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Home > Anti-aging Research > Eggs


News & Research:

  • High cholesterol intake and eggs do not increase risk of memory disorders - Science Daily, 1/9/17 - "a relatively high intake of dietary cholesterol, or eating one egg every day, are not associated with an elevated risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, no association was found in persons carrying the APOE4 gene variant that affects cholesterol metabolism and increases the risk of memory disorders. APOE4 is common in Finland ... a relatively high intake of dietary cholesterol, or eating one egg every day, are not associated with an elevated risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, no association was found in persons carrying the APOE4 gene variant that affects cholesterol metabolism and increases the risk of memory disorders. APOE4 is common in Finland ... On the contrary, the consumption of eggs was associated with better results in certain tests measuring cognitive performance"
  • Why You Need to Stop Eating Egg Whites - Time, 10/25/16 - "But there’s good reason not to fear the yolks. Scientific research has vindicated dietary cholesterol, finding that eating cholesterol has no real impact on cholesterol metabolism. That is, eating foods high in cholesterol does not mean you’ll develop high cholesterol. Some evidence suggests that eggs might even be beneficial for cholesterol by raising levels of HDL cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol that’s linked to a lower risk of heart disease ... Egg yolks contain a vibrant mix of saturated and unsaturated fat—another nutrient that, when it comes from a healthy whole food source, is unfairly slandered. Yolks have a good helping of vitamin E, one of the nutrients Americans eat too little of. But the real case for egg yolks can be made by their abundance of carotenoids, nutrients in plants and animal fats that give things like egg yolks (and even autumn leaves) their yellow color. Egg yolks are rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which help eye health and protect against inflammation ... Carotenoids need to be eaten with fat in order for the body to more fully absorb them, and a whole egg is the total package. Eat them, and you’ll get more of these nutrients—not just from the eggs, but from the stuff you eat it with, too"
  • Eating eggs reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, study indicates - Science Daily, 4/2/15 - "The dietary habits of 2,332 men aged between 42 and 60 years were assessed at the baseline of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, KIHD, at the University of Eastern Finland in 1984-1989 ... follow-up of 19.3 years ... egg consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes as well as with lower blood glucose levels. Men who ate approximately four eggs per week had a 37 per cent lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men who only ate approximately one egg per week ... The consumption of more than four eggs did not bring any significant additional benefits"
  • Eating Eggs Is Not Linked to High Cholesterol in Adolescents, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/19/13 - "the most recent research suggests that increased serum cholesterol is more affected by intake of saturated fats and trans fats -- present in red meat, industrial baked goods, etc. -- than by the amount of cholesterol in the diet ... eating larger amounts of egg is neither linked to higher serum cholesterol nor to worse cardiovascular health in adolescents, regardless of their levels of physical activity ... The conclusions, published in the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, confirm recent studies in healthy adults that suggest that an intake of up to seven eggs a week is not associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases ... a medium-size egg contains 200 milligrams of cholesterol but has more unsaturated fats than saturated fats and only has 70 calories"
  • New evidence that egg white protein may help high blood pressure - Science Daily, 4/9/13 - "We have evidence from the laboratory that a substance in egg white –– it’s a peptide, one of the building blocks of proteins –– reduces blood pressure about as much as a low dose of Captopril, a high-blood-pressure drug ... Yu and colleagues, who are with Clemson University, used a peptide called RVPSL ... They set out to further document RVPSL’s effects, using laboratory rats that develop high blood pressure and are stand-ins for humans in such early research on hypertension ... RVPSL did not have apparent toxic effects and lowered blood pressure by amounts comparable to low doses of Captopril"
  • Egg Study Not All It’s Cracked Up To Be - ABC News, 8/16/12 - "This is very poor quality research that should not influence patient’s dietary choices ... It is extremely important to understand the differences between ‘association’ and ‘causation’ ... Nissen said the researchers relied on patients to recall how many eggs they consumed, but asked them once and assumed it remained constant, which isn’t reliable. He said the way researchers measured patients’ plaque has come under “considerable criticism,” and that researchers failed to adjust for other dietary factors ... Still, the good headline potential was too tempting for several media outlets to ignore and the story ran widely, and in some cases without any comment from outside experts ... The danger here is headline writers who aren’t necessarily science writers may go way overboard in headlining the story"
  • Nutritionist challenges egg-busting study - Nutra USA, 8/14/12
  • Egg yolk consumption almost as bad as smoking when it comes to atherosclerosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "regular consumption of egg yolks is about two-thirds as bad as smoking when it comes to increased build-up of carotid plaque ... The study looked at data from 1,231 men and women, with a mean age of 61.5, who were patients attending vascular prevention clinics at London Health Sciences Centre's University Hospital ... The researchers found carotid plaque area increased linearly with age after age 40, but increased exponentially with pack-years of smoking and egg yolk-years" - [Abstract]
  • The Truth About Your Eggs - ABC News, 7/28/12 - "you could be getting a lot more of stuff you don't want. First you'll get some arsenic, added to feed to promote growth in hens but linked to various forms of cancer in people, and an extra dose of antibiotics, also used to promote growth but linked to antibiotic resistance and even obesity in people. Then add a heaping helping of salmonella. A 2010 study published in the journal Veterinary Record found that the eggs from hens confined to cages, as they often are in factory farms, had 7.77-times greater odds of harboring salmonella bacteria than eggs from non-caged hens ... Labels like "natural" and "cage-free" make eggs seem like they came from down on the farm, from chickens living happy lives and eating bugs. But that's not always the case. If all you want is healthy protein, it's time to start scrutinizing egg cartons. Following are nine of the most common egg-carton claims and what they mean for your health ... Organic eggs come from hens that were fed certified-organic feed, free of things like arsenic and antibiotics, pesticides, animal byproducts, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Forced molting and debeaking are permitted in certified-organic production ... Can you trust it? Yes. Egg producers are subject to annual audits of their operations and must pay a fee to be certified ... "Natural" ... Can you trust it? No! Neither the FDA nor the USDA have set any definitions for the word "natural" when it comes to eggs, and it's highly misleading ... "Omega-3 Enriched" ... Can you trust it? Sort of" - Note:  My criteria for buying eggs is the ones with the furthest expiration date.
  • Eggs at Breakfast May Delay Hunger - WebMD, 5/11/12 - "researchers tracked 20 overweight or obese people, giving them either a breakfast containing eggs or cold cereal for one week. Although the breakfasts offered different protein foods, the meals themselves were equally matched in terms of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat ... people who had eggs in the morning felt fuller before lunch, and they also ate less food from the buffet compared to those who had cereal. Egg eaters also had lower levels of ghrelin and higher amounts of PYY3-36 during the three hours between breakfast and lunch. This suggests they felt less hungry and more satisfied between meals ... Long-term weight loss trials to compare the manipulation of protein quality without increasing protein quantity should be explored" - Note:  I fully agree.  I just seems very easy to keep my weight in check when I have eggs for breakfast.
  • Can eggs be a healthy breakfast choice? - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "all eggs are not created equal. Her research indicates that when hens are fed with a diet low in omega-6 fatty acids from a young age -- feed high in wheat, barley, and milo and lower in soy, maize and sunflower, safflower, and maize oils -- they produce eggs that may cause less oxidative damage to human health. That's a major part of what determines the physiological impact of the end product on your table ... There were vast differences in outcome among the treatments. Daily consumption of two industry-standard eggs, high in omega-6, caused a 40 percent increase in LDL oxidizability in participants. After eating two per day of the specially-composed eggs, with both high anti-oxidant and low omega-6 levels, however, LDL oxidation levels were similar to the control group eating only two to four eggs a week"
  • Eggs' antioxidant properties may help prevent heart disease and cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "They found the yolks contained two amino acids, tryptophan and tyrosine, which have high antioxidant properties ... After analyzing the properties, the researchers determined that two egg yolks in their raw state have almost twice as many antioxidant properties as an apple and about the same as half a serving (25 grams) of cranberries ... However, when the eggs were fried or boiled, antioxidant properties were reduced by about half, and a little more than half if the eggs were cooked in a microwave"
  • Egg Yolks May Reduce Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Medscape, 11/13/09 - "Two eggs per day is probably all that is needed to maximize blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as macular pigment optic density (MPOD) status"
  • Finding the Right Prostate Cancer Diet - WebMD, 2/15/08 -"poultry and eggs double the risk of prostate cancer progression ... orange and yellow vegetables, such as squash, yams, and carrots, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cut the risk of recurrence by about half ... If you eat chicken or poultry, eat it without the skin ... the men's overall PSA doubling time was nearly four times slower after they began drinking pomegranate juice"
  • Eating Eggs Daily May Not Be Risky for Heart - WebMD, 7/8/04 - "adding up to three eggs per day does raise some types of LDL cholesterol, but it didn't significantly raise levels of the types of LDL known to clog arteries"
  • Research Links Nutrient in Eggs to Improved Memory - WebMD, 3/12/04 - "has been studying choline in animals for more than a decade and is also four years into a study examining the effects of choline deficiency in humans. He says those studies show that the current recommended intake of half a gram a day -- the amount gotten by eating two large eggs -- is probably not enough for some groups, especially young men"
  • Eggs Might Not Be So Bad After All - WebMD, 11/1/01 - "something called phosphatidylcholine, or PC, in eggs actually stops the cholesterol in eggs from entering your bloodstream ... PC doesn't stop 100% of the cholesterol from getting into your blood, but it does seem to block a significant amount"


  • Consuming Two Eggs per Day, as Compared to an Oatmeal Breakfast, Increases Plasma Ghrelin while Maintaining the LDL/HDL Ratio - Nutrients. 2017 Jan 29;9(2) - "These results demonstrate that compared to an oatmeal breakfast, two eggs per day do not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with CVD risk, but increase satiety throughout the day in a young healthy population"
  • Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults - J Nutr. 2017 Jan 11. pii: jn241877 - "Intake of 1 egg/d was sufficient to increase HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults"
  • Meta-analysis of Egg Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke - J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Oct 6:1-13 - "A 12% decreased risk (SRRE = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.97) of stroke was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg intake (high vs low; generally 1/d vs <2/wk) ... A nonstatistically significant SRRE of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.88-1.07, p-H = 0.67, I2 = 0.00) was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg consumption and CHD ... Based on the results of this meta-analysis, consumption of up to one egg daily may contribute to a decreased risk of total stroke, and daily egg intake does not appear to be associated with risk of CHD"
  • Associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with carotid intima-media thickness and risk of incident coronary artery disease according to apolipoprotein E phenotype in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb 10 - "common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were not associated with the risk of CAD ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were also not associated with increased CCA-IMT"
  • Egg consumption and risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke: results from 2 prospective cohorts - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 23 - "There was no statistically significant association between egg consumption and risk of MI or any stroke type in either men or women or HF in women. In men, consumption of ≤6 eggs/wk was not associated with HF risk; however, daily egg consumption (≥1/d) was associated with a 30% higher risk of HF (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.67). Egg consumption was not associated with any CVD outcome in individuals with diabetes"
  • Egg and cholesterol intake and incident type 2 diabetes among French women - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 10 - "No association was observed between egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. When comparing women who consumed at least five eggs per week with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR) was found to be 1.00 (95 % CI 0.78, 1.29; across categories, P trend=0.11). Women in the highest quintile of dietary cholesterol had a 40 % higher rate of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.63; across quintiles, P trend<0.0001). A 100 mg increase of dietary cholesterol per 4184 kJ (or 1000 kcal) was associated with a 14 % increase in the risk of diabetes (HR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.26). In this large prospective cohort, we observed an association between dietary cholesterol and type 2 diabetes, but no association with egg consumption. In the absence of a clear underlying mechanism and potential residual confounding, these results should be interpreted with caution"
  • Egg intake and cancers of the breast, ovary and prostate: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 21 - "For breast cancer, the linear dose-response meta-analysis found a non-significantly increased risk (RR for an increase of 5 eggs consumed/week: 1.05, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.11, n 16 023 cases). Evidence for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P non-linearity= 0.50, n 15 415 cases) but consuming ≥ 5 eggs/week was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer compared with no egg consumption, with the summary RR being 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.07) for consuming 5 eggs/week and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.15) for consuming about 9 eggs/week. For other cancers investigated, the summary RR for an increase of 5 eggs consumed/week was 1.09 (95 % CI 0.96, 1.24, n 2636 cases) for ovarian cancer; 1.47 (95 % CI 1.01, 2.14, n 609 cases) for fatal prostate cancer, with evidence of small-study effects (P Egger= 0.04). No evidence was found for an association with the risk of total prostate cancer"
  • One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients - Nutrients. 2015 May 11;7(5):3449-63 - "Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks ... after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation"
  • The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;101(4):705-13 - "we aimed to determine whether a high-egg diet (2 eggs/d for 6 d/wk) compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) affected circulating lipid profiles, in particular high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in overweight or obese people with prediabetes or T2D ... There was no significant difference in the change in HDL cholesterol from screening to 3 mo between groups; the mean difference (95% CI) between high- and low-egg groups was +0.02 mmol/L (-0.03, 0.08 mmol/L; P = 0.38). No between-group differences were shown for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or glycemic control. Both groups were matched for protein intake, but the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety postbreakfast. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intakes significantly increased from baseline in both groups"
  • Impact of Breakfasts (with or without Eggs) on Body Weight Regulation and Blood Lipids in University Students over a 14-Week Semester - Nutrients. 2013 Dec 16;5(12):5097-113 - "Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks ... Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids"
  • Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 15 - "A systematic literature review was conducted for published studies in PubMed and EMBASE through March 2012 ... This meta-analysis suggests that egg consumption is not associated with the risk of CVD and cardiac mortality in the general population. However, egg consumption may be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes among the general population and CVD comorbidity among diabetic patients" - Note:  Unless they can figure out a way to filter out how people are cooking those eggs and what they are eating with the eggs, I don't see how the study is useful.  Just think how frying the eggs, eating bacon, sausage, ham, fried hash browns and toast with margarine (hydrogenated oils) or butter can skew the study over just eggs cooked in a microwave with cooking spray.
  • Egg consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):538-46 - "In conclusion, our findings suggest no significant association between egg consumption and bladder cancer risk, except for a possible positive relationship with the intake of fried eggs based on the limited number of studies"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: A meta-analysis - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Apr 17 - "The pooled RRs of the risk of CVD, CVD for separated diabetes patients, and diabetes for the highest vs lowest egg intake were 1.19 (95% CI 1.02-1.38), 1.83 (95% CI 1.42-2.37), 1.68 (95% CI 1.41-2.00), respectively. For each 4/week increment in egg intake, the RRs of the risk for CVD, CVD for separated diabetes patients, diabetes was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03-1.10), 1.40 (95% CI 1.25-1.57), 1.29 (95% CI 1.21-1.37), respectively ... Our study suggests that there is a dose-response positive association between egg consumption and the risk of CVD and diabetes" - Note:  At least part of that could be connected to how most cook the eggs (such as fried) and what they have with it (such as sausage or bacon and fried hash browns and toast with butter or margarine (hydrogenated oils)).
  • Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome - Metabolism. 2012 Sep 26 - "In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks ... Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05)"
  • Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Mar 6:1-5 - "After adjustment for possible confounders more than twofold increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was determined for individuals consuming 3-4.9 eggs/week (OR = 2.60; 95 % CI 1.34, 5.08) and threefold increased risk of the disease was determined for individuals consuming ≥5 eggs/week (OR = 3.02; 95 % CI 1.14, 7.98) compared with those eating <1 egg/week"
  • Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec 30 - "Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 23 - "Egg intake was assessed using a 136-item-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Baseline consumption was categorized into no consumption or <1 egg/week, 1 egg/week, 2-4 eggs/week and >4 eggs/week. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by questionnaire at baseline, and the incidence ofCVD was assessed using biennial assessments. The median follow-up was 6.1 years. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures or stroke). Outcomes were confirmed by review of medical records.Results:During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 91 new confirmed cases of CVD were observed. No association was found between egg consumption and the incidence of CVD (HR: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-2.63) for the highest versus the lowest category of egg consumption after adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, adherence to the Mediterranean food pattern and other cardiovascular risk factors"
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