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Home > Anti-aging Research > Zinc

Zinc

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Why you need to go with a supplement with the right calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper ratio:
    • Vitamin Regimen Can Prevent Blindness - Intelihealth, 10/12/01 - "High doses of zinc can cause anemia, but participants also took 2 milligrams of copper daily to counter that effect"
    • Zinc-Induced Copper Deficiency: A Report of Three Cases - Medscape, 2/2/05 - "Excess zinc ingestion is among the causes of copper deficiency"
    • Treating Hair Loss Naturally - WebMD - "taking too much zinc can also cause a copper deficiency, which in turn can actually cause hair loss"
    • Magnesium--A Forgotten Mineral - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 9/97 - "Excess calcium and phosphate also interfere with magnesium absorption. (Thus, taking calcium supplements without adding magnesium could result in magnesium deficiency.)"
    • Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man - Medline, 10/94 - "the overall effect of the high Zn intake of the three groups combined, regardless of the Ca intake, was a highly significant decrease of Mg absorption and of the Mg balance"
    • Zinc -- The Immune System's Missing Link? - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 12/97 - "Supplementing with zinc is quite safe--its only significant side effect is lowered copper levels in the body tissues, since the two minerals compete for absorption. Considering zinc's safety, people should consider taking zinc supplements, especially as they age--being sure to include copper in the proper balance. Most practitioners who supplement their patients' diets with zinc also recommend taking copper at a ratio of 10 mg to 15 mg zinc for each milligram of copper."
    • Increasing the Good Cholesterol - Health & Nutrition Breakthrough, 1/99 - "Low copper levels, which can be induced by taking more than 25 mg/day of zinc, may increase triglycerides as well as reduce HDL levels.25 Zinc/copper ratios should be monitored."
  • Zinc eaten at levels found in biofortified crops reduces 'wear and tear' on DNA - Science Daily, 1/3/17 - "a modest 4 milligrams of extra zinc a day in the diet can have a profound, positive impact on cellular health that helps fight infections and diseases. This amount of zinc is equivalent to what biofortified crops like zinc rice and zinc wheat can add to the diet of vulnerable, nutrient deficient populations ... Around much of the world, many households eat polished white rice or highly refined wheat or maize flours, which provide energy but do not provide enough essential micronutrients such as zinc. Zinc is an essential part of nearly 3,000 different proteins, and it impacts how these proteins regulate every cell in our body. In the absence of sufficient zinc, our ability to repair everyday wear and tear on our DNA is compromised" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc acetate lozenges may reduce the duration of the common cold by nearly 3 days, according to a recent analysis - Science Daily, 7/6/16 - "Zinc acetate lozenges may reduce the duration of the common cold by nearly 3 days ... Common cold patients should be encouraged to try zinc acetate lozenges not exceeding 100 mg of elemental zinc per day for treating their colds" - See zinc acetate lozenges at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc deficiency linked to immune system response, particularly in older adults - Science Daily, 3/23/15 - "When you take away zinc, the cells that control inflammation appear to activate and respond differently; this causes the cells to promote more inflammation ... Approximately 12 percent of people in the U.S. do not consume enough zinc in their diets. Of those 65 and older, closer to 40 percent do not consume enough zinc ... Older adults tend to eat fewer zinc-rich foods and their bodies do not appear to use or absorb zinc as well, making them highly susceptible to zinc deficiency" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Eight ways zinc affects the human body - Science Daily, 7/18/14 - "Brain ... Cardiovascular System ... Liver ... Pregnancy ... Diabetes ... Endocrine System ... Healing ... Pneumonia" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Top 4 Foods for Thicker, Shinier Hair - ABC News, 4/29/14 - "Zinc is a powerful nutrient for hair growth—it helps accelerate the repair of damaged hair follicles, which keeps your hair healthy through all of its growth phases. Zinc deficiency is also associated with hair loss"
  • Zinc Deficiency-Associated Dermatitis in Infants - Medscape, 2/19/14 - "Zinc deficiencies among infants are difficult to identify for multiple reasons, including nonspecific signs and symptoms. The most common signs of zinc deficiency disorder include dermatitis and growth impairment, which can be attributed to multiple causes. Zinc deficiency disorder–associated dermatitis, which is a physical manifestation, is present in only the most severe cases. For premature infants, withdrawl of the amount of blood required to measure the serum zinc level might compromise the health of the infant; therefore, routine testing is not performed, which might explain, in part, why no other cases were reported"
  • Depression Linked to Low Zinc Levels in Blood - Medscape, 1/2/14 - "The analysis included 17 studies that measured peripheral blood–zinc concentrations in 1643 depressed patients and 804 control participants ... mean peripheral blood–zinc concentrations were lower by approximately 1.85 µmol/L in depressed individuals compared with control participants ... More severe depression was associated with greater differences in zinc levels between depressed and control participants ... Zinc has antioxidant properties, helps to maintain endocrine homeostasis and immune function, and plays multiple roles in regulating the hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic circuits that subserve affective regulation and cognitive function. Thus, changes in zinc homeostasis might compromise neuroplasticity and contribute to long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric decline"
  • Zinc discovery may shed light on Parkinson's, Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 9/30/13 - "If low zinc supply has the same effect on human cells as on yeast, zinc deficiency might contribute to human diseases that are associated with a build-up of "junked" proteins, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Protects Against Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Aorta - Medscape, 6/4/13 - "These results suggest that zinc supplementation provides a significant protection against diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta without gender difference in the type 1 diabetic mouse model. The aortic protection by zinc against diabetes-induced pathogenic changes is associated with the up-regulation of both MT and Nrf2 expression"
  • Zinc lozenges may shorten common cold duration, Finnish research suggests - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Dr. Harri Hemila of the University of Helsinki, Finland, carried out a meta-analysis of all the placebo-controlled trials that have examined the effect of zinc lozenges on natural common cold infections. Of the 13 trial comparisons identified, five used a total daily zinc dose of less than 75 mg and uniformly those five comparisons found no effect of zinc. Three trials used zinc acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 42% reduction in the duration of colds. Five trials used zinc salts other than acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 20% decrease in the duration of colds"
  • Denture wearers warned about risk of excess zinc consumption - Science Daily, 3/4/11 - "Denture wearers are advised to pay special attention to the amount of zinc they consume ...A single tube should last three to 10 weeks with daily use, although actual usage depends on the number of applications per day ... Over time, toxic levels of zinc could cause a copper deficiency, which has been linked to neurological damage"
  • Zinc reduces the burden of the common cold - Science Daily, 2/15/11 - "In total, data from 15 trials, involving 1,360 people, were included. According to the results, zinc syrup, lozenges or tablets taken within a day of the onset of cold symptoms reduce the severity and length of illness. At seven days, more of the patients who took zinc had cleared their symptoms compared to those who took placebos. Children who took zinc syrup or lozenges for five months or longer caught fewer colds and took less time off school. Zinc also reduced antibiotic use in children, which is important because overuse has implications for antibiotic resistance"
  • Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "The researchers randomized 411 participants to the placebo group or to receive an antioxidant compound -- specifically selenomethionnine 200 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin A 6,000 IU, vitamin C 180 mg and vitamin E 30 mg ... individuals who consumed antioxidants had a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel ... It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up"
  • Children With ADHD at Risk for Zinc and Copper Deficiency - Medscape, 11/3/09 - "this patient population is at risk for low trace mineral status, including deficiencies in zinc and copper — minerals that may play a crucial role in the production of dopamine, norepinephrine, and melatonin, which regulates sleep ... Presented here at the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 56th Annual Meeting, a study conducted by investigators at the University of British Columbia and the Children's and Women's Health Centre in Vancouver, Canada, showed among 44 children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, rates of zinc and copper deficiency were 45% and 35%, respectively" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Deficiencies A Global Concern - Science Daily, 9/17/09 - "One new study has found DNA damage in humans caused by only minor zinc deficiency ... Zinc deficiency is quite common in the developing world ... studies have shown that zinc is essential to protecting against oxidative stress and helping DNA repair – meaning that in the face of zinc deficiency, the body's ability to repair genetic damage may be decreasing even as the amount of damage is going up ... When prostate glands become cancerous, their level of zinc drops precipitously, and some studies have suggested that increasing zinc in the prostate may at least help prevent prostate cancer and could potentially be a therapeutic strategy. There are concerns about the relationship of zinc intake to esophageal, breast, and head and neck cancers. And the reduced zinc status that occurs with aging may also contribute to a higher incidence of infection and autoimmune diseases"
  • Got Zinc? New Zinc Research Suggests Novel Therapeutic Targets - Science Daily, 7/30/09 - "zinc not only supports healthy immune function, but increases activation of the cells (T cells) responsible for destroying viruses and bacteria ... It has been shown that zinc supplementation significantly reduces the duration and severity of childhood diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and incidence of malaria in zinc-deficient children ... Age-related declines in immune function have also been related to zinc deficiency in the elderly ... T cells taken from the zinc-supplemented group had higher activation than those from the placebo group. Specifically, cell activation stimulated the zinc transporter in T cells called "ZIP8," which transports stored zinc into the cell cytoplasm where it then alters the expression of a T cell protein in a way needed to fight infections" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (too much zinc can cause a copper deficiency.
  • Zinc Supplements During Pregnancy May Counteract Damage From Early Alcohol Exposure - Science Daily, 2/2/09 - "Animal research has shown that binge drinking – even just once – during early pregnancy can cause numerous problems for the fetus, including early postnatal death. Fetal zinc deficiency may explain some of the birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with alcohol exposure. New rodent findings are the first to show that dietary zinc supplements throughout pregnancy can reduce some alcohol-related birth defects"
  • Zinc Reduces Common Cold Symptoms - Medscape, 4/17/08 - "The participants took one zinc acetate lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc or placebo every 2-3 hours while awake ... The average duration of cold symptoms (including cough, nasal discharge, and muscle ache) was significantly shorter in the zinc group (4.0 days) than in the placebo group (7.1 days) ... By day 4, 56% of the zinc group had complete resolution of their colds, whereas none of the placebo group was free of cold symptoms on day 4"
  • Zinc Linked To Macular Degeneration, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 8/27/07 - "In studying eye tissue samples, the researches found that deposits, that are hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), contain large amounts of zinc ... The double-edged sword is that zinc has been found to enhance the immune system, but also could play a role in the advancement of macular degeneration"
  • Zinc Supplementation May Decrease Incidence of Infections in the Elderly - Medscape, 3/13/07 - "After zinc supplementation, the incidence of infections was significantly lower, plasma zinc was significantly higher, and generation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and oxidative stress markers was significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented than in the placebo group"
  • Zinc Plays Important Role In Brain Circuitry - Science Daily, 11/27/06 - "By engineering a mouse with a mutation affecting a neuronal zinc target ... The resulting mutant mice showed tremors, delayed ability to right themselves when turned over, abnormal gait, altered transmission of visual signals, and an enhanced startle response to sudden noise"
  • Healthy Diet May Help Seniors' Vision - WebMD, 12/27/05 - "People with above-average intakes of all four antioxidants were 35% less likely to develop AMD during the study ... Vitamin E and zinc stood out"
  • Zinc May Help Middle School Students' Thinking - WebMD, 4/4/05 - "The seventh-graders who took 20 milligrams of zinc fared best. Their reaction times on a visual memory test became 12% quicker, their scores on a word recognition test improved by 9%, and their results on a task requiring sustained attention rose by 6%"
  • Zinc Deficiency Linked to Increased Risk of Less-Common Form of Esophageal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 2/16/05 - "zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, an often-fatal form of esophageal cancer that has about 7,000 cases a year"
  • Zinc Supplements May Guard Against Oral Cancers - HealthDay, 1/12/05
  • Efficacy of Zinc Against the Common Cold Virus - Medscape, 11/23/04 - "Clinical trial data support the value of zinc in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms of the common cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of common cold symptoms"
  • Zinc May Be Key to Major Cause of Blindness - HealthDay, 8/27/04 - "if there is not enough zinc in the body or there is a mutation in the zinc binding site, the protein rhodopsin will misfold and break down, triggering cell death, degeneration of the retina and eventually blindness"
  • Ocular Disorders Associated with Increased Risk of Mortality, But Zinc Therapy Appears to Reduce Mortality - Doctor's Guide, 5/12/04
  • Zinc Supplements Associated With Improved Survival - Medscape, 5/10/04 - "Various ocular disorders (eg, visual impairment and cataract and those in persons with diabetes mellitus, severe retinopathy, or visual impairment) have been reported to be significant predictors of a decreased life span ... Compared with subjects not taking zinc, those randomized to receive any zinc (zinc alone or with antioxidants) had 27% lower mortality"
  • Zinc supplements fail to meet quality standards - Nutra USA, 4/13/04
  • Zinc May Boost Effectiveness of Ritalin - WebMD, 4/8/04 - "children who took 55 mg of zinc daily along with their Ritalin had better symptom control than children given Ritalin and a dummy pill"
  • Zinc to underpin ADHD treatment? - Nutra USA, 4/8/04 - "Zinc supplements could increase the effectiveness of stimulants used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"
  • Zinc Supplements (Lozenges, Pills, and Liquids) - ConsumerLab.com, 4/7/04
  • Zinc May Increase Antidepressant Therapy Effectiveness - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 3/4/04 - "the zinc-supplemented group showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the placebo group at 6 and 12 weeks ... Other natural substances that have been shown to benefit depression sufferers include folic acid, DHEA, eicosapentaenoic acid (a fatty acid found in fish oil), and St. John’s wort"
  • Zinc May Increase Stature in Some Growth Hormone-Deficient Children - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/16/03
  • Research Explores Zinc in Prostate Cancer - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "A new study has found that men who take extremely high levels of supplemental zinc double their risk of prostate cancer. The study found no increased risk for men who take less than 100 mg of supplemental zinc a day"
  • The Chromium Connection - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "The body requires certain nutrients to control glucose metabolism, especially chromium, zinc and vitamins B and C"
  • Too Much Zinc Linked to Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/1/03 - "although taking zinc supplements of up to 100 mg per day did not increase men's overall risk of prostate cancer, men who took more than 100 mg of supplemental zinc per day were more than twice as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than nonusers ... they can't rule out the fact that some other factor may account for the increase in advanced prostate cancer risk associated with excessive zinc supplementation found by the study" - Zinc interferes with copper absorption so maybe the cause is low copper.
  • Zinc Reduces the Severity of Tinnitus - New Hope Natural Media, 4/17/03 - "The current study examined the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the effect of zinc therapy in people with tinnitus. Forty-one people with tinnitus participated in the study, and more than 31% of them were found to have zinc deficiency. All of the participants were randomly assigned to receive either 50 mg of zinc or placebo daily. At the end of two months, 46% of the people in the zinc group had clinical improvement, defined as a ten-decibel or greater decrease in loudness of tinnitus"
  • Zinc Spray Shortens Colds - WebMD, 1/7/03 - "patients using Zicam, an over-the-counter nasal spray, cut the length of their colds an average of 1.5 days compared with those treated with a placebo. However, some patients slashed their cold duration in half -- from six days to only three"
  • Zinc Gluconate Reduces Cold Duration And Frequency In Children - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/02 - "Subjects taking the zinc gluconate glycine lozenges [Cold-Eeze] showed shorter cold duration than non-users: 7.5 and 9.0 days respectively. Further, 4.1 percent of those taking the lozenge needed concomitant antibiotics compared to 36.2 percent of non-users. Prophylaxis with the lozenge reduced the median annual number of colds from 1.3 in non-users to 0.0 among the lozenge users" - I've got that via my drugstore.com affiliate.  See Cold-Eezeicon.  Now might be a good time to stock up on Zicamicon so that you can use it at the first symptoms of a cold.
  • Prenatal Zinc May Impair Infant Mental Development - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/02
  • Nuts May Lower Risk of Diabetes - Medscape, 6/19/02 - "In this prospective, double-blind, clinical interventional study, 56 obese women with normal glucose tolerance were randomized to treatment with zinc, 30 mg daily, or placebo for four weeks ... Insulin resistance as measured by a homeostasis model assessment did not change in the placebo group, but it decreased from 5.8 +/- 2.6 to 4.3 +/- 1.7 (P<.05) in the zinc-supplemented group. Insulin decreased from 28.8 +/- 14.1 to 21.2 +/- 8.1 mU/mL (P<.05) in the zinc group but was unchanged in the placebo group"
  • Zinc Helps Kids Grow - WebMD, 5/24/02 - "This new report looked at 33 studies on the effects of zinc supplementation on children up to 10 years old that were published between 1976 and 2001 ... Overall, zinc supplementation produced very significant positive effects on both height and weight measures of the children. And the effect was even greater among children who already suffered from stunted growth or were underweight"
  • Supplements Boost Sperm Count - WebMD, 3/20/02 - "Researchers found that the men with fertility problems who took 5 mg of folic acid a day and 66 mg of zinc sulfate a day for 26 weeks had a 74% increase in total normal sperm count"
  • Zinc Supplements Cut Infection, Reduce Risk Of Infant Death - Intelihealth, 12/13/01 - "zinc supplementation may lower the rate of childhood death caused by diarrhea, respiratory infections, and other preventable illnesses in developing nations around the world"
  • Zinc Boosts Infant Survival Rates - Intelihealth, 12/3/01 - "After 14 days, the zinc spray "pretty much had no effect at all," ... Don't think this means Zicam -- a zinc gel spray on store shelves -- will or won't work, says Belongia. "This is not the same formulation as Zicam""
  • Zinc, Antioxidants Prevent Some Forms of Vision Loss - WebMD, 10/12/01 - "people at risk of losing more sight due to a condition called "age-related macular degeneration" (AMD) could prevent further vision loss by taking a combination of zinc and antioxidants, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene ... The antioxidants were taken once a day at a dose of 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, and 15 mg of beta-carotene. Zinc was given as 80 mg of zinc oxide along with 2 mg of copper in the form of cupric oxide to prevent anemia, which can occur from too much zinc ... the high levels of dietary supplements that were taken in this study are very difficult to achieve from diet alone"
  • Zinc and Magnesium Deficiency Problems - Nutrition Science News, 5/01 - "zinc and magnesium are poorly absorbed when taken with calcium-containing foods or supplements"
  • Natural cures for the common cold? - CNN, 2/13/01 - "a zinc nasal spray called Zicam, showed very promising results in a study of 213 patients published in ENT, the Ear, Nose and Throat journal. Symptoms were reduced by as much as 75 percent."
  • Zinc Supplements Important In Combating Diarrhea - Doctor's Guide, 11/28/00
  • ADHD A Modern Malady - Nutrition Science News, 8/00 - "Zinc levels also strongly correlate to ADHD patients. Psychiatry department researchers at Technical University in Turkey compared 48 ADHD children to 45 non-ADHD children. While free fatty acid levels in blood serum were nearly four times lower in ADHD children, mean serum zinc levels in ADHD patients were also less than half the levels of the controls."
  • Drugs That Deplete- Nutrients That Heal - Life Extension Magazine, 7/00 - "Like magnesium, zinc can be depleted by a variety of drugs. These include corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, oral estrogens used in hormone replacement therapy (including the designer estrogen raloxifene), ACE inhibitors such as Lotensil (benazepril) and Altace (ramipril), diuretics such as Hydrex (benzthiazide), triamterene, and Bumex (bumetanide), the cholesterol-lowering drug cholestyramine resin, and the anti-ulcer drug Cimetidine."

Abstracts:

  • Zinc-rich oysters as well as zinc yeast- and astaxanthin-enriched food improved sleep efficiency and sleep onset in a randomized controlled trial of healthy individuals - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Dec 25 - "These subjects were divided into 4 groups: placebo, zinc-rich food, zinc- and astaxanthin-rich food, and placebo supplemented with zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc-rich food group efficiently decreased the time necessary to fall asleep and improved sleep efficiency, whereas the group that ingested zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil significantly improved the sleep onset latency" - See Nutrex Hawaii BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin, 120 Gel Caps supply, 4mg Astaxanthin per Serving and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.  Cut and paste from my 11/9/16 newsletter:
  • Supplementation of Diabetic Rats with Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium: Effects on Function and Histological Structure of Testes - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 Jul 5:1-11 - "Administration of nutritional supplements to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, impairment of spermatogenesis. Treatment with nutritional supplements increased testicular length, height, width, and volume. All treatments increased the number of live sperm and the total number of epididymal sperm. Furthermore, nutritional supplements increased diameter of tubules, height of epithelium, and the number of cells in seminiferous tubules. These alleviating effects were more pronounced in animals treated with the leucine-zinc-chromium combination. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects of zinc, leucine, and chromium supplements to improve testes morphology and to restore spermatogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Zinc supplementation for improving glucose handling in pre-diabetes: A double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 May;115:39-46 - "fasting blood glucose levels, (FBG) ... received either 30mg zinc sulphate dispersible tablet or placebo, once daily for six months ... After six months, the intervention group significantly improved their FBG concentration compared to the placebo group (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.69±0.26, p<0.001) as well as compared to their own baseline (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.8±0.09, p<0.001). Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance all showed a statistically significant improvement as well" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc supplementation and the effects on metabolic status in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - J Diabetes Complications. 2015 Jul 4 - "zinc-supplemented patients had reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-6.6±11.2 vs. +0.6±6.7mg/dL, P=0.005), serum insulin levels (-1.3±6.6 vs. +6.6±12.2μIU/mL, P=0.003), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.5±1.6 vs. +1.5±2.7, P=0.001), homeostatic model assessment-Beta cell function (HOMA-B) (-0.7±25.0 vs. +26.5±49.5, P=0.01) and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.01±0.02, P=0.004) compared with the placebo. Additionally, significant differences in serum triglycerides (+13.6±61.4 vs. +45.9±36.5mg/dL, P=0.01) and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations (+2.7±12.3 vs. +9.2±7.3mg/dL, P=0.01) were observed following the administration of zinc supplements compared with the placebo"
  • Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review - Nutrients. 2014 Nov 14 - "iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition ... Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Low dietary intake of magnesium is associated with increased externalising behaviours in adolescents - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov 6:1-7 - "Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ... using a validated FFQ ... Higher dietary intake of Mg (per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising behaviours (β=-1.45; 95 % CI -2.40, -0.50; P=0.003). There was a trend towards reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase; β=-0.73" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract and zinc containing nutritional food supplement prevents onset and progression of age-related cataract in wistar rats - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(5):524-30 - "In the group treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets, the formation of cataract was significantly prevented. In the normal and selenite induced senile cataract control group, the levels of lens oxidative stress markers, G6PD and ATP were substantially lower than in the grape seed extract with Zincovit tablets treated group" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and Health Aid Zincovit - C (Zinc, Vit C & Propolis) - Blister Pack 60 Tablets.
  • Low blood zinc, iron, and other sociodemographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):530-45 - "low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 20 - "We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-to 71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements"
  • Association between zinc intake and risk of digestive tract cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 10 - "PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to April 2013 ... The pooled relative risk (RR) of overall digestive tract cancers for the highest versus lowest categories of zinc intake was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96; p = 0.013). Comparing the highest with lowest categories, higher zinc intake was significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.92; p = 0.002), while zinc intake was not statistically associated with gastric cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.64-1.29; p = 0.581) or esophageal cancer risk (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.44-1.17; p = 0.187). However, subgroup analyses showed that zinc intake was significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk and gastric cancer risk in Asia, but not in America and Europe"
  • Zinc supplementation in children and adolescents with acute leukemia - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 21 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on weight gain and infectious episodes in children and adolescents with acute leukemia ... study included 38 patients ... it has become evident that supplementary zinc exerts a positive effect on nutritional status as positive weight gain. Moreover, the number of infection episodes was significantly reduced, possibly because of the immune stimuli ... zinc supplementation can prevent some of the chemotherapy adverse effects in children with leukemia, improving their quality of life"
  • Zinc as a nutritional approach to bone loss prevention in an ovariectomized rat model - Menopause. 2013 Apr 8 - "Forty-eight female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control, zinc, ovariectomy (OVX), and OVX + zinc ... Reduction in zinc and copper levels was observed in the bone tissues and serum of the OVX group. Zinc administration restored these levels to normal. Electron microscopic studies revealed a looser structure and resorbed areas in ovariectomized rat cortical bone. Zinc administration restored bone tissue morphology ... These findings suggest that changes in cortical bone attributed to estrogen deficiency are arrested by zinc supplementation, which can be a sustainable approach to improving bone health"
  • Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 9 - "Eight studies on heme iron intake and six studies on zinc intake met the inclusion criteria. The summary RR of CRC for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.14 (95 % CI = 1.04-1.24) for heme iron and 0.83 (95 % CI = 0.72-0.94) for zinc, respectively ... This meta-analysis suggests a significant positive dose-response association of heme iron intake and a significant inverse dose-response association of zinc intake with risk of CRC"
  • Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Sensitive Biomarkers of Copper Status in Healthy Boys - J Nutr. 2013 Jan - "Traditional (plasma copper and ceruloplasmin activity) and more sensitive biomarkers of copper status, including erythrocyte SOD1 activity and the erythrocyte CCS:SOD1 protein ratio, were unchanged in zinc-supplemented boys, demonstrating that copper status was not depressed"
  • Dietary Intakes of Zinc and Heme Iron from Red Meat, but Not from Other Sources, Are Associated with Greater Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease - J Nutr. 2012 Jan 18 - "Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010 ... Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD"
  • Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR(Q4 vs Q1): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes"
  • Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010 Sep 14 - "Results showed a significantly lower blood zinc in patients with Alzheimer's and patients with Parkinson's than in controls. Urine zinc excretion, normalized to urine creatinine excretion, was not significantly different in either patient group compared to controls. These patients are probably zinc deficient because of nutritional inadequacy" - Note:  Zinc interferes with copper and too much zinc can cause a deficiency of copper.  See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Role of zinc in the development and treatment of mood disorders - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 4 - "Not only has zinc deficiency been shown to induce depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors, supplementation has been used as a treatment for major depression. Zinc administration improves the efficacy of antidepressant drugs in depressed patients and may have a particular role to play in treatment-resistant patients. Recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for these observations suggest a role for zinc in the regulation of neurotransmitter systems, antioxidant mechanisms, neurotrophic factors, and neuronal precursor cells"
  • Dietary zinc intake is inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness - Br J Nutr. 2010 May 21:1-10 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean carotid IMT in the low Zn intake group was higher than that in the high Zn intake group. When subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as >80th percentile value of IMT or >/= 1 mm of carotid IMT, after adjustment for potential confounders, Zn intake was inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis (5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.90, P for trend = 0.069; 5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.70, P for trend = 0.005, respectively). In persons free of clinical CVD, dietary Zn intake was inversely correlated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The present findings suggest a putative protective role of dietary Zn intake against the development of atherosclerosis" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (zinc supplementation can cause a copper deficiency.
  • Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr 28 - "One group was given an oral dose of 45 mg zinc/d as a gluconate for 6 mo ... These findings suggest that zinc may have a protective effect in atherosclerosis because of its antiinflammatory and antioxidant functions"
  • Zinc in cancer prevention - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):879-87 - "Zinc not only improves cell mediated immune functions but also functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in development of many cancers. In patients with head and neck cancer, we have shown that nearly 65% of these patients were zinc deficient based on their cellular zinc concentrations. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and IL-2 generation were also affected adversely ... Zinc status also correlated with number of hospital admissions and incidences of infections. NF-kappa B is constitutively activated in many cancer cells, and this results in activation of antiapoptotic genes, VEGF, cyclin DI, EGFR, MMP-9 and inflammatory cytokines. Zinc inhibits NF-kappa B via induction of A-20. Thus, zinc supplementation should have beneficial effects on cancer by decreasing angiogenesis and induction of inflammatory cytokines while increasing apoptosis in cancer cells. Based on the above, we recommend further studies and propose that zinc should be utilized in the management and chemoprevention of cancer"
  • Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "multivitamins (MVs) ... who took MV and Zn showed a significant reduction in anger-hostility score (P=0.009) and depression-dejection score (P=0.011) in the Profile of Moods State (POMS) and a significant increase in serum Zn concentration (P=0.008), whereas women who took only MV did not"
  • Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects - Contraception. 2009 Jul;80(1):40-3 - "Use of OCP resulted in a significant decrease in serum zinc levels (p</=.009, t=-3.666) and alteration of selenium levels but not significantly (p=.08, t=0.935)"
  • Zinc Deficiency Reduces Bone Mineral Density in the Spine of Young Adult Rats: A Pilot Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Jun 9;54(3):218-226 - "These findings indicate that severe zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence may have important implications for future bone health, especially with regards to bone consolidation in the spine"
  • Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):206-15 - "Ten-year average intake of supplemental zinc was not associated with a reduced prostate cancer risk overall (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.14) for >15mg/day vs. nonuse, P for trend = 0.44); however, risk of advanced prostate cancer (regionally invasive or distant metastatic, n = 123) decreased with greater intake of supplemental zinc (adjusted HR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13-1.09 for 10-yr average intake > 15 mg/day vs. nonuse, P for trend = 0.04). Dietary zinc was not associated with prostate cancer. In this prospective cohort, long-term supplemental zinc intake was associated with reduced risk of clinically relevant advanced disease"
  • Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the case-control surveillance study - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Dec 18 - "For use of multivitamins that did not contain zinc, the multivariable odds ratios of prostate cancer were 0.6 for 1-4 years, 0.8 for 5-9 years, and 1.2 for 10 years or more, respectively (p for trend = 0.70). Men who used zinc for ten years or more, either in a multivitamin or as a supplement, had an approximately two-fold (OR = 1.9"
  • Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1167-1173 - "Normal serum zinc concentrations in nursing home elderly are associated with a decreased incidence and duration of pneumonia, a decreased number of new antibiotic prescriptions, and a decrease in the days of antibiotic use. Zinc supplementation to maintain normal serum zinc concentrations in the elderly may help reduce the incidence of pneumonia and associated morbidity"
  • Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Thyroid Hormone Function. A Case Study of Two College Females - Ann Nutr Metab. 2007 May 30;51(2):188-194 - "Zinc supplementation appeared to have a favorable effect on thyroid hormone levels, particularly total T(3), and RMR"
  • Zinc and the Liver: An Active Interaction - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Apr 6 - "zinc could protect against liver diseases"
  • Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):837-44 - "After zinc supplementation, the incidence of infections was significantly lower, plasma zinc was significantly higher, and generation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and oxidative stress markers was significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented than in the placebo group"
  • Dietary Zinc and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study from Italy - Eur Urol. 2007 Feb 5 - "In this large study we found a direct association between high zinc intake and prostate cancer risk, particularly for advanced cancers"
  • The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children - Acta Paediatr. 2006 Oct;95(10):1175-81 - "Compared to the placebo group, the zinc group had shorter mean duration of cold symptoms and decreased total severity scores for cold symptoms"
  • Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical Conditions - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2006;50:85-94 - "These trials document that adequate intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold"
  • Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: the Rancho Bernardo Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):715-21 - "Dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc each have a positive association with BMD in men"
  • Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled study - Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Nov-Dec;55(6):1143-7 - "Zinc supplementation significantly reduced scores in both measures after 6- and 12-week supplementation when compared with placebo treatment. This preliminary study is the first demonstration of the benefit of zinc supplementation in antidepressant therapy. The mechanism(s) may be related to modulation of glutamatergic or immune systems by zinc ion"
  • Zinc-Altered Immune Function - J. Nutr. 133:1452S-1456S, May 2003 - "All kinds of immune cells show decreased function after zinc depletion ... Impaired immune functions due to zinc deficiency are shown to be reversed by an adequate zinc supplementation, which must be adapted to the actual requirements of the patient. High dosages of zinc evoke negative effects on immune cells and show alterations that are similar to those observed with zinc deficiency"
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