QualityCounts.com Use this link for5% off at iHerb.
RSS feed link
Home iHerb The Antiaging Store LEF at Amazon LEF at LEF Amazon.com Contact
 Sign-up for newsletter 
 Newsletter Archive
 Newsletter via RSS Feed
 Research on Supplements
 Health Conditions
 Anti-aging Recommendations
 Insulin and Aging
 QualityCounts.com in Time
 Longevity Affiliates:
 iHerb
 The Antiaging Store
 Vitamin Shoppe
 Vital Choice Seafood
 

Home > Anti-aging Research > Carotenoids.

Carotenoids

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Green Leafy Vegetables Linked to Slower Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 1/8/18 - "The rate of decline among those who consumed 1 to 2 servings per day was the equivalent of being 11 years younger compared with those who rarely or never consumed green leafy vegetables ... Investigation of the nutrients for which green leafy vegetables are a rich or primary source indicated that higher food intakes of folate, phylloquinone, and lutein were each linearly associated with slower cognitive decline and appeared to account for the protective correlation of green leafy vegetables to cognitive change."
  • The top ingredients for cognition, focus and mood - Nutra USA, 7/14/17 - "omega-3 ... Phosphatidylserine (PS) ... B-vitamins ... Vitamin E ... Lutein ... Citicoline ... Magnesium ... L-theanine ... Curcumin ... Resveratrol ... Blueberry anthocyanins ... Inositol-stabilized arginine silicate ... Spearmint extract ... Ashwaganda ... Bacopa ... Teacrine"
  • Diet rich in tomatoes cuts skin cancer in half in mice - Science Daily, 7/13/17 - "male mice fed a diet of 10 percent tomato powder daily for 35 weeks, then exposed to ultraviolet light, experienced, on average, a 50 percent decrease in skin cancer tumors compared to mice that ate no dehydrated tomato ... Lycopene, the primary carotenoid in tomatoes, has been shown to be the most effective antioxidant of these pigments"
  • Tomato extract fights stomach cancer, ripe for further study - Science Daily, 5/13/17 - "whole tomato extracts from two different Southern Italy cultivars inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and malignant features ... Treatment with the whole tomato extracts affected key processes within the cells hindering their migration ability, arresting cell cycle through the modulation of retinoblastoma family proteins and specific cell cycle inhibitors, and ultimately inducing cancer cell death through apoptosis" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Astaxanthin compound found to switch on the FOX03 'Longevity Gene' in mice - Science Daily, 3/28/17 -"The Astaxanthin compound CDX-085 (developed by Cardax) showed the ability to significantly increase the expression of the FOXO3 gene, which plays a proven role in longevity ... We found a nearly 90% increase in the activation of the FOXO3 "Longevity Gene" in the mice fed the higher dose of the Astaxanthin compound CDX-085" - See BioAstin at Amazon.com.
  • Plant compounds may boost brain function in older adults, study says - Science Daily, 11/29/16 - "People get these compounds, known as carotenoids, from their diets, and two of them -- lutein and zeaxanthin -- have been shown in previous research to bolster eye and cognitive health in older adults ... In this study, participants with lower levels of lutein and zeaxanthin had to use more brain power and relied more heavily on different parts of the brain in order to remember the word pairings they were taught. People with higher levels, on the other hand, were able to minimize the amount of brain activity necessary to complete the task. In other words, they were more "neurally efficient."" - See zeaxanthin lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Clinical Study Shows AstaReal(R) Astaxanthin Effective in Reducing both Mental and Physical Fatigue - yonhapnews.co.kr, 11/7/16 - "AstaReal® astaxanthin significantly reduced perceived symptoms of mental and physical fatigue compared to the placebo. These included improvements in clarity of thinking, concentration, motivation, and mood. Irritation and feeling of body heaviness were reduced. In the calculation test, an increase in errors observed in the placebo during the second half of the test was almost eliminated in the astaxanthin group. Supplementation with astaxanthin also significantly reduced salivary cortisol, a biomarker for stress" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Beta-cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, inhibits nicotine-linked lung cancer development in mice - Science Daily, 11/1/16 - "The team calculated that these doses are equivalent to approximately 0.087 and 0.87 milligrams of daily BCX intake in humans (eating a tangerine or cup of sweet red peppers per day, for example) ... At the end of the experimental period, mice fed BCX developed on average 50 to 60 percent fewer tumors than mice not fed BCX ... The team's findings corroborate human epidemiological studies that have found an association between higher BCX intake and lower risk of lung cancer in current smokers from North America and Asian countries"
  • Benefits of taking the natural pigment astaxanthin - Science Daily, 2/22/16 - "ASX has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it holds promise as a next-generation natural supplement. ASX is capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, entering the brain, where it acts directly on nerve cells. ASX is also known to have a neuroprotective effect in neurological animal disease model ... A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Professor Hideaki Soya and Professor Randeep Rakwal has investigated the effect on hippocampal function of the naturally-derived pigment ASX, which is believed to have the most powerful antioxidant activity among carotenoids. Their results showed for the first time that giving ASX to mice for four weeks promoted neurogenesis in the hippocampus in a concentration-dependent manner, and elevated the learning and memory capacity of the hippocampus" - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin A is for anti-aging, at least when it comes to vision - The Washington Post, 7/14/15 - "There are essentially two forms of the vitamin: retinoids, or preformed vitamin A, found in animal products and carotenoids; and provitamin A, dark-colored plant pigments that are converted to vitamin A in the body ... Food sources: Liver, shrimp, salmon, sardines, halibut, cod, beef, lamb, eggs, whole milk, whole yogurt ... Carotenoids are antioxidants that prevent and repair cellular damage and aging and reduce inflammation in the eyes and elsewhere in the body. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retina of the human eye and have been shown to help prevent age-related macular degeneration. Carotenoids also may reduce the risk for cancer ... Food sources: Spinach, kale, Swiss chard, other dark leafy greens, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, apricots and cantaloupe ... Not only does vitamin A help with eyesight by producing the pigments of the retina and preventing macular degeneration, but it also helps create and maintain healthy skin (hence the popularity of topical Retin-A skincare products) ... Avoid excessively bright light from harsh interior lighting or strong sunlight. Most offices are twice as bright as they need to be. Use low-intensity light bulbs and floor lamps instead of fluorescent lighting" - See Puritan's Pride Lutein 20 mg with Zeaxanthin-120 Softgels at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene may ward off kidney cancer in older women - Science Daily, 3/2/15 - "after analyzing data from 96,196 women nationwide and in Detroit who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998 and were followed through July 2013 ... Compared with women who reported a lower intake of lycopene, those who ingested more had a 39 percent lower risk. No other micronutrient was significantly associated with the same risk" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Eat your fruits, vegetables for skin with sun-kissed glow - Science Daily, 8/27/14 - "Skin coloration can arise as a result of two distinct processes," explain the team leading the research: through tanning (melanisation) or the assimilation of fruit and vegetables (carotenoid ingestion) ... Results from both studies showed a clear preference for strong color values; 86% of the attendants to the first study voted for the high carotenoid version, while 78.5% of the participants to the second one opted for the high melanin variant ... in a third and final study, the team pitched 24 high carotenoid and high melanin faces against each other, asking attendants to choose the one deemed more appealing; results showed a 75.9% preference for carotenoid coloring over the melanin one" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Fighting prostate cancer with tomato-rich diet - Science Daily, 8/27/14 - "the first study of its kind to develop a prostate cancer 'dietary index' which consists of dietary components -- selenium, calcium and foods rich in lycopene -- that have been linked to prostate cancer ... Men who had optimal intake of these three dietary components had a lower risk of prostate cancer ... Tomatoes and its products -- such as tomato juice and baked beans -- were shown to be most beneficial, with an 18 per cent reduction in risk found in men eating over 10 portions a week ... This is thought to be due to lycopene, an antioxidant which fights off toxins that can cause DNA and cell damage" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • 'Tomato pill' improves function of blood vessels in patients with cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 6/9/14 - "One component of the Mediterranean diet thought to play a role in reducing this risk is lycopene, a powerful antioxidant which is ten times more potent than vitamin E. Lycopene is found in tomatoes and other fruits, and its potency appears to be enhanced when it is consumed pureed, in ketchup or in the presence of olive oil ... Thirty-six cardiovascular disease patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers were given either Ateronon (an off-the-shelf supplement containing 7mg of lycopene) or a placebo treatment ... 7mg of oral lycopene supplementation improved and normalised endothelial function in the patients, but not in healthy volunteers. Lycopene improved the widening of the blood vessels by over a half (53%) compared to baseline in those taking the pill after correction for those who took the placebo" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein + Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Randomized Clinical Trial - Medscape, 1/16/14 - "Serum levels of lutein at year 5 were lower in patients receiving lutein + zeaxanthin and beta carotene than in patients receiving lutein + zeaxanthin without beta carotene ... The study showed a protective effect of lutein + zeaxanthin on progression to advanced AMD, with omission of beta carotene" - Note:  I've been mentioning for years that taking large does of beta carotene can cause a deficiency of some of the over 600 carotenoids.  It doesn't mention the amount of beta carotene in this article.  I'm sticking with the broad array formulas of carotenoids.  See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Skin Health - Medscape, 6/7/13 - "Results from cell culture and animal studies showing that lutein and zeaxanthin exhibit positive skin health benefits have considerable merit and suggest an avenue by which these carotenoids may function. The results from one human study demonstrate that orally administered lutein and zeaxanthin can inhibit lipid peroxidation on the surface of the skin and help bolster the skin's photoprotective activity, potentially protecting the skin from exposure to light, particularly UV light. Since the typical diet of people in the United States is about 2 mg of lutein per day, due to the ingestion of foods such as green leafy vegetables that contain the highest levels of diet-derived lutein and zeaxanthin,[15] it may be considered advisable to increase the daily intake of lutein and zeaxanthin for optimal skin health and photoprotection"
  • Eating Bright-Colored Fruits and Vegetables May Prevent or Delay Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Science Daily, 1/29/13 - "Using data from five prospective groups: the National Institutes of Health (NIH)–AARP Diet and Health Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II-Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Nurses’ Health Study, researchers investigated more than one million participants for the present study ... subjects with diets high in beta-carotene and lutein—found in dark green vegetables—had a lower risk ALS risk"
  • Antioxidants May Slow Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Medscape, 12/31/12 - "Oral antioxidant supplementation, including with lutein and zeaxanthin, was associated with some benefits in macular function and morphologic features among patients at high risk for progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... This trial and several others indicate benefits to functional vision with lutein supplementation. What this trial has demonstrated over and above is the marginal slowing down of progression along the early AMD severity scale ... Participants in the supplement arm took a tablet twice daily to provide a daily dose of 12 mg lutein, 0.6 mg zeaxanthin, 15 mg d-α-tocopherol (vitamin E), 150 mg ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 20 mg zinc oxide, and 0.4 mg copper gluconate ... At 36 months, the difference in BCVA had increased to approximately 4.8 letters in favor of the supplement"
  • Cartenoids found to reduce hip fracture risk in lean men - Science Daily, 12/16/12 - "Elderly who are lean (BMI <20 kg/m2) are at higher risk of hip fracture compared to those with higher BMI ... researchers examined the association between dietary antioxidant carotenoids and hip fracture risk across a range of BMI in elderly Chinese men and women using data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study ... low BMI is a stronger risk factor for hip fracture risk among elderly men compared to women ... Also, in men, hip fracture risk decreased with increasing intakes of total vegetables and of total carotenoids, particularly β-carotene"
  • Women with higher carotenoid levels have reduced risk of breast cancer - Science Daily, 12/7/12 - "Carotenoids, which are micronutrients found in fruits and vegetables, have been found to have anticarcinogenic properties. Previous experimental studies have shown that carotenoids inhibit the tumor progression and reduce proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancers ... Heather Eliassen, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and colleagues, conducted a pooled analysis of eight cohort studies, which gathered over 80% of the world's published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer ... The researchers found that in over 3,000 case subjects, there were statistically significantly inverse associations between circulating levels of individual and total carotenoids and breast cancer risk, with a stronger finding in ER- breast cancers"
  • Tomatoes May Lower Your Risk for Stroke - WebMD, 10/8/12 - "Men who had the highest levels of lycopene in their blood were 55% less likely to have a stroke, compared with men who had the lowest levels of the antioxidant in their blood ... The new study included slightly more than 1,000 men from Finland aged 46 to 65. Researchers measured the level of lycopene in their blood when the study began and followed the men for about 12 years" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C and beta-carotene might protect against dementia - Science Daily, 9/11/12 - "A total of 74 AD-patients and 158 healthy controls were examined for the study that has been published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD) ... The concentration of vitamin C and beta-carotene in the serum of AD-patients was significantly lower than in the blood of control subjects. Whereas no such difference between the groups could be found for the other antioxidants (vitamin E, lycopene, coenzyme Q10)" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • Do Fruits and Veggies Make You More Attractive? - WebMD, 3/7/12 - "changes in the redness and yellowness of skin in white people may be linked to the number of servings of fruit and vegetables they eat on a daily basis. These antioxidant-rich foods, which are loaded with plant-based pigments, seem to affect skin tone ... They suggest it's the carotenoids -- the red, yellow, and orange pigments in fruits and vegetables -- that play an important role in skin tone. Foods such as carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, and apricots are rich in beta-carotene, as are some dark green vegetables, including spinach and kale ... Another carotenoid is lycopene, which is found in tomatoes and pink grapefruits" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Repeated measurements of serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "Previous cohort studies examining the association of serum antioxidant levels and risk of colorectal cancer have used a single (baseline) measurement only. In the present study, we assessed the association of serum levels of eight antioxidant nutrients in relation to risk of colorectal cancer, using repeated measurements ... Serum antioxidants measured at baseline generally showed no association with risk of colorectal cancer, although serum β-carotene at baseline showed a non-significant inverse association with colon cancer alone. Furthermore, using the repeated measurements of β-carotene, the average of all measurements was inversely associated with risk of both colorectal and colon cancer: HRs for highest vs lowest tertile 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96, and 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.88, respectively. No associations were seen with other antioxidant nutrients in the repeated measure analyses" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Zeaxanthin Supplements as Effective as Lutein in AMD - Medscape, 11/1/11 - "Both lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids found in the color pigment of the eye ... Using a visual test designed to identify early signs of AMD, the researchers found that the vision in the zeaxanthin group sharpened from 0.97 to 0.57 (P > 0.06, 1-tail)" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Meta-analysis supports lutein’s eye health benefits - Nutra USA, 10/3/11 - "The new meta-analysis pooled data from only six longitudinal cohort studies. Crunching the numbers showed that the highest intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin were not associated with a reduced risk of early AMD ... On the other hand, the highest intake of these carotenoids was associated with 26% reduction in the risk of late AMD, and a significant reduction in the risk of neovascular AMD" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Beta-carotene research shows conflicting results; dose and duration questions remain - Nutra USA, 3/16/11
  • Study unlocks lycopene’s heart health benefits - Nutra USA, 1/28/11
  • Eating vegetables gives skin a more healthy glow than the sun, study shows - Science Daily, 1/11/11 - "people who eat more portions of fruit and vegetables per day have a more golden skin colour, thanks to substances called carotenoids. Carotenoids are antioxidants that help soak up damaging compounds produced by the stresses and strains of everyday living, especially when the body is combating disease. Responsible for the red colouring in fruit and vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes, carotenoids are important for our immune and reproductive systems ... given the choice between skin colour caused by suntan and skin colour caused by carotenoids, people preferred the carotenoid skin colour"
  • Tomatoes found to contain nutrient which prevents vascular diseases - Science Daily, 1/6/11 - "Tomatoes are already known to contain many compounds beneficial to health. In this study the team analyzed 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid, to test its potential anti-dyslipidemia properties ... The compound was found to enhance fatty acid oxidation and contributed to the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid has anti-dyslipidemia affects and can therefore help prevent vascular diseases"
  • The effects of tomato consumption on serum glucose, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, homocysteine and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "32 type 2 diabetes patients received 200 g raw tomato daily for 8 weeks ... There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also a significant increase in apoA-I at the end of study compared with initial values"
  • High alpha-carotene levels associated with longer life - Science Daily, 11/22/10 - "Oxygen-related damage to DNA, proteins and fats may play a role in the development of chronic diseases like heart disease and cancer ... Carotenoids -- including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lycopene -- are produced by plants and microorganisms and act as antioxidants, counteracting this damage ... Compared with individuals with blood alpha-carotene levels between 0 and 1 micrograms per deciliter, the risk of death during the study period was 23 percent lower among who had concentrations between 2 and 3 micrograms per deciliter, 27 percent lower with levels between 4 and 5 micrograms per deciliter, 34 percent lower with levels between 6 and 8 micrograms per deciliter and 39 percent lower with levels of 9 micrograms per deciliter or higher" - Note:  There are over 600 carotenoids and some claim that taking large amounts of just one of them can cause a deficiency of the others. 
  • Lycopene-rich tomato paste helps skin from within: Study - Nutra USA, 9/23/10
  • Astaxanthin’s heart benefits get human data support - Nutra USA, 8/9/10 - "Daily supplements of the carotenoid astaxanthin may improve HDL ‘good’ cholesterol levels in people with mildly abnormal blood lipid levels ... participants receiving the two highest doses experienced significant reductions in their triglyceride levels, of 25 and 24 percent, respectively, compared to baseline. Furthermore, people receiving 6 or 12 mg per day experienced significant increases in their HDL-cholesterol levels of 10 and 15 percent, respectively ... Additionally, adiponectin levels increased in the two highest dose groups, with increases over 20 percent in the 12 mg per day group, and between 15 and 20 percent in the 18 percent group" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com or astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoids may reduce breast cancer risk in women: Study - Nutra USA, 2/8/10 - "The highest average levels of alpha- and beta-carotene were associated with a 68 and 65 per cent reduction in the risk of ER-PR breast cancer among smokers" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Fruits, Leafy Greens Are Good for the Eyes - WebMD, 12/22/09 - "These foods contain the carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin, which play an important role in vision and have a positive impact on the retina ... Lutein and zeaxanthin may help reduce disability and discomfort from glare, enhance contrast, and reduce photostress recovery times ... about 600 carotenoids can be identified in nature ... Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in kale and spinach, among other vegetables ... Of about 20 carotenoids found in human blood, only lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the visual system, the researchers write, suggesting these pigments play a "special role" in human vision"
  • Dietary carotenoids confirmed to benefit eye health: Study - Nutra USA, 12/22/09
  • Eat Fruits and Vegetable for Better Vision - Science Daily, 12/18/09 - "Carotenoids, found in green leafy vegetables and colored fruits, have been found to increase visual performance and may prevent age-related eye diseases ... macular pigments, such as lutein and zeaxanthin do have an effect on visual performance. Lutein and zeaxanthin can reduce disability and discomfort from glare, enhance contrast, and reduce photostress recovery times. They can also reduce glare from light absorption and increase the visual range"
  • Egg Yolks May Reduce Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Medscape, 11/13/09 - "Two eggs per day is probably all that is needed to maximize blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as macular pigment optic density (MPOD) status"
  • Lycopene linked to healthier blood vessels - Nutra USA, 8/13/09 - "Higher levels of lycopene in the blood are associated with lower stiffness in the arteries ... women with the highest average lycopene blood levels (more than 0.0431 millimoles per litre) had the lowest baPWV values, compared to people with the lowest average lycopene blood levels (less that 0.0342 mmol/L) ... According to their results, women with the highest average lycopene blood levels (more than 0.0431 millimoles per litre) had the lowest baPWV values, compared to people with the lowest average lycopene blood levels (less that 0.0342 mmol/L) ... these women also had lower oxidised LDL levels, as well as larger LDL particles ... Levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, were also lower in the women with the highest lycopene levels" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant vitamins may protect against female cancer - Nutra USA, 6/3/09 - "for every 1,000 microgram increase per 1,000 kcal of diet of beta-carotene was associated with a 12 per cent reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer ... Similarly, for every 50 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin C the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 15 per cent, and for every 5 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin E the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 9 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Lutein, Zeaxanthin Supplements May Result in Better Macular Function in Early AMD - Medscape, 5/13/09 - "Although no statistically significant difference was seen in best corrected distance visual acuity (BC DVA) at 12 months, oral supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin with coantioxidants may improve functional and morphologic outcomes at 36 months in patients at high risk for progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... Results at 36 Months Significant" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoids linked to fewer hip fractures - Nutra USA, 3/26/09 - "higher lycopene intake was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture, and non-vertebral fracture ... a weak but statistically un-significant protective trend was recorded total beta-carotene, but only for hip fractures ... No protective effects were observed for the other carotenoids" - [Abstract] - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Long-Term Use Of Nutrient Supplements May Increase Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 2/27/09 - "We believe beta-carotene is an antioxidant, but it seems that if you take too much, at some point it can have pro-oxidant effects, which can result in elevated cancer risk" - Note:  The problem with that study is that beta-carotene is just one of over 600 carotenoids and previous studies have shown that taking large quantities just one carotenoid can cause a deficiency of the others.  Those carotenoid deficiencies that it causes may be just as important if not more important in preventing cancer.  Plus it seems like an oxymoron to smoke and take vitamins.
  • Tomatoes for Endometriosis? - Dr. Weil, 2/13/09 - "A study from Wayne State University in Detroit suggests that lycopene, a powerful antioxidant and the carotenoid pigment that makes tomatoes bright red, can help prevent the scarring that occurs with endometriosis. In a laboratory study, researchers found that it reduced the formation of a protein that causes scar tissue and adhesions to develop by 80 to 90 percent" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient Supports Bone Health Over Time - Science Daily, 1/20/09 - "The results suggest there is a protective effect of carotenoids, particularly of lycopene, against bone loss in older adults. The researchers concluded that carotenoids may explain, in part, the previously observed protective effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on bone mineral density" - Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • LycoRed files patent for skin health science - Nutra USA, 11/7/08 - "According to LycoRed, subjects were supplemented by either Lyc-O-Mato capsules (10mg lycopene per day), or a placebo, for ten weeks. Following exposure to UV radiation at the end of the study, it was found that subjects in the tomato extract group had a sunburn cell count six times lower than in the placebo group. There was also evidence of reduced depletion of Langerhans cells, said the company" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene as effective as statins for artery health: rabbit study - Nutra USA, 7/3/08 - "The results of our experiment in the high-fat diet rabbit model showed that lycopene and fluvastatin lowered serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, improved lipid metabolism, and reduced the amount of triacylglycerols ... Lycopene intervention reduced the increase in ox-LDL levels in rabbits on the high-fat diet, whereas fluvastatin did not show such an effect. The cause of this difference is at present not known, although the result speaks in favour of lycopene ... These findings provide a theoretical rationale for the use of lycopene as a preventive in atherosclerosis" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Study supports lycopene protecting skin from within - Nutra USA, 4/29/08 - "Consuming lycopene-rich tomato paste may protect against sunburn and sun-induced skin ageing ... Skin samples taken from the subjects indicated that the tomato paste-supplemented individuals had higher skin levels of pro-collagen, a molecule which gives the skin its structure and loss of which leads to skin ageing and lack of elasticity" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Could foods prevent ovarian cancer? - MSNBC, 3/14/08 - "A 2007 study published in the British Journal of Nutrition linked greater consumption of carotenoid phytochemicals with a 67 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer. This included not only beta-carotene, the oft-cited carotenoid in deep-orange vegetables and fruits, but also alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin — carotenoids found in a wide range of red, orange, yellow and green vegetables" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein, zeaxanthin for AMD protection: more science - Nutra USA, 3/13/08 - "people with the highest average intakes of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin had a 65 per cent reduced risk of neo-vascular AMD than those with the lowest average intakes" - [Abstract]
  • Vision: Antioxidants May Cut Cataracts - New York Times, 2/12/08 - "Compared with the one-fifth of women who consumed the least antioxidants, the one-fifth who consumed the most reduced their risk for cataracts by 14 percent with vitamin E and 18 percent with lutein"
  • Astaxanthin may boost muscle endurance and fat loss - Nutra USA, 2/5/08 - "astaxanthin supplementation "accelerated the decrease of body fat accumulation with exercise training" - [Abstract] - Note:  Astaxanthin is just one of over 600 carotenoids.  The problem with taking large doses of just one carotenoid is that it may cause a deficiency of the others.  I had a study on that but the link went dead.  I tried to find it via http://www.archive.org/web/web.php but it was a .asp web page and it appears that it doesn't work with those extensions. (Click here and see the OnHealth.com, 5/2/00 article).  I take Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Eat Your Leafy Vegetables To Decreased Your Risk Of Cataracts - Science Daily, 1/14/08 - "When the participants were split into five groups based on the amount of lutein and zeaxanthin they consumed, those in the group who consumed the most (about 6,716 micrograms per day) had an 18 percent lower chance of developing cataracts than those who consumed the least (1,177 micrograms per day). The one-fifth who consumed the most vitamin E from food and supplements--about 262.4 milligrams per day--were 14 percent less likely than the one-fifth who got the least (4.4 milligrams per day)"
  • More support for lycopene's prostate benefits - Nutra USA, 1/9/08 - "At the end of the six month intervention period ... levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a marker of prostate health, were reduced in the lycopene group showing improvements in health of the tissue. However, no changes were recorded in the placebo group ... Moreover, no enlargement of the prostate occurred in the lycopene group, whereas growth was observed in the placebo group" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term Beta Carotene Supplementation May Help Prevent Cognitive Decline, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 11/12/07 - "placebo or 50 milligrams of beta carotene every other day ... In this generally healthy population, the extent of protection conferred by long-term treatment appeared modest; nonetheless, studies have established that very modest differences in cognition, especially verbal memory, predict substantial differences in eventual risk of dementia; thus, the public health impact of long-term beta carotene use could be large" - Note:  The problem with beta-carotene is that it is just one of over 600 carotenoids and some studies show that taking large doses of just on carotenoid can cause a deficiency of the others.
  • Nutrients May Help Save Eyes - WebMD, 9/11/07 - "Those with the highest self-reported intake of foods rich in lutein and zeaxanthin were 35% less likely than those with the lowest lutein and zeaxanthin intake to have "wet" age-related macular degeneration"
  • Certain Nutrients Associated With Reduced Risk For Age-related Eye Disease - Science Daily, 9/10/07 - "If these cross-sectional results can be confirmed in prospective samples and experimental studies, lutein and zeaxanthin may be considered as useful agents in food or supplement-based interventions designed to reduce the risk of AMD"
  • Compounds That Color Fruits And Veggies May Protect Against Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 8/19/07 - "In animal studies, rats induced with colon cancer cells were fed a daily diet of anthocyanin extracts either from bilberries and chokeberries, which are most often used as flavorings or to make jams and juices. The dietary addition of the anthocyanin extracts reduced signs of colon tumors by 70 and 60 percent, respectively, when compared to control rats"
  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin review - ConsumerLab.com, 7/17/07
  • Prostate Cancer Confusion? - Dr. Weil, 6/18/07 - "while these investigators concluded that on the basis of their retrospective analytical methods lycopene and other carotenoids had no effect on prostate cancer, we have very good evidence from other studies that lycopene does in fact lower the risk"
  • No Magic Tomato? Study Breaks Link Between Lycopene And Prostate Cancer Prevention - Science Daily, 5/17/07
  • Could Carrots Be The Secret To A Long-life And Sex Appeal? - Science Daily, 5/10/07 - "males eating more carotenoids were better able to protect their cells from damage and so lived longer - and that females found these long-lived males particularly attractive"
  • Beta-Carotene Pills May Not Help Aging Eyes - WebMD, 3/14/07 -  "The difference between the two groups was so small that it could have been due to chance" - Note:  Beta-carotene is just one of over 600 carotenoids and many believe that taking mega-doses of just one carotenoid can cause a deficiency of the others.  I get my carotenoids from food, dunaliella salina algae (Body Wise), Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com, carotenoids at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Tomato extract could stop platelet build-up, boost heart health - Nutra USA, 9/25/06 - "significant reductions in the build-up of platelets (stimulated by administration of ADP and collagen) were observed three hours after supplementation with tomato extract equivalent to two and six tomatoes (by 21.3 per cent for six tomato equivalents, and 12.7 per cent for the two tomato equivalents for the ADP administered groups, and by 17.5 per cent for six tomato equivalents, and 7.8 per cent for the two tomato equivalents for the collagen administered groups), while no significant effects were measured for control group"
  • Lutein skin health study elicits excited response at conference - Nutra USA, 9/13/06 - "the oral lutein supplement was seen to increase skin hydration by 38 per cent, skin elasticity by 8 per cent, and the level of superficial lipids by 33 per cent (after adjustments for placebo)"
  • Study boosts lutein safety rep and finds new research possibilities - Nutra USA, 7/20/06
  • Carotenoids linked to lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Nutra USA, 6/12/06 - "High daily intakes of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as vegetables in general, could reduce the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma by almost 50 per cent"
  • What causes age spots and is there anything that I can do to make them go away? - Dr. Murray
  • Study sheds light on lutein's anti-inflammatory effect - Nutra USA, 5/22/06
  • More support for lycopene protection against prostate cancer - Nutra USA, 5/3/06 - "half of these men to receive a daily supplement of eight milligrams of lycopene (LycoRed's Lyc-O-Mato) for one year and followed for a futher year ... blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein that is used as a marker for the disease, decreased by 42 per cent after supplementation" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com which contains Lyc-O-Mato.
  • Prostate tumours shrunk by lycopene, vitamin E combo - Nutra USA, 4/14/06 - "Compared with the control, the combined mixture of lycopene and vitamin E, at five mg/kg BW each, suppressed the growth of the prostate xenograft by 73 per cent at day 42 ... the mice receiving the combined supplement also lived 40 per cent longer"
  • Tomato Juice Keeps Emphysema From Developing In New Model; Lycopene Cited - Science Daily, 1/25/06 - "50% tomato juice drink "completely prevented" smoke-induced emphysema" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Tomato Juice Might Protect Lungs - HealthDay, 1/9/06 - "Tomato juice prevented emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke ... They attributed the protective effect to lycopene"
  • Brightly-coloured Fruit And Veg May Protect Against Arthritis - Science Daily, 9/27/05 - "eating more brightly-coloured fruits and vegetables like oranges, carrots and sweetcorn may help reduce the risk of developing inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis ... the average daily beta-cryptoxanthin intake of the 88 patients who had developed inflammatory polyarthritis was 40% lower than those who hadn't, and their intake of another carotenoid, zeaxanthin, was 20% lower"
  • Smoking Plus Beta-Carotene May Up Cancer Odds - WebMD, 9/20/05 - "high beta-carotene intake (from foods or supplements) was linked to low levels of cancer in nonsmoking women and high levels of the same cancers in women who smoke"
  • Recently I have seen lycopene products being touted for their anticancer and antioxidant properties. Are these claims valid? - Dr. Murray
  • Carotenoid combo reduces damage to cells, may fight disease - Nutra USA, 3/15/05 - "The mixed carotenoids supplemented group showed significantly decreased DNA damage as early as day 15 (by around 22 per cent) and this further decreased at days 29 and 43. By day 57, it had been reduced by 36 per cent"
  • Antioxidant levels key to prostate cancer risk in some men - Nutra USA, 3/15/05 - "Greater levels of selenium, vitamin E and the tomato carotenoid lycopene have been shown to reduce prostate cancer in one out of every four Caucasian males, or those who inherit a specific genetic variation that is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress"
  • Lycopene intake linked to lower pancreatic cancer risk - Nutra USA, 3/10/05 - "lycopene, provided mainly by tomatoes, was associated with a 31 per cent reduction in pancreatic cancer risk among men in the highest quartile of intake compared with those in the lowest quartile"
  • Protective Effects of Oral Antioxidants on Skin and Eye Function - Medscape, 12/17/04 - "Carotenoids used as nutritional supplements seem to play an interesting photoprotective role for both skin and eyes"
  • Eat Spinach, Prevent Cataracts? - WebMD, 12/3/04 - "Our results are the first to provide physical evidence suggesting that lutein and zeaxanthin decrease damage caused by ultraviolet radiation"
  • Lycopene, Nature’s Most Potent Antioxidant Shows Broad Disease-Preventive Effects - Life Extension Magazine, 12/04
  • Vitamin E + Lycopene Fights Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 9/30/04 - "a combination treatment with low-dose lycopene and vitamin E had the strongest effect at slowing tumor growth -- a 73% slowing of growth on the 42nd day of the test ... The next best results came from the low dose of lycopene alone, which slowed tumor growth by 53% in the same time frame"
  • Long-Term Use of Beta Carotene Beneficial - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/04 - "there was a highly significant improvement in cognitive scores—particularly in verbal memory—among the 2,029 men with long-term exposure to the supplements, compared with the 2,020 who had been taking placebo for nearly two decades"
  • Update on Lycopene - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 8/25/04 - "men who consumed the highest levels of lycopene (6.5 mg per day) in their diet showed a 21 percent decreased risk of prostate cancer compared with those eating the lowest levels. When the researchers looked at only advanced prostate cancer, the high lycopene eaters had an 86% decreased risk" - See iHerb lycopene products.
  • Lutein, zeaxanthin appear to restore eye cell health - Nutra USA, 8/25/04 - "Lutein and zeaxanthin are the primary components of macular pigment and have been associated with a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss for people over the age of 50 in the Western world"
  • Full-Fat Salad Dressings Enhance Bioabsorption of Carotenoids - Medscape, 8/5/04 - "By choosing reduced-fat or fat-free salad dressings, consumers could potentially compromise their exposure to the putative bioactivity of those carotenoids in preventing heart disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases"
  • A Little Fat Helps the Vegetables Go Down - WebMD, 7/27/04
  • ISU Research Says Fat Good With Veggies - Intelihealth, 7/26/04 - "A bit of fat added to fresh vegetables helps bodies absorb cancer-fighting lycopene and alpha- and beta-carotenes"
  • Carotenoids play role in cell communication - Nutra USA, 7/20/04
  • Major study backs carotenoids' protective effects on heart - Nutra USA, 6/14/04
  • Breakthrough research on lycopene - Nutra USA, 4/15/04 - "Men eating four to five tomato based-dishes per week were found to be protected by 25 per cent compared to men eating tomatoes only rarely" - See iHerb lycopene products.
  • Carotenoids Reduce HPV Symptoms - Physician's Weekly, 2/16/04 - "Patients who increased their intake of vitamin C and consumed carotenoid-rich papaya at least once per week had a lower risk of persistent HPV in the study"
  • The Prostate Cancer-Fighter - WebMD, 11/4/03 - "in rats made to develop prostate cancer in the laboratory, those who were fed a diet containing tomato powder experienced a longer survival prior to developing cancer and were 26% less likely to die from prostate cancer compared with those on a "control" diet containing no tomato or lycopene foods ... In rats fed a diet of lycopene alone, the death rates from prostate cancer were similar to those rats fed a control diet"
  • Pizza Prevents Cancer? It's Part of the Mediterranean Diet - WebMD, 7/21/03 - "Gallus and colleagues sifted through diet surveys completed by 5,500 Italians ... regular pizza eaters had 34% less risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer, 59% less risk of esophageal cancer, and 25% less risk of colon cancer ... Italian pizza is less than 50% crust, 20% tomato sauce, 20% mozzarella cheese, and 4% olive oil ... There's less refined carbohydrates, plus cooked tomatoes, which are a rich source of lycopene, a natural chemical that has been shown in numerous studies to protect against cancer ... We think that there's a specific compound in cooked tomatoes that is protective"
  • What do you think of the new study showing that antioxidants don’t cut the risk of heart disease - Dr. Weil, 7/14/03 - "If you want to supplement your diet, take a product that provides as many members of this family of protective pigments as possible: alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, etc. As for vitamin E, most studies use synthetic alpha-tocopherol. I recommend using natural vitamin E supplements that provide all four tocopherols and all four tocotrienols"
  • Beta-Carotene and Other Carotenoids Protect Skin from Ultraviolet Damage - New Hope Natural Media, 3/13/03 - "36 adults between the ages of 22 and 55 were assigned to receive one of the following: (1) 24 mg per day of beta-carotene, (2) a mixed carotenoid supplement containing 8 mg per day each of beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, or (3) a placebo for 12 weeks. Skin redness before and 24 hours after irradiation with UV light was measured initially and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation ... Both groups that took the nutritional supplements containing carotenoids had a significant decrease in UV light-induced redness of the skin after 12 weeks of treatment ... since lutein and lycopene are found in high amounts in other organs, the health benefits of these substances may go beyond just protecting the skin" - [Abstract]
  • Lutein for Cataract Sufferers - New Hope Natural Media, 3/13/03 - "15 individuals with age-related cataracts were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg of lutein, 100 IU of vitamin E, or a placebo three times per week for up to two years. Visual acuity improved significantly in the lutein group, whereas no change was seen in the vitamin E and placebo groups"
  • Wow, You Coulda Had Some Lycopene! - Cancer Decisions Newsletter , 1/7/03 - "Men who received the lycopene supplement had lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and less aggressive tumors than the non-supplemented control group. Their tumors were smaller (80 percent of the tumors were under 4 milliliters (ml) in volume, compared to 45 percent in the control group). Their cancer was much more likely to be within the surgical margins and/or confined to the prostate gland (73 percent, compared to 18 percent of the control group). And the invasion of the prostate gland by cancer-like "PIN" cells was completely prevented in this group, compared to a 33 percent incidence of "PIN" cells in the control group" - See iHerb lycopene products.  My favorite is Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com, which has the brand name Lyc-O-Mato.
  • A Better Antioxidant [astaxanthin]? - Dr. Weil, 12/12/02 - "to my knowledge none of the specific claims for astaxanthin as a superior antioxidant have been proved in humans ... However, I do think we all need to make an effort to eat more foods containing carotenoids, including astaxanthin"
  • Watermelon for Prostate Cancer? - Dr. Weil, 12/10/02 - "Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that a number of large studies have shown is particularly good at protecting against prostate, colon and rectal cancer, as well as heart disease ... contains 40 percent more lycopene than an equivalent weight of tomatoes ... The body converts about 500 different carotenoids into vitamin A ... If you don’t get enough of these foods in your diet, you may want to use an antioxidant supplement. I recommend a mixed carotenoid supplement containing lycopene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin, as well as beta-carotene"
  • Cancer Researchers Keen on Tomatoes - WebMD, 11/11/02 - "For example, a five-year Japanese study shows daily use of a supplement that contained a combination of natural tomato extract, beta-carotene, and vitamin E might be an effective way to reduce the risk of liver cancer in those at risk. Researchers found that patients who received the supplement had a 50% suppression of liver cancer" - See iHerb lycopene products.
  • Should Smokers Avoid Beta-Carotene? - Dr. Weil, 9/12/02
  • Carotenoid-Rich Foods Protect Against Oxidative Stress, but Carotenoids Alone Don't Provide Benefit - Doctor's Guide, 7/3/02
  • High Oxidative Stress, Low Antioxidant Status In Alzheimer Disease - Doctor's Guide, 6/3/02 - "Lymphocyte DNA 8-OHdG content in people AD may thus reflect a condition of increased oxidative stress related to a poor antioxidant status ... researchers also noted a significant inverse relationship between lymphocyte DNA 8-OHdG content [a marker of oxidative damage to DNA] and plasma levels of lycopene, lutein, a-carotene and b-carotene, respectively"
  • Breast Cancer May Be Thwarted By Carotenoids - Doctor's Guide, 5/23/02 - "These results suggest carotenoids may protect against development of breast cancer"
  • Macular Degeneration Epidemic - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "AMD patients who have begun taking high-dose lutein supplements (4 mg or more per day) appear to return to 'normal' levels after a few months. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a long-term deficiency of macular carotenoids may be associated with higher risk of AMD"
  • Common Foods Help Prevent Cancer - WebMD, 4/10/02 - "found that regular green tea drinking cut cancer risk in half ... men who ate more than two servings of tomato sauce per week had a 23% lower risk of prostate cancer than men who ate less than one serving a week"
  • Tomatoes Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/4/02 - "This newest investigation "confirmed our previous findings," ... "Frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of [ready available] lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk." ... Although all evidence points to lycopene as the beneficial ingredient, that remains to be proved" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene lowers PSA - Life Extension Magazine, 1/02 - "32 mostly African American patients who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and were awaiting radical prostatectomy were put on diets that included enough tomato sauce to provide 30 mg/day of lycopene for three weeks. Prostate cancer is more frequent and serious among African Americans than among Caucasians ... Mean serum PSA concentrations fell by 17.5%, while a measure of oxidative status fell by 21.3%. DNA damage in the cancer cells fell by 40% after three weeks, of which author Phyllis E. Bowen says, “We don’t know whether that’s good or bad.” Most important, high concentration of lycopene in prostate tissues resulted in a nearly three-fold increase in programmed cell damage among cancer cells, which is a good thing"
  • Pasta Treatments for Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 12/18/01
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Antioxidants, At Certain Levels, May Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "increasing levels of serum beta- carotene were associated with significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, while increasing levels of serum vitamin C were associated with significant reductions in diastolic pressure ... In contrast, serum levels of vitamin E were associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure"
  • Carrots, tomatoes keep lung cancer away - Life Extension Magazine, 9/01
  • Scientists Think Roadside Berries Could Be Cancer Fighter - Intelihealth, 9/14/01
  • Study Provides New Evidence That Chemical In Tomato Sauce May Help Fight Prostate Cancer, Particularly In Black Men - Intelihealth, 8/30/01 - "Researchers at the University of Illinois in Chicago fed 32 volunteers with newly diagnosed prostate cancer three-fourths cup of tomato sauce daily for three weeks ... the treatment resulted in reduced blood levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein whose increased levels are strongly linked to a higher prostate cancer risk ...Researchers believe that lycopene, a red pigment with high antioxidant potential, is the most likely agent involved in this effect"
  • Tomato Extract May Have Role in Slowing Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 8/10/01 - "So when the results came in, Kucuk and colleagues were startled: the men who used the lycopene supplement actually had smaller tumors than the men who did not. Even more intriguing, the tumors taken from the men who used lycopene supplement were more likely to be confined to the prostate, and less likely to have advanced beyond it."
  • Newly Hip Nutrient May Stave Off Heart Disease - WebMD, 6/21/01 - "the team gave lutein supplements to two types of heart-disease prone mice. These treated mice had significantly less atherosclerosis than did similar mice that hadn't received the supplemental lutein"
  • Eye-opening Zeaxanthin - Nutrition Science News, 6/01
  • Tomatoes May Help Fight High Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/01 - "patients were treated with a placebo for four weeks and then tomato extract (Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Products Industries, Ltd.), for eight weeks ... Results showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, from 144 mm Hg to 135 mm Hg, representing a mean 9 mm Hg reduction. Additionally, some favorable effects on diastolic blood pressure, blood lipids, lipoproteins, and oxidative stress markers were noted" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com, which contains the Lyco-O-Mato.
  • Ulcer Therapy, Vitamins May Team Up to Prevent Stomach Cancer, Drugs Halted, Healed Abnormalities With Cancer Potential - WebMD, 12/8/00 - "people who took the three-drug combination alone or in combination with vitamin C and/or beta carotene were three to five times more likely than people who received no treatment to have a reduction in the size of precancerous stomach abnormalities."
  • Looking For Supplements That Aid Vision - OnHealth.com, 5/2/00 - "There are over 600 carotenoids in the food we eat," says Dr. Donald S. Fong, a California ophthalmologist who has done research at the National Institutes of Health on the importance of nutrients in retinal diseases. "So if you supplement with high doses of any single one, you block the absorption of other carotenoids you may need. And, in addition, you might increase the risk of disease in other parts of the body." (a good reason to go with a supplement like Body Wise, which has dunaliella salina algae for mixed carotenoids).

Abstracts:

  • Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 23 - "Impairment of the function of longevity proteins results in an insidious acceleration of the risk of diseases associated with aging. I also propose that nutrients required for the function of longevity proteins constitute a class of vitamins that are here named "longevity vitamins." I suggest that many such nutrients play a dual role for both survival and longevity. The evidence for classifying taurine as a conditional vitamin, and the following 10 compounds as putative longevity vitamins, is reviewed: the fungal antioxidant ergothioneine; the bacterial metabolites pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and queuine; and the plant antioxidant carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and the marine carotenoid astaxanthin. Because nutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in the United States (and elsewhere), appropriate supplementation and/or an improved diet could reduce much of the consequent risk of chronic disease and premature aging" - [Nutra USA]
  • Markers of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress in Aging Volunteers Ingesting Lycosomal Formulation of Dark Chocolate Containing Astaxanthin - J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(9):1092-1098 - "To determine if ingestion of lycosome-formulated dark chocolate (DC) containing astaxanthin (ASTX) improves bioavailability of ASTX and affects markers of hypoxia and oxidative stress in aging individuals ... One month ingestion of singular formulation of ASTX lead to a 20 fold buildup in serum ASTX level whereas the 4 week ingestion of L-DC-ASTX formulation was accompanied by more prominent accumulation of ASTX in serum (a 40 fold increase over the basal values) at the same daily dose of ASTX. Both antioxidants taken separately decreased serum levels of oxidized LDL and malonic dialdehyde. However effect of L-DC-ASTX formulation was more prominent. ASTX ingested alone caused a borderline increase (p=0.054) in serum nitric oxide (NO) levels, whereas DC ingestion lead to small but statistically significant increase in serum NO concentration. Higher values of NO level were seen after co-ingestion of DC and ASTX" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com and astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018 Sep 26 - "Building both strength and endurance has been a challenge in exercise training in the elderly, but dietary supplements hold promise as agents for improving muscle adaptation. Here, we test a formulation of natural products (AX: astaxanthin, 12 mg and tocotrienol, 10 mg and zinc, 6 mg) with both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in combination with exercise ... Forty-two subjects were fed AX or placebo for 4 months and trained 3 months (3×/week for 40-60 min) with increasing intervals of incline walking. Strength was measured as maximal voluntary force (MVC) in ankle dorsiflexion exercise, and tibialis anterior muscle size (cross-sectional area, CSA) was determined from magnetic resonance imaging ... Greater endurance (exercise time in incline walking, >50%) and distance in 6 min walk (>8%) accompanied training in both treatments. Increases in MVC by 14.4% (±6.2%, mean ± SEM, P < 0.02, paired t-test), CSA by 2.7% (±1.0%, P < 0.01), and specific force by 11.6% (MVC/CSA, ±6.0%, P = 0.05) were found with AX treatment, but no change was evident in these properties with placebo treatment (MVC, 2.9% ± 5.6%; CSA, 0.6% ± 1.2%; MVC/CSA, 2.4 ± 5.7%; P > 0.6 for all)" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory Effect of Astaxanthin on Oxidative Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction-A Mini-Review - Nutrients. 2018 Aug 21;10(9) - "Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of various human diseases as well as to the aging process. Mitochondria, as the center of cellular metabolism and major regulators of redox balance, play a critical role in disease development and progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction involving structural and metabolic impairment is prominent in oxidative stress-related diseases. Increased oxidative stress can damage mitochondria, and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction generates excesses of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species that cause cellular damage. Mitochondrial dysfunction also activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, resulting in cellular death. Astaxanthin, a red-colored xanthophyll carotenoid, exerts an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on various cell lines. In this manner astaxanthin maintains mitochondrial integrity under various pathological conditions" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers Protect against Light-Induced Retinopathy via Decreasing Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in BALB/cJ Mice - Nutrients. 2018 Jun 28;10(7) - "Our data shows that L/Zi provided functional and morphological preservation of photoreceptors against light damage, which is probably related to its mitigation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress" - [Nutra USA]
  • The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Nutrients. 2018 Jun 25;10(7) - "Twenty-three healthy Japanese participants were recruited to a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled study. They were assigned to the astaxanthin group supplemented with a capsule containing 4 mg of astaxanthin or the placebo group. To assess the protective role of astaxanthin for UV-induced skin deterioration, we determined the minimal erythema dose (MED) and analyzed UV-induced changes of moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at baseline and after 9 weeks of supplementation ... The astaxanthin group showed increased MED compared with placebo. In addition, the astaxanthin group had a reduced loss of skin moisture in the irradiated area compared with placebo. Subjective skin conditions for &ldquo;improvement of rough skin&rdquo; and &ldquo;texture&rdquo; in non-irradiated areas were significantly improved by astaxanthin. Astaxanthin seems protective against UV-induced skin deterioration and helps maintain healthy skin in healthy people" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid-acylated astaxanthin on Alzheimer's disease in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Apr 25 - "The results of radial 8-arm maze and Morris water maze tests showed that AST-DHA exerted more significant effects than AST in enhancing learning and memory levels of APP/PS1 mice. Further mechanical studies suggested that AST-DHA was superior to AST in regulating the parameters of oxidative stress, reducing Tau hyper-phosphorylation, suppressing neuro-inflammation and regulating inflammasome expression and activation in APP/PS1 mice. The findings suggested AST-DHA attenuated cognitive disorders by reducing pathological features in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting AST-DHA might be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease" - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com and docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of astaxanthin on a combination of D-‍galactose and jet lag-induced aging model in mice - Endocr J. 2018 Mar 10 - "Oxidative stress caused free radical and mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in the progression of aging and age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. Antioxidant supplementation has received growing attention and the effects of antioxidant on aging are increasingly assessed in both animal and human studies. However, additional and more promising treatments that contribute to the expansion of anti-aging therapies are needed. Astaxanthin, a super antioxidant carotenoid and free radical scavenger, inhibits lipid peroxidation more potently than vitamin E ... After 6 weeks of treatment, astaxanthin administration tended to protect the liver weight loss in aged mice. It is probably by upregulating the mRNA expression of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, which contribute to the enhancement of D-galactose metabolism. Astaxanthin supplementation also improved muscle endurance of aged mice in a swimming test. These results were associated with reduced oxidative stress in serum and increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, astaxanthin reversed the dysregulation of aging-related gene expression caused by the combination of D-galactose and jet lag in the liver and kidney of mice" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin Are Positively Associated with Visual-Spatial Functioning in Older Adults: An fMRI Study - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 7;10(4) - "Our findings suggest that L and Z may impact brain health and cognition in older adults by enhancing neurobiological efficiency in a variety of regions that support visual perception and decision-making" - See astaxanthin at Amazon.comand lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study - Nutrients. 2018 Feb 28;10(3) - "astaxanthin and sesamin (AS) ... Secondary outcomes included other subjective feelings, work efficiency, autonomic nerve activity, levels of an oxidative stress marker (plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH)) and safety. AS supplementation was associated with significantly improved recovery from mental fatigue compared with placebo. Increased PCOOH levels during mental and physical tasks were attenuated by AS supplementation. No differences between AS and placebo were detected in secondary outcomes, and no adverse effects of AS supplementation were observed. In conclusion, AS supplementation may be a candidate to promote recovery from mental fatigue which is experienced by many healthy people" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.comand sesamin at Amazon.com.
  • Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(2):341-346 - "Eight milligrams of AST supplementation or a placebo ... The 8-week administration of AST supplementation increased the serum adiponectin concentration and reduced visceral body fat mass (p<0.01), serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05). Furthermore, AST significantly reduced the fructosamine concentration (p<0.05) and marginally reduced the plasma glucose concentration" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • The Macular Carotenoids are Associated with Cognitive Function in Preadolescent Children - Nutrients. 2018 Feb 10;10(2) - "The macular carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are obtained via diet and accumulate in the central retina where they are referred to as macular pigment. The density of this biomarker (macular pigment optical density; MPOD) has been positively correlated with cognitive functioning via measures of global cognition, processing speed, and visual-spatial abilities, among others. Although improvements in cognitive function have been found in adults, much less is known about how L and Z intake may support or improve cognitive functioning during periods of rapid developmental change, such as childhood and pre-adolescence ... In this sample, MPOD was significantly related to Executive Processes, r(47) = 0.288, p < 0.05, and Brief Intellectual Ability, r(47) = 0.268, p < 0.05" - See carotenoid complexes at Amazon.com.
  • Continuous astaxanthin intake reduces oxidative stress and reverses age-related morphological changes of residual skin surface components in middle-aged volunteers - Nutrition Research, 10 Oct 17 - "All described RSSC changes correspond to a shift towards characteristics of skin associated with a younger age. The results confirm our hypothesis by demonstrating that continuous astaxanthin consumption produces a strong antioxidant effect resulting in facial skin rejuvenation which is especially pronounced in obese subjects" - [Nutra USA] - See BioAstin at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of astaxanthin on skin deterioration - J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2017 Jul;61(1):33-39 - "Participants were orally administered either a 6 mg or 12 mg dose of astaxanthin or a placebo. Wrinkle parameters and skin moisture content significantly worsened in the placebo group after 16 weeks. However, significant changes did not occur in the astaxanthin groups. Interleukin-1α levels in the stratum corneum significantly increased in the placebo and low-dose groups but not in the high-dose group between weeks 0 and 16. This study was performed in Japan from August to December, when changing environmental factors, such as UV and dryness, exacerbate skin deterioration" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults - Front. Aging Neurosci., 09 June 2017 - "While some age-related cognitive decline is to be expected in healthy aging, our data suggest that these effects may be less pronounced among adults with greater retinal carotenoid status, a marker of dietary patterns characterized by greater intake of green and leafy vegetables. Furthermore, these practices may provide neuro-cognitive benefit before the onset of older age, in early to middle adulthood. Future experimental clinical trials are needed to determine whether changes in retinal carotenoid status moderate the influence of age-related neurocognitive decline across the lifespan" - [Medline] - [Nutra USA]
  • Amelioration of the Development of Osteoarthritis by Daily Intake of β-Cryptoxanthin - Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(7):1116-1120 - "Our results suggest that oral supplementation of β-cryptoxanthin would be beneficial for the maintenance of joint health and as prophylaxis against osteoarthritis" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene Ameliorates Experimental Colitis in Rats via Reducing Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Jul 19:1-9 - "The results obtained in this study indicate that lycopene may exert protective effects in experimental colitis and might, therefore, be useful for treatment of IBD" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Vegetable coloring agent lutein may suppress inflammation - Science Daily, 7/5/17 - "Inflammation is a key factor in many types of coronary artery disease, such as myocardial infarction and angina ... Our study confirms that one particular carotenoid, lutein, can suppress long-term inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease ... they measured the level of inflammation in the blood using the inflammatory marker interleukin-6, IL-6. Lutein was the only carotenoid whose level was correlated with IL-6. The higher the level of lutein in the blood, the lower the level of IL-6 ... They found that the inflammatory activity of the cells became significantly lower when they were treated with lutein" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Function in Runners - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, May 2017 - "Astaxanthin (AX) is a naturally occurring carotenoid ... supplemented for 8 wks w/12mg/day of AX ... There was no improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (running VO2max) or maximal power output (cycling watts) with AX supplementation. Interestingly, subjects in the AX group showed a significant ~10% lower average heart rate at submaximal running intensities (aerobic threshold, AeT; AX 130+17 v. PL 145+14; and anaerobic threshold, AT; AX 139+20 v. PL 154+11, p<0.05) compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See BioAstin at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronary artery disease - Atherosclerosis. 2017 May 6;262:87-93 - "stable angina (SA) ... peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ... Only lutein + zeaxanthin were inversely correlated with IL-6 in SA patients at baseline (r = -0.366, p < 0.001) and follow-up (r = -0.546, p < 0.001). Ex vivo, lutein was taken up by PBMCs from SA patients in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with lutein dose-dependently lowered LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-1β (p < 0.01) and TNF (p < 0.05), and also reduced IL-6, IL-1β and TNF mRNA expression (p < 0.05)" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein Enhances Bone Mass by Stimulating Bone Formation and Suppressing Bone Resorption in Growing Mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(5):716-721 - "Lutein is a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are known to prevent hypoxia-induced cell damage in the eye by removing free radicals ... When five-week-old male mice were orally administered lutein for 4 weeks, the femoral bone mass was clearly enhanced in cortical bone, as measured by bone mineral density in dual X-ray absorptiometry and micro computed tomography (µCT) analyses. The present study indicates that lutein enhances bone mass in growing mice by suppressing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Lutein may be a natural agent that promotes bone turnover and may be beneficial for bone health in humans" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Supplementation with macular carotenoids reduces psychological stress, serum cortisol, and sub-optimal symptoms of physical and emotional health in young adults - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15:1-11 - "Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the root cause of several deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. We hypothesize that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities of the macular carotenoids (MCs) lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin could, via daily supplementation, provide a dietary means of benefit ... Supplementation with the MCs significantly reduces stress, cortisol, and symptoms of sub-optimal emotional and physical health" - See carotenoids supplement at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice - PLoS One. 2017 Feb 7;12(2):e0171178 - "Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis" - [Nutra USA] - See BioAstin at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc-rich oysters as well as zinc yeast- and astaxanthin-enriched food improved sleep efficiency and sleep onset in a randomized controlled trial of healthy individuals - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Dec 25 - "These subjects were divided into 4 groups: placebo, zinc-rich food, zinc- and astaxanthin-rich food, and placebo supplemented with zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc-rich food group efficiently decreased the time necessary to fall asleep and improved sleep efficiency, whereas the group that ingested zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil significantly improved the sleep onset latency" - See Nutrex Hawaii BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin, 120 Gel Caps supply, 4mg Astaxanthin per Serving and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.  Cut and paste from my 11/9/16 newsletter:
  • Molecular evidence that oral supplementation with lycopene or lutein protects human skin against ultraviolet radiation: Results from a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study - Br J Dermatol. 2016 Sep 23 - "We examined the capacity of lycopene rich tomato nutrient complex (TNC) and lutein, to protect against UVA/B- and UVA1 radiation at a molecular level ... Assuming the role of these genes as indicators of oxidative stress, photo-dermatoses and photo-aging these results might indicate that TNC and lutein could protect against solar radiation-induced health damage" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com and lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Zeaxanthin-based dietary supplement and topical serum improve hydration and reduce wrinkle count in female subjects - J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016 Jun 17 - "Subjects were divided into three groups: two tests (skin formula 1 - oral product alone (ZO-1), skin formula 2- oral product with topical product (ZO-2 + ZT)), and one placebo control ... A statistically significant difference was observed between mean differences from baseline scores for total wrinkle count at week 4 for the combination active groups compared to placebo. A statistically significant difference from baseline scores for fine lines count was also observed at the week 4 visit compared to placebo for both active groups. Statistically significant differences from baseline scores for average wrinkles severity were seen for week 12 visit for both active groups compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  I couldn't find any serums with zeaxanthin at Amazon.  For facial serums, I've tried several.  Here's my pick: InstaNatural Vitamin C Skin Clearing Serum - Anti Aging Formula with Retinol & Hyaluronic Acid - Natural & Organic Wrinkle, Acne, Dark Spot, Fine Line & Hyperpigmentation Defying Facial Product
  • Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-zeaxanthin Supplementation Associated with Macular Pigment Optical Density - Nutrients. 2016 Jul 12;8(7) - "macular pigment optical density (MPOD) ... This meta-analysis revealed that lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improved MPOD both in AMD patients and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA - Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 30 - "79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks ... Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009)" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing the Harmful Effects of Infrared Radiation on the Skin Using Bicosomes Incorporating β-Carotene - Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2016 Jul 6;29(4):169-177 - "infrared (IR) radiation ... free radicals (FRs) ... β-carotene (Bcb) ... EPR results showed an increase in the hydroxyl radical in the irradiated skin compared to the native skin. The skin collagen was degraded by IR exposure at high temperatures of approximately 65°C. The treatment with Bcb reduced the formation of FRs and kept the structure of collagen"
  • Association between leukocyte telomere length and serum carotenoid in US adults - Eur J Nutr. 2016 Jan 27 - "Telomere length is a biomarker for aging. It is known that oxidative stress can accelerate telomere shortening, whereas antioxidants can delay their shortening ... A doubling of blood alpha-carotene, beta-carotene (trans + cis), and beta-cryptoxanthin was associated with approximately 2 % longer telomeres. Compared with the lowest carotenoid quartile of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene (trans + cis), and beta-cryptoxanthin, telomere length for adults with the highest quartiles was significantly increased by 5-8 %" - [Nutra USA]
  • High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2016 Feb 26:1-8 - "After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0.43 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.81), 0.51 (CI 0.27, 0.94) and 0.52 (CI 0.28, 0.97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects"
  • The protective effect of lycopene intake on bone loss in ovariectomized rats - J Bone Miner Metab. 2015 May;33(3):270-8 - "Our findings suggest that lycopene intake significantly inhibits bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan 20 - "In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, α-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and β-carotene (OR: 0.41"
  • Astaxanthin Supplementation Enhances Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Dec 8 - "There is a growing necessity for efficacious natural supplements with antioxidant effects on brain, in particular hippocampal, function. One such compound, which also has a neuroprotective effect, is the carotenoid astaxanthin (ASX) ... ASX supplementation enhanced AHN and spatial memory, and a DNA microarray approach provided, for the first time, novel molecular insights into ASX action" - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Relation between plasma antioxidant vitamin levels, adiposity and cardio-metabolic profile in adolescents: Effects of a multidisciplinary obesity programme - Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 7 - "Plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels are associated with reduced adiposity, greater weight loss and an improved cardio-metabolic profile in overweight and obese adolescents"
  • Association of Dietary Vitamin A and β-Carotene Intake with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Publications - Nutrients. 2015 Nov 11 - "he pooled RR and their 95% CI was 0.855 (0.739-0.989) for higher category of dietary vitamin A intake and lung cancer risk, especially among Asian populations and in the cohort studies. Evidence from 18 studies suggested that higher category of dietary β-carotene intake could reduce lung cancer risk (0.768" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up - JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct 8 - "Comparing extreme quintiles of predicted plasma lutein/zeaxanthin score, we found a risk reduction for advanced AMD of about 40% in both women and men (pooled relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73; P for trend < .001). Predicted plasma carotenoid scores for other carotenoids, including β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, were associated with a 25% to 35% lower risk of advanced AMD when comparing extreme quintiles. The relative risk comparing extreme quintiles for the predicted plasma total carotenoid index was 0.65" - [Nutra USA]
  • Specific serum carotenoids are inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women: a case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 20:1-9 - "Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0.44 (95 % CI 0.30, 0.65) for α-carotene, 0.27 (95 % CI 0.18, 0.40) for β-carotene, 0.41 (95 % CI 0.28, 0.61) for lycopene and 0.26 (95 % CI 0.17, 0.38) for lutein/zeaxanthin"
  • High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for the metabolic syndrome and its components among Japanese subjects: Mikkabi cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 14 - "After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) for the MetS in the highest tertile of serum β-carotene against the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.95). On the other hand, significantly lower risks for dyslipidaemia were observed in the highest tertiles of serum α- and β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin (HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.46, 0.96; HR, 0.54; 95 % CI 0.37, 0.79; and HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.44, 0.99, respectively)"
  • The impact of supplemental macular carotenoids in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized clinical trial - J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;44(4):1157-69 - "supplemented for six months with either Macushield (10 mg meso-zeaxanthin [MZ]; 10 mg lutein [L]; 2 mg zeaxanthin [Z]) or placebo (sunflower oil) ... supplementation with the macular carotenoids (MZ, Z, and L) benefits patients with AD, in terms of clinically meaningful improvements in visual function and in terms of MP augmentation" - [Nutra USA] - See Macushield at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Carotenoids Are Inversely Associated With Dementia Risk in an Elderly French Cohort - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Aug 18 - "Dementia and AD were diagnosed by a committee of neurologists. The concentration of plasma carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin) was determined at baseline ... After adjustment for sociodemographic data, diet quality, and clinical variables, including baseline cognitive performances, only higher lutein concentration, considered as a function of plasma lipids, was consistently significantly associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia and AD (hazard ratio = 0.808, 95% confidence interval = 0.671-0.973, p = .024 and hazard ratio = 0.759" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene reduces cholesterol absorption through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 in Caco-2 cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Aug 12 - "This study provides the first evidence that lycopene inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells and this inhibitory effect of lycopene is mediated, at least in part, by LXRα-NPC1L1 signaling pathway" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Sustained supplementation and monitored response with differing carotenoid formulations in early age-related macular degeneration - Eye (Lond). 2015 Jul;29(7):902-12 - "macular pigment (MP) ... meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) ... contrast sensitivity (CS) ... In early AMD, MP can be augmented with a variety of supplements, although the inclusion of MZ may confer benefits in terms of panprofile augmentation and in terms of CS enhancement" - [Nutra USA] - See supplements containing Meso-zeaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study - Nutrients. 2015 Jul 15 - "Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance ... Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted"
  • Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015 - "The plasma muscle enzymes levels were reduced significantly by Asx supplementation and by regular training. The increase in neutrophil count and hs-CRP level was found only in placebo group, indicating a significant blunting of the systemic inflammatory response in the subjects taking Asx. This study indicates that Asx supplementation improves sIgA response and attenuates muscle damage, thus preventing inflammation induced by rigorous physical training. Our findings also point that Asx could show significant physiologic modulation in individuals with mucosal immunity impairment or under conditions of increased oxidative stress and inflammation" - See Puritan's Pride Lutein 20 mg with Zeaxanthin-120 Softgels at Amazon.com.
  • Fucoxanthin and lipid metabolism: A minireview - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jun 3 - "fucoxanthin (a carotenoid derived from brown seaweeds) ... The results of experimental studies suggest that consumption of fucoxanthin and its derivatives as nutritional supplements is a promising option for prevention and treatment of obesity and a wide variety of related pathologies, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease" - See fucoxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort - Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Jun 17 - "Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43 % lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoid consumption is related to lower lipid oxidation and DNA damage in middle-aged men - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 16:1-8 - "In conclusion, total daily carotenoid intake based on five investigated carotenoid types (β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-carotene) was inversely associated with relevant lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with emphasis on β-carotene that was negatively associated with five of the six lipid and oxidative stress markers evaluated in the present study" - [Nutra USA] - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein suppresses inflammatory responses through Nrf2 activation and NF-κB inactivation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 May 27 - "These results suggest that lutein attenuates neuroinflammation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia partly through inhibiting p38-, JNK- and Akt-stimulated NF-κB activation and promoting ERK-induced Nrf2 activation, suggesting that lutein has great potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in inflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma carotenoids and risk of breast cancer over 20 y of follow-up - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 15 - "Higher concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and total carotenoids were associated with 18-28% statistically significant lower risks of breast cancer (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88; P-trend < 0.001). Associations were apparent for total carotenoids measured ≥10 y before diagnosis (top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95; P-trend = 0.01) as well as those <10 y before diagnosis (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.98; P-trend = 0.04, P-interaction = 0.11). Carotenoid concentrations were strongly inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and death (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.51; P-trend < 0.001) compared with not recurrent and not lethal disease"
  • Carotenoid intakes from natural sources and head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Apr 14 - "meta-analysis of the epidemiological studies ... The risk reduction associated with β-carotene equivalents intake was 46% (95% CI: 20-63%) for cancer of oral cavity and 57% (95% CI: 23-76%) for laryngeal cancer. Lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin also reduced the risk for laryngeal cancer; the ORs for the highest category compared to the lowest one of carotenoid intake were 50% (95% CI: 11-72%) and 59% (95% CI: 49-67%), respectively. Lycopene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin were associated with at least 26% reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95% CI: 2-44%). Our systematic-review and meta-analysis on dietary carotenoids intake and HNC showed carotenoids to act protectively against HNC, in relation to most of single-nutrients and subsites"
  • The effects of lycopene on DNA damage and oxidative stress on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats - Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 17 - "These results indicated that lycopene might have a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer and oxidative stress in rats" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress - Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Mar 2:NNS398 - "Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis play an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... In this study, lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein supplementation leads to decreased soluble complement membrane attack complex sC5b-9 plasma levels - Acta Ophthalmol. 2015 Mar;93(2):141-5 - "All subjects were randomly assigned to receive a 10 mg daily dose of lutein or a placebo for a time period of 1 year ... Lutein supplementation inhibits the systemic activation of the complement system, which provides further functional evidence for the reported beneficial effects of this carotenoid in the management of AMD" - [Nutra USA] - See lutein at Amazon.com.  I'm still sticking with mixed carotenoids.
  • Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 27:1-8 - "Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews ... We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95 % CI 0.20, 0.47) for α-carotene, 0.23 (95 % CI 0.15, 0.36) for β-carotene, 0.44 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95 % CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95 % CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95 % CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults"
  • Astaxanthin lowers plasma TAG concentrations and increases hepatic antioxidant gene expression in diet-induced obesity mice - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 20:1-8 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significantly associated with hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. We have previously reported that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, lowers plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in apoE knockout mice ... ASTX supplementation lowered the plasma concentrations of TAG, ALT and AST, increased the hepatic expression of endogenous antioxidant genes, and rendered splenocytes less sensitive to LPS stimulation. Therefore, ASTX may prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and inflammation"
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on neural processing speed and efficiency - PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e108178 - "we measured macular pigment density (as a biomarker of lutein and zeaxanthin levels in brain), critical flicker fusion (CFF) thresholds, and visual motor reaction time in young healthy subjects (n = 92). Changes in these outcome variables were also assessed after four months of supplementation with either placebo (n = 10), zeaxanthin only (20 mg/day; n = 29) or a mixed formulation containing 26 mg/day zeaxanthin, 8 mg/day lutein, and 190 mg/day mixed omega-3 fatty acids (n = 25). Significant correlations were found between retinal lutein and zeaxanthin (macular pigment) and CFF thresholds (p<0.01) and visual motor performance (overall p<0.01). Supplementation with zeaxanthin and the mixed formulation (considered together) produced significant (p<0.01) increases in CFF thresholds (~12%) and visual motor reaction time (~10%) compared to placebo. In general, increasing macular pigment density through supplementation (average increase of about 0.09 log units) resulted in significant improvements in visual processing speed, even when testing young, healthy individuals who tend to be at peak efficiency" - [Nutra USA]
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin status and auditory thresholds in a sample of young healthy adults - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jul 10 - "Dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) have been linked to improved visual and cognitive function ... The overall pattern of results is consistent with a role for L and Z in maintaining optimal auditory function" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • The protective effect of lycopene intake on bone loss in ovariectomized rats - J Bone Miner Metab. 2014 Jul 5 - "Our findings suggest that lycopene intake significantly inhibits bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Beta-Cryptoxanthin, a Novel Carotenoid Derived from Satsuma Mandarin, Prevents Abdominal Obesity - Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity - Chapter 34 - sciencedirect.com, 2014 - "A human clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of β-CRX was carried out in mildly obese men: results revealed that β-CRX decreased visceral fat, body weight, and waist circumference" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Mar 17 - "Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation" - See chlorella products at Amazon.com.
  • Specific carotenoid intake is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women - Br J Nutr. 2014 Feb 6:1-10 - "A total of 561 cases and 561 controls who were frequency matched by age (5-year interval) and residence were recruited in the present case-control study. Dietary intake information was collected by a face-to-face interview using a validated FFQ ... An inverse association was observed between the consumption of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk of breast cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.61 (95 % CI 0.43, 0.88) for α-carotene, 0.54 (95 % CI 0.38, 0.78) for β-carotene, 0.38 (95 % CI 0.26, 0.52) for β-cryptoxanthin and 0.49 (95 % CI 0.34, 0.71) for lutein/zeaxanthin. Lycopene intake was not found to be associated with the risk of breast cancer, with the adjusted OR of 0.89 (95 % CI 0.61, 1.30). These inverse associations were more evident among pre-menopausal women and women who were exposed to second-hand smoke"
  • Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Jan 24 - "Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010 ... Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential"
  • Association between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and the Risk of Cataract: A Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 22;6(1):452-65 - "MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies up to April 2013 ... There were significant inverse associations between nuclear cataract and blood lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, with the pooled RRs ranging from 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.77) for zeaxanthin to 0.73 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.87) for lutein"
  • Association Between Higher Plasma Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Vitamin C Concentrations and Longer Telomere Length: Results of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jan 15 - "Individuals with a mean age of 66 ± 7 (n = 786; 58% female) ... Concentrations of vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lycopene, α- and γ-tocopherol, α- and β-carotene, and retinol in plasma, advanced oxidation protein products as a measure of oxidative stress in serum, and LTL were measured ... Multiple linear regression analyses with adjustment for age and sex demonstrated that higher lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin C concentrations were strongly associated with longer telomere length" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Tomato and Soy on Serum Adipokine Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women at Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Cross-Over Dietary Intervention Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 1:jc20133222 - "Seventy postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk participated in the study. The mean age and body mass index of participants was 57.2 years ... The interventions included 10 weeks of consumption of a tomato-based diet (≥25 mg lycopene daily) and 10 weeks of consumption of a soy-based diet (≥40 g of soy protein daily), with a 2-week washout in between ... After the tomato intervention, among all women, adiponectin concentration increased (ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.18), with a stronger effect observed among nonobese women (ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25). After the soy intervention, adiponectin decreased overall (ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.97), with a larger reduction observed among nonobese women (ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) ... Increasing dietary consumption of tomato-based foods may beneficially increase serum adiponectin concentrations among postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk, especially those who are not obese"
  • Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality: 18-Year postintervention follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Dec 3 - "In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the postintervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers ... In conclusion, supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene appeared to have no late effects on cancer incidence. The preventive effect of moderate-dose α-tocopherol on prostate cancer continued several years post-trial and resulted in lower prostate cancer mortality"
  • Effect of Fucoxanthin Alone and in Combination with D-glucosamine Hydrochloride on Carrageenan/kaolin-induced Experimental Arthritis in Rats - Phytother Res. 2013 Dec 12 - "fucoxanthin (FUCO) alone and in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GAH) ... FUCO is an effective anti-arthritis agent through an antiinflammation mechanism. FUCO may enhance therapeutic effect of GAH on rat arthritis through mechanism of antiinflammation" - See fucoxanthin products at Amazon.com.
    • Fucoxanthin -  Examine.com - "Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid found in brown seaweed that is being investigated for its fat burning abilities. It reduces fat mass, but has a time delay due to build up in fat tissue and does not stimulate the brain. Also appears healthy, but needs more corroborating evidence"
  • Lycopene supplement and blood pressure: an updated meta-analysis of intervention trials - Nutrients. 2013 Sep 18;5(9):3696-712 - "Six studies met our inclusion criteria, and the pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean SBP = -4.953 [-8.820, -1.086], p = 0.012) with obvious heterogeneity (p = 0.034, I2 = 58.5%). Subgroup analysis results showed that higher dosage of lycopene supplement (>12 mg/day) could lower SBP more significantly, especially for participants with baseline SBP >120 mmHg, or Asians, while lycopene intervention had no statistical effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mean DBP = -3.809 [-8.177, 0.560], p = 0.087), and obvious heterogeneity was also observed (p = 0.074, I2 = 53.1%). Our present study suggests that lycopene supplement >12 mg/day might effectively decrease SBP, particularly among Asians or population with higher baseline SBP" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • A role for the macular carotenoids in visual motor response - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Nov;16(6):262-8 - "Lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin are the dominant carotenoids within the central retina (there, termed macular pigment, MP). L is also the dominant carotenoid in the brain ... Balance ability (measured via the Standing Leg Test) and simple reaction time (measured via a stimulus appearing in one of four quadrants of a computer monitor) were measured in 49 subjects (mean age = 54.8 years). Fixed and variable reaction time, and coincidence anticipation ability (estimating the arrival of the stimulus at a target location moving at four velocities) were assessed in 106 younger subjects (mean age = 23 years) using a customized device ... MP optical density was significantly (P < 0.05) related to reaction time and to balance ability for the older subjects. Even for the younger group, MP optical density was significantly (P < 0.05) related to fixed and variable position reaction time, as well as coincidence anticipation errors, at high speed" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 19:1-7 - "carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) ... All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months ... The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly by 0.035 mm (P= 0.042) and 0.073 mm (P< 0.001) in the lutein and combination groups at month 12, respectively" - Note: Some studies indicate that supplementing with just a few of the over 600 carotenoids can cause a deficiency of the others so I stick with supplements that have a broad array of carotenoids.  See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: The Singapore Chinese Health Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jul 16 - "used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women who were of ages 45-74 years between 1993 and 1998 ... validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 9.9 years, we identified 1,630 hip fracture incident cases. Among men, consumption of vegetables was associated with lower hip fracture risk. Similarly, dietary total carotenoids and specific carotenoids, α-, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with hip fracture risk. Compared to men in the lowest quartile of nutrient density, men in the highest quartile had statistically significant 26% to 39% risk reduction ... There was no association between dietary carotenoids or vegetables/fruits and hip fracture risk among women. This study suggests that adequate intake of vegetables may reduce risk of osteoporotic fractures among elderly men and that the antioxidant effects of carotenoids may counteract the mechanism of osteoporosis related to leanness"
  • Association of blood antioxidants and vitamins with risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis of observational studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 10 - "searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science for relevant studies ... A pooled estimate showed vitamin E (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), α-carotene (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88), lutein (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.87), and zeaxanthin (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.82) were inversely associated with age-related cataract. Vitamins A (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.83) and C (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.78) were inversely associated with age-related cataract in Asian populations but not in Western populations. β-Carotene (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.05), lycopene (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.15), and β-cryptoxanthin (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.02) had no significant association with risk of cataract" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein supplementation reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein in healthy nonsmokers - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jan 29 - "117 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 or 20 mg/d of lutein or placebo for 12 weeks ... total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) ... A significant reduction was found in malondialdehyde in the 20 mg lutein group. CRP concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner for lutein supplementation, and there was a significant between-group difference in CRP between the 20 mg lutein and the placebo group. Serum CRP was directly related to the change in plasma lutein and TAOC for both active treatment groups" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoid intake and risk of colorectal adenomas in a cohort of male health professionals - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 1 - "Among 29,363 men who reported having a lower bowel endoscopy between 1986 and 2006, 3,997 cases of colorectal adenoma were identified in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants completed food frequency questionnaires every 4 years ... Total β-carotene and dietary β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes and the total carotenoid score were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma risk. The odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) comparing the highest versus lowest quintile of intake were 0.78 (0.69-0.88) for total β-carotene, 0.72 (0.64-0.81) for dietary β-carotene, 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for lycopene, 0.86 (0.76-0.96) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 0.87 (0.77-0.97) for the total carotenoid score. Associations for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin intakes were null" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Fruits, Vegetables, and Related Vitamins and Lung Cancer Risk: Results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009) - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):51-61 - "investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 adult Chinese men who were recruited into the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits ... median follow-up of 5.5 yr ... Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53-0.98), 0.69 (0.51-0.94), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), 0.63 (0.44-0.88), and 0.64 (0.46-0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk"
  • Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident CVD - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 15:1-7 - "To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study ... Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70, 0.98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.58, 0.94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Circulating Carotenoids and Risk of Breast Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Eight Prospective Studies - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Dec 6 - "pooled analysis of eight cohort studies comprising more than 80% of the world's published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer ... ResultsStatistically significant inverse associations with breast cancer were observed for α-carotene (top vs bottom quintile RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.05, Ptrend = .04), β-carotene (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98, Ptrend = .02), lutein+zeaxanthin (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.01, Ptrend = .05), lycopene (RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.99, Ptrend = .02), and total carotenoids (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.96, Ptrend = .01) ... This comprehensive prospective analysis suggests women with higher circulating levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids may be at reduced risk of breast cancer"
  • Effects of Lutein Supplement on Serum Inflammatory Cytokines, ApoE and Lipid Profiles in Early Atherosclerosis Population - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012 Nov 15 - "Early atherosclerosis patients (n= 65) were randomized to receive placebo (A+P, n= 31) or 20 mg/d lutein (A+L, n= 34) for 3 months ... An increase in serum lutein after supplementation can reduce inflammatory cytokines and regulate serum lipids, which may pay important roles in early atherosclerosis" - See lutein at Amazon.com or Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.  Note:  There are over 600 carotenoids.  I read at least one study that claims that taking large doses of just one carotenoid can cause a deficiency of the others.
  • Serum lycopene decreases the risk of stroke in men: A population-based follow-up study - Neurology. 2012 Oct 9;79(15):1540-7 - "The study population consisted of 1,031 Finnish men aged 46-65 years in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids retinol and α-tocopherol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography ... men in the highest quartile of serum lycopene concentrations had 59% and 55% lower risks of ischemic stroke and any stroke, compared with men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95, p = 0.036 for any stroke and HR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.97, p = 0.042 for ischemic stroke). α-Carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and retinol were not related to the risk of strokes" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Spectroscopic Characterization of Lycopene Extract from Lycopersicum esculentum (Tomato) and Its Evaluation as a Chemopreventive Agent Against Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis in Mice - Phytother Res. 2012 May 25 - "The present study was designed to characterize the lycopene extract (LycT) prepared from tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) and then to evaluate its chemopreventive efficacy in N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA)-induced experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in female Balb/c mice ... In the animal study, reduction in tumour incidence (42.05%), tumour burden (1.39) and tumour multiplicity (3.42) was observed upon LycT pretreatment to NDEA-treated animals. Histopathological analysis unravelled that the increased survival rate in LycT + NDEA-treated animals was due to the delay in the formation of aggressive tumour nodules. These observations indicate that lycopene seems to be an able candidate for chemoprevention in hepatocarcinogenesis resulting from NDEA insults" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and mortality in older community-dwelling women - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 May;60(5):862-8 - "During 5 years of follow-up, 82 (11.5%) participants died. Measured continuously, physical activity improved survival (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41-0.66, P < .001). The most active women were more likely to survive than the least physically active women (HR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.13-0.59, P < .001). Continuous measures of carotenoids improved survival (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.51-0.89, P = .01). Women in the highest tertile of total carotenoids were more likely to survive those in the lowest (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91, P = .03). When examined in the same model, continuous measures of physical activity (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.42-0.68, P < .001) and carotenoids (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.98, P = .04) predicted survival during follow-up"
  • Low β-carotene concentrations increase the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among Finnish men with risk factors - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Apr 9 - "During the median 15.9-year follow-up, 122 deaths from CVDs, were identified among the cohort subjects. Low serum concentrations of β-carotene were strongly related to an increased CVD mortality risk after adjustment for confounders. For β-carotene, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus highest quartile was 2.23 (1.26-3.93; P=0.006). However, the strongest risk of CVD mortality was observed among smokers with lowest levels of β-carotene (HR=3.15, 95%, CI: 1.19-8.33; P=0.020). Other carotenoids and the sum of carotenoids were not significantly related to increased risk of CVD mortality"
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans - Biomed Res. 2011;32(6):387-93 - "supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks ... Asthenopia [eye strain] symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com, bilberry at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma - Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec 20:1-9 - "Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.7; Ptrend = 0.002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0.4; 95 % CI 0.2, 0.6; P < 0.001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0.7; 95 % CI 0.4, 1.1) or grain fibre (OR 1.0; 95 % CI 0.6, 1.5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0.01) (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9) (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (Pinteraction = 0.001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (Pinteraction = 0.03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk"
  • Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of age-related nuclear cataract among the elderly Finnish population - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 18:1-7 - "After adjustment for age, examination year, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, years of education, use of oral corticosteroids, history of diabetes and history of hypertension with current use of antihypertensive medication, subjects in the highest tertiles of plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin had 42 and 41 % lower risks of nuclear cataract, respectively, compared with those in the lowest tertiles (relative risk (RR) = 0.58, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.98; P = 0.041 for lutein and RR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.99; P = 0.046 for zeaxanthin)"
  • Protective Effect of Lycopene against Radiation-induced Hepatic Toxicity in Rats - J Int Med Res. 2011;39(4):1239-52 - "Lycopene supplementation significantly reduced radiotherapy-induced oxidative liver injury" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory Effects of Combination of Lycopene and Genistein on 7,12- Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Carotenoids and soy isoflavones have been postulated to have breast cancer preventive effects ... 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen known to induce breast tumors ... Tumor weight decreased by 48%, 61%, and 67%, and mean tumor volume decreased by 18%, 35%, and 65% with lycopene, genistein, and lycopene + genistein, respectively (P < 0.01 for the combination). The proportions of adenocarcinoma masses decreased with lycopene and genistein combination (P < 0.05). Administration of lycopene and genistein combination suppressed breast cancer development and was associated with a decrease in MDA, 8-isoprostane, and 8-OhdG levels and with an increase in serum lycopene and genistein levels. Animals administered DMBA developed breast cancer, which was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9 in mammary tissues. Administration of genistein and lycopene in combination was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced breast tumors and modulating the expression of apoptosis associated proteins than the administration of each agent alone" - See lycopene at Amazon.com and genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 8:1-10 - "We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin and AMD risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching five databases up to April 2010 ... The pooled relative risk (RR) for early AMD, comparing the highest with the lowest category of lutein and zeaxanthin intake, was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.78, 1.17). Dietary intake of these carotenoids was significantly related with a reduction in risk of late AMD (RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.57, 0.97); and a statistically significant inverse association was observed between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk (RR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92). The results were essentially consistent among subgroups stratified by participant characteristics. The findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin is not significantly associated with a reduced risk of early AMD, whereas an increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • High serum level of lutein may be protective against early atherosclerosis: The Beijing atherosclerosis study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug 10 - "The case-control study comprised 125 subjects with early atherosclerosis and 107 controls aged 45-68 years. We simultaneously measured common carotid IMT and arterial stiffness by carotid ultrasonography, and serum carotenoids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC) ... In cases of early atherosclerosis, serum level of lutein was significantly lower than that in controls. Serum lutein was inversely associated with carotid IMT. Zeaxanthin and β-carotene were both negatively correlated with right common carotid artery stiffness β, elastic modulus (E(p)), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). After adjusting for age and gender, the associations remain significantly (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference for zeaxanthin and β-carotene between the cases and controls" - see lutein at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - "Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA > 10 ng/ml, tPSA > 4 ng/ml, tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA < 25%, and %fPSA < 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using binary logistic models. After adjustment for known demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle confounders, high serum levels of retinyl esters (tPSA > 10 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.00) and α-carotene (%fPSA < 15%: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.76) were associated with a lower odds, whereas high serum level of lycopene (tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.14) was associated with a greater odds of prostate cancer detection. Apart from the three significant associations observed, no other exposure-outcome association was significant. Monitoring specific antioxidant levels may be helpful in the early detection of prostate cancer"
  • Impact of Consumption of Vegetable, Fruit, Grain, and High Glycemic Index Foods on Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 - "Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96; P trend = 0.02], as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P trend = 0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P trend = 0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer"
  • Serum Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Women With Type 1 Diabetes and Preeclampsia: A longitudinal study - Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr 15 - "preeclampsia (PE) ... In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, low serum α- and β-carotene were associated with subsequent development of PE, and vitamin D deficiency may also be implicated"
  • Serum Antioxidant Status Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults in Recent National Surveys - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "Serum antioxidants included retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids [α-carotene, β-carotene (cis+trans), β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, total lycopene], vitamin E, and vitamin C. MetS (NCEP ATP III) prevalence in U.S. adults was 32.0% among men and 29.5% among women. Adults with MetS had consistently lower serum carotenoid concentrations compared with those without MetS, even after controlling for total cholesterol and TG among other potential confounders. Vitamin E had no significant relationship with MetS in the full multiple logistic regression model, whereas retinol+retinyl esters were inversely related to MetS among men only. The latter were also inversely related to elevated CRP and positively associated with hyperuricemia. Vitamin C exhibited a similar pattern to serum carotenoids with an inverse linear association with MetS (binary), HOMA-IR, and hyperuricemia. Future intervention studies of dietary and lifestyle change must be conducted to assess the utility of modifying serum antioxidant concentrations, especially carotenoids, given their suboptimal levels among U.S. adults with MetS, for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and various cardiovascular endpoints" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • A Dietary Mixture Containing Fish Oil, Resveratrol, Lycopene, Catechins, and Vitamins E and C Reduces Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Mice - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes ... AIDM was evaluated in an inflammation model, male human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice, and an atherosclerosis model, female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice. Two groups of male human-CRP transgenic mice were fed AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 6 wk. The effects of AIDM on basal and IL-1β-stimulated CRP expression were investigated. AIDM reduced cytokine-induced human CRP and fibrinogen expression in human-CRP transgenic mice. In the atherosclerosis study, 2 groups of female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 16 wk. AIDM strongly reduced plasma cholesterol, TG, and serum amyloid A concentrations compared with placebo. Importantly, long-term treatment of ApoE*3Leiden mice with AIDM markedly reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 96% compared with placebo. The effect on atherosclerosis was paralleled by a reduced expression of the vascular inflammation markers and adhesion molecules inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. Dietary supplementation of AIDM improves lipid and inflammatory risk factors of CVD and strongly reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in female transgenic mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com, Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • A Tomato Lycopene Complex Protects the Kidney From Cisplatin-Induced Injury via Affecting Oxidative Stress as Well as Bax, Bcl-2, and HSPs Expression - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Mar 4:1 - "These results suggest that tomato lycopene complex has protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Beta-cryptoxanthin, plentiful in Japanese mandarin orange, prevents age-related cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in senescence-accelerated mouse brain - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):311-7 - "Increased oxidative stress is known to accelerate age-related pathologies. Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX, (3R)-β,β-caroten-3-ol) is a potent antioxidant that is highly rich in Satsuma mandarin orange (mandarin), which is the most popular fruit in Japan. We investigated the antioxidative and anti-aging effects of β-CRX and mandarin using senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP10), which were characterized by a short lifespan, high generation of superoxide anions in the brain and poor learning ability with aging. β-CRX (0.5-5.0 µg/ml) or mandarin juice (3.8-38.0%) was added to drinking water of SAMP10 one to 12 months of age. β-CRX was dose-dependently incorporated into the cerebral cortex and the contents were similar to the concentration of β-CRX in the human frontal lobe. These mice also had higher learning ability. The level of DNA oxidative damage was significantly lower in the cerebral cortex of mice that ingested β-CRX and mandarin than control mice. In addition, the mice that ingested β-CRX (>1.5 µg/ml) and mandarin (>11.3%) exhibited a higher survival when 12 month-old, the presenile age of SAMP10, than control mice. These results suggest that β-CRX is incorporated into the brain and has an important antioxidative role and anti-aging effect"
  • Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan 31:1-9 - "Phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH) accumulate abnormally in the erythrocytes of dementia patients, and dietary xanthophylls (polar carotenoids such as astaxanthin) are hypothesised to prevent the accumulation ... After 12 weeks of treatment, erythrocyte astaxanthin concentrations were higher in both the 6 and 12 mg astaxanthin groups than in the placebo group. In contrast, erythrocyte PLOOH concentrations were lower in the astaxanthin groups than in the placebo group. In the plasma, somewhat lower PLOOH levels were found after astaxanthin treatment. These results suggest that astaxanthin supplementation results in improved erythrocyte antioxidant status and decreased PLOOH levels, which may contribute to the prevention of dementia" - See astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • Inverse association of serum carotenoids with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 6 - "A significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for metabolic syndrome was observed in the highest tertile of serum β-cryptoxanthin (OR:0.45; 95% CI:0.22-0.93 in men and 0.41; 0.17-0.93 in women) and β-carotene (OR:0.45; 95% CI:0.21-0.95 in men and 0.37; 0.15-0.83 in women) compared to the lowest tertiles, in both sexes, but no significant association was found in male smokers. In women, moreover, OR for metabolic syndrome in the highest tertile of serum zeaxanthin/lutein (OR:0.37; 95% CI:0.16-0.84) was significantly lower than in the lowest tertile. Serum levels of β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene were significantly decreased with an increasing number of metabolic syndrome components in both sexes" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene and Apo-12'-Lycopenal Reduce Cell Proliferation and Alter Cell Cycle Progression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan 3:1 - "Apo-lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, whether produced by cleavage enzymes within the body or consumed with tomato products, can be found in tissues at concentrations equivalent to physiological retinoid concentrations ... The present data indicate that lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, in part, by inhibiting normal cell cycle progression"
  • Effects of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress and markers of endothelial function in healthy men - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec 9 - "An increase in serum lycopene after supplementation can reduce oxidative stress which may play a role in endothelial function" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at iHerb.
  • Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials - Maturitas. 2010 Dec 14 - "Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes ... Meta-analysis of the effect of lycopene on systolic blood pressure of all trials suggested a significant blood pressure reducing effect (mean systolic blood pressure change+/-SE: -5.60+/-5.26mm Hg, p=0.04) ... Our meta-analysis suggests that lycopene taken in doses ≥25mg daily is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol by about 10% which is comparable to the effect of low doses of statins in patient with slightly elevated cholesterol levels" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Supplementation of Lutein Reduces Colon Carcinogenesis in DMH-Treated Rats by Modulating K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin Proteins - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Dec 2:1 - "The results showed a significant increase in protein expression for K-ras and β-catenin in tumors of DMH-treated rats. Simultaneously, we detected changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and PKB in DMH-treated animals. Lutein given in the diet (0.002%), before (prevention) and after (treatment) DMH administration, diminished the number of tumors by 55% and 32%, respectively. Moreover, lutein significantly decreased in tumors the expression of K-ras (25%) and β-catenin (28%) and the amount of pPKB (32%), during the prevention, and 39%, 26%, and 26% during the treatment stage, respectively. This study demonstrates the chemoprotective effect of lutein against colon cancer by modulating the proliferative activity of K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoid deficiency in chronic pancreatitis: the effect of an increase in tomato consumption - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 1 - "chronic pancreatitis (CP) ... Of these patients, 84.7% had at least one carotenoid deficiency and 27.5% had more than four carotenoid deficiencies ... Lycopene concentration was decreased in patients with vascular disease (171+/-197 vs 99+/-72 μg/l; P=0.02). After an intervention period of 8+/-2 months ... Carotenoid concentrations are dramatically decreased in CP, especially lycopene in CP patients with vascular disease" - Note:  There are over 600 carotenoids and some feel that taking high doses of just one may cause a deficiency of the others.  See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Skin carotenoid levels in adult patients with psoriasis - J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Nov - "Patients with psoriasis appear to have lower skin carotenoid counts than patients without psoriasis"
  • Luteolin Inhibits Microglia and Alters Hippocampal-Dependent Spatial Working Memory in Aged Mice - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "Taken together, the current findings suggest dietary luteolin enhanced spatial working memory by mitigating microglial-associated inflammation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin consumption may be beneficial in preventing or treating conditions involving increased microglial cell activity and inflammation"
  • Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3 - "Multiple comparison tests showed that 12 and 18 mg/day doses significantly reduced triglyceride, and 6 and 12 mg doses significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. Serum adiponectin was increased by astaxanthin (12 and 18 mg/day), and changes of adiponectin correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol changes independent of age and BMI" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • Clinical evidence of skin benefits of a dietary supplement containing probiotic and carotenoids on UV- induced damage - Br J Dermatol. 2010 Jun 9 - "Lactobacillus johnsonii (La1) ... dietary supplement (DS) combining La1 and nutritional doses of carotenoids ... A 10 week DS intake prevented the UV-DL induced decrease in Langerhans cell density and the increase in Factor XIIIa+ type I dermal dendrocytes while it reduced dermal inflammatory cells. Clinical and instrumental MED rose by 20% and 19% respectively, and skin colour was intensified, as shown by the increase in DeltaE parameter. The efficacy of DS was confirmed by dermatologists and subjects in real conditions of use. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation combining a specific probiotic (la1) and nutritional doses of carotenoids reduced early UV-induced skin damage caused by simulated or natural sun exposure in a large panel of subjects (n=139). Altogether, these results support the use of this nutritional supplement for a global approach in photoprotection, in combination with a sunscreen" - See probiotics at Amazon.comand Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene effects contributing to prostate health - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):775-83 - "Epidemiological evidence links lycopene consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk ... Lycopene modulates several of the aforementioned pathways, providing a promising rationale for prostate cancer risk reduction by lycopene: In many experimental setups, lycopene reduced inflammatory signals, prevented oxidative DNA damage, modulated the expression or activity of IGF axis members, of Wnt/beta-catenin and androgen signalling, and enhanced gap junctional communication. Lycopene's influence on these pathways likely contributes to the observed cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by lycopene. A substantial part of the lycopene effects can be explained by its antioxidant action, but other mechanisms might also be involved" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene in the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity of radiotherapy - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):784-8 - "The rats receiving RT only had significantly higher weight loss rate compared to the lycopene plus RT group (P = 0.001). Plasma TBARS levels after RT were also significantly higher in the RT only group compared to lycopene plus RT group (P = 0.001). In conclusion, lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the weight loss and prevented oxidative stress in rats treated with abdominopelvic radiation" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Independent inverse relationship between serum lycopene concentration and arterial stiffness - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug 13 - "brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation ... Subjects in middle tertile (T2) and upper tertile (T3) had lower baPWV (1263+/-23 and 1265+/-14cm/s vs. 1338+/-21cm/s; p=0.009) and lower oxidized LDL (oxLDL) (53+/-3 and 55+/-3U/L vs. 66+/-3U/L; p<0.001) than those in lower tertile (T1). Subjects in T3 showed higher LDL particle size (24.3+/-0.08nm vs. 24.0+/-0.07nm, p=0.005) and lower C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (0.80+/-0.25mg/dL vs. 1.27+/-0.24mg/dL, p=0.015), compared with those in T1. Logistic regression analysis showed that baPWV decreased with the increment of lycopene concentration; log baPWV decreased by 0.21cm/s (95% CI -0.168;-0.045, p=0.001) per unit change in lycopene ... the estimated effect was attenuated by 35% ... This study supports the presence of an independent inverse relationship between circulating lycopene and baPWV. Additionally, reduced oxidative modification of LDL may be one of mediators on the mechanisms how lycopene reduces arterial stiffness" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Metabolic syndrome and serum carotenoids: findings of a cross-sectional study in Queensland, Australia - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 27:1-10 - "Mean serum alpha-, beta-carotenes and the sum of the five carotenoid concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in persons with the metabolic syndrome ... alpha-, beta- and total carotenoids also decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased number of components of the metabolic syndrome ... Low concentrations of serum alpha-, beta-carotenes and the sum of five carotenoids appear to be associated with metabolic syndrome status" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant effect of lutein towards phospholipid hydroperoxidation in human erythrocytes - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22:1-5 - "These results suggest that lutein has the potential to act as an important antioxidant molecule in erythrocytes, and it thereby may contribute to the prevention of dementia" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary lycopene and tomato extract supplementations inhibit nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in rats - Int J Cancer. 2009 Jun 23 - "Epidemiological and experimental studies provide supportive evidence that lycopene (LY), a major carotenoid from tomatoes and tomato products, may act as a chemopreventive agent against certain types of cancers. We recently showed that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) promoted diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model ... tomato extract (TE) ... These data indicate that LY and TE can inhibit NASH-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis mainly as a result of reduced oxidative stress, which could be fulfilled through different mechanisms" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jul;20(5):699-711 - "Based on case-control data, the random-effects summary odds ratios (OR) were, for beta-carotene: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79-0.98) per 1,000 mcg/1,000 kcal (I2: 77.7%; p < 0.01); for vitamin C: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.98) per 50 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 66.1%; p < 0.01); and, for vitamin E: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) per 5 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 0.0%; p: 0.45)"
  • Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men - J Nutr. 2009 May;139(5):987-92 - "After adjustment for confounders, total carotenoid and lycopene intakes were inversely associated with presence of metabolic syndrome [relative risk (RR) quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.42 (0.20-0.87), P-trend 0.02; and 0.55 (0.28-1.11), P-trend 0.01, respectively]. For beta-carotene, a decreased risk was observed for each quartile of intake compared with the first [RR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.58 (0.33-1.02)]. Higher total carotenoid, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene intakes were associated with lower waist circumferences and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass. Higher lycopene intake was related to lower serum triglyceride concentrations" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer - Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 3 - "An inverse association observed among premenopausal women was for high levels of vitamin A (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98, p for trend = 0.01), beta-carotene (OR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.98, p for trend = 0.009), alpha-carotene (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98, p for trend = 0.07) and lutein/zeaxanthin (OR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-0.99, p for trend = 0.02). An inverse association was not observed among postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women who reported ever smoking, these results were stronger than among never smokers, although tests for interaction were not statistically significant. Results from this study are comparable to previous prospective studies, and suggest that a high consumption of carotenoids may reduce the risk of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly among smokers" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Total Carotenoid and Lycopene Intake on the Risk of Hip Fracture: A 17-Year Follow-Up From the Framingham Osteoporosis Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2009 Jan 12 - "Subjects with higher lycopene intake had lower risk of hip fracture (P trend=0.01), and non-vertebral fracture (P trend=0.02). A weak protective trend was observed for total beta-carotene for hip fracture alone but associations did not reach statistical significance (P trend=0.10). No significant associations were observed with alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin or lutein plus zeaxanthin. These results suggest a protective role of several carotenoids for bone health in older adults" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24 - "Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival ... Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends"
  • The Effects of Natural Antioxidants from Tomato Extract in Treated but Uncontrolled Hypertensive Patients - Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2008 Dec 4 - "two double blind cross-over treatment periods of 6 weeks each, with standardized tomato extract or identical placebo ... There was a significant reduction of systolic BP after 6 weeks of tomato extract supplementation, from 145.8 +/- 8.7 to 132.2 +/- 8.6 mmHg (p < 0.001) and 140.4 +/- 13.3 to 128.7 +/- 10.4 mmHg (p < 0.001) in the two groups accordingly. Similarly, there was a decline in diastolic BP from 82.1 +/- 7.2 to 77.9 +/- 6.8 mmHg (p = 0.001) and from 80.1 +/- 7.9 to 74.2 +/- 8.5 mmHg (p = 0.001). There was no significant change in systolic and diastolic BP during the placebo period" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Comparison of lycopene and fluvastatin effects on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in rabbits - Nutrition. 2008 Jun 26 - "Compared with the control, levels of total cholesterol, total triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and interleukin-1 were increased and total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide were decreased in the animals with a high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Intragastric administration of lycopene counteracted the change in these parameters (P < 0.05). In this case, the data showed that lycopene in the used dose was better than the fluvastatin intervention. Morphologic analysis revealed that lycopene and fluvastatin markedly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta compared with the situation in rabbits on a high-fat diet alone ... Lycopene, like fluvastatin, significantly attenuated atherogenesis in rabbits fed a high-fat diet" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Total plasma carotenoids and mortality in the elderly: results of the Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing (EVA) study - Br J Nutr. 2008 May 29:1-7 - "After controlling for potential confounding factors, mortality risk increased significantly in men (P = 0.03) with plasma carotenoids in the lowest quintile compared with men with plasma carotenoids in the highest (relative risk 2.94 (95 % CI 1.21, 7.17)). A significant association between mortality by cancer and low plasma carotenoid level variable was also found in men (unit = 1 mumol/l; relative risk 1.72 (95 % CI 1.02, 2.86); P = 0.01)" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.  I think the problem with beta-carotene in smokers was due to the fact that taking large doses of a single carotenoid has been shown to reduce levels of the others.  There are over 600 carotenoids.
  • Low plasma carotenoids and skeletal muscle strength decline over 6 years - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Apr;63(4):376-83 - "These findings suggest that older community-dwelling adults with lower plasma carotenoids levels, a marker of poor fruit and vegetable intake, are at a higher risk of decline in skeletal muscle strength over time" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Feb 22;366(4):892-7 - "Astaxanthin increased fat utilization during exercise compared with mice on a normal diet with prolongation of the running time to exhaustion. Colocalization of fatty acid translocase with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in skeletal muscle was increased by astaxanthin. We also found that hexanoyl-lysine modification of CPT I was increased by exercise, while astaxanthin prevented this increase. In additional experiment, we found that astaxanthin treatment accelerated the decrease of body fat accumulation with exercise training"
  • Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and e, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study - Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan;126(1):102-9 - "In these prospective observational data from a large cohort of female health professionals, higher dietary intakes of lutein/zeaxanthin and vitamin E from food and supplements were associated with significantly decreased risks of cataract"
  • Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Whereas progression of prostate enlargement occurred in the placebo group as assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography (P < 0.05) and digital rectal examination (P < 0.01), the prostate did not enlarge in the lycopene group. Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb at Amazon.com.
  • J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH"
  • J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia - J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53 - "Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH"
  • Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):1-7 - "The data suggest that lycopene and soy isoflavones have activity in prostate cancer patients with PSA relapse disease and may delay progression of both hormone-refractory and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer"
  • Plasma carotenoids and prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in Arkansas - Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):46-53 - "This study added to the emerging evidence that high circulating levels of lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a low risk of prostate cancer" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene and lutein inhibit proliferation in rat prostate carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):171-7 - "These studies are consistent with epidemiological studies that show inverse relationships of these carotenoids with prostate cancer" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma carotenoid levels and cognitive performance in an elderly population: results of the EVA Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Mar;62(3):308-16 - "participants with the lowest cognitive functioning (<25th percentile) had a higher probability of having low levels of specific plasma carotenoids (<1st quartile): lycopene and zeaxanthin. For zeaxanthin, odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: OR(DSS) = 1.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-3.20), OR(FTT) = 1.70 (CI = 1.05-2.74), and OR(WFT) = 1.82 (CI = 1.08-3.07); for lycopene, OR(DSS) = 1.93 (CI = 1.20-3.12) and OR(TMTB) = 1.64"
  • Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation - Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 9;:1-8 - "a high dietary intake of tomato products had atheroprotective effects, it significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and increased LDL resistance to oxidation in healthy normocholesterolaemic adults. These atheroprotective features associated with changes in serum lycopene, beta-carotene and gamma-carotene levels"
  • Dietary carotenoids and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:437-42 - "higher intake of lycopene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin is associated to a lower risk of breast cancer among Chinese women"
  • Tea and lycopene protect against prostate cancer - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:453-7 - "The protective effect of green tea was significant (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.35) for the highest quartile relative to the lowest after adjusting for total vegetables and fruits intakes and other potential confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables and fruits rich in lycopene were also inversely associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio 0.18 ... habitual drinking tea and intakes of vegetables and fruits rich in lycopene could lead to a reduced risk of prostate cancer in Chinese men. Together they have a stronger preventive effect than either component taken separately"
  • Tomatoes, tomato products and lycopene in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer: do we have the evidence from intervention studies? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Nov;9(6):722-7 - "Increasing evidence suggests that a single serving of tomatoes or tomato products ingested daily may contribute to protect from DNA damage. As DNA damage seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, the regular ingestion of tomatoes or tomato products might prevent the disease"
  • Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative - Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug;124(8):1151-62 - "Diets rich in lutein plus zeaxanthin may protect against intermediate AMD in healthy women younger than 75 years"
  • Vitamin and carotenoid status in older women: associations with the frailty syndrome - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Jun;61(6):600-7 - "Frail women are more likely to have relatively low serum carotenoid and micronutrient concentrations and are more likely to have multiple micronutrient deficiencies"
  • Lutein supplementation in retinitis pigmentosa: PC-based vision assessment in a randomized double-masked placebo-controlled clinical trial - BMC Ophthalmol. 2006 Jun 7;6(1):23 - "These results suggest that lutein supplementation improves visual field and also might improve visual acuity slightly, although these results should be interpreted cautiously. As a combined phase I and II clinical trial, this study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of lutein supplementation"
  • Association of carotene rich diet with hypogonadism in a male athlete - Asian J Androl. 2006 Jul;8(4):488-92 - "This is the first report associating excessive carotene intake with a hypothalamic form of hypogonadism in a young man"
  • Association of abdominal obesity with decreased serum levels of carotenoids in a healthy Japanese population - Clin Nutr. 2006 May 12 - "abdominal fat accumulation is associated with oxidative stress as determined by low levels of serum carotenoids in females"
  • Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice - J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1287-93 - "lycopene combined with vitamin E may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer"
  • Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Am Heart J. 2006 Jan;151(1):100 - "Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144 (SE +/- 1.1) to 134 mm Hg (SE +/- 2, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 87.4 (SE +/- 1.2) to 83.4 mm Hg" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids: findings of a population-based study in Queensland, Australia - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):685-93 - "Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism. Randomized trials of diets high in carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruit are needed to confirm these results and those from other observational studies. Such evidence would have very important implications for the prevention of diabetes"
  • Lycopene--a natural antioxidant - Orv Hetil. 2005 Jul 31;146(31):1621-4 - "Lycopene is the most powerful antioxidant amongst carotenoids. Beside the antioxidant effect it influences the expression of various proteins (enzymes of biotransformation, cyclin D1, connexins). According to epidemiologic studies tomato lycopene may reduce the risk of prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Positive effects are also hypothesized in case of other diseases such as osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases and hypertension" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Intake of Lycopene Is Associated with Reduced Pancreatic Cancer Risk - J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):592-597 - "After adjustment for age, province, BMI, smoking, educational attainment, dietary folate, and total energy intake, lycopene, provided mainly by tomatoes, was associated with a 31% reduction in pancreatic cancer risk among men"
  • Lutein absorption is facilitated with cosupplementation of ascorbic acid in young adults - J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jan;105(1):114-8 - "Cosupplementation with another antioxidant may facilitate absorption"
  • Lycopene, ß-carotene, and colorectal adenomas -Am  J  of Clin Nutr, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1219-1224, 12/03 - "Our findings support the hypothesis that lycopene contributes to the protective effect of high tomato intakes against the risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • Synthetic and tomato-based lycopene have identical bioavailability in humans - Eur J Nutr. 2003 Oct;42(5):272-8 - "synthetic and natural lycopene are equivalent sources of lycopene and that there is no interaction with other circulating carotenoids"
  • Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;57(9):1135-40 - "Consumption of the natural carotenoid mixture lowered the increase in oxidative stress induced by the fish oil ... The carotenoid mixture also enhanced the plasma triglyceride-lowering effect of the fish oil" - See my favorite, Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1390-9 - "Higher intakes of foods rich in alpha-carotene or beta-carotene are associated with a reduction in risk of CAD"
  • Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1434-41 - "The data suggest an advantageous association of carotenoids, which are markers of fruit and vegetable intake, with glucose metabolism in men at high risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):95-100 - "These carotenoids are efficient antioxidants quenching singlet molecular oxygen which is formed in photooxidative processes and thus may contribute to the prevention of light-exposed tissue, skin and eyes, from light-induced damage. Increasing lycopene intake by daily consumption of tomato paste over a period of ten weeks provides protection against erythema formation following UV-irradiation. Lycopene and other carotenoids may be used as oral sun protectants and contribute to the maintenance of skin health ... These macula carotenoids are suggested to play a role in protection against light-dependent damage. Filtering of blue light and scavenging of reactive intermediates generated in photooxidation are considered to be the underlying protective mechanisms. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that an increased consumption of lutein is associated with a lowered risk for age-related macular degeneration, a disease with increasing incidence in the elderly"
  • Dietary carotenoids, vegetables, and lung cancer risk in women: the Missouri women's health study - Cancer Causes Control 2003 Feb;14(1):85-96 - "beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and total carotenoid intake were each associated with a significantly lower risk of lung cancer" - Note:  Beta-carotene is just one of over 600 carotenoids.  Some feel that taking mega-doses of just one can cause a deficiency of the others.