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Home > Anti-aging Research > Cholesterol

Cholesterol

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  • Efficacy and safety of sugarcane policosanol on dyslipidemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 20 - "The pooled results showed that compared with placebo, sugarcane policosanol could significantly reduce total cholesterol (TC, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.30 mmol/L) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, 95% CI: -1.02 to -0.40mmol/L) and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, no significant effects were observed on triglyceride (TG) and body weight" - See Policosanol at Amazon.com.
  • L-Carnitine/Simvastatin Reduces Lipoprotein (a) Levels Compared with Simvastatin Monotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study - Lipids. 2016 Dec 2 - "Subjects were randomly allocated to receive L-carnitine 2 g/day plus simvastatin 20 mg /day (N = 29) or placebo plus simvastatin 20 mg/day (N = 29) for a total of 12 weeks. Lp(a) was significantly reduced in the L-carnitine/simvastatin group [-19.4%, from 52 (20-171) to 42 (15-102) mg/dL; p = 0.01], but not in the placebo/simvastatin group [-6.7%, from 56 (26-108) to 52 (27-93) mg/dL, p = NS versus baseline and p = 0.016 for the comparison between groups]. Similar significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL-C, apolipoprotein (apo) B and TAG were observed in both groups" - See L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • The use of probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 containing Reg'Activ Cholesterol supplement for 4 weeks has a positive influence on blood lipoprotein profiles and inflammatory cytokines: an open-label preliminary study - Nutr J. 2016 Oct 28;15(1):93 - "Reg'Activ Cholesterol (RAC) ... Forty-five clinically asymptomatic participants consumed an RAC containing an antioxidative and antiatherogenic probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (LFME-3) for 4 weeks ... The reduction of total cholesterol (from 6.5 ± 1.0 to 5.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l, p = 9.90806E-11) was on the account of LDL cholesterol as the HDL cholesterol level rose from 1.60 ± 0.31to 1.67 ± 0.34mml/l, p = 0.01. HbA1c% was reduced from 5.85 ± 0.28 to 5.66 ± 0.25 p = 4.64E-05 and oxLDL decreased from 84 ± 20 to 71 ± 15 U/l" - See Reg'Activ Cholesterol at Amazon.com.
  • Middle-Term Dietary Supplementation with Red Yeast Rice Plus Coenzyme Q10 Improves Lipid Pattern, Endothelial Reactivity and Arterial Stiffness in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Subjects - Ann Nutr Metab. 2016 Apr 8 - "The long-term assumption of the tested dietary supplement is associated with an improvement in LDL-cholesterolemia, endothelial reactivity and PWV in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects" - See Ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic and Heart Disease - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses)" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Improves Lipid Metabolism, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function in Rats Using Plant Oils as n-3 Fatty Acid Source - Lipids. 2015 Nov 2 - "The 1:1 and 5:1 ratio groups had significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinflammatory cytokines compared with the 20:1 group ... The 1:1 group had a significantly decreased lipid peroxide level compared with the other groups ... We demonstrated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (1:1 and 5:1) had a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors by enhancing favorable lipid profiles, having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects, and improving endothelial function. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (20:1) had adverse effects"
    • Omega-6 fatty acids - University of Maryland Medical Center - "The typical American diet tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids"
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations - Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 25 - "This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of supplementation with Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C" - See Spirulina at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene reduces cholesterol absorption through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 in Caco-2 cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Aug 12 - "This study provides the first evidence that lycopene inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells and this inhibitory effect of lycopene is mediated, at least in part, by LXRα-NPC1L1 signaling pathway" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • New Diet Proposals: Eat Your Veggies, Have Some Coffee - NBC News, 2/19/15 - "Previously, the dietary guidelines for Americans recommended that cholesterol intake be limited to no more than 300 mg a day ... The new report is dropping that recommendation ... Available evidence shows no appreciable relationship between consumption of dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol ... Cholesterol itself is not found in very many foods -- mostly egg yolks, liver, and crustaceans such as shrimp and crab ... Many foods can and do raise cholesterol and they should be limited. They include saturated fat, including the fat found in meat and dairy products as well as palm oil"
  • Berberis aristata combined with Silybum marianum on lipid profile in patients not tolerating statins at high doses - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Dec 24 - "To evaluate the effects of Berberis aristata combined with Silybum marianum in dyslipidemic patients intolerant to statins at high doses ... B. aristata/S. marianum reduced fasting plasma glucose (-9 mg/dl), insulin (-0.7 μU/ml), and HOMA-index (-0.35) levels compared to baseline and also to placebo. Lipid profile did not significantly change after 6 months since the reduction of statin dosage and the introduction of B. aristata/S. marianum, while it worsened in the placebo group both compared to placebo and with active treatment (+23.4 mg/dl for total cholesterol, +19.6 mg/dl for LDL-cholesterol, +23.1 mg/dl for triglycerides with placebo compared to B. aristata/S. marianum). We did not record any variations of safety parameters in nether of groups" - See silymarin at Amazon.com and berberine at Amazon.com.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 20 - "Thirteen trials, representing 513 adult participants with Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m² were included. Prebiotic supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.48, -0.02) and LDL-c (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.44, -0.00) concentrations in overall analysis, and reduced triglycerides (SMD -0.72; 95% CI -1.20, -0.23) and increased HDL-c (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.01, 0.97) concentrations in diabetic trials. Synbiotic supplementation reduced plasma fasting insulin (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.75, -0.02) and triglycerides (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.70, -0.15) concentrations" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 20 - "Thirteen trials, representing 513 adult participants with Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m² were included. Prebiotic supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.48, -0.02) and LDL-c (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.44, -0.00) concentrations in overall analysis, and reduced triglycerides (SMD -0.72; 95% CI -1.20, -0.23) and increased HDL-c (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.01, 0.97) concentrations in diabetic trials. Synbiotic supplementation reduced plasma fasting insulin (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.75, -0.02) and triglycerides (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.70, -0.15) concentrations" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Associations between the Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Lipid Profiles in Japanese Men - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014 Oct 27 - "Serum 25(OH)D level is inversely correlated with the LDL-C/HDL-C, TG, ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-1 values in Japanese men, independent of the VFA and cardiorespiratory fitness" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin enhances cell-surface LDLR level and promotes LDL uptake through down-regulation of PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Aug 27 - "Curcumin exhibits hypolipidemic activity and may serve as a useful supplement to statin treatment for hypercholesterolemia" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Lipid-Lowering Effects of Curcumin in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Phytother Res. 2014 Aug 6 - "Sixty-five patients were randomized into two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from 40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p < 0.05), and the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) was significantly reduced (120.55 ± 36.81 to 106.51 ± 25.02 mg/dL, p < 0.05). The triglyceride-lowering effect, a reduction of 65 mg/dL, was also found in this study" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet and Red Yeast Rice Supplementation for the Management of Hyperlipidemia in Statin-Intolerant Patients with or without Type 2 Diabetes - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:743473 - "for 24 weeks ... We studied 171 patients: 46 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1), 44 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2), 38 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3), and 43 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4). The mean percentage changes in LDL cholesterol from the baseline were -7.34 ± 3.14% (P < 0.05) for Group 1; -21.02 ± 1.63% (P < 0.001) for Group 2; -12.47 ± 1.75% (P < 0.001) for Group 3; and -22 ± 2.19% (P < 0.001) for Group 4 with significant intergroup difference (Group 1 versus Group 2, P < 0.001; Group 3 versus Group 4, P > 0.05). No significant increase in AST, ALT, and CPK levels was observed in all groups. Our results indicate that MD alone is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol levels in statin-intolerant patients with a presumably low cardiovascular risk, but associating MD with the administration of RYR improves patients' LDL cholesterol levels more, and in patients with type 2 diabetes" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.

    type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1) -7.34
    type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2) -21.02
    dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3) -12.47
    dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4) -22.00
  • Blood lipids profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Nov 14 - "Thirty-six children (8-13 years) were recruited. After an 8-week stabilization period on the Step I diet, they were randomized to additionally receive for a 16-week period one capsule (500 mg) daily of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or a DHA plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) mixture (45.6% DHA; 41.6% EPA) or wheat germ oil (control). An effect size (as percentage change from baseline) of +8%, -12% and -16% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides was observed in children supplemented with DHA, compared to +2%, -8% and -12%, respectively, in children supplemented with DHA plus EPA" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  Here it is in table form which is easier to see:

    DHA DHA + EPA
    HDL +8% +2
    Total cholesterol/HDL -12% -8%
    Triglycerides -16% -12%
  • Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Phytosterols, Red Yeast Rice, and Lifestyle Change vs Statin - Medscape, 8/13/13 - "All participants took RYR and had significant decreases in LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for 1 year when compared with baseline" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Phytosterols, red yeast rice, and lifestyle changes instead of statins: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial - Am Heart J. 2013 Jul;166(1):187-196.e2 - "lifestyle change (LC) ... red yeast rice (RYR) ... A total of 187 participants (mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], 154 mg/dL) took RYR 1800 mg twice daily and were randomized to phytosterol tablets 900 mg twice daily or placebo. Participants were also randomized to a 12-week LC program or usual care (UC) ... All participants took RYR and had significant decreases in LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for 1 year when compared with baseline ... The addition of phytosterol tablets to RYR did not result in further lowering of LDL-C levels" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • A combined natural supplement lowers LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate untreated hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Jul 2 -"To investigate the effect of a natural cholesterol-lowering supplement (NCLS) containing red yeast rice, policosanols and artichoke leaf extracts on blood lipid concentrations as well as on safety parameters when given over 16 weeks in 100 volunteers with untreated moderate hypercholesterolemia ... The NCLS was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia, without modifying safety parameters"
  • Effects of low-fat diet on serum lipids in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Menopause. 2013 Jun 3 - "Ten electronic databases were searched for relevant articles reporting randomized controlled trials through August 31, 2012 ... Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values changed more favorably in participants randomized to low-fat diets than in participants randomized to their usual diets ... Overall results suggest that a low-fat diet is efficacious in reducing the concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C but not in reducing TG and TC-to-HDL-C ratio in women" - Note:  Lowing HDL is a negative.
  • Low dose chromium-polynicotinate or policosanol is effective in hypercholesterolemic children only in combination with glucomannan - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Glucomannan (GM) is a natural fiber that has been demonstrated to lower total and LDL-cholesterol. The use of high-dose chromium-polynicotinate (CP) and policosanol (PC) has also shown cholesterol-lowering benefits ... GM combination of low-dose CP or PC reduced CholT and LDL without changing HDL, TG and FBG. The highest post-treatment changes were seen after GM combination with CP (CholT 85 +/- 3% and LDL 85 +/- 5%, of pretreatment) which was significantly (p < 0.01) less than with low-dose CP or PC and starch" - See glucomannan products at iHerb, chromium supplements at Amazon.com and policosanol products at iHerb.
  • Gut Bacteria Linked to Cholesterol Metabolism - Science Daily, 2/18/13 - "gut bacteria reduce bile acid synthesis in the liver by signaling through a specific protein, known as the FXR receptor, in the small intestine ... The FXR receptor not only affects cholesterol metabolism but is also involved in the body's sugar and fat metabolism ... If future research can identify the specific bacteria that affect FXR signaling in the gut, this could lead to new ways to treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of grape extract used as a dietary supplement on healthy volunteers - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed over 56 days and included 60 volunteers. Thirty volunteers took 700 mg of the grape extract, Eminol® (E), and 30 took the placebo (P). On comparison of the results, a decrease in total cholesterol (E: 213.77 +/- 4.1 mg/dl and P: 245.57 +/- 4.1 mg/dl; p = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (E: 142.17 +/- 3.1 mg/dl and P: 165.13 +/- 3.1 mg/dl; p = 0.02) levels as well as an increase in antioxidant capacity (E: 65.63 +/- 5.8 μmol TE/mg and P: 57.80 +/- 7.7 μmol TE/mg; p < 0.01) and vitamin E (E: 11.46 +/- 0.5 μg/ml and P: 9.06 +/- 0.5 μg/ml; p = 0.018) was observed. This result indicates that the grape extract Eminol® modulated the lipid profile in terms of cardiovascular risk indicators, lowering total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Daily doses of a new probiotic reduces 'bad' and total cholesterol - Science Daily, 11/5/12 - "The study involved 127 adult patients with high cholesterol. About half the participants took L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 twice a day, while the rest were given placebo capsules ... Those taking the probiotic had LDL levels 11.6 percent lower than those on placebo after nine weeks. Furthermore, cholesterol esters were reduced by 6.3 percent and cholesterol ester saturated fatty acids by 8.8 percent, compared with the placebo group ... Furthermore, people taking the probiotic had total cholesterol reduced by 9.1 percent. HDL "good" cholesterol and blood triglycerides, a dangerous form of fat in the blood, were unchanged ... Scientists have proposed that Lactobacillus bacteria alone may impact cholesterol levels in several ways, including breaking apart molecules known as bile salts. L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 was fermented and formulated to optimize its effect on cholesterol and bile salts ... the study results suggest the probiotic broke up bile salts, leading to reduced cholesterol absorption in the gut and less LDL ... The probiotic worked at doses of just 200 milligrams a day, far lower than those for soluble fiber or other natural products used to reduce cholesterol" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term effects of nutraceuticals (berberine, red yeast rice, policosanol) in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients - Adv Ther. 2011 Nov 21 - "containing berberine 500 mg, policosanol 10 mg, red yeast rice 200 mg, folic acid 0.2 mg, coenzyme Q10 2.0 mg, and astaxanthin 0.5 mg) or placebo ... There was a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterolemia (-20%), LDL-C (-31%), and insulin resistance (-10%) with nutraceutical treatment. No significant changes were detected for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, no statistical differences were found between baseline and end-study safety parameters. Medication compliance and tolerability were high" - Note: I’m been promoting synergy and talking lower doses of everything proven in specific areas like this for some time.   My combo for cholesterol reduction would be 10 mg policosanol, 600 mg red yeast rice and 150 my Sytrinol.  See policosanol products at iHerb, red yeast rice at Amazon.com and Sytrinol products at iHerb.
  • Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov;111(11):1720-9 - "Twenty trials (N=1,415) met all inclusion criteria. Upon meta-analysis, GTCs at doses ranging from 145 to 3,000 mg/day taken for 3 to 24 weeks reduced total (-5.46 mg/dL [-0.14 mmol/L]; 95% CI -9.59 to -1.32) and LDL cholesterol (-5.30 mg/dL [-0.14 mmol/L]; 95% CI -9.99 to -0.62) compared to control. GTCs did not significantly alter HDL cholesterol (-0.27 mg/dL [-0.007 mmol/L]; 95% CI -1.62 to 1.09) or triglyceride (3.00 mg/dL [-0.034 mmol/L]; 95% CI -2.73 to 8.73) levels. The consumption of GTCs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels; however, there was no significant effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 28 - "Previous clinical trials have documented that soy protein reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with milk protein ... Compared with carbohydrate, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% confidence interval (CI)) in total cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of -3.97 mg/dl (-7.63 to -0.31, P=0.03) and -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01, P=0.03), respectively. Compared with milk protein, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of 1.54 mg/dl (0.63 to 2.44, P=0.0009) and -0.14 (-0.22 to -0.05, P=0.001), respectively. Compared with carbohydrate, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL of -1.13 mg/dl (-2.05 to -0.22, P=0.02). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial indicates that soy protein, but not milk protein, supplementation improves the lipid profile among healthy individuals"
  • Dark chocolate/cocoa effective for cholesterol improvements: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 8/22/11 - "Researchers from Brigham and Women��s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston report that short-term consumption of dark chocolate was associated with a reduction of total cholesterol of 6.23 milligrams per dl, while LDL was reduced by, on average, 5.9 ml/dl ... The degree to which LDL and [total cholesterol] levels were reduced in this analysis reflects some measure of potency of the cocoa regimen ... cocoa may also affect gut microflora and possess prebiotic potential ... Dr Djoussé and his co-workers performed a detailed literature search and identified 10 clinical trials of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate involving 320 participants. Five of the studies used daily flavanol doses of less than 500 mg, while the other five used doses exceeding 500 mg per day" - [Abstract]
  • A diet rich in oat bran improves blood lipids and hemostatic factors, and reduces apparent energy digestibility in young healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Total cholesterol decreased by 14% during the oat bran period compared with 4% during the control period (P<0.001). Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 16% in the oat bran period compared with 3% in the control period (P<0.01), as did total triacylglycerol (21 vs 10%, P<0.05) and very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol 33 vs 9%, P<0.01). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and factor VII (fVII) levels decreased more during consumption of oat bran compared with the control period (PAI-1: 30 vs 2.3%, P<0.01; fVII: 15 vs 7.6%, <0.001). Fecal volume and dry matter were greater when consuming the oat bran diet compared with the control (P<0.001), and energy excretion was increased by 37% (1014 vs 638 kJ/day, P<0.001); however, changes in body weight did not differ (oat bran:-0.3+/-0.5 kg; control: 0.0+/-0.7 kg).Conclusions: Addition of oat bran (6 g soluble fiber/day) to a low-fiber diet lowered total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as hemostatic factors, and may affect energy balance through reduced energy utilization"
  • Blueberry's effects on cholesterol examined in lab animal study - Science Daily, 6/1/11 - "all the hamsters that were fed blueberry-enhanced rations had from 22 to 27 percent lower total plasma cholesterol than hamsters fed rations that didn't contain blueberry juice byproducts ... Levels of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein-a form of "bad" cholesterol) were about 44 percent lower in the blueberry-fed hamsters"
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols may reduce cholesterol: RCT data - Nutra USA, 5/9/11 - "Supplements containing a mixture of tocotrienols – forms of vitamin E – may reduce cholesterol levels by about 15 percent in people with raised cholesterol ... Overall, there are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... After four months of supplementation, the researchers noted a decrease in total cholesterol of 9 percent, with the decrease recorded as 11 percent after six months ... In addition, LDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 13 and 17.5 percent after four and six months of supplementation, respectively" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Phytosterols supplementation decreases plasma small and dense LDL levels in metabolic syndrome patients on a westernized type diet - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb 11 - "After 2 months supplementation with phytosterols, a significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, small and dense LDL (sdLDL) levels, as well as, apoB and triglycerides concentrations were observed in the intervention group (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. In addition, phytosterol supplementation lowered serum total cholesterol by 15.9%, LDL-cholesterol by 20.3% and triglyceride levels by 19.1% (P = 0.02, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), although the patients kept their habitual westernized type diet. No differences were observed in HDL cholesterol, apoA1, glucose, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen levels and blood pressure"
  • High dietary fat, cholesterol linked to increased risk of breast cancer - Science Daily, 1/6/11 - "This mouse model is believed to closely parallel the pathogenesis of human breast cancer. PyMT mice were placed on a diet that contained 21.2 percent fat and 0.2 percent cholesterol, reflective of a typical Western diet. A control group of PyMT mice was fed a normal chow that had only 4.5 percent fat and negligible amounts of cholesterol ... tumors began to develop quickly in mice fed the fat/cholesterol-enriched chow. In this group, the number of tumors was almost doubled, and they were 50 percent larger than those observed in mice that ate a normal diet. "The consumption of a Western diet resulted in accelerated tumor onset and increased tumor incidences, multiplicity, and burden, suggesting an important role for dietary cholesterol in tumor formation," ... There was also a trend towards an increased number of lung metastasis in mice fed the fatty diet"
  • Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Red Yeast Rice in a Population Intolerant to Statins - Am J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 1;105(5):664-666 - "The total cholesterol decreased 15% (-37 +/- 26 mg/dl, p <0.001) and LDL cholesterol decreased 21% (-35 +/- 25 mg/dl, p <0.001) during 74 +/- 39 days of treatment. Most (92%) patients tolerated the treatment, and many (56%) achieved their LDL cholesterol goal. In patients unable to tolerate daily statin use, the total cholesterol level decreased 13% (-33 +/- 10 mg/dl, p <0.001) and LDL cholesterol decreased 19% (-31 +/- 4 mg/dl, p <0.001). In conclusion, red yeast rice modestly decreased total and LDL cholesterol, was well-tolerated, and was an acceptable alternative in patients intolerant of other lipid-lowering medications" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Red Yeast Rice Comparable to Pravastatin for Statin-Intolerant Patients - Medscape, 1/21/10 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, red yeast rice reduced LDL-cholesterol levels 30% from baseline, from 181 mg/dL to 126 mg/dL, while pravastatin reduced LDL-cholesterol levels 27%, a nonstatistical difference between treatments. Similarly, there were no significant differences observed in changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, or HDL-cholesterol levels ... Regarding the primary end point, the incidence of treatment discontinuation because of myalgia, both red yeast rice and pravastatin were equivalent. In the red-yeast-rice arm, one patient of 21 (5%) withdrew because of muscle pain, while two patients of 22 (9%) withdrew in the pravastatin arm. Also, there were no reported differences in the mean pain severity scores with the two treatments" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Why Low Vitamin D Raises Heart Disease Risks In Diabetics - Science Daily, 8/21/09 - "Low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes ... When people are deficient in vitamin D, the macrophage cells eat more cholesterol, and they can't get rid of it. The macrophages get clogged with cholesterol and become what scientists call foam cells, which are one of the earliest markers of atherosclerosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Red Yeast Rice May Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 6/17/09 - "After six months, patients who took the red yeast rice had lowered their LDL cholesterol by an average of 35 mg/dL, compared to 15 mg/dL among the placebo group" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Ignored cholesterol blamed for heart attacks - MSNBC, 6/9/09 - "Statins — taken by millions to cut heart attack and stroke risk — do not affect lipoprotein (a) ... people with the highest liporotein (a) levels were two to three times more likely to have a heart attack than those with the lowest levels ... Niacin, a vitamin often prescribed generically to lower cholesterol, also lowers lipoprotein (a) levels. It can cause uncomfortable flushing, however. Aspirin can also lower lipoprotein (a) levels" - [WebMD]
  • I take Lopid (gemfibrozil) to lower my blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but I am concerned about the side effects. Is there anything natural that I can take instead? - Dr. Murray - "Pantethine has been shown to significantly reduce serum triglyceride (-32%), total cholesterol (-19%), and LDL-cholesterol (-21%) levels while increasing HDL-cholesterol (+23%) levels in several clinical trials"
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):460-8 - "Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner"
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/11/09 - "a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes ... the fatty acids contained in fish oil markedly inhibit the entry of "bad," or LDL, cholesterol into arteries and, as a result, much less cholesterol collects in these vessels ... Dr. Deckelbaum advises those interested in increasing omega-3 intakes do so by either increasing fish intake or by using supplements that contain the "long-chain" fatty acids, EPA and DHA, which are found in cold water fish" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "Now, a CUMC research team led by Richard J. Deckelbaum, M.D., Director of the Columbia Institute of Human Nutrition, has found that a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • L-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec 3 - "The 2 groups received either 2 g L-carnitine once daily (n = 41) or placebo ... the L-carnitine-treated patients showed significant improvements compared with the placebo group in the following markers: oxidized LDL levels decreased by 15.1 compared with 3.0 U/L (P < 0.001); LDL cholesterol decreased by 0.45 compared with 0.16 mmol/L (P < 0.05); triglycerides decreased by 1.02 compared with 0.09 mmol/L (P < 0.001); apolipoprotein A1 concentrations decreased by 0.12 compared with 0.03 mg/dL (P < 0.05); apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations decreased by 0.13 compared with 0.04 mg/dL (P < 0.05); thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations decreased by 1.92 compared with 0.05 (P < 0.001), and conjugated diene concentrations decreased by 0.72 compared with 0.11 in the placebo group ... Our study indicates that oral administration of L-carnitine reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes - Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7 - "Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively) ... Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 as well as caloric restriction prevent the age-related modifications of cholesterol metabolism - Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Sep 26 - "both caloric restriction and Omega-3 supplemented diets are able to prevent hypercholesterolemia, by regulating HMG-CoAR activation state by controlling ROS production and p38 phosphorylation. Moreover also the age-dependent loss of LDLr membrane exposition is prevented" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil, Red Yeast Rice Cut Cholesterol - WebMD, 7/23/08 - "We followed them for a three-month period ... The LDL declined 42% in the supplement group and 39% in the Zocor group ... The supplement group also lost an average of 10 pounds in 12 weeks, but there was no significant weight loss in the medication group. Triglyceride levels, while on average normal in both groups at the start, decreased by 29% in the supplement group but just 9.3% in the medication group -- a significant difference" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term effects of resveratrol supplementation on suppression of atherogenic lesion formation and cholesterol synthesis in apo E-deficient mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 5 - "The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-) mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Lowering Blood Cholesterol With Fish Oil And Red Yeast Rice Instead Of Statins - Science Daily, 7/8/08 - "The alternative treatment group participants received daily fish oil and red yeast rice supplements ... The statin group participants received 40 milligrams (mg) of Zocor (simvastatin) daily ... The researchers noted that there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol levels in both groups. The alternative treatment group experienced a 42.4 percent reduction, and the statin group experienced a 39.6 percent reduction. Members of the alternative therapy group also had a substantial reduction in triglycerides, another form of fat found in the blood, and lost more weight" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Chinese Red Yeast Rice Is Good For Your Heart, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/9/08 - "a partially purified extract of Chinese red yeast rice, Xuezhikang (XZK), reduced the risk of repeat heart attacks by 45%, revascularization (bypass surgery/angioplasty), cardiovascular mortality and total mortality by one-third and cancer mortality by two-thirds" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Oatmeal's Health Claims Reaffirmed, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/8/08 - "studies conducted during the past 15 years have, without exception, shown: ... total cholesterol levels are lowered through oat consumption ... low-density lipoprotein (LDL, the "bad" cholesterol) is reduced without adverse effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, the "good" cholesterol), or triglyceride concentrations"
  • Resveratrol attenuates the expression of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA in hamsters - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Dec 28 - "The concentrations of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in the resveratrol-fed group than in the control group. The resveratrol contained diet significantly decreased Apo B, Lp(a), and cholesterol-ester-transport protein (CETP) concentrations, but increased Apo A-I levels and the Apo A-I/Apo B ratio. The contents of cholesterol and triglyceride in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the control group. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that HMGR mRNA expression was significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the control group" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Grape OPCs linked to preventing LDL cholesterol - Nutra USA, 11/23/07 - "The results of the first phase of the project are extremely promising, because they indicate that OPCs, at levels found in circulation after oral intake, are capable of protecting LDL from oxidation, and appear to be more effective protectors than vitamin E" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus flavonoids and tocotrienols help cut cholesterol - Nutra USA, 11/8/07 - "A combination of bioflavonoids from citrus fruit and tocotrienols found in Sytrinol has had a positive effect in lowering cholesterol levels ... a new ingredient Cholesstrinol, which includes both tocotrienols bioflavonoids, will be launched ... The 12-week double-blind placebo controlled study showed total cholesterol dropped by 30 per cent, LDL cholesterol by 29 per cent, triglycerides by 34 per cent compared to the placebo" - [Abstract] - Cholesstrinol isn't available yet but Sytrinol is.  See:
    • Orange, Tangerine Peels Could Be Better Than Drugs For Lowering Cholesterol - Science Daily, 5/12/04 - "A compound found in the peels of citrus fruit has the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects ... Marketed as a cholesterol-lowering agent under the trade name SytrinolTM, the supplement recently became available in the U.S" - See Sytrinol products at iHerb.
    • Source Naturals(R) First National Brand To Offer Sytrinol(TM) - NPI Center, 1/19/04 - "Sytrinol, a patented proprietary formula derived from citrus and palm fruit extracts, is composed of polymethoxylated flavones and tocotrienols. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated Sytrinol acts synergistically to significantly reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by 23%, 21% and 26% respectively. Unlike other cholesterol supplements, Sytrinol is not diet specific and has no known side effects"
  • Whole-Grain Oats Cut Cholesterol - WebMD, 4/18/07 - "people who ate whole-grain oatmeal had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels compared with those who ate refined grain foods. The average reduction in total cholesterol levels was 7.7 mg/dL and the average reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was 7 mg/dL"
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements (Sterols, Policosanol, Guggulsterones) review - ConsumerLab.com, 7/17/06
  • Psyllium May Be Safe and Effective as Add-On Therapy for Elevated Cholesterol - Medscape, 5/26/06 - "After 8 weeks, total cholesterol decreased by similar amounts in 2 groups (61 mg/dL in the 20-mg simvastatin group and 66 mg/dL in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin with psyllium)"
  • Plant Sterol Pills Significantly Lower LDL Cholesterol - Science Daily, 3/13/06 - "The addition of plant sterols helped further lower total cholesterol and contributed to a nearly 10 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol"
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Packs Punch - WebMD, 3/10/06 - "the participants who followed the diet for one year had lowered their cholesterol levels by 20%. Researchers say that cholesterol reduction is comparable with the reduction achieved by 29 of the participants who took a statin for one month before following the diet in a separate study"
  • Cholesterol-lowering Foods Most Effective When Combined - Science Daily, 3/9/06 - "Cholesterol-lowering foods such as soy protein, almonds, plant sterol enriched margarines, oats and barley may reduce cholesterol levels more effectively when eaten in combination ... After 12 months, more than 30 per cent of the participants had successfully adhered to the diet and lowered their cholesterol levels by more than 20 per cent"
  • The New Low-Cholesterol Diet: Low-Fat and Functional Foods - WebMD, 2/17/06
  • Plant Sterols May Help Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 6/17/05 - "Plant sterols are already on the market in various products, including cholesterol-lowering margarines such as Take Control and Benecol ... LDL cholesterol fell by more than a quarter (27%) for diabetic people who received the sterol spread. For those without diabetes, LDL dropped 15%"
  • Fiber Supplements May Lower Cardiovascular Risk In Type 2 Diabetics - Science Daily, 4/30/05 - "Study participants received 10g to 15g of BiosLife 2, an over-the-counter fiber supplement ... total cholesterol had dropped from 215 mg/dL to 184 mg/dL, a 14.4 percent decrease. Triglycerides also improved, dropping from 299 mg/dL to 257 mg/dL, a 14 percent decrease ... LDL decreased from 129 mg/dL to 92 mg/dL -- a 28.7 percent improvement. HDL rose from 43 mg/dL to 55 mg/dL -- a 21.8 percent increase"
  • Portfolio Diet: Recipe for Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 10/14/04 - "substitutes soy-based foods for meat ... three daily servings of the natural psyllium product Metamucil ... replaces butter and margarine with plant sterol-enriched margarine ... diet includes nuts ... Just about a third of them get very good results, with better than a 20% reduction in the 'bad' LDL cholesterol after six months"
  • Blueberry Compound Shows Promise Of Lowering Cholesterol As Effectively As Drug - Science Daily, 8/31/04 - "Until studies are conducted in humans, no one knows how many blueberries a person needs to eat to have a positive effect at lowering cholesterol"
  • Oats keep arteries clear - Nutra USA, 6/2/04 - "compounds in oats hinder the ability of cholesterol to stick to artery walls, thereby preventing the build-up of plaques that block arteries and endanger heart health"
  • How Low Should Cholesterol Go? - Dr. Weil, 5/17/04
  • Orange, Tangerine Peels Could Be Better Than Drugs For Lowering Cholesterol - Science Daily, 5/12/04 - "A compound found in the peels of citrus fruit has the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects ... Marketed as a cholesterol-lowering agent under the trade name SytrinolTM, the supplement recently became available in the U.S" - See Sytrinol at Amazon.com.
  • Breakfast Table Therapy: Plant Sterols in O.J. Reduce Cholesterol - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 4/15/04 - "72 people with high LDL cholesterol were randomly assigned to either drink orange juice with phytosterols or plain orange juice for eight weeks ... total cholesterol levels dropped more than 7% and LDL cholesterol levels dropped more than 12%. In contrast, no changes were seen in those receiving the plain orange juice"
  • Effects of calcium supplementation on circulating lipids : potential pharmacoeconomic implications - Drugs Aging. 2004; 21(1): 7-17 - "calcium and lipids bind to one another in the gut, each interfering with the other's absorption. Calcium also causes malabsorption of bile acids, which is likely to contribute further to malabsorption of fat ... The largest randomised controlled trial of calcium effects on lipids was carried out in 223 healthy postmenopausal women, and found that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased 6.3% and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) increased by 7.3% at 1-year. The resultant 16.4% increase in HDL-C/LDL-C ratio would be predicted to reduce cardiovascular event rates by 20-30%, which is consistent with the available observational data"
  • Dietary Changes Can Reduce Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein as Much as Medication - New Hope Natural Media, 9/18/03 - "One group was treated with a statin medication (20 mg of lovastatin per day) and another received placebo. A third group ate a modified daily diet that included an additional 2 grams of plant sterols provided in a margarine, 20 grams of insoluble fiber from psyllium, oats and barley, 43 grams of soy protein from soy milk and soy meat-substitutes, and 1 ounce of whole almonds. At the end of the study, total cholesterol levels had decreased 6% in the placebo group, 23% in the statin group and 22% in the modified-diet group. Levels of LDL-cholesterol dropped 8% in the placebo group, 31% in the statin group and 29% in the modified-diet group. CRP levels decreased 10% in the placebo group, 33% in the statin group and 28% in the modified-diet group"
  • Vitamin Supplements Improve Blood Vessel Function - Physician's Weekly, 9/8/03 - "In a study where children with hyperlipidemia were given doses of the antioxidants vitamins C and E, researchers have found that the supplements can significantly improve blood vessel function ... the test group received 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Both groups saw an 8% decline in LDL cholesterol and the test group had significant improvement in endothelial function comparable to the levels of normal healthy children"
  • Vitamins E and C Lower Kids' Heart Risks - WebMD, 8/11/03
  • Controlling Cholesterol Naturally - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/03 - "When you take the recommended amount of red yeast rice, which is 1,200 mg a day [divided into two doses], it is equivalent to taking 5 mg of a statin drug"
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements (Guggulsterones, Policosanol, Sterols) review - ConsumerLab.com, 8/1/03 - "Policosanol ... Significantly lowers total cholesterol and LDL. Increases HDL"
  • Diet Can Be as Effective as Statin Therapy in Lowering Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/03
  • Low-Cholesterol Diet as Good as Drugs - WebMD, 7/22/03 - "a vegetarian diet combining four types of cholesterol-lowering foods works as well as cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins ... It had four basic components: plant sterols in the form of a cholesterol-lowering margarine; soy proteins; sticky or soluble fibers such as fruits, vegetables, oats, and legumes; and almonds"
  • Lower cholesterol for healthy kidneys - USA Today, 7/20/03 - "men who had low levels of HDL or "good cholesterol" and elevated "bad" or LDL cholesterol were twice as likely to have evidence of kidney malfunction"
  • Cholesterol: Finding Right Mix - CBS News, 7/11/03 - "High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as the "good" cholesterol. It helps move the bad cholesterol through the body's system to get rid of excess amounts. With enough "good" cholesterol, the "bad" cholesterol doesn't get a chance to build up ... Your total cholesterol should be less than 200. Levels of "good" cholesterol should be below 40. Levels of "bad" cholesterol should be less than 130, or less than 100 if you already have heart disease ... Certain foods such as soy, whole grain oats or fish containing omega-3 fatty acids can lower cholesterol" - See my HDL page.  I believe that "Levels of "good" cholesterol should be below 40" should be "above" not "below".
  • Tea Extract Can Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 6/23/03
  • Safety of long-term consumption of plant sterol esters-enriched spread - Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 May;57(5):681-692 - "Consumption of a plant sterol esters-enriched spread is an effective way to consistently lower blood cholesterol concentrations and is safe to use over a long period of time"
  • Chitosan decreases total cholesterol in women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 May;57(5):721-5 - "assigned to receive chitosan (1.2 g per day) or placebo ... Chitosan significantly (F=3.19, P=0.04) reduced total cholesterol compared to placebo. In a subgroup of subjects with over 60 y of age, chitosan group significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol"
  • C, E Help Slash High Cholesterol - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 5/03
  • n -3 Fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans - Clin Nutr 2003 Apr;22(2):175-82 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercially available skimmed milk supplemented with n -3 PUFA, oleic acid, and vitamins E, B(6), and folic acid (Puleva Omega3((R))) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease ... Thirty volunteers were given 500 ml/day of semi-skimmed milk for 4 weeks and then 500 ml/day of the n -3 enriched milk for 8 further weeks ... The consumption of n -3 enriched milk produced a significant decrease in plasma concentration of total and LDL cholesterol accompanied by a reduction in plasma levels of homocysteine" - 500 ml is 2.1 cups.  Oleic acid is an omega-9.
  • Flaxseed Reduces Cholesterol in Postmenopausal Women - New Hope Natural Media, 3/28/03 - "The authors suggested that heating of flaxseed in the baking process might change some of its beneficial components into forms more available to the body"
  • Breakfast Reduces Diabetes, Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/6/03 - "A daily breakfast may reduce the risk of becoming obese or developing signs that can lead to diabetes -- called insulin resistance syndrome -- by 35% to 50% compared with skipping the morning meal ... Their recommendation: A bowl of whole-grain cereal ... eating whole-grain cereal each day was associated with a 15% reduction in risk for the insulin resistance syndrome ... soluble fiber forms a gel-like material that prevents cholesterol and saturated fats from entering the bloodstream, where they can collect and form plaques on artery walls. The insoluble fiber in these cereals, meanwhile, helps keep bowel movement regular and may help reduce risk of colon problems"
  • Are These Cholesterol Busters For You? - CBS News, 3/6/03 - "People with high cholesterol may lower their levels by a surprising one-third with a vegetarian diet that combines a variety of trendy heart-healthy foods, including plenty of soy and soluble fiber ... the diet works about as well as the older statin drugs that are still first-line therapy for people with high cholesterol ... A typical breakfast included oat bran, fruit and soy milk, lunch might involve vegetarian chili, oat bran bread and tomato, and a typical dinner was vegetable curry, a soy burger, northern beans, barley, okra, eggplant, cauliflower, onions and red peppers. Volunteers also got Metamucil three times a day to provide soluble fiber from psyllium" - Also see:
    • Ispaghula Husk [psyllium] Nearly As Effective As Simvastatin For Hyperlipidemia - Doctor's Guide, 12/24/02 - "One group received 3.5 grams of ispaghula husk twice a day and the second group received 20 milligrams of simvastatin each day ... total cholesterol decreased by 15.8 percent and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 22.97 percent among patients taking ispaghula husk ... Triglycerides decreased by 20.89 percent and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased by 10.69 percent in these patients ... Among patients taking simvastatin, total cholesterol decreased by 24.15 percent, LDL cholesterol decreased by 36.08 percent, triglycerides decreased by 20.47 percent and HDL cholesterol increased by 11.4 percent" - I've got that. See psyllium husk at Amazon.com.  3.5 grams is about one wafer (3.4 grams psyllium/wafer).  Plus 24 wafers run about $4.49icon versus about $116icon for 30 of the 20 mg simvastatin.
  • High Cholesterol? More Exercise Better - WebMD, 11/6/02 - "the amount of time spent exercising is more important than the intensity of exercise"
  • Chinese Cholesterol Control? - Dr. Weil, 10/1/02 - "And it contains seven different statins, not just lovastatin. In my experience, the natural mixture of compounds is less toxic (to the liver and muscles) than isolated lovastatin ... Other brands of red rice yeast extract are still available in the U.S., although they haven’t been clinically proven as was Cholestin, and may not be as effective"
  • More Good News on Tea - WebMD, 9/27/02 - "The latest studies suggest tea might lower cholesterol, improve heart health, prevent rectal cancer in women, and reduce cell damage in smokers"
  • Soy Protein In The Diet Produces Health Benefits, Regardless Of Isoflavone Content - Intelihealth, 7/25/02 - "After each soy diet, total cholesterol, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, homocysteine concentrations, and estimated overall cardiovascular risk were lower than they were after the control diet. Additionally, serum concentrations of LDL were lower after the high-isoflavone diet. The only significant difference between the sexes was a tendency toward reduced blood pressure in men after the high-soy isoflavone diet ... the soy diets continued to improve the subjects' blood lipid profiles even after dietary saturated fat consumption was maximally reduced"
  • Losing Weight with Peanut Butter? - Dr. Weil, 7/10/02 - "a diet high in monounsaturated fats (MUFAs) with 34-36 percent of calories from fat reduced LDL (“bad”) cholesterol by 16-25 percent without lowering HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels. In contrast, the American Heart Associations diet with 25 percent of calories from fat, resulted in only a 12 percent reduction ... people on a diet including 35 percent of calories from MUFAs as well as those on a traditional low-fat, high carbohydrate diet lost an average of 11 pounds over six months. However, by 18 months, three times as many people on the MUFA diet remained with the program and kept off the lost weight while the others regained an average of five pounds each"
  • Cholesterol drugs may work on brain - USA Today, 7/9/02 - "too much cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries in a process that can lead to a heart attack. But many researchers now think that high blood cholesterol also affects the brain ... Excess cholesterol may be instrumental in the formation of senile plaque ... That plaque, the hallmark of Alzheimer's, is an abnormal cluster of dead or dying brain cells and toxic proteins that short-circuit memory and other crucial brain functions ... People taking statins reduced their risk of developing Alzheimer's by nearly 80%" - Note: Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Soy Supplements May Help Control Blood Sugar - Intelihealth, 6/17/02 - "After 12 weeks, the women taking the soy supplement showed significantly better control over their blood sugar, according to several standard tests, and their levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (so-called "bad cholesterol") dropped"
  • Policosanol Helps Reduce High Cholesterol - New Hope Natural Media, 6/6/02 - "In a six-month study, 10 mg per day of policosanol reduced total cholesterol by 16% and LDL cholesterol by 24%, and increased HDL cholesterol by 29%. Several other studies have compared policosanol with some of the conventional medications used for lowering cholesterol and the results have shown policosanol in the amount of 5 to 20 mg per day to be more effective than lovastatin (Mevacor®), pravastatin (Pravachol®), and simvastatin (Zocor®), with fewer reported side effects. While some prescription drugs used to lower cholesterol may cause liver and muscle problems in rare instances, people taking policosanol have not suffered any serious side effects"
  • What's Wrong With Vitamin E? - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "Tocotrienols and cardiovascular disease ..."
  • Calcium Citrate May Also Lower Cholesterol In Women - Doctor's Guide, 4/24/02 - ""This study showed that 1 gram of calcium (as the citrate) taken daily lowers the damaging component of blood cholesterol (LDL or low-density lipoprotein), and increases the protective cholesterol (HDL or high-density lipoprotein). As a result, calcium citrate may reduce the incidence of heart attacks and angina in postmenopausal women," ... study was designed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation with calcium citrate (1 gram daily as Citracal® Ultradense™ calcium citrate) on circulating lipid concentrations in normal older women"
  • Octacosanol Beats Statins - Dr. Janson, 4/02 - "In a study of octacosanol and Pravachol (pravastatin), 10 mg daily of either product lowered LDL- cholesterol by 19.3 percent, the drug only 15.6 percent, it lowered total cholesterol by 13.9 percent (the drug only 11.8)."
  • Rice Bran Lowers Diabetic Blood Sugar - WebMD, 4/10/02 - "Rice bran was able to lower blood glucose by up to 30% in a small group of patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes ... also found that patients with elevated cholesterol who consumed 20 grams per day of stabilized rice bran lowered their total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between 5% and 15%"
  • A Prescription for Alarm - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "We were, apparently, expected to forget that homocysteine and C-reactive protein are far more accurate predictors, and perhaps more likely causes, of heart disease"
  • ACSM Conference Unveils Performance Enhancers - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "(HMB) can increase strength and lean body mass ... 3 g/day HMB for four weeks ... Men in the HMB group lowered their LDL from 172 mg/dL to 123 mg/dL and increased their lean mass by 6 percent (35.3 to 37.68 kg) ... strength was significantly increased in all three tested strength exercises"
  • Is Soy Better Than Estrogen for Heart Health After Menopause? - WebMD, 7/2/01 - "This research is interesting as it suggests soy can favorably affect cholesterol without adversely affecting blood clotting, which is a potential concern with estrogen replacement ... benefits were seen equally in men and women, [and] soy treatment did not affect male sexuality"
  • A Natural Anti-Cholesterol Dietary Supplement, Policosanol - Life Extension Magazine, 6/01 - "policosanol lowered LDL cholesterol 20% in 6 to 12 weeks at 10 mg/day. Total cholesterol was reduced 15%, and HDL increased 7%-28%. Taking 20 mg/day reduced LDL about 28%, total cholesterol about 20%, and elevated HDL 7%-10%"
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Benefits Seen For DASH Diet - Intelihealth, 6/27/01 - "A diet effective at lowering blood pressure also appears to considerably reduce cholesterol levels ... It is low in saturated and total fat, and draws largely on fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, as well as whole grains, fish, poultry and nuts. There's comparatively little red meat, and consumption of sweets or sugary beverages is also reduced ... lowered their total cholesterol by an average of 7.3 percent ... there was an average drop of 7.5 percent in HDL" [good cholesterol]
  • A Fish Story - Nutrition Science News, 4/01 - "daily consumption of very low daily doses of EPA/DHA (120 mg/180 mg, about one standard fish oil capsule) in an enriched milk led to a 19 percent decrease in blood triglycerides and a 19 percent increase in HDL cholesterol after six weeks ... It is unclear whether EPA is superior to DHA, although EPA has proven more potent in relaxing cow coronary arteries and producing the vasodilator gas, nitric oxide, in vitro"
  • HMB Pumps You Up While Lowering Cholesterol and Blood Pressure - WebMD, 8/18/00 - "These figures are just about what you would see by taking medications for hypertension or lowering cholesterol."

Other News:

  • Dietary Saturated Fats Tied to Aggressive Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 10/13/16 - "There was also a suggestion of a stronger association among men who did not take statins, which mitigate the effect of fat-related cholesterol ... saturated fat intake affects cholesterol levels, which, in turn, have been tied to prostate cancer development in epidemiological and laboratory ... a high total fat-adjusted saturated fat intake was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR) for aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 - 2.06; P trend = .009). However, a high total fat-adjusted saturated fat intake had only an attenuated, nonsignificant association in statin users (OR, 1.16; ... There were no statistically significant associations between aggressive prostate cancer and PUFA and MUFA intake, or trans fats intake ... a high level of total cholesterol intake was associated with aggressive prostate cancer in white Americans (OR, 1.62 ... Men who consumed 10% fewer calories from animal fat and 10% more calories from vegetable fat after diagnosis had a 44% lower risk of mortality"
  • Cholesterol levels, not statins, influence colorectal cancer risk - Science Daily, 4/27/16 - "They confirmed findings from previous studies that showed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in statin users compared to non-users. However, they found that the difference in the risk of colorectal cancer was not significantly different between those patients who continued statin therapy and those who discontinued (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.22). Furthermore, for every 1 mmol/L (~38.6 mg/dl) increase in total cholesterol level, authors observed a 10 percent decreased risk of colorectal cancer ... Additionally, they observed that decreases in total serum cholesterol (>1 mmol/L) at least a year before the cancer diagnosis were associated with 1.25-fold and 2.36-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in users and nonusers, respectively"
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with 3-year all-cause mortality among Chinese oldest old: Data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey - Atherosclerosis. 2015 Jan 14;239(1):137-142 - "Each 1 mmol/L increase of LDL-C concentration corresponded to a 19% decrease in 3-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.92). The crude HR for abnormally higher LDL-C concentration (≥3.37 mmol/L) was 0.65 (0.41-1.03); and the adjusted HR was statistically significant around 0.60 (0.37-0.95) when adjusted for different sets of confounding factors. Results of sensitivity analysis also showed a significant association between higher LDL-C and lower mortality risk ... Among the Chinese oldest old, higher LDL-C level was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. Our findings suggested the necessity of re-evaluating the optimal level of LDL-C among the oldest old"
  • Prostate Cancer Recurrence Risk Tied to Lipid Levels - NYTimes.com, 10/13/14 - "followed the men for an average of about five years after surgery ... for each 10 milligrams per deciliter increase in total cholesterol above 200 milligrams per deciliter, there was a 9 percent increased risk of recurrence. Compared with people with normal triglycerides, those with levels above 150 milligrams per deciliter had a 35 percent increased risk of recurrence"
  • Cholesterol Levels May Be Linked to Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 7/7/14 - "The investigators determined that high cholesterol increases a woman's risk of developing breast cancer by 64 percent ... Future research may clarify how lipid [blood fat] levels, as well as other factors linked to obesity, like hormone and insulin levels, influence risk of breast cancer"
  • Cholesterol levels linked to early signs of Alzheimer's in brain - nbcnews.com, 12/30/13 - "Reed and his team studied brain scans of 74 patients in stroke clinics and senior centers using Pittsburgh Compound B, or PIB, a tracer dye that highlights amyloid in the brain. The patients were, for the most part, normal and free of any symptoms of dementia ... But when the scientists measured the cholesterol in their blood, and teased out the two types, they found that patients with high levels of low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein or HDL cholesterol showed higher PIB levels ... That means that the good and bad effects of the two kinds of cholesterol may occur long before people develop Alzheimer’s symptoms, perhaps offering a new chance for early intervention ... The American Heart Association has long said that keeping levels of HDL “good” cholesterol up — above 60 milligrams per deciliter of blood — and levels of LDL “bad” cholesterol — below 100 mg/dL — can prevent heart disease. But this new study underscores the benefit for the brain" - See niacin at Amazon.com (to raise HDL.  See my niacin page).
  • High cholesterol fuels growth, spread of breast cancer - Science Daily, 11/28/13 - "the research for the first time explains the link between high cholesterol and breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women, and suggests that dietary changes or therapies to reduce cholesterol may also offer a simple, accessible way to reduce breast cancer risk ... What we have now found is a molecule -- not cholesterol itself, but an abundant metabolite of cholesterol -- called 27HC that mimics the hormone estrogen and can independently drive the growth of breast cancer ... the findings suggest there may be a simple way to reduce the risk of breast cancer by keeping cholesterol in check, either with statins or a healthy diet. Additionally, for women who have breast cancer and high cholesterol, taking statins may delay or prevent resistance to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • New Cholesterol Guidelines Abandon LDL Targets - Medscape, 11/13/13 - "Gone are the recommended LDL- and non-HDL–cholesterol targets, specifically those that ask physicians to treat patients with cardiovascular disease to less than 100 mg/dL or the optional goal of less than 70 mg/dL. According to the expert panel, there is simply no evidence from randomized, controlled clinical trials to support treatment to a specific target. As a result, the new guidelines make no recommendations for specific LDL-cholesterol or non-HDL targets for the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ... The four major primary- and secondary-prevention patient groups who should be treated with statins were identified ...  Individuals with clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ... Individuals with LDL-cholesterol levels >190 mg/dL, such as those with familial hypercholesterolemia ... Individuals with diabetes aged 40 to 75 years old with LDL-cholesterol levels between 70 and 189 mg/dL and without evidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ... Individuals without evidence of cardiovascular disease or diabetes but who have LDL-cholesterol levels between 70 and 189 mg/dL and a 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease >7.5%"
  • Eating Eggs Is Not Linked to High Cholesterol in Adolescents, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/19/13 - "the most recent research suggests that increased serum cholesterol is more affected by intake of saturated fats and trans fats -- present in red meat, industrial baked goods, etc. -- than by the amount of cholesterol in the diet ... eating larger amounts of egg is neither linked to higher serum cholesterol nor to worse cardiovascular health in adolescents, regardless of their levels of physical activity ... The conclusions, published in the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, confirm recent studies in healthy adults that suggest that an intake of up to seven eggs a week is not associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases ... a medium-size egg contains 200 milligrams of cholesterol but has more unsaturated fats than saturated fats and only has 70 calories"
  • Serum total cholesterol: A mortality predictor in elderly hospitalized patients - Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 23 - "mean age 81.36 +/- 6.3 years ... In the Cox regression analysis, serum total cholesterol emerged as a significant, independent predictor of mortality in this cohort. Specifically, each 1 mg/dl increase in serum total cholesterol reduced risk of death by 0.4% ... In very elderly hospitalized subjects, increased levels of serum total cholesterol and albumin may be associated with reduced mortality risk"
  • Cholesterol boosts the memory of the immune system - Science Daily, 12/21/12 - "They discovered that the composition of the lipids of a membrane is responsible for the clustering of the receptors. The lipid composition of a naive cell differs from that of a memory cell. Cholesterol is the key factor in this process, as it is present in higher concentrations in a memory cell. This higher concentration of cholesterol leads to the aggregation of receptors, because the cholesterol joins them together like glue"
  • Fasting May Not Be Needed Before Cholesterol Test - WebMD, 11/12/12 - "results for more than 200,000 people ... When researchers broke down the results by fasting time, they found little change. Overall, total cholesterol and HDL "good" cholesterol varied by less than 2%, depending on when a person had last eaten ... LDL "bad" cholesterol was less than 10% different in people who'd recently eaten compared to those who had been fasting for at least eight hours ... Triglycerides, or blood fats, were the most sensitive to food. They varied by no more than 20% between people who had fasted and those who had not" - Note:  I’ve been vindicated. I’m one of those who always ignored fasting. I remember in the navy driving through McDonald’s for an Egg McMuffin on the way to my annual flight physical.
  • A high normal TSH level is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in euthyroid non-smokers with newly diagnosed asymptomatic coronary heart disease - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Mar 27;11(1):44 - "The TSH level, even within the normal range, was positively and linearly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) (Beta = 0.173, 0.181 and 0.103, respectively, P < 0.01in all). With 1 mIU/L rise of TSH, the levels of TC, TG and non-HDL-C will increase by 1.010, 1.064, and 1.062 mmol/L, respectively. The odds ratio of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia with respect to the serum TSH level was 1.640 (95% CI 1.199-2.243, P = 0.002) and 1.349 (95% CI 1.054-1.726, P = 0.017), respectively"
  • Low Levels of LDL Cholesterol Predate Cancer Cases - Medscape, 3/25/12 - "there is nothing here to suggest that statins would be unsafe"
  • Association between serum cholesterol and noncardiovascular mortality in older age - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Oct;59(10):1779-85 - "Participants were evaluated for total cholesterol and subfractions and followed for mortality for a median of 13.9 years ... Age- and sex-adjusted analyses showed that each 1-mmol/L increase in total cholesterol was associated with an approximately 12% lower risk of noncardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-0.92, P < .001). Age group-specific analyses demonstrated that this association reached significance after the age of 65 and increased in magnitude across each subsequent decade. This was driven largely by non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.93, P < .001) and was partly attributable to cancer mortality. Conversely, HDL-C was not significantly associated with noncardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.07, P = .26)"
  • Benefit of early statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction who have extremely low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Oct 11;58(16):1664-71 - "Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with a target LDL-C value <70 mg/dl is recommended in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. However, whether to use statin therapy in patients with baseline LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dl is controversial ... Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of the composite primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34 to 0.89; p = 0.015). Statin therapy reduced the risk of cardiac death (HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.93; p = 0.031) and coronary revascularization (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.85; p = 0.013). However, there were no differences in the risk of the composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention rate"
  • More Evidence for Lowering LDL to Below 70 - Medscape, 10/4/11 - "They compared outcomes among 1054 patients with LDL levels below 70 mg/dL at the time of their MI as to whether they were discharged on a statin or not ... Results showed that the rate of major adverse cardiac events at one year was significantly lower in those patients who were taking a statin, with the benefit mainly driven by the reduction of cardiac death and coronary revascularization ... Dr Roger Blumenthal (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) suggested the study supported the pleiotropic effects of statins and the idea that the ideal LDL-C is probably closer to 50 than to 70 mg/dL ... levels of LDL below 70 are on a par with those of nonhuman primates who don't develop atherosclerosis, adding that, like these primates, humans were designed to be vegetarians ... Chimpanzees don't eat meat; they eat very little fat. They have LDL levels in the range of 40 to 70, and they don't get atherosclerosis. Maybe we wouldn't get atherosclerosis either if we had levels this low"
  • Serum total and HDL cholesterol and risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep 14 - "After excluding the first 10 years of follow-up, men with higher serum total cholesterol were at increased risk of overall (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44, p-trend = 0.01) and advanced (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.03, p-trend = 0.05) prostate cancer. Higher HDL cholesterol was suggestively associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade ... In this population of smokers, high serum total cholesterol was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and high HDL cholesterol suggestively reduced the risk of prostate cancer overall. These results support previous studies and, indirectly, support the hypothesis that statins may reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer by lowering cholesterol"
  • Risk of endometrial cancer in relation to individual nutrients from diet and supplements - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jul 14:1-13 - "endometrial cancer (EC) ... There existed little evidence of an association with EC for the majority of macronutrients and micronutrients examined. We observed a statistically significant increased risk associated with the highest, compared with the lowest, quartile of intake of dietary cholesterol (multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.51, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.11; P for trend = 0.02). Age-adjusted risk at the highest level of intake was significantly reduced for Ca from food sources (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.54, 0.99) but was attenuated in the multivariable model (OR = 0.82, 95 % CI 0.59, 1.13). When intake from supplements was included in Ca intake, risk was significantly reduced by 28 % with higher Ca (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.51, 0.99, P for trend = 0.04). We also observed unexpected increased risks at limited levels of intakes of dietary soluble fibre, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin B6 and lutein/zeaxanthin, with no evidence for linear trend"
  • Effect of Cholesterol on Mortality and Quality of Life up to a 46-Year Follow-Up - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jun 27 - "A strong and graded relation was found between the cholesterol level and total mortality, with the men with a cholesterol level ≤4 mmol/L (154 mg/dl) having the lowest mortality. In all, the men with the lowest cholesterol gained the most life years. However, no association was found with the cholesterol level in 2000 (when 16% were using statins) and subsequent mortality. The lowest (≤4 mmol/L) cholesterol value in midlife also predicted a higher score in the physical functioning scale of RAND-36 in old age. In conclusion, a low total cholesterol value in midlife predicts both better survival and better physical functioning in old age"
  • Dietary Intake of Cholesterol Is Positively and Use of Cholesterol-Lowering Medication Is Negatively Associated with Prevalent Age-Related Hearing Loss - J Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "After multivariable adjustment, the likelihood of prevalent hearing loss increased from the lowest (reference) to the highest quartile of dietary cholesterol intake (P-trend = 0.04). Among persons self-reporting statin use (n = 274), a 48% reduced odds of prevalent hearing loss was observed after multivariable adjustment [OR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.29-0.93)]. Participants in the second and 3rd quartiles of dietary monounsaturated fat intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a significantly reduced risk of hearing loss progression 5 y later [multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.21-0.71)] and [OR = 0.51 (95% CI = 0.29-0.91)], respectively. Our results suggest that a diet high in cholesterol could have adverse influences on hearing, whereas treatment with statins and consumption of monounsaturated fats may have a beneficial influence"
  • Treating high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes may lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "After five years, 298 people developed Alzheimer's disease. The others still had mild cognitive impairment. People with risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and high cholesterol were two times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those without vascular risk factors. A total of 52 percent of those with risk factors developed Alzheimer's disease, compared to 36 percent of those with no risk factors ... Of those with vascular risk factors, people who were receiving full treatment were 39 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those receiving no treatment. Those receiving some treatments were 26 percent less likely to develop the disease compared to people who did not receive any treatment ... Although this was not a controlled trial, patients who were treated for their high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes had less progression of their memory or thinking impairment and were less likely to develop dementia"
  • Total Cholesterol and Cancer Risk in a Large Prospective Study in Korea - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 21 - "Compared with levels less than 160 mg/dL, high total cholesterol (≥ 240 mg/dL) was positively associated with prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.44; P trend = .001) and colon cancer (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25; P trend = .05) in men and breast cancer in women (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.33; P trend = .03). Higher total cholesterol was associated with a lower incidence of liver cancer (men: HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.45; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.39; P trend < .001), stomach cancer (men: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.93; P trend ≤ .001; women: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P trend = .06), and, in men, lung cancer (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96; P trend < .001). Results for liver cancer were slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for liver enzyme levels and hepatitis B surface antigen status (men: HR, 0.60; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.46; P trend = .003) and exclusion of the first 10 years of follow-up (men: HR, 0.59; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.44; P trend < .001). Total cholesterol was inversely associated with all-cancer incidence in both men (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.86; P trend < .001) and women (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.95; P trend < .001), but these associations were attenuated after excluding incident liver cancers (men: HR, 0.95; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.98; P trend = .32)"
  • Curbing cholesterol could help combat infections, study shows - Science Daily, 3/8/11 - "Cholesterol produced by our cells is needed for viruses and certain bacteria to grow. Limiting our body's production of cholesterol would therefore curb the opportunity for viruses to thrive. Scientists say that it may be possible to use cholesterol lowering drugs that also boost the immune system"
  • Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults - Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul 16:1-10 - "'high' egg consumption (>/=7 times/week v. <1 time/week) was not associated with significantly increased CHD mortality (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 0.61, 2.11 (men); HR = 0.92, 95 % CI 0.27, 3.11 (women)). There was a statistically significant inverse association between 'high' egg consumption and stroke mortality among men (HR = 0.27, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.73), but the estimate was imprecise because of sparse data. We did not observe a statistically significant positive association between 'high' egg consumption and CHD or stroke mortality in analyses restricted to individuals with diabetes, but these analyses may be limited due to the small number of diabetics. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant positive association between egg consumption and increased risk of mortality from CHD or stroke in the US population. These results corroborate the findings of previous studies"
  • Low Cholesterol May Be Marker of Undiagnosed Cancer - Medscape, 11/5/09 - "This finding supports the idea that the low serum cholesterol levels that we detected as a possible risk factor may actually have been the result of undiagnosed cancers," he added. "In addition, we observed a greater decline in total serum cholesterol from baseline to 3 years, specifically among the cases that were diagnosed in the early half of the observation, as opposed to the latter portion ... higher HDL cholesterol levels were associated with a decreased risk for cancer (>55.3 vs <36.2 mg/dL; RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 - 0.97; P = .01). This inverse association of HDL cholesterol was evident for cancers of the lung, prostate, liver, and hematopoietic system"
  • Heart Risk Factors Cut Life Span by 10 Years - WebMD, 9/18/09 - "A 50-year-old smoker who has a history of high blood pressure and high cholesterol can expect to die a decade earlier than someone of the same age with none of these heart disease risk factors"
  • Heart Disease: Combined Treatment Is Best - WebMD, 3/23/09 - "Heart disease patients who achieve normal blood pressure and very low cholesterol levels with aggressive drug therapy do better than patients who achieve only one of these goals ... Patients who achieved LDL levels below 70 and systolic blood pressures of below 120 had the slowest progression, as measured by increase in plaque volume"
  • Lowering Your Cholesterol May Decrease Your Risk Of Cancer - Science Daily, 2/23/09 - "High cholesterol not only leads to atherosclerosis and heart disease, but may also contribute to cancer growth and progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in the United States, affecting approximately 1 in 6 men. Prostate tumors accumulate high levels of cholesterol, and tumor incidence correlates with eating a high fat/high cholesterol diet "Western" diet. In addition, prostate tumor progression has been linked to serum cholesterol levels"
  • 'Normal' levels of bad cholesterol may be too high - USA Today, 2/1/09 - "Current guidelines recommend that doctors prescribe a statin for anyone whose LDL is 100 milligrams per deciliter of blood or higher ... half of all heart attacks are occurring below 100 (mg/dl) ... the study supports the wisdom of a push to drive LDL even lower, in many cases down to 70 mg/dl"
  • Bad Cholesterol Inhibits The Breakdown Of Peripheral Fat - Science Daily, 11/20/08 - "LDL cholesterol slows the rate of fat breakdown (i.e. lipolysis) in adipocytes, the peripheral cells responsible for fat storage"
  • JUPITER hits New Orleans: Landmark study shows statins benefit healthy individuals with high CRP levels - theheart.org, 11/9/08 - "In a study of individuals with low LDL cholesterol but elevated C-reactive-protein (CRP) levels, investigators showed that rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) 20 mg significantly reduced the primary end point—a composite of nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, revascularization, and confirmed death from cardiovascular causes—by 44% compared with individuals treated with placebo" - Note:  They seem to be attributing this to the reduction in CRP.  At 12 months, the CRP  of the 20 mg Crestor group was 2.2.  The baseline was 4.2.  That's a (4.2 - 2.2)/4.2 = 47.6% reduction in CRP.  Another option to reduce CRP might be Periostat (low dose doxycycline for periodontal disease).  See my CRP page for other ways to reduce it.  See:
    • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Sex Hormones Link To Heart Risk - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "one of the sex hormones - estradiol - was associated positively with total cholesterol and negatively with HDL-cholesterol. Circulating concentrations of another sex hormone - estrone - showed strong positive associations with both total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol ... Thus, men with the highest concentrations of estrone and estradiol may have the highest level of cardiovascular risk as their levels of detrimental LDL-cholesterol are high whilst their cardio-protective HDL-cholesterol is low" - See my aromatization page for ways to reduce these.
  • Memory Loss Linked To Poor Diet, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/19/08 - "Researchers from the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) have linked memory loss to a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol"
  • Low Cholesterol Leads To Lower PSA, Lower Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/15/08 - "PSA levels were reduced after starting statin medications and that this decline was proportional to the decline in LDL cholesterol"
  • High Cholesterol In Your 40s Increases Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 4/16/08 - "people with total cholesterol levels between 249 and 500 milligrams were one-and-a-half times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those people with cholesterol levels of less than 198 milligrams. People with total cholesterol levels of 221 to 248 milligrams were more than one-and-a-quarter times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease"
  • Surprise -- Cholesterol May Actually Pose Benefits, Study Shows - Science Daily, 1/10/08 - "Three days a week for 12 weeks, participants performed several exercises, including stretching, stationary bike riding and vigorous weight lifting ... At the conclusion of the study, the researchers found that there was a significant association of dietary cholesterol and change in strength. In general, those with higher cholesterol intake also had the highest muscle strength gain ... One possible explanation is through cholesterol’s important role in the inflammation process"
  • Very Low LDL Cholesterol Produces Greatest Decrease in Risk - Medscape, 10/27/07 - "The researchers found that there was a highly significant reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events with descending levels of LDL cholesterol. The lowest risk was seen in patients who had achieved levels below 64 mg/dL"
  • Framingham Study: The apoB/apoA-1 ratio does not provide clinical utility over total/HDL cholesterol - theHeart.org, 8/14/07 - "In men, non-HDL cholesterol, apoB, the total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, the LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and the apoB/apoA-1 ratio were all positively associated with CHD risk of approximately the same magnitude and statistical significance. ApoA-1 and HDL cholesterol were associated with reduced CHD risk. Similar results were observed for women, but apoA-1 was not significantly associated with incident CHD. In men and women, LDL and total cholesterol were not significantly associated with CHD risk"
  • Very Low LDL May Mean More Cancer Risk - WebMD, 7/23/07
  • The prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperlipidaemia in men with erectile dysfunction - BJU Int. 2007 Jun 6 - "This study shows the high prevalence of undiagnosed hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in men presenting with ED"
  • LDL Below 100 mg/dL Deemed Not Low Enough - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/07 - "Unfortunately, getting LDL down to a target of 100 mg/dL simply isn't enough to guarantee cardiovascular protection, because one-half of patients with an ACS had an LDL below that value"
  • How Low Should We Go on LDL? - Medscape, 2/16/07 - "We are currently conducting the IMPROVE IT trial, which will compare 2 of the optimal current regimens, simvastatin vs Vytorin (simvastatin plus ezetimibe). The target will be to reach median achieved LDL levels of approximately 65 mg/dL vs 50 mg/dL, respectively. When we see the results of IMPROVE IT, we should see whether we need to set our LDL cholesterol targets even lower. For the moment, however, I try to get all of my patients with CAD (and/or peripheral arterial disease or prior stroke) to < 70 mg/dL. This seems to be the best evidence-based medicine at the moment"
  • High Cholesterol Linked to Increased AD Risk - Medscape, 11/6/06 - "With a 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of memory errors, normal mice on the high-fat diet had significantly poorer memory performance than controls ... This finding indicates it may not be increased cholesterol levels per se that adversely affect memory but the associated inflammation"
  • Is Cholesterol a Memory Thief? - Geriatrics and Aging, Volume 9, Number 7, JulyAugust 2006, Pages 484-490 - "Emerging data indicate that circulating cholesterol levels may influence progression of the dementing disorder. A recent pilot, proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled clinical trial suggests that the cholesterol-lowering medication atorva-statin provides benefit in treating mild-to-moderate AD. Although not approved for the treatment of AD, statin therapy might be considered in the setting of elevated cholesterol levels--even when LDL/HDL ratios are acceptable"
  • Are We Lowering LDL Cholesterol Sufficiently? - Medscape, 6/5/06 - "Evidence that cardiovascular event rates are a direct function of the LDL cholesterol concentration is robust down to levels of 2.0 mmol/l. Furthermore, with currently available agents it is feasible to achieve such levels in most people. Thus, given that there are no apparent safety issues associated with maintaining LDL cholesterol at this level, it seems logical that an LDL cholesterol target of 2.0 mmol/l should be considered for minimizing cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals"
  • New Research Finds Direct Link Between High Cholesterol And Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 4/12/06 - "men with prostate cancer were around 50% more likely to have had high cholesterol levels[2] than our non-prostate cancer controls. The association was somewhat stronger for men whose high cholesterol levels had been diagnosed before they were 50 and for men over 65, where there was an 80% greater likelihood of high cholesterol levels"
  • Lowering Cholesterol Early in Life Protects Against Heart Disease Later - Doctor's Guide, 3/23/06 - "people who had cholesterol-lowering genetic variations that lowered their LDL level by about 40 mm/dL were eight times less likely to develop coronary heart disease than those without the mutations. Those with genetic profiles lowering their LDL by about 20 mg/dL from average had a twofold reduction in heart disease"
  • Nearly Half Of People Who Need Cholesterol Treatment Don't Get It - Science Daily, 2/8/06 - "Even though treatment for cholesterol disorders can reduce the risk of heart and blood vessel disease by about 30 percent over five years, many at-risk people aren't getting adequate treatment"
  • A prospective study of plasma lipid levels and hypertension in women - Arch Intern Med. 2005 Nov 14;165(20):2420-7 - "In multivariate-adjusted models, the relative risks of development of hypertension from the lowest (referent) to the highest quintile of baseline total cholesterol level were 1.00, 0.96, 1.02, 1.09, and 1.12 (P = .002 for trend); for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 1.00, 0.97, 1.00, 1.02, and 1.11 (P = .053 for trend); for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 1.00, 0.93, 0.87, 0.87, and 0.81 (P<.001 for trend); for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 1.00, 1.06, 1.11, 1.12, and 1.25 (P<.001 for trend); and for the ratio of total to high-density cholesterol, 1.00, 1.10, 1.14, 1.20, and 1.34" - The way I read that is that high total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol raised the risk of hypertension and high HDL cholesterol lowered the risk of hypertension, which makes sense. - Ben
  • Fight cancer by lowering your cholesterol - MSNBC, 10/21/05
  • Very Low Cholesterol Is Safe - WebMD, 10/11/05 - "Those who achieved LDL levels of 60 and less had decreased major events such as second heart attack or stroke"
  • High Cholesterol May Raise Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 10/10/05 - "If further studies confirm these results, researchers say cholesterol management may be incorporated in to treatments for Alzheimer's disease"
  • High Cholesterol Common in Elderly Women With Low Bone Density - Medscape, 9/27/05 - "more than 70% of women aged 65 years or older had low bone mineral density ... High total (63%) and LDL cholesterol (53%) levels were also found in women with osteoporosis"
  • 40-Point Cholesterol Drop=20% Lower Heart Risk - WebMD, 9/27/05 - "for every 40-point drop in "bad" LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol sustained over a five-year period, the use of statins reduced the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart-related complications by nearly 20%"
  • Men With Diabetes, Hypertension, or Hyperlipidemia More Likely to Be Hypogonadal - Doctor's Guide, 5/25/05 - "in those with a history of hyperlipidaemia, 40% were hypogonadal"
  • High Cholesterol Levels Accelerate Growth Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/27/05 - "The researchers also present evidence that cholesterol-lowering ''statin'' drugs, now widely used in cardiovascular disease, may inhibit cancer growth ... Increased cholesterol levels didn't trigger new cancers in the mice, but six weeks after tumor cells were injected, the incidence of tumors was more than doubled in the mice on high-cholesterol diets, and the tumors were markedly larger in size"
  • High Cholesterol May Speed Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 3/17/05 - "Our data support the notion that cholesterol-lowering drugs -- which are widely used and fairly safe -- might be effective in prevention of prostate cancer, or as an adjunctive therapy ... elevated cholesterol levels did not stimulate new prostate cancers but promoted tumor growth"
  • FDA Approves New Formulation of TriCor (Fenofibrate) Tablets for the Treatment of Lipid Disorders - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/04
  • Naturally Low Cholesterol Promotes Long Life - WebMD, 9/1/04 - "a total cholesterol level of 193 or lower at age 30 to 45 was associated with a 25% lower risk of death nearly four decades later"
  • Target LDL Lowered for Highest Risk Patients - WebMD, 7/12/04 - "The report, released today by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), reduces target LDL levels from 100 mg/dL to 70 mg/dL for those at the very highest risk for heart disease"
  • Eating Eggs Daily May Not Be Risky for Heart - WebMD, 7/8/04 - "adding up to three eggs per day does raise some types of LDL cholesterol, but it didn't significantly raise levels of the types of LDL known to clog arteries"
  • Eggs have no impact on dangerous cholesterol, new study - Nutra USA, 6/28/04
  • Cholesterol Levels Fluctuate With the Seasons - Doctor's Guide, 4/27/04
  • Cholesterol Levels Change With the Seasons - WebMD, 4/26/04 - "total cholesterol level may change with the seasons and reach their highest point in December for men and in January for women ... during the 12-month period, cholesterol levels increased by an average of four points in men and by more than five points in women"
  • Cholesterol Should Be Lower Than Thought - WebMD, 3/8/04 - "LDL "bad" cholesterol levels should be less than 62 mg/dL -- much lower than the current recommendation of 100 -- in order to get maximum benefit from cholesterol-lowering drugs ... Super-low cholesterol reduced death from any cause by 28% and fatal heart attacks by 18%"
  • Super-Low Cholesterol Stops Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/12/03
  • Bad Cholesterol, Worst Cholesterol - WebMD, 10/28/03
  • Heart Protection Study Supports Use of Statins In Elderly, Women, and Those With Low LDL - Doctor's Guide, 8/1/03 - "statin treatment significantly decreased the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (primary endpoint) and "any major vascular event," including non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and need for revascularisation procedures ... In older adults compared to younger adults, the HPS trial found similar statin benefits, with about a 25% reduction in major vascular events regardless of age"
  • Cholesterol Ratio More Indicative Than LDL - Physician's Weekly, 7/21/03 - "the ratio of LDL and HDL cholesterol may be better for identifying the risk of heart disease compared to relying solely on the individual levels of each kind of cholesterol. The study found that the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol can better predict the risk of heart disease rather than measuring LDL levels alone. LDL/HDL ratios may more effective at identifying high-risk individuals and tracking their progress on cholesterol-lowering drugs. The researchers noted that despite newer recommendations incorporating HDL into risk assessment, LDL continues to be the major target of cholesterol-lowering therapy ... Certain low-fat diets that reduce both LDL and HDL levels may be less beneficial than diets that boost HDL cholesterol levels. Losing weight, quitting smoking, and exercising more often can increase HDL cholesterol"
  • When Diet Doesn't Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 7/7/03 - "Study participants whose CRP levels were originally below average saw dramatic reductions in cholesterol after 12 weeks on the DASH diet. Total cholesterol dropped by almost 9% and LDL, or bad cholesterol, dropped by almost 12%. In participants with higher than average CRP levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels dropped by just 3% each ... This is the first study to suggest that inflammation impacts the response to a traditional cholesterol lowering diet ... Several recent studies have shown that people who lost weight on high-protein, relatively high-fat diets lowered their cholesterol, suggesting that weight loss alone, no matter how it is achieved, plays a significant role in lowering cholesterol" - See my CRP page for possible ways to reduce it.  Also, ask your doctor about:
  • Estrogens as Antioxidants – Reducing Heart Disease in Younger Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 7/4/03 - "If LDL becomes oxidised its ability to cause heart disease increases. If HDL becomes oxidised its ability to protect against heart disease is lessened ... estrogens can act as antioxidants, which neutralise free radicals, and hence protect HDL from oxidation. In addition, high levels of HDL are able to protect LDL from oxidation, and this ability is strongly enhanced when estrogens are present ... Although recent randomised control trials have shown that HRT in older women may not reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, Dr. Bhavnani believes that this is not the whole story"
  • Cholesterol Metabolism May Provide Alzheimer’s Clue - Psychiatric Times, 3/21/03 - "The CYP46 enzyme regulates levels of brain cholesterol ... a change of just one base in the CYP46 gene from cytosine (C) to thymine (T)—leads to a decrease in functioning of CYP46, causing cholesterol levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid to reach higher-than-normal levels ... other research has shown that depletion of brain cholesterol leads to a reduction in Aß ... The results, he wrote, "suggest the possibility that LOAD [late onset Alzheimer's disease], the most common degenerative disease of the brain, is a general end point for abnormalities that increase the amount of cholesterol in the central nervous system. If so, inhibiting cholesterol metabolism in the brain might represent a viable treatment for LOAD.""
  • Apolipoprotein Better Cardiac Risk Marker Than Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 2/27/03
  • Exchange, Not Reduction, of Fats Improve Cholesterol Levels - Doctor's Guide, 1/15/03 - [Abstract]
  • More "Super Aspirin" Protects Heart Better - WebMD, 11/19/02 - "About 50,000 heart attacks, strokes, and deaths could be prevented if every angioplasty patient added a "super aspirin" chaser to their daily aspirin every day for a year after the procedure ... The "super aspirin" Plavix is a more powerful anti-clot drug than aspirin ... According to the latest study, taking it daily for a year cuts the risk for death, heart attack, or stroke by 27% compared to patients who just took aspirin and a dummy pill for a year"
  • Atkins diet good for cholesterol - USA Today, 11/18/02 - "After six months, the people on the Atkins diet had lost an average of 31 pounds, compared with 20 pounds on the AHA diet, and more people stuck with the Atkins regimen ... Total cholesterol fell slightly in both groups. However, those on the Atkins diet had an 11% increase in HDL, the good cholesterol, and a 49% drop in triglycerides. On the AHA diet, HDL was unchanged, and triglycerides dropped 22%. High triglycerides may raise the risk of heart disease" - That may be true but what about a diet devoid of anti-oxidants making you old before your time.  Plus, how much of that extra 11 pounds was water loss? - Ben
  • Antidepressants Increase Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Bipolar Disorder - Doctor's Guide, 11/3/02 - "At the end of the study period, total cholesterol levels were significantly higher than at admission, from 4.9 at treatment onset to 5.2 after treatment" - see antidepressants.
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Particle Size Believed To Be Familial - Doctor's Guide, 10/24/02
  • Atorvastatin Shown to Decrease Heart Disease and Stroke in Patients with Hypertension And Low Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 10/11/02
  • Researchers Halt Successful Study On Cholesterol, Blood Pressure - Intelihealth, 10/11/02 - "Researchers in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes trial were giving the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin to patients who have normal or low levels of cholesterol but are at a risk of a heart attack or stroke because they have high blood pressure or other risk factors ... patients taking the prescription drug had significantly fewer strokes and heart attacks than those taking a placebo" - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Statins Can Reverse Plaque Buildup - WebMD, 9/23/02 - "Statin drugs can do more than just lower your LDL "bad" cholesterol. In high enough doses, they may be able to reverse the accumulation of artery-clogging plaques that lead to heart attack and stroke"
  • Strategies Outlined For Primary, Secondary Prevention of Stroke - Doctor's Guide, 9/18/02 - "The most recent evidence suggests that there are four primary prevention strategies for stroke: adequate blood pressure reduction, treatment of hyperlipidemia, antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients and antiplatelet therapy in myocardial infarction patients"
  • Poor Response To Fluoxetine Antidepressant Therapy Appears Linked To High Serum Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/02 - "patients with elevated cholesterol levels were significantly more likely to be nonresponders to fluoxetine therapy than were patients with nonelevated cholesterol levels"
  • Levels Of Lipoprotein Subclasses Can Add Data to Risk of Coronary Artery Disease Progression - Doctor's Guide, 8/12/02
  • Cholesterol Raises Women's Stroke Risk - WebMD, 7/11/02 - "it's the first time they've been able to show that high cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for stroke death among women"
  • Cholesterol in Skin Reveals Heart Disease Risk - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/02
  • High skin cholesterol levels linked to heart attacks - USA Today, 4/8/02
  • Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Predicts Mortality In Heart Failure Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/5/02 - "oxidized LDL was found to be an independent predictor of mortality"
  • A Heart's Hidden Danger - Time Magazine, 4/1/02 - "It is not an uncommon story--a fit man in his 40s or 50s arrives at his doctor's office for his annual checkup and eventually leaves with a clean bill of health. Soon afterward he drops dead of a heart attack ... researchers are focusing on ways to make vulnerable plaque more stable. One promising possibility: the increasingly popular class of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins, which seem to pull soft plaque out of fatty deposits wherever it is located in the artery, making it less likely to burst"
  • High Cholesterol Linked With Cognitive Decline In Older Women - Intelihealth, 3/21/02
  • Ezetimibe Adds to Statin Benefits in Hypercholesterolemia - Doctor's Guide, 3/19/02
  • Bad Heart Despite Good Cholesterol? - WebMD, 3/19/02 - ""Seventy percent of these patients were in the lowest risk categories," Schoenfeld says. "Only 25% would qualify for drug treatment." ... So why did these patients have heart attacks? One factor looms large: more than eight out of 10 of these patients were overweight or obese ... "Obesity is becoming an epidemic in and of itself and is a root cause of the continuing heart disease epidemic.""
  • New Type of Drug Lowers Cholesterol - WebMD, 3/18/02
  • Diet, Cholesterol Drug Combo Works Best - WebMD, 2/5/02 - "Drugs usually can lower cholesterol more than a healthy diet. But combining the two gives you the best effect ... the drug [Zocor] had some potentially harmful effects on antioxidant levels. Antioxidants help get rid of toxic chemicals produced in the body that may increase the risk of heart disease and even cancer. Zocor decreased levels of the antioxidants vitamin E, beta-carotene and ubiquinol-10 ... When the drug was taken alone, there also was another concerning finding. It increased insulin levels and raised insulin resistance ... The diet did not increase insulin levels or insulin resistance. In fact, it lowered both of them. This suggests that the diet may help prevent diabetes. Plus, the Mediterranean diet helped keep insulin levels and insulin resistance normal in men taking Zocor"
  • Blood Test May Aid Heart Prediction - Intelihealth, 12/14/01
  • Cholesterol Drugs Work Better In Labs - Intelihealth, 11/13/01
  • Eggs Might Not Be So Bad After All - WebMD, 11/1/01 - "something called phosphatidylcholine, or PC, in eggs actually stops the cholesterol in eggs from entering your bloodstream ... PC doesn't stop 100% of the cholesterol from getting into your blood, but it does seem to block a significant amount"
  • Low-Dose Hormone Replacement Therapy Lowers Cholesterol in Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/01
  • Blood Test Could Save More From Heart Attacks - WebMD, 6/27/01
  • Blood Test Could Indicate Who Might Benefit From Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs - Intelihealth, 6/27/01 - "Half of all heart attack patients have normal cholesterol levels. A blood test can detect high levels of C-reactive protein - a sign of inflammation ... Statins block an enzyme needed to make cholesterol in the liver. They also reduce levels of C-reactive protein"
  • America gets a red alert on cholesterol level - USA Today, 5/16/01 - "Pay particular attention to LDL cholesterol, the artery-clogging "bad" cholesterol. An LDL value below 100 milligrams per deciliter is considered optimal"
  • New Cholesterol Guidelines Expected to Triple Number of Americans Taking Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs - Doctor's Guide, 5/15/01 - "Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one killer of Americans, claiming about 500,000 lives yearly. Studies have consistently shown that by lowering LDL levels, risk for coronary heart disease is reduced by as much as 40 percent"
  • NIH Calls For More Aggressive Treatment Of High Cholesterol - Intelihealth, 5/15/01 - "The new guidelines remain the same for total cholesterol [200], but add that 100 mg of LDL is optimal for that form. They also add a listing of 130-159 mg of LDL as borderline high, 160 mg as high, 190 mg as very high. The too low reading for the good HDL is raised from 35 mg to 40 mg."
  • NIH issues tougher guidelines for cholesterol - CNN, 5/15/01
  • New Guidelines to Shoot Down Cholesterol, Aim Is to Prevent Heart Disease in High-Risk Targets - WebMD, 5/15/01
  • Form Of Cholesterol Singled Out As Cause Of Chest Pain, Heart Attack - Intelihealth, 4/17/01 - "The levels of oxidized LDL circulating in the blood correlate well with the severity of disease ... The sicker the patient, the higher the levels of circulating oxidized LDL, indicating that it is a marker of atherosclerotic plaques"
  • New Research That Identifies a Specific Form of Cholesterol May Lead to Better Tests and Treatment - WebMD, 4/16/01
  • Study: Too Little Cholesterol Also A Risk - Intelihealth, 1/5/01
  • Genes Steer Your Cholesterol Ship - WebMD, 12/5/00
  • Taking Statins Earlier May Reduce Risk of Heart Attack and Death - WebMD, 11/15/00
  • Patients Taking Baycol (Cerivastatin) Reach Target Cholesterol Levels - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/00
  • Deadly Clogged Arteries Start Early In Adult Life, Most Often In Males - Intelihealth, 7/27/00
  • High Cholesterol and Heart Disease: Not Just for Older Men - WebMD, 7/18/00
  • Can your cholesterol be too low? - CNN, 6/30/00
  • Many More Americans Need Cholesterol-Lowering Treatment - WebMD, 5/11/00 - "One of the take-home messages of the study is we do know that intervening in people with 'average cholesterol' will reduce their heart attack risk by 37%."
  • Low Cholesterol Associated With Depressive Symptoms - Doctor's Guide, 3/23/00
  • New blood test may be best predictor of heart attack - CNN, 3/22/00
  • Niaspan (Niacin Extended-Release) Raises HDL Twice As Much as Gemfibrozil - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/00 (Note:  Extended release niacin has been shown to cause liver damage).
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Prevent Deaths After Threatened Or Actual Heart Attack - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/00
  • Combination HRT Therapy More Effective In Treating Cholesterol Than Monotherapy - Doctor's Guide, 3/13/00
  • Gemfibrozil-Niacin Combination Greatly Increases Good Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 3/10/00
  • Cholesterol Levels Not Always Indicative Of Cardiac Health, Study Shows - Doctor's Guide, 3/3/00
  • Patients On Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy Not Meeting Target Levels - Doctor's Guide, 2/28/00
  • Bad Cholesterol Not The Best Predictor Of Risk For Major Coronary Events - Doctor's Guide, 2/17/00
  • Good Cholesterol (HDL) May Help In Bypass Surgery - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/99
  • Elevated Cholesterol Linked To Pre-eclampsia - Doctor's Guide, 9/30/99
  • What's your cholesterol IQ? - CNN, 9/1/99
  • Gemfibrozil Prevents Heart Disease And Stroke In Patients With Low HDL - Doctor's Guide, 8/5/99
  • In Breakthrough, Scientists Find Gene For "Good" Cholesterol - Intelihealth, 8/3/99
  • Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Provide Double Protection Against Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/12/99
  • Lipitor More Effective Than Zocor And Baycol For Lowering Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/99
  • Zocor and Lipitor May Have Different Effects on Lipids, Including HDL - Doctor's Guide, 3/9/99
  • Can Your Cholesterol Be Too Low? - Intellihealth, 2/8/99
  • Extremely low cholesterol may lead to strokes, study finds - CNN, 2/5/99
  • Raising HDL Cholesterol Reduces Incidence Of Coronary Events - Doctor's Guide, 11/12/98
  • A randomized trial of the effects of atorvastatin and niacin in patients with combined hyperlipidemia or isolated hypertriglyceridemia - Am J Med. 1998 Feb;104(2):137-43
  • Prolonged treatment with slow release nicotinic acid in patients with type II hyperlipidemia - Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1997 Nov;98(11):391-9
  • Dose-response characteristics of cholesterol-lowering drug therapies: implications for treatment - Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 15;125(12):990-1000
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