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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 10/27/21

Lipid-Modifying Agents to Treat or Prevent COVID-19? - Medscape, 10/26/21 - "statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and the production of isoprenoid intermediates, which are "critical for viral entry, immune signaling, and the inflammatory cascade." They induce transcription factors that limit inflammation and prothrombotic functions of activated endothelial cells ... statins have antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, potentiate nitric oxide production, and upregulate transforming growth factor beta receptor III, leading to less collagen deposition and pulmonary fibrosis ... Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids "act as a precursor to lipid mediators that reduce inflammation" and may therefore be beneficial in addressing the COVID-19 inflammatory response ... Niacin increases HDL cholesterol levels, may reduce inflammatory mediators, and may also possess antiviral activity"

People Vaccinated Against COVID Less Likely to Die From Any Cause: Study - Medscape, 10/25/21 - "Those who received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine were 34% as likely to die from non-coronavirus causes in the months after vaccination as unvaccinated people. Those who received two doses of the Moderna vaccine were 31% as likely to die as unvaccinated people, and those who received the one-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine were 54% as likely to die ... One explanation could be that people who get vaccinated, in general, tend to be healthier than people who don't, the researchers said, noting that they plan to study this more in the future"

Unvaccinated People Likely to Catch COVID Repeatedly - Medscape, 10/25/21 - "People who don't get vaccinated against COVID-19 should expect to be reinfected with the coronavirus every 16 to 17 months on average" - Note:  I suspect they also have more longhall problems each time.

A diet of essential amino acids could keep dementia at bay - Science Daily, 10/22/21 - "a low protein diet can accelerate brain degeneration in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. More importantly, they found that Amino LP7 -- a supplement containing seven specific amino acids -- can slow down brain degeneration and dementia development in these animals ... Amino LP7, indicating that the combination of seven specific amino acids could inhibit brain damage" - Note: LP7's ingredients.

Low Iron in Midlife May Boost Risk for Heart Disease - WebMD, 10/19/21 - "With low iron, the heart must pump harder, which can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath, and a higher risk of heart attacks and strokes ... people with functional iron deficiency were 24% more likely to get coronary heart disease during the study. They were also 26% more likely to die from heart attacks or other cardiovascular causes and 12% more likely to die from any cause. The researchers found no link between functional iron deficiency and stroke" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Statins linked to reduced risk of death from COVID-19 in major population study - Science Daily, 10/14/21 - "Our results suggest that statin treatment can have a moderate prophylactic effect on COVID-19 mortality"

One coronavirus vaccine may protect against other coronaviruses, study shows - Science Daily, 10/15/21 - "coronavirus vaccines and prior coronavirus infections can provide broad immunity against other, similar coronaviruses. The findings build a rationale for universal coronavirus vaccines that could prove useful in the face of future epidemics" - Note: I've been pointing this out for years with regard to the flu. Why would the coronavirus be any different?

Melatonin Improves Sleep in MS - Medscape, 10/15/21 - "The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of 5 or more, or an Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score higher than 14 at baseline. Other baseline assessments included patient-reported outcomes for sleep disturbances, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, walking ability, and mood. Half of the participants received melatonin for the first 2 weeks and then switched to placebo. The other half started with placebo and moved over to melatonin at the beginning of week 3 ... During the second and fourth weeks, participants wore an actigraph watch to measure their physical and sleep activities, and then repeated the patient-reported outcome measures at the end of weeks 2 and 4. Melatonin improved average sleep time (6.96 vs. 6.67 hours; P = .03) as measured by the actigraph watch. Sleep efficiency was also nominally improved (84.7% vs. 83.2%), though the result was not statistically significant (P = .07). Other trends toward statistical significance included improvements in ISI (–3.5 vs. –2.4; P = .07), change in PSQI component 1 (–0.03 vs. 0.0; P = .07), and change in the NeuroQoL-Fatigue score (–4.7 vs. –2.4; P = .06)" - See melatonin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

How highly processed foods harm memory in the aging brain - Science Daily, 10/14/21 - "supplementing the processed diet with the omega-3 fatty acid DHA prevented memory problems and reduced the inflammatory effects almost entirely in older rats ... consumption of a processed diet can produce significant and abrupt memory deficits -- and in the aging population, rapid memory decline has a greater likelihood of progressing into neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. By being aware of this, maybe we can limit processed foods in our diets and increase consumption of foods that are rich in the omega-3 fatty acid DHA to either prevent or slow that progression" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and and iHerb.

PA Cannabis Legalization Will Have Dire Consequences - RCP, 10/14/21 - "Legalization is no longer about the 5% THC ditch weed of Woodstock. Instead, today’s marijuana “buds” regularly contain up to 30% THC – the main, psychoactive compound in marijuana that makes a user feel “high” – while the increasingly popular concentrates, such as dabs (inhaled through vaping devices), contain upward of 99% THC ... Expanding the creation and promotion of this new, super-charged drug into Pennsylvania will create major public health consequences. Recent research has found daily use of high-potency marijuana is associated with a five-fold increase in instances of schizophrenia and psychosis. The addiction rate alone is up from one in 10 just a decade ago to one in three. Considering these figures, the idea of normalizing and promoting marijuana use – amid the COVID-19 pandemic, no less – is simply baffling ... Pennsylvania’s “law enforcement agencies and justice system do not have the manpower or time to handle minor marijuana offenses ... Opioid-related deaths have increased year over year in states where marijuana is legal for both medicinal and recreational use ... In California, Gov. Gavin Newsom is spending millions of taxpayer dollars on public-awareness campaigns urging Californians to purchase marijuana only at state-licensed pot shops. Why? Because California’s illicit market is reportedly outselling the “legal” market at a rate of three to one ... A Colorado study found that the state pays $4.50 in costs for every $1 in marijuana tax revenue ... The unfortunate reality, though, is that marijuana legalization has so far resulted in social injustice and worsened inequities" -  Note: I got into a huge pissing contest with the potheads on NextDoor dot com over a pot dispensary proposed near me. The arguments they used were that it would reduce opioid addiction, increase tax revenues, put the Mexican drug cartels out of business, reduce crime (noting a small study near the border that claimed crime was reduced), etc. Every argument they used is proving to be wrong and every argument I used such as the increased risk of schizophrenia is proving to be right, but what else is new? How much are those $600 per month schizophrenia meds plus disability (who is going to hire a schizophrenic) costing taxpayers?

Omega-3s Tame Inflammation in Elderly COVID-19 Patients - Medscape, 10/12/21 - "The patients, who had a median age of 81 years, were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) emulsion containing 10 g of fish oil per 100 mL or a saline placebo ... Those who received the intravenous infusion had significant decreases from baseline to end of treatment in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), indicating marked reductions in systemic inflammation ... In contrast, patients randomized to a saline placebo had no significant improvements in NLR" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Plant Polyphenols Lignans and Cardiovascular Disease - Medscape, 10/12/21 - "The evidence is building that there is an association between polyphenol intake and chronic disease, especially for CVD. Plant polyphenols may be important components of healthy plant-based diets that contribute to freedom from chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes, and possibly cancer and so are associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. However, although the associations are promising, it would be helpful to have trial data, both for total and individual polyphenols. At the same time, such trials would be difficult to undertake, and sustained adherence may not be possible to achieve even over short periods of time, as seen with the difficulty in increasing fruit and vegetable intake,[15] let alone adherence over the number of years as required to see chronic disease events. Perhaps an exception to this concern is the PREDIMED trial, in which foods were provided that are considered highly desirable, as nuts and olive oil, for the duration of the trial, and adherence was excellent."

Lower Thyroid Hormone Levels a Red Flag for Elevated Suicide Risk? - Medscape, 10/12/21 - "thyroid hormones are known to have a "profound" effect on mood and behavior ... Recent studies show "various degrees of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysregulation are associated with suicidal behavior" in patients with depression ... Fasting blood samples were also tested for free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and TSH levels ... Suicidal ideation was associated with higher scores on the PHQ-9 (15.5 vs 13.3; P = .085), and with lower TSH levels (1.54 IU/L vs 2.04 IU/L ... There were no significant associations between serum FT4 and FT3 levels and suicidal ideation"

Deaths linked to ‘hormone disruptor’ chemical costs billions in lost US productivity - Science Daily, 10/12/21 - "Daily exposure chemicals called phthalates, used in the manufacture of plastic food containers and many cosmetics, may lead to roughly 100,000 premature deaths among older Americans each year ... the new investigation of more than 5,000 adults between the ages of 55 and 64 showed that those with the highest concentrations of phthalate in their urine were more likely to die of heart disease than those with lesser exposure ... Similarly, Americans in this high-exposure group were more likely to die of any cause than those in low-exposure groups ... Our research suggests that the toll of this chemical on society is much greater than we first thought" - [Hill]

Is low-fat or whole-fat milk better for kids? Science says it makes no difference - Science Daily, 10/12/21 - "For the first time, researchers comprehensively measured the children's obesity, body composition, blood pressure, and blood biomarkers to monitor the effects of their dairy consumption ... Regardless of whether they were consuming whole fat or low-fat dairy, both groups of children took in similar amounts of calories ... Although children consuming low-fat dairy took in less calories and fat from dairy, they naturally turned to other foods and drinks to make up this difference ... Professor O'Sullivan said the findings showed no significant differences between the groups' obesity or cardiovascular health"

Optimal blood pressure helps our brains age slower - Science Daily, 10/12/21 - "Normal blood pressure is defined by pressure below 120/80, whereas an optimal and healthier blood pressure is closer to 110/70 ... Compared to a person with a high blood pressure of 135/85, someone with an optimal reading of 110/70 was found to have a brain age that appears more than six months younger by the time they reach middle age"

Abstracts from this week:

Lactoferrin supplementation for taste and smell abnormalities among patients receiving cancer chemotherapy - Support Care Cancer 2021 Oct 13 - "Taste and smell abnormalities (TSA) are common in patients receiving chemotherapy and may lead to altered nutritional intake, treatment withdrawal, and impaired quality of life. Lipid peroxidation in the oral cavity is one cause of TSA. Lactoferrin (LFN), an iron-binding salivary protein, reduces production of lipid oxidation byproducts and has been shown to reduce perception of unpleasant flavors ... A total of 26 patients enrolled; 19 remained on study at day 30 and 17 at day 60. Baseline mean TSQ scores were 6.5 (taste), 3.1 (smell), and 9.6 (composite). By day 30, mean composite TSQ score improved by 1.7 (p = 0.018); taste and smell improved by 0.6 (p = 0.062) and 1.1 (p = 0.042), respectively. From baseline to day 60, mean composite TSQ score improved by 3.8 (p < 0.0001); taste and smell improved by 1.9 (p = 0.001) and 1.8 (p = 0.003)" - See lactoferrin at Amazon.com.

Radiosensitizing Effect of Curcumin on Human Bladder Cancer Cell Lines: Impact on DNA Repair Mechanisms - Nutr Cancer 2021 Oct 13 - "Chemo-radiotherapy is one of the promising approaches to treat bladder cancer, but its effectiveness is limited to sensitive patients. Polyphenol curcumin has shown anticancer and radiosensitizing potentials, but the mechanism is not fully understood ... curcumin treatment increased the radiosensitivity by modifying the DNA double-strand breaks repair kinetics of the most radioresistant cells UM-UC6 without affecting the radiosensitive UM-UC5. Moreover, UM-UC6 cell survival and proliferation was significantly decreased after the combination of curcumin with radiation. Bladder cell migration was also inhibited considerably. Curcumin was also shown to reduce the number and the volume of bladder cancer spheres of both cell lines. This study revealed that curcumin was able to radiosensitize resistant bladder cell line without affecting the sensitive one with minimal side effects through enhancing DNA damage signaling and repair pathway" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine with the risk of dementia in older Japanese people - J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Oct 8 - "Coffee, green tea, and caffeine are potential preventive factors for dementia, but the underlying evidence is insufficient. This study aimed to examine associations between the consumption of coffee, green tea, and caffeine and dementia risk in middle-aged and older people ... High levels of coffee and caffeine consumption were significantly associated with a reduced dementia risk in a dose-dependent manner, especially in men. Moreover, coffee consumption of ≥3 cups/day was associated with a 50% reduction in dementia risk"

These hold 20 oz. (three cups of coffee) and fit in a Tesla console cup holder.  Great for something like a day at Yosemite. You might need two though.

Effect of weight loss on erectile function in men with overweight or obesity: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Andrologia 2021 Oct 13 - "This meta-analysis showed that weight loss could improve erectile function in overweight or obese men. Losing weight could serve as an adjuvant therapy for ED."

Induction of apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines by using resveratrol in combination with AT-101 - Andrologia 2021 Oct 11 - "The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate doses of AT-101 and resveratrol combination in the in vitro hormone-refractory prostate cancer (PC) cell lines, in order to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this combination on the proliferation of cancer cells, namely PC-3, DU-145 and LNCAP ... While the combined use of resveratrol and AT-101 increased the expression of markers in apoptotic cell pathways on cells, a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic markers was detected (p ˂ 0.05). Combined applications of these compounds showed an important synergism in the hormone-refractory PC cell lines, and it was determined that after the post-translational modification, they were significantly effective on the apoptotic pathway. These results have revealed that the combination of resveratrol and AT-101 holds great expectation as a new chemotherapeutic application in the treatment of human prostate cancer" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.

Exploring the Mechanism of Resveratrol in Reducing the Soft Tissue Damage of Osteoarthritis Based on Network Pharmacology and Experimental Pharmacology - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Oct 4 - "osteoarthritis (OA) ... Resveratrol may inhibit the activation of the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway and has a repairing effect on soft tissue damage in OA" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.

Resveratrol Improves Follicular Development of PCOS Rats by Regulating the Glycolytic Pathway - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Oct 19 - "Resveratrol suppressed damage to the ovaries in PCOS rats by restoring glycolytic activity, providing potential targets for the treatment of PCOS" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.

Lycopene Preventing DEHP-Induced Renal Cell Damage Is Targeted by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Oct 20 - "Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative plasticizer. Accumulation of DEHP in the body can eventually cause kidney damage. As a type of natural carotenoid, lycopene (LYC) has a potential protective effect on renal cells, but the protective mechanism has not yet been elucidated ... LYC attenuated DEHP-induced renal tubular cell and glomerular damage. LYC relieved DEHP-induced kidney injury evidenced by lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (Bun), creatinine (Cre), and uric acid (Uric). Meanwhile, the reduced expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) also supported it. Notably, LYC can alleviate the activity or content of cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) interfered with by DEHP. In addition, LYC treatment reduced nuclear accumulation of DEHP-induced aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear transporter (Arnt), and its downstream target genes such as cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 expression significantly decreased to normal in the LYC treatment group. In summary, LYC can mediate the AhR/Arnt signaling system to prevent kidney toxicity in mice caused by DEHP exposure" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.

Lycopene and Chrysin through Mitigation of Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress Exerted Antidepressant Effects in Clonidine-Induced Depression-like Behavior in Rats - J Diet Suppl 2021 Oct 11;1-20 - "Depression is a severely debilitating psychiatric disorder that influences more than 15% of the population worldwide. It has been demonstrated that it is associated with a high risk of developing other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, epilepsy, and cancer ... The rats in group 1 served as a control. Group 2 received lycopene only. Group 3 was provided chrysin only. Group 4 was administered clonidine and served as the model. Group 5 was offered lycopene and clonidine. Group 6 was administered chrysin and clonidine. Group 7 was given FLX and clonidine and represented the standard ... The current research demonstrates that lycopene and chrysin have an auspicious antidepressant effect against clonidine that provoked behavioral hopelessness in rats. Manipulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis may partially represent the corrective mechanism for the neuroprotective actions against the depressive effect of clonidine" - See lycopene at Amazon.com and iHerb and  chrysin at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of fall in the vitamin D deficient elderly: An updated meta-analysis - Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 27 - "The combination of vitamin D and calcium have beneficial effects on prevention falls in old adults. Although vitamin D supplementation alone has no effect on fall risk in old adults with 25(OH)D levels higher than 50 nmol/L, vitamin D supplementation alone does have a benefit on prevention of falls in old adults with 25(OH)D levels lower than 50 nmol/L" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

The effect of vitamin K1 on arterial calcification activity in subjects with diabetes mellitus: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Oct 12 - "In individuals with diabetes mellitus, supplementation with 10 mg vitamin K1/d may prevent the development of newly calcifying lesions within the aorta and the coronary arteries as detected using 18F-NaF PET. Further long-term studies are needed to test this hypothesis" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at iHerb.com.

High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study - Nutr J 2021 Oct 19 - "High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study ... This study showed a high vitamin K status being associated with decreased LVMI only in women, while intakes of vitamin K were not associated with any cardiac structure or function measures. These results extend previous findings for a role of vitamin K status to decrease heart failure risk" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at iHerb.com.

Dietary Vitamin K Intake and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Study of 101,695 American Adults - Am J Epidemiol 2021 Oct 1 - "dietary intakes of phylloquinone (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39, 0.83; P for trend = 0.002) and dihydrophylloquinone (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85; P for trend = 0.006), but not menaquinones (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, HR = 0.93 ... dietary intakes of phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone, but not menaquinones, confer a lower risk of pancreatic cancer" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at iHerb.com.

Effects of chronic betaine supplementation on performance in professional young soccer players during a competitive season: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Oct 18 - "14-week of betaine supplementation increased predicted 1-RM, VO2max, and repeated sprint ability performance in youth professional soccer players. Betaine supplementation seems to be a useful nutritional strategy to improve and to maintain performance during a competitive soccer season" - See See betaine anhydrous (TMG) at Amazon.com.

Protective Effect of Ginkgolide B against Cognitive Impairment in Mice via Regulation of Gut Microbiota - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Oct 20 - "Ginkgolide B (GB) is one of the main bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts with neuroprotective activity. However, the neuroprotective mechanism link between the anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) efficiency of GB and gut microbiota have remained elusive ... These findings demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of GB in AD mice, which were partly mediated by modulating gut dysbiosis, indicating that GB might be a potentially active supplement to alleviate AD" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.

Ginsenoside Re Improves Inflammation and Fibrosis in Hepatic Tissue by Upregulating PPAR γ Expression and Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in db/db Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Oct 8 - "Ginsenoside Re (Re) is the main component of "Zhenyuan Capsule" (ZYC), which was wildly used in clinic in China for adjunctive treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type II diabetes (T2DM). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important complications of T2DM, as well as an important risk factor of CHD ... some evidence suggested that hepatic injury in db/db mice was attenuated by Re administering. Collagen deposition and aminotransferase elevation were significantly downregulated in the DB + Re group compared to those in the DB Group. The mechanisms of the protect effects of Re represented in db/db mice with NAFLD might be inhibiting oxidative stress and the reupregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (pparγ) expression. The results of this study indicated that ZYC might be able to help T2DM patients with NAFLD to control the progress of NAFLD as an alternation of thiazolidinediones, synthetic agonists of PPARγ, whose side effects and adverse events should not be ignored" - See Ginsenoside Re at Amazon.com.

  • Ginsenoside - wikipedia.org - "Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins. Compounds in this family are found almost exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng), which has a long history of use in traditional medicine that has led to the study of pharmacological effects of ginseng compound"

Ginsenoside Rg1 Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice via Activating ER α-Regulating YAP Expression - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Sep 29;2021 - "Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts an estrogenic effect by activating ERα, upregulating the expression of YAP, reducing liver oxidative stress injury, and inhibiting mitochondrial injury to protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice" - See ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on serum uric acid in patients with T2DM: A systematic review and network meta-analysis - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Oct 6 - "serum uric acid (SUA) ... SGLT-2 inhibitors could significantly reduce SUA levels in patients with T2DM, especially luseogliflozin (1 mg and 10 mg) and dapagliflozin (5 mg) possess the best effects. Therefore, SGLT-2 inhibitors look extremely promising as an anti-diabetes treatment option in patients with T2DM with high SUA" - See dapagliflozin at ReliableRxPharmacy.

St. John's Wort alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis through pregnane X receptor-dependent NFκB antagonism - FASEB J 2021 Nov - "St. John's wort (SJW), from traditional herbs, activates the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a potential drug target for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ... These data indicate the therapeutic potential of SJW in alleviating DSS-induced IBD in vivo, and TNFα-induced NFκB activation in vitro, dependent on PXR activation, which may have clinical implications for using SJW as a herbal drug anti-IBD" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.

Daily Leucine Intake Is Positively Associated with Lower Limb Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength in the Elderly - Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3536 - "Higher daily protein intake, with an emphasis on leucine content, is thought to mitigate age-related anabolic resistance, potentially counteracting age-related morphological and functional declines ... total daily leucine intake is associated with muscle mass and strength in healthy older individuals and this association remains after controlling for multiple factors, including overall protein intake. Furthermore, our breakpoint analysis revealed non-linearities and a potential threshold for habitual leucine intake, which may help guide future research on the effects of chronic leucine intake in age-related muscle loss" - [Nutra USA] - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.

The cost effectiveness of personalized dietary advice to increase protein intake in older adults with lower habitual protein intake: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Nutr 2021 Oct 5;1-16 - "Dietary advice to increase protein intake to ≥ 1.2 g/kg aBW/d improved 400-m walk time and leg strength among older adults with a lower habitual protein intake. From a societal perspective, PROT was considered cost-effective compared to CON" - [Nutra USA]

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