ... These results provide new insight into the protective properties of resveratrol against endothelial dysfunction caused by high glucose, which is attributed to the AMPK mediated reduction of superoxide level" - Click here for a definition of endothelial dysfunction.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Daily Omega-3s Recommended for Heart - WebMD, 8/3/09 - "omega-3 fatty acids' strongest protective effect appears to be in people with established heart disease after a heart attack. In these people, a daily dose of DHA and EPA is associated with a 30% reduction in the risk of heart-related death ... But researchers say healthy people can also benefit from including omega-3s in their diet. Research shows a diet rich in omega-3s can also reduce the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), heart attack, sudden cardiac death, and heart failure" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acids on functional properties of vascular cells - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22:1-18 - "Based on these studies, it can be concluded that CLA exert several beneficial actions in cells of the vascular wall through the activation of nuclear PPAR. These actions of CLA, which may, at least partially, explain the inhibition of atherogenesis by dietary CLA, include modulation of vasoactive mediator release from endothelial cells, inhibition of inflammatory and fibrotic processes in activated smooth muscle cells, abrogation of inflammatory responses in activated macrophages, and reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Daily Glass of Orange Juice Is Heart Smart - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease ... An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com or Natural Balance, Great Legs, 60 Capsules at iHerb.
  • Curcumin May Prevent Clogged Arteries - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "The current study suggests curcumin may thwart the development of atherosclerosis, or clogged arteries, a key risk factor for heart attacks and strokes ... Researchers in France fed 20 mice a diet supplemented with curcumin or a comparison diet not supplemented with curcumin. After 16 weeks, mice fed on the curcumin-based diet had a 26% reduction in fatty deposits in their arteries compared to mice on the comparison diet ... In addition, curcumin appeared to alter the genetic signaling involved in plaque buildup at the molecular level" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • High Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 - "Doctors have known for decades that foods like white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ... Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the riskiest of the risk factors,""
  • Dietary fibre intake is inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness: a cross-sectional assessment in the PREDIMED study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "Our results suggest that high fibre intake is inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis"
  • Study strengthens Vitamin K1's heart benefits - Nutra USA, 5/26/09 - "Subjects receiving a daily vitamin K1 plus multivitamin supplement experienced 6 per cent less progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), or hardening of the arteries that leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C-rich foods may boost artery health - Nutra USA, 2/17/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin C and fruit and berries were associated with less thickening of the carotid artery ... one mg per decilitre increase in blood vitamin C levels was linked to a 4.1 and 4.0 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressures" - [Abstract] - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C consumption is associated with less progression in carotid intima media thickness in elderly men: A 3-year intervention study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jan;19(1):8-14 - "Vitamin C containing foods may protect against the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 - "high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years ... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
  • Resveratrol inhibits the mTOR mitogenic signaling evoked by oxidized LDL in smooth muscle cells - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Nov 24 - "Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a major feature in atherosclerosis, since it contributes to the formation of the fibrous cap, thus to plaque stability, but also to arterial stenosis and post-angioplasty restenosis ... These data indicate that the mTOR pathway is activated by oxLDL via PI3K/PDK1/Akt, and is required for SMC proliferation. Resveratrol blocks specifically this pathway, thereby inhibiting oxLDL-induced SMC proliferation. These data highlight a new property for resveratrol that could contribute to the general anti-atherogenic properties of this polyphenol" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanins battle blood vessel degradation: study - Nutra USA, 12/22/08 - "OPC was found to effectively delay SIPS (stress induced senescence) caused by exposure to rotenone, a chemical substance that is known to generate oxidative stress ... The ability of OPCs to delay senescence was associated with a decrease in the levels of a marker of DNA damage and DNA terminal ends (gamma-H2AX), suggesting that the possible molecular mechanism by which OPCs delay senescence in endothelial cells is through reduction in DNA damage" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.  I've been taking 50 mg three times per day for years.
  • Higher Blood Phosphorus and Calcium Levels in Coronary Arteries - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "Higher serum phosphorus levels, even within the normal range, may be a risk factor for coronary artery atherosclerosis in healthy young adults"
  • Intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish in relation to measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1111-8 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and nonfried (broiled, steamed, baked, or raw) fish were inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT but not by iCIMT, CAC score, or ABI. The multivariate odds ratio comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary exposures in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.86; P for trend < 0.01) for n-3 PUFA intake; 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P = 0.054) for nonfried fish consumption; and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.11; P = 0.38) for fried fish consumption" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (-)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1018-25 - "Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin and (-)-epicatechin, can augment nitric oxide status and reduce endothelin-1 concentrations and may thereby improve endothelial function"
  • Long-term effects of resveratrol supplementation on suppression of atherogenic lesion formation and cholesterol synthesis in apo E-deficient mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 5 - "The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-) mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene as effective as statins for artery health: rabbit study - Nutra USA, 7/3/08 - "The results of our experiment in the high-fat diet rabbit model showed that lycopene and fluvastatin lowered serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, improved lipid metabolism, and reduced the amount of triacylglycerols ... Lycopene intervention reduced the increase in ox-LDL levels in rabbits on the high-fat diet, whereas fluvastatin did not show such an effect. The cause of this difference is at present not known, although the result speaks in favour of lycopene ... These findings provide a theoretical rationale for the use of lycopene as a preventive in atherosclerosis" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Comparison of lycopene and fluvastatin effects on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in rabbits - Nutrition. 2008 Jun 26 - "Compared with the control, levels of total cholesterol, total triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and interleukin-1 were increased and total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide were decreased in the animals with a high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Intragastric administration of lycopene counteracted the change in these parameters (P < 0.05). In this case, the data showed that lycopene in the used dose was better than the fluvastatin intervention. Morphologic analysis revealed that lycopene and fluvastatin markedly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta compared with the situation in rabbits on a high-fat diet alone ... Lycopene, like fluvastatin, significantly attenuated atherogenesis in rabbits fed a high-fat diet" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Failure To Bridle Inflammation Spurs Atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 6/18/08 - "When a person develops a sore or a boil, it erupts, drawing to it immune system cells that fight the infection. Then it resolves and flattens into the skin, often leaving behind a mark or a scar ... A similar scenario plays out in the blood vessels. However, when there is a defect in the resolution response -- the ability of blood vessels to recover from inflammation -- atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries can result ... Some natural mediators that 'cool' this inflammation are derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Serum DHEA-S Level Is Associated with the Presence of Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Endocr J. 2008 May 21 - "intima-media thickness (IMT) ... Although simple regression analysis showed that log(DHEA-S) and IGF-I in men and log(DHEA-S) in women were significantly and inversely correlated with baPWV and IMT, only log(DHEA-S) in women was still significantly and inversely correlated with these atherosclerotic parameters after multiple regression analysis was adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, HbA(1C), systolic blood pressure, LDL-Cholesterol (C), serum creatinine, and smoking (Brinkman index). Serum DHEA-S level seemed to be associated with atherosclerosis in diabetic postmenopausal women independent of age, body stature, diabetic status, and other atherosclerotic risk factors, and might be a useful addition to other parameters for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in this population" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C consumption is associated with less progression in carotid intima media thickness in elderly men: A 3-year intervention study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 May 7 - "Vitamin C containing foods may protect against the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men"
  • Juicing may boost a fruit's antioxidant punch: study - Nutra USA, 5/2/08 - "The juices also outperformed the fruit for protecting against atherosclerosis, measured by the aortic fatty streak lesion area or AFSA. This value was reduced by 93 and 78 per cent for the purple grape juice and the fruit, respectively, and by 60 and 48 per cent for apple juice and apple, respectively ... The results show for the first time that long-term consumption of antioxidants supplied by apple and purple grape, especially phenolic compounds, prevents the development of atherosclerosis in hamsters, and that processing can have a major impact on the potential health benefits of a product"
  • Phenolics from purple grape, apple, purple grape juice and apple juice prevent early atherosclerosis induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Apr;52(4):400-7 - "The results show for the first time that long-term consumption of antioxidants supplied by apple and purple grape, especially phenolic compounds, prevents the development of atherosclerosis in hamsters, and that processing can have a major impact on the potential health benefits of a product. The underlying mechanism is related mainly to increased antioxidant status and improved serum lipid profile"
  • Omega-3 may boost blood vessel elasticity - study - Nutra USA, 9/21/07 - "fish oil supplementation improved large artery elasticity, compared to placebo (15.51.5 versus 12.83.7 ml.mm.Hg-1 x 10, respectively)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activated human vascular endothelial cells - Atherosclerosis. 2007 Sep 17 - "both quercetin and its metabolites, at physiological concentrations, can inhibit the expression of key molecules involved in monocyte recruitment during the early stages of atherosclerosis" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil supplementation improves large arterial elasticity in overweight hypertensive patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 5 - "After 8 weeks follow-up, the large artery elasticity in the fish oil group, compared with its baseline, was significantly improved (C(1): 15.5+/-1.5 vs 12.8+/-3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) x 10), whereas no effects were found in the placebo group (C(1): 13.0+/-3.4 vs 13.4+/-3.8 ml mm Hg(-1) x 10), P=0.027, RM-ANOVA across the two groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K may reverse artery hardening, suggests study - Nutra USA, 12/11/06 - "A high-dose vitamin K supplement reduced calcium precipitates associated with hardening of the arteries by 37 per cent in rats"
  • l-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis: An alternative treatment for premature atherosclerosis? - Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jul 20 - "l-arginine administration may be useful in patients with premature atherosclerosis"
  • Eat Your Veggies, Help Your Arteries - WebMD, 6/19/06 - "They found 38% less plaque in the arteries of mice that had eaten the vegetable-rich diet, compared with mice that had eaten no vegetables"
  • Veg 'prevents artery hardening' - BBC News, 6/18/06 - "US researchers found 38% less build up of fatty deposits in the arteries of mice who were fed a mixture of vegetables, including carrots and peas"
  • Combination Treatment Shown for First Time to Cause Regression of Atherosclerosis - Doctor's Guide, 11/16/05 - "reversal of atherosclerosis - a primary cause of stroke and heart attacks - can be achieved with a combination of Niaspan (prolonged-release nicotinic acid) and a statin ... ARBITER 2 clearly showed that statins alone are not enough to halt the progression of atherosclerosis even when the LDL-C target is met. However, the addition of Niaspan 1000 mg stopped the progression of atherosclerosis in 12 months ... a further 12 months of treatment with Niaspan and a statin actually achieves regression of atherosclerosis"
  • Why Our Arteries Become Clogged As We Age - Life Extension Magazine, 10/05 - "Two natural compounds—propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) and PEAK ATP™—offer promise in restoring and maintaining healthy endothelial function while supporting cellular energy metabolism. PLC provides energy to the heart and vascular cells by promoting optimal energy metabolism in the mitochondria. PEAK ATP™ boosts energy levels and vascular health by restoring youthful levels of ATP in red blood cells, tissues, and organs" - See Ester Carnitine Propionyl at iHerb.
  • Grapeseed extract may stop arteries from hardening - Nutra USA, 6/23/05 - "grapeseed extract stopped cholesterol from building up in the arteries of guinea pigs, which in turn leads to the thickening and hardening of the vessels and the resulting condition, atherosclerosis" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon grapeseed extracts.
  • Too Little Magnesium Tied to Artery Troubles - HealthDay, 4/30/05 - "dietary magnesium intake was inversely related to coronary artery calcium levels ... Previous research found that changes in fat metabolism caused by magnesium deficiency are linked to the development of atherosclerosis and that magnesium intake is an important factor in controlling fat metabolism in the walls of arteries"
  • DHEA May Fight Heart Disease, But How? - WebMD, 7/23/03 - "Endothelial dysfunction is known to contribute to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries ... men who received 25 mg per day of DHEA supplements for 12 weeks experienced significant improvement in endothelial function as well as insulin sensitivity compared with those who took a placebo" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon DHEA products.
  • High Dietary Calcium Intake Associated with Lower Age-Related Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/03 - "In industrialized nations, SBP increases with age, whereas diastolic blood pressure (DBP) tends to decrease with age, thereby increasing pulse pressure (defined as the difference between SBP and DBP) ... higher calcium intake was associated with lower rates of age-related increases of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure ... If the calcium intake of the general population were to increase to above 1,200 mg, the incidence of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly might be decreased" - See drugstore.com/GNC calcium supplementsicon.
  • A Drink a Day Keeps Arteries Healthy - WebMD, 5/15/03 - "moderate drinkers had increased elasticity in both small and large arteries as well as lower heart rates compared with nondrinkers ... Beer drinkers had the highest blood pressure levels, followed by liquor and wine drinkers"
  • One Glass of Wine Per Day Improves Arterial Elasticity - Doctor's Guide, 5/15/02 - "Modest alcohol intake was defined as no more than one glass of wine or beer, or less than 30 mL of hard alcohol daily ... All drinkers, particularly wine drinkers, demonstrated increased elasticity in both small and large arteries, as well as lower heart rates, compared with nondrinkers ... The only negative effect associated with moderate drinking was a slight increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Beer drinkers showed the highest blood-pressure elevations ... moderate wine drinking is associated with higher arterial elasticity, lower pulse rate, and higher stroke volume"
  • Protecting Blood Vessels From Stress - WebMD, 1/15/02 - "vitamins can improve blood flow and prevent the long-term development of atherosclerosis -- or hardening of the arteries -- when given in combination with an amino acid known as L-arginine ... antioxidants might work together with L-arginine to prevent inflammation in the branch areas of blood vessels ... although antioxidants may not reverse or repair pre-existing damage within blood vessels, they may slow the long-term progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Vitamin C, Fish, And A Gout Drug Target Artery Damage From Smoking - Intelihealth, 1/7/03 - "vitamin C and taurine, an amino acid in fish, reversed abnormal blood vessel response associated with cigarette smoking - a discovery that may provide insight into how smoking contributes to "hardening of the arteries,""
  • Evidence-based Products - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 12/02 - "3g EPA/d and 3g DHA/d (ROPUFA) increased systemic arterial compliance in 38 dyslipidemic men and women, resulting in reduced pulse pressure and total vascular resistance ... Results showed that ROPUFA increased SAC—36 per cent with EPA and 27 per cent with DHA—compared with placebo" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Pycnogenol Helps Hypertension - Nutrition Science News, Spring '02 - "A new study conducted at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in Tucson shows that pycnogenol, an extract of French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima) may lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients"

Other News:

  • Aortic Stiffness is Associated with Increased Risk of Incident Dementia in Older Adults - Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 66(1): 297–306 - "The Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study followed 532 non-demented older adults with annual cognitive exams from 1998–99 through 2013. CfPWV was measured on 356 (mean age = 78, 59% women) between 1996–2000. Over 15 years, 212 (59.6%) developed dementia (median time from cfPWV measurement = 4 years). In age and sex-adjusted Cox models, cfPWV was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia, but systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were not. CfPWV (transformed as –1/cfPWV) remained significantly associated with dementia risk when further adjusted for education, race, APOE4, diabetes, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and anti-hypertensive medication (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02, 2.51). Results were similar when further adjusted for baseline global cognition, subclinical brain measures, and coronary artery calcification. Finally, higher cfPWV was related to lower physical activity intensity and higher systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and waist circumference measured 5 years prior. An important unanswered question is whether interventions to slow arterial stiffening can reduce the risk of dementia" - [Nutra USA] - Note: Some studies support vitamin K for aortic stiffness:
    • Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women - Thromb Haemost 2015; 113(05): 1135-1144 - "Indices of local carotid stiffness (intimamedia thickness IMT, Diameter end-diastole and Distension) were measured by echotracking. Regional aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral and carotid-radial Pulse Wave Velocity, cfPWV and crPWV, respectively) was measured using mechanotransducers. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) as well as acute phase markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and markers for endothelial dysfunction Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) were measured. At baseline dp-ucMGP was associated with IMT, Diameter, cfPWV and with the mean z-scores of acute phase markers (APMscore) and of markers for endothelial dysfunction (EDFscore). After three year MK-7 supplementation cfPWV and the Stiffness Index β significantly decreased in the total group, whereas distension, compliance, distensibility, Young’s Modulus, and the local carotid PWV (cPWV) improved in women having a baseline Stiffness Index β above the median of 10.8. MK-7 decreased dp-ucMGP by 50 % compared to placebo, but did not influence the markers for acute phase and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness" - [Nutra USA] - See MK-7 at Amazon.com.
    • Inactive Matrix Gla-Protein and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 30, Issue 2, 1 February 2017 - "In our cross-sectional analysis, circulating dp-ucMGP was independently associated with CF-PWV in type 2 diabetes. This suggests that deficient vitamin K-dependent activation of MGP may lead to large artery stiffening and could be targeted with vitamin K supplementation in the patients with diabetes" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Thyroxin Treatment on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Reduction in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH): a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017 May 3 - "subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is related to an increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... After treatment with thyroxin in subjects with SCH (n=314), there was a statistically significant decrease in CIMT from pre- to post-treatment; the pooled WMD of CIMT decrease was [WMD -0.32; 95% CI (-0.47, -0.16), p=<0.0001; I2=2%], and it was no longer different from EU controls [WMD 0.13 mm; 95% CI (-0.04, 0.30); p=0.14; I2=27%]. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were higher in SCH as compared to EU controls and decreased significantly after treatment with thyroxin"
  • Evaluation of arterial stiffness and cardiac function in patients with vascular erectile dysfunction: acute effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil - Int J Impot Res. 2016 Dec 8 - "Treatment with tadalafil reduced pulse pressure (P=0.0179), systolic blood pressure (P=0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.054) and increased aortic distensibility (P=0.001) and aortic strain (P=0.003) in the ED group. Tadalafil administration also increased large artery and small artery elasticity indices that were reduced in the ED group at baseline (P=0.02 and 0.003, respectively)"
  • Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study - Lipids Health Dis. 2016 May 18;15(1):97 - "Lower triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic consideration in subjects with atherosclerotic disease"
  • Longer duration of statin therapy is associated with decreased carotid plaque vascularity by magnetic resonance imaging - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Dec 1;245:74-81 - "carotid plaque neovasculature (as assessed by Vp) ... shorter duration of statin therapy (P = 0.01), the presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.02), and higher body mass index (P = 0.01) and lipoprotein(a) (P = 0.01) were all significantly associated with higher baseline Vp values"
  • The impact of angiotensin receptor blockers on arterial stiffness: a meta-analysis - Hypertens Res. 2015 Apr 9 - "Taken together, our findings support the important role of ARB treatment in improving arterial stiffness"
  • Elevation of HDL-C in Response to Statin Treatment is Involved in the Regression of Carotid Atherosclerosis - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014 Jun 13 - "The administration of statins for 3 years to subjects with type 2 diabetes resulted in a significant regression of the carotid IMT. An elevation of the plasma HDL-C with statin treatment was closely related to a regression of atherosclerosis"
  • Effect of statin treatment on coronary plaque progression - A serial coronary CT angiography study - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Dec;231(2):198-204 - "The study included 100 consecutive patients who underwent serial Coronary CTA (mean follow up: 406 ± 92 days) for evaluation of CAD without known prior heart disease or revascularization. We performed volumetric assessment of low attenuation plaque (LAP < 30 Hounsfield units), non-calcified (NCP) and calcified plaque volumes at baseline and follow up scans for vessels >2 mm in diameter ... Statin therapy resulted in significantly lower progression of LAP and NCP plaques compared to non-statin users"
  • Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections in Relation to Plasma Advanced Glycation End Products in a Chinese Population - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Feb 28 - "AGEs accumulate with aging and high cholesterol and are associated with arterial wave reflections and, in an age-dependent manner, with arterial stiffness"
  • Effects of Low-Dose Atorvastatin on Arterial Stiffness and Central Aortic Pressure Augmentation in Patients With Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Feb 28 - "50 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic patients were allocated to receive 10mg of atorvastatin or placebo for 26 weeks ... At study end, aortic PWV (9.0+/-1.5 vs. 10.9+/-2.6 m/sec; P<0.001) and AIx(75) (24.9% +/- 9.7% vs 28.8% +/- 11.8%; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than that placebo group. Furthermore, decreases in central aortic systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were evident at study-end with atorvastatin but not with placebo (130+/-8 vs. 138+/-6mm Hg, P < 0.001; 48+/-7 vs. 53+/-6mm Hg, P < 0.05, respectively). Atorvastatin-induced reductions in aortic PWV during follow-up showed significant associations with changes in AIx(75) and central aortic systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure"
  • Increased arterial stiffness in subjects with impaired fasting glucose - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Nov 22 - "The study group consisted of 1043 subjects, including 683 subjects with NFG and 360 subjects with IFG (100≤fasting glucose <126mg/dL) ... Arterial stiffness was higher in the IFG group than in subjects with NFG even after adjustment for all confounding variables including hs-CRP and oxidative stress markers. In addition, fasting glucose and insulin were positively and independently associated with the ba-PWV in non-diabetic healthy adults"
  • Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and progression to arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly Chinese - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Sep 22 - "participants in the highest quartile of HDL-c had an odds ratio of 0.442 (95% CI 0.268-0.729) for developing high arterial stiffness compared with participants in the lowest quartile" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Arterial Stiffness Is Inversely Related to Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Young Normotensive Patients With Type 1 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2012 Sep 21 - "Data from 80 patients (age 27.1 +/- 6.1 years, BMI 24.2 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) 7.5 +/- 1.6%, 39 men, adiponectin 13.9 +/- 6.7 μg/mL, and PWV 5.6 +/- 0.9 m/s) were analyzed. Log adiponectin inversely correlated with age-adjusted PWV (r = -0.291, P = 0.009) and waist circumference (r = -0.427, P < 0.001). In a fully adjusted model, age, expiration/inspiration index, and log adiponectin were independently associated with PWV, explaining 39.6% of its variance ... Arterial stiffness is inversely related to adiponectin concentration in young patients with type 1 diabetes without major complications"
  • Association of glycated hemoglobin with carotid intimal medial thickness in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Jul 11 - "To assess the association of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) ... The study group included 1383 NGT subjects, of whom 760 (54.9%) were women. The mean CIMT value in the 1st quartile of HbA1c (<5.2%) was 0.65 and it increased significantly to 0.73 in the last quartile of HbA1c (>5.8) (p<0.001). Regression analysis showed that HbA1c had a strong association with CIMT after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HOMA-IR and smoking (ß - 0.046, p=0.047) ... Even among subjects with NGT, there is a significant increase in CIMT with increasing levels of HbA1c, showing the value of using HbA1c for diagnosis of glucose intolerance"
  • High normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women - J Hypertens. 2012 Jan 5 - "Individuals with serum TSH greater than 2.5 μIU/ml had significantly higher values of PWV when compared with individuals with TSH levels below 2.5 μIU/ml (9.68 +/- 1.97 vs. 8.54 +/- 1.83 m/s; P = 0.030). In multivariate analysis, age, insulin resistance and TSH above 2.5 μIU/ml were the only significant predictors of PWV (TSH, β-coefficient = 0.222; P = 0.014). No associations were found between the remaining markers and levels of thyroid hormones, whereas thyroid antibodies were not associated with any of the arterial markers"
  • Adiponectin and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Northern Manhattan Study - Stroke. 2011 Dec 22 - "Our findings suggest that low adiponectin is associated with increased IMT in a multiethnic cohort and support a protective role for adiponectin in atherosclerosis"
  • Arterial stiffness as a cause of cognitive decline and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Intern Med J. 2011 Dec 8 - "Aortic stiffness was found to predict cognitive decline in both qualitative review and quantitative analysis"
  • Influence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on arterial stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):710-5 - "In univariate regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em (r=-0.23 and r=-0.27, respectively, P<.01). The association of HDL cholesterol with arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function was observed in both men and women. Triglycerides were weakly correlated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em, while low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were not. In multiple regression analysis, only low HDL cholesterol was found as an independent predictor for both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Enhanced arterial stiffness is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Low HDL cholesterol may lead to the deterioration of both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension"
  • Endothelial Dysfunction and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Associated With Greater Arterial Stiffness Over a 6-Year Period - Hypertension. 2011 Aug 22 - "Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with greater arterial stiffness. This provides evidence that arterial stiffening may be a mechanism through which endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation lead to cardiovascular disease"
  • Effects of telmisartan and losartan on cardiovascular protection in Japanese hypertensive patients - Hypertens Res. 2011 Jul 28 - "A total of 58 patients were enrolled in the present trial and the follow-up period was 1 year. There were no significant differences in blood pressure (BP) levels between the telmisartan group and the losartan group throughout the trial. The percentage of the patients treated with ARB monotherapy was significantly higher in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. In addition, the progression of intima-media thickness of common carotid artery was significantly inhibited in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. Neither group experienced significant changes in cardiac function and LV mass index. There were no differences between the groups with respect to changes in surrogate markers such as serum adiponectin, creatinine, homeostasis model assessment index, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Although BP levels were equal and well controlled in both groups, telmisartan showed more protective vascular effects than losartan" - See my telmisartan as a first line treatment page.
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A1c, Fasting Plasma Glucose, and Two-Hour Postchallenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Relation to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Chinese with Normal Glucose Tolerance - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun 29 - "carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ... participants in the highest quartile of HbA1c, as compared with those in the lowest quartile, still conferred a 68% increased odds of elevated CIMT (≥0.70 mm)"
  • Aortic stiffness is reduced beyond blood pressure lowering by short-term and long-term antihypertensive treatment: a meta-analysis of individual data in 294 patients - J Hypertens. 2011 Apr 23 - "meta-analysis of individual data from 15 randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group trials ... In the short-term and long-term trials, PWV decreased significantly by -0.75 and -1.3 m/s in the active treatment group compared with by +0.17 and -0.44 m/s in the placebo group, respectively. Active treatment was independently related to the changes in PWV and explained 5 and 4% of the variance in the short-term and long-term trials, respectively. In the short-term trials, ACEIs were more effective than calcium antagonists and placebo on improving arterial stiffness. In the long-term trials, ACEI, calcium antagonists, beta-blocker, and diuretic reduced significantly PWV compared to placebo ... Our study shows that antihypertensive treatments improve the arterial stiffness beyond their effect on blood pressure"
  • Antidepressants linked to thicker arteries - Science Daily, 4/2/11 - "The study included 513 middle-aged male twins who both served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam War ... A higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with higher IMT only in those taking antidepressants ... One of the strongest and best-studied factors that thickens someone's arteries is age, and that happens at around 10 microns per year ... In our study, users of antidepressants see an average 40 micron increase in IMT, so their carotid arteries are in effect four years older"
  • Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: Are hemodynamic forces a link? - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jul 29 - "Worse periodontal health was associated to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with carotid plaques (n=19) had higher periodontal indices compared with subjects without plaques (n=14) (gingival index: 1.40+/-0.71 vs. 0.69+/-0.64, p=0.006) ... In the 66 examined common carotids, wall shear stress was inversely related to all periodontal indices (r=0.54, p<0.00001 for peak wall shear stress and gingival index) ... The present study identifies for the first time a link between periodontal indices and wall shear stress, suggesting that an alteration of hemodynamic profile might contribute to atherosclerosis in subjects with periodontal disease"
  • Association between alcohol consumption and carotid intima-media thickness in a healthy population: data of the STRATEGY study (Stress, Atherosclerosis and ECG Study) - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul 28 - "The mean IMT was significantly higher in men with an alcohol intake above the upper limit of 20 g/day than in men with an alcohol intake <20 g/day (P<0.001). According to a stepwise linear regression model adjusted for age, conventional risk factors, nutrition and physical activity, the IMT increases by 0.0253 mm per 21.4 g/day intake of alcohol in men (P<0.05).Conclusions: The STRATEGY study revealed a positive association between alcohol consumption and carotid IMT in healthy men aged 30-70 years. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for nutrition, physical activity, anthropometry and conventional cardiovascular risk factors"
  • Searching for the right outcome? A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials using carotid intima-media thickness or pulse wave velocity to infer antiatherogenic properties of thiazolidinediones - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Nov 17 - "A composite of combined placebo and comparator controlled trials demonstrated a significant weighted mean difference of-0.06 mm for CIMT (95% CI-0.09 to-0.02, p = 0.001) and-0.72 ms(-1) for PWV (95% CI-1.28 to-0.16, p = 0.011) in favour of thiazolidiendione treatment" - Note:  I still take pioglitazone for anti-aging.  See my Insulin and Aging page.  See  pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • HbA1c Levels Predict Carotid IMT in Diabetic Adolescents - Medscape, 11/13/09 - "For every 1% increase in HbA1c, the likelihood of having a thicker common carotid IMT increased by 35%, after adjustment for sex, systolic blood pressure z-score, and insulin use ... These data suggest that poor glycemic control is associated with structural changes in the carotid artery that are consistent with early atherosclerosis"
  • HbA1c is associated with intima media thickness in individuals with normal glucose tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "normal glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) ... 1h-glucose and HbA1c were significantly correlated to carotid IMT in individuals with NGT, while fasting and 2h-glucose were not informative. Only HbA1c was associated with IMT independent of other confounders, while 1h-glucose was not informative ... HbA1c was the most informative glycemic marker with respect to IMT in individuals with NGT"
  • Association of Kidney Function With Coronary Atherosclerosis and Calcification in Autopsy Samples From Japanese Elders: The Hisayama Study - Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Sep 16 - "The autopsy findings presented here suggest that CKD is associated significantly with severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with CKD should be considered a high-risk population for advanced coronary atherosclerosis"
  • Stress Raises Belly Fat, Heart Risks - WebMD, 8/6/09 - "Even compared to other monkeys with the same body mass index and weight, CT scans showed that the stressed monkeys had a great deal more belly fat. And when the researchers looked at the animals' arteries, they found plaque clogging the arteries of the stressed monkeys ... it's not how much fat you have, but where it is located ... Over time, high cortisol levels cause belly fat to accumulate. It also makes individual fat cells get larger ... When you have lots more fat in visceral fat cells and all the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, each of these things promotes atherosclerosis"
  • Pioglitazone Slows Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis - Medscape, 6/9/09 - "A substudy of ACTOS Now, a diabetes prevention trial comparing pioglitazone (Actos, Takeda Pharmaceuticals) with placebo on risk and incidence of diabetes development, showed that active treatment with the thiazolidinedione slowed the rate of progression of carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT) by 38% during a 3-year study period" - See Pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Long-term pioglitazone therapy improves arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Metabolism. 2009 Jun;58(6):739-45 - "pioglitazone improved abnormal arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus via a mechanism beyond the metabolic improvement" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Inflammation Worsens Danger Due To Atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 1/23/09 - "inflammation increases the risk of plaque rupture in atherosclerosis"
  • High apoB/apoA-I ratio is associated with increased progression rate of carotid artery intima-media thickness in clinically healthy 58-year-old men: Experiences from very long-term follow-up in the AIR study - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Dec 3 - "The results indicate that apoB/apoA-I ratio is an important risk factor for predicting atherosclerotic progression rate during very long-term follow-up in clinically healthy middle-aged men"
  • Salivary cortisol is related to atherosclerosis of carotid arteries - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug 5 - "area under the curve (AUC), which is a measure of total cortisol exposure while awake, and the slope, which is a measure of diurnal cortisol decline. Results: Total cortisol exposure while awake (AUC) was associated with higher plaque scores (beta = 0.08 per SD of AUC, 95% CI; 0.00 - 0.17, p-value = 0.04) in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Persons with an AUC in the highest tertile had a higher number of plaques of carotid arteries compared to those in the lowest tertile (3.08 versus 2.80 ... Our results support the hypothesis that increased total cortisol exposure is independently associated with atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries" - See my cortisol page for ways to reduce it.
  • Elevated white blood cell count is associated with arterial stiffness - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 May 2 - "These findings indicate that elevated WBC count is associated with arterial stiffness"
  • Valsartan Improves Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Independently of Blood Pressure Lowering - Hypertension. 2008 Apr 21 - "Increased arterial stiffness, as estimated from aortic pulse wave velocity (Ao-PWV), and albuminuria are independent predictors for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ... Ao-PWV showed a significantly greater reduction, mean (95% CI), -0.9 m/s (-1.4 to -0.3) for valsartan/HCTZ compared to amlodipine (P=0.002). AER fell significantly only with Val/HCTZ from 30.8(20.4, 46.5) to 18.2(12.5, 26.3) mcg/min, (P=0.01) with between treatment difference in favor of Val/HCTZ of -15.3mcg/min" - Telmisartan, another ARB and my first line plug, will decrease arterial stiffness also.  See:
  • Pioglitazone May Prevent Progression of Atherosclerosis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 4/2/08 - "Two TZD agents are currently on the market -- pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Both agents reduce inflammatory biomarkers, while pioglitazone also produces elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and reduction of triglyceride levels ... Dr. Nissen said the findings of the PERISCOPE study support the conclusion that treatment with pioglitazone can prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes during 18 months of treatment. These finding may have important implications for defining the optimal strategy for management of patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary atherosclerosis" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Elasticity Indices of Large and Small Arteries in Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese - Am J Hypertens. 2008 Jan 10 - "The metabolic syndrome is indeed a risk factor for reduced arterial elasticity"
  • Arterial Stiffness and Memory and Concentration - Medscape, 11/23/07 - "Increasing pulse-pressure levels and higher baseline pulse-wave velocity — indications of increased arterial stiffness — were linked to a decline in memory and concentration among aging individuals who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging"
  • Stiff Arteries May Stifle Aging Mind - WebMD, 11/20/07 - "A new study links stiffer arteries to lower memory and concentration test scores as adults age"
  • New Crestor(R) (rosuvastatin calcium) Indication Approved in U.S. to Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in Patients With High Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 11/15/07 - "The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Crestor(R) (rosuvastatin calcium) as an adjunct to diet to slow the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with elevated cholesterol"
  • Effect of long-term treatment with rosiglitazone on arterial elasticity and metabolic parameters in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 2-year follow-up study - Diabet Med. 2007 Aug 24 - "In patients treated with rosiglitazone for 2 years: the large artery elasticity index (LAEI) increased from 10.0 +/- 4.6 to 13.9 +/- 4.7 ml/mmHg x 100 after 2 years (P = 0.003). The small artery elasticity (SAEI) index increased significantly from 3.2 +/- 1.2 to 5.1 +/- 1.9 (P < 0.0001). In patients who discontinued rosiglitazone: LAEI did not change after 6 months, but decreased from 12.1 +/- 5.4 to 8.9 +/- 3.9 ml/mmHg x 10 (P < 0.0001) at the end of 2 years. SAEI increased during the first 6 months of treatment, from 3.9 +/- 1.8 to 5.1 +/- 1.5 ml/mmHg x 100 (P < 0.0001) and decreased after discontinuation of rosiglitazone (P = 0.042)"
  • Sex differences in the relation of HDL cholesterol to progression of carotid intima-media thickness: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study - Atherosclerosis. 2007 May 3 - "carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis) in middle age ... IMT at baseline was inversely associated with serum levels of HDL-C and the associations were comparable in women and men ... Our results suggest that although HDL-C was protective against progression of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged men, anti-atherogenic effects of HDL may diminish in women around the age of menopause"
  • Beyond Lipids: Understanding The Mechanics Of Atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 7/24/06 - "Atherosclerosis, the collection of deposits such as cholesterol along artery walls, accounts for nearly 75 percent of deaths from cardiovascular disease"
  • Erectile Dysfunction, Artery Problems Linked? - WebMD, 10/11/05 - "Erectile dysfunction often stems from blood vessel problems tied to atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries"
  • Research Links Coffee to Heart Risks for Some - WebMD, 6/17/05 - "coffee drinkers had more stiffness of the major blood vessel of the body than non-coffee drinkers. Decreased elasticity of major blood vessels is a risk factor for developing heart disease like heart attack and stroke"
  • Blood Test May Show Heart Attack Risk - WebMD, 5/16/05 - "White blood cells are infection-fighting cells that may increase in response to infection or inflammation. Studies suggest that hardening of the arteries caused by cholesterol plaque -- atherosclerosis -- is linked to inflammation. Therefore, researchers suggest that measuring white blood cells may help reveal heart disease risk"
  • Atorvastatin Appears to Reduce Arterial Stiffness in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/31/03 - "They concluded that treatment with atorvastatin significantly reduced arterial stiffness in patients with RA but did not reduce serum CRP"
  • Statins Decrease Aortic Stiffness in Hypertensives With High Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/30/03 - "Most significantly, while the PWV remained unchanged in the pravastatin and non-statin group, it was moderately decreased in the simvastatin group and remarkably reduced in the fluvastatin group ... Dr. Ichihara theorized that lipophilic statins, such as fluvastatin, reduce aortic stiffness via three mechanisms -- decreasing serum total cholesterol levels without reducing serum high-density lipoprotein levels, providing powerful scavenging reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing serum levels of low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein"
  • Rosiglitazone May Improve Small Artery Elasticity in Patients With Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 8/19/03 - "Rosiglitazone increased small artery elasticity significantly, with a mean increase of up to 50% ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144 to 124 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 80 to 68 mmHg"
  • ACE Inhibitors Prevent Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease by Multiple Mechanisms - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/03 - "ACE inhibitors inhibit the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II ... Angiotensin II increases the production of reactive oxygen species and has several vasoconstrictive effects, including opposition of the vasorelaxant actions of nitric oxide and stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ... Angiotensin II, furthermore, increases arterial stiffness by a variety of mechanisms ... fewer studies have evaluated the effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), although these agents may also exert beneficial effects and may act synergistically with ACE inhibitors ... The authors note that, regarding the role of ACE inhibitors in diabetic renal disease, with the exception of ARBs, ACE inhibitors "have been shown to be more effective in reducing proteinuria than any other antihypertensive agents." - See my page on anti-ACE peptides.  Even Dr. Whitaker has added anti-ACE peptides to his BP formula.
  • Simvastatin May Retard Progression of Severe White Matter Changes - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/03 - "Simvastatin may slow down the progression of severe white matter changes in the brain, and may therefore retard cognitive decline ... The most common type of vascular dementia is due to the hardening of the arteries deep inside the brain which causes white matter changes... and its been shown that this can lead to executive dysfunction" - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Levothyroxine Decreases Risk of Atherosclerosis in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism - Doctor's Guide, 5/18/03 - "Compared to controls, the hypothyroid women had significantly elevated levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and factor VII (P<0.0001). They also had lower levels of antithrombin III activity (P<0.05). When the hypothyroid women were treated with levothyroxine, they had significant decreases in both PAI-1 and factor VII ... These findings show that subclinical hypothyroidism may play an important role in promoting both hypofibrinolytic and hypercoagulable states, and therefore leading to the development of atherosclerosis in female patients"
  • Should Men Get HRT for Heart Health? - WebMD, 1/15/03 - "twice as many men with heart disease have low atherosclerosis levels compared with men without heart disease. In fact, low atherosclerosis is linked to a number of risk factors for heart disease ... if male rabbits have too little atherosclerosis, they develop more atherosclerosis [hardening of the arteries] than animals with normal atherosclerosis"
  • Finger Arthritis Predicts Heart Disease - WebMD, 1/15/03 - "Men with osteoarthritis (OA) in any finger joint were 40% more likely to die of heart disease than their counterparts without finger OA. ... While "hardening of the arteries" was once thought to result from a buildup of cholesterol, increasing evidence indicates that it's the result of some type of inflammation of blood vessels"
  • Just One Cigarette Increases Arterial Stiffness - Doctor's Guide, 1/13/03
  • Mystery of Viagra Deaths Unravels - WebMD, 1/9/03 - "the drug may actually encourage potentially dangerous blood clots to form in men with certain risk factors, such as hardening of the arteries"
  • Angiotensin II Antagonist Telmisartan Fights Stiffening Arteries In Hypertensive Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 4/6/01 - "not only effectively lowered blood pressure compared with placebo, but also significantly decreased arterial stiffness"