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Home > Health Conditions > Insomnia


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Here's my sleep formula.  It might be overkill but it works: 1000 mg of l-tryptophan (see tryptophan), 750 mg of GABA (see GABA), 200 mg of l-theanine (see l-theanine), 1 Valerian Nighttime (see valerian), 300 mg of relora (see relora, lowers cortisol), 300 mg of phosphatidyl serine (see phosphatidyl serine, lowers cortisol), 100 mg  of French oak extract (See French oak extract), 1300 mg of ashwaganda (See ashwagandha), 1 Nature's Way Chamomile Extract (see chamomile), tart cherry extract (see cherry extract), 88 mg saffron (see saffron), 25 mg B-6 - increases melatonin absorption, cut in half) (see B-vitamins), Jarrow B12/Folate and 3 mg melatonin (see melatonin).  Also, see my insomnia page.

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Alternative News:

  • Curcuminoids, a major turmeric component, have a sleep-enhancing effect by targeting the histamine H1 receptor - Food Funct 2022 Nov 21 - "we conclude that curcuminoids reduce sleep latency and enhance the quantity of NREMS by acting as modulators of H1R, indicating their usefulness in treating insomnia" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin ameliorates memory impairment by inhibiting abnormal microglial activation in a mouse model of paradoxical sleep deprivation - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Sep 27 - "Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) is prevalent in modern society, and impaired memory is one of its serious consequences. The pathogenic mechanism is still unclear, and the therapeutic strategies for PSD are limited. Here, we found that quercetin treatment ameliorated memory impairments caused by PSD in a dose-dependent manner in an animal model ... Our results provided experimental evidence for the therapeutic effects of quercetin on PSD-related memory impairments by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling that mediated abnormal microglia activation in the hippocampus" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of 12-Week Intake of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide on Sleep Quality, Fatigue, and Physical Performance in Older Japanese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study - Nutrients 2022 Feb 11 - "Deteriorating sleep quality and physical or mental fatigue in older adults leads to decreased quality of life and increased mortality rates. This study investigated the effects of the time-dependent intake of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) on sleep quality, fatigue, and physical performance in older adults ... NMN (250 mg) or placebo was administered once a day for 12 weeks. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Fatigue was evaluated using the "Jikaku-sho shirabe" questionnaire. Grip strength, 5-times sit-to-stand (5-STS), timed up and go, and 5-m habitual walk were evaluated to assess the physical performance. Significant interactions were observed between 5-STS and drowsiness. 5-STS of all groups on post-intervention and drowsiness of the NMN_PM and Placebo_PM groups on mid- and post-intervention showed significant improvement compared with those in pre-intervention. The NMN_PM group demonstrated the largest effect size for 5-STS (d = 0.72) and drowsiness (d = 0.64). Overall, NMN intake in the afternoon effectively improved lower limb function and reduced drowsiness in older adults. These findings suggest the potential of NMN in preventing loss of physical performance and improving fatigue in older adults" - See NMN at Amazon.com.
    • NMN vs NR – 1 Huge Difference | Dr David Sinclair & Dr Andrew Huberman Interview Clips - YouTube - Dr. Sinclair, who had done significant research on NMN, claims MNM is better than the much more expensive NR. Dr. Sinclair makes sense. He confirms a lot of what I've read yet look how few views he gets compared to bullshit artists like Dr. Eric Berg or Dr. John Campbell. For some reason, whether it's politics or health, people prefer lies.
  • Melatonin Improves Sleep in MS - Medscape, 10/15/21 - "The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of 5 or more, or an Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score higher than 14 at baseline. Other baseline assessments included patient-reported outcomes for sleep disturbances, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, walking ability, and mood. Half of the participants received melatonin for the first 2 weeks and then switched to placebo. The other half started with placebo and moved over to melatonin at the beginning of week 3 ... During the second and fourth weeks, participants wore an actigraph watch to measure their physical and sleep activities, and then repeated the patient-reported outcome measures at the end of weeks 2 and 4. Melatonin improved average sleep time (6.96 vs. 6.67 hours; P = .03) as measured by the actigraph watch. Sleep efficiency was also nominally improved (84.7% vs. 83.2%), though the result was not statistically significant (P = .07). Other trends toward statistical significance included improvements in ISI (–3.5 vs. –2.4; P = .07), change in PSQI component 1 (–0.03 vs. 0.0; P = .07), and change in the NeuroQoL-Fatigue score (–4.7 vs. –2.4; P = .06)" - See melatonin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Palmitoylethanolamide for sleep disturbance. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled interventional study - Sleep Sci Pract 2021;5(1):12 - "compared the efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks of daily supplemented PEA formulation (350 mg Levagen + ®) to a placebo ... At week 8, PEA supplementation reduced sleep onset latency, time to feel completely awake and improved cognition on waking. After 8 weeks, both groups improved their sleep quality and quantity scores similarly" - [Nutra USA] - See palmitoylethanolamide at Amazon.com.
  • Body clock off-schedule? Prebiotics may help - Science Daily, 9/14/21 - "The animal study, published in the journal Brain, Behavior and Immunity, is the latest to suggest that prebiotics -- not to be confused with probiotics found in fermented foods like yogurt and sauerkraut -- can influence not only the gut, but also the brain and behavior ... Naturally abundant in many fibrous foods -- including leeks, artichokes and onions -- and in breast milk, these indigestible carbohydrates pass through the small intestine and linger in the gut, serving as nourishment for the trillions of bacteria residing there ... The authors' previous studies showed that rats raised on prebiotic-infused chow slept better and were more resilient to some of the physical effects of acute stress ... Rats that ate prebiotics more quickly realigned their sleep-wake cycles and core body temperature (which can also be thrown off when internal clocks are off) and resisted the alterations in gut flora that often come with stress ... Put simply: The animals that ingested the prebiotics hosted more good bacteria, which in turn produced metabolites that protected them from something akin to jet lag ... Why not just ingest the beneficial bacteria directly, via probiotic-rich foods like yogurt? ... That could also help, but prebiotics may have an advantage over probiotics in that they support the friendly bacteria one already has, rather than introducing a new species that may or may not take hold" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at iHerb.
  • Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 on Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Self-Reported Insomniacs: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial - Nutrients 2021, 13(8) - "Recent animal studies have supported that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) can reduce the severity of anxiety and depression. However, previous studies did not focus on the sleep quality and mood of humans ... Forty participants between 20 and 40 years of age with self-reported insomnia were randomly assigned to two groups, a PS128 group and a placebo group, in a double-blind trial. Participants took two capsules of either PS128 or a placebo after dinner for 30 day ... Compared to the control group, the PS128 group showed significant decreases in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores, fatigue levels, brainwave activity, and awakenings during the deep sleep stage. Their improved depressive symptoms were related to changes in brain waves and sleep maintenance. These findings suggest that daily administration of PS128 may lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms, fatigue level, cortical excitation, and an improvement in sleep quality during the deep sleep stage. Daily consumption of PS128 as a dietary supplement may improve the depressive symptoms and sleep quality of insomniacs, although further investigation is warranted" - [Nutra USA] - See lactobacillus plantarum ps128 at Amazon.com.
  • The negative relationship of dietary inflammatory index and sleeping quality in obese and overweight women - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Aug 4 - "Based on the present observational study, obese and overweight females with higher adherence of the anti-inflammatory diet may have better sleeping status"
  • Effects of Probiotic NVP-1704 on Mental Health and Sleep in Healthy Adults: An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Nutrients 2021, 13(8) - "The human gut microbiome is closely linked to mental health and sleep. We aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of probiotic NVP-1704, a mixture of Lactobacillus reuteri NK33 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis NK98, in improving stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances, along with the measurement of some blood biomarkers. A total of 156 healthy adults with subclinical symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia were retrospectively registered and randomly assigned to receive either NVP-1704 (n = 78) or a placebo (n = 78) for eight week ... After intervention, gut microbiota composition was quantified by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The NVP-1704 group had a more significant reduction in depressive symptoms at four and eight weeks of treatment, and anxiety symptoms at four weeks compared to the placebo group. Those receiving NVP-1704 also experienced an improvement in sleep quality. NVP-1704 treatment led to a decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels. Furthermore, NVP-1704 increased Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillacea, whereas it decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiota composition. Our findings suggest that probiotic NVP-1704 could be beneficial for mental health and sleep" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • High physical activity levels may counter serious health harms of poor sleep - Science Daily. 6/29/21 - "Participants supplied information on their normal weekly physical activity levels, which were measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) minutes. These are roughly equivalent to the amount of energy (calories) expended per minute of physical activity ... For example, 600 MET minutes a week is the equivalent of 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity, or more than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity a week ... Compared with those with the high physical activity + healthy sleep score combination, those at the other end of the scale, with the no moderate to vigorous physical activity + poor sleep combination, had the highest risks of death from any cause (57% higher) ... They also had the highest risk of death from any type of cardiovascular disease (67% higher), from any type of cancer (45% higher), and from lung cancer (91% higher) ... Lower levels of physical activity amplified the unfavourable associations between poor sleep and all health outcomes, with the exception of stroke."
  • A Novel Potent Sleep-promoting Effect of Turmeric: Turmeric Increases Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice Via H 1 -receptor Blockade - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 May 18 - "turmeric extract (TE) ... TE has a sleep-promoting effect owing to reduction in sleep latency and enhancement of NREMS via H1 R blockade; therefore, it could be useful in insomnia" - See turmeric extract at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of Dietary ω-3, ω-6 Fatty Acids Consumption with Sleep Disorders and Sleep Duration among Adults - Nutrients 2021 Apr 27 - "Our study indicates that ω-6 fatty acid consumption and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio are positively associated with the risk of sleep disorders, while the negative association between ω-3 fatty acids and sleep disorders may exist only in men. Furthermore, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acid consumption are negatively related to the risk of non-normal sleep duration"
  • The impact of tryptophan supplementation on sleep quality: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression - Nutr Rev 2021 May 3 - "Results from the study suggested that Trp supplementation can shorten wake after sleep onset (-81.03 min/g, P = 0.017; SMD, -1.08 min [95%CI, -1.89 to -0.28]). In addition, the group receiving ≥1 g Trp supplementation had a shorter wake after sleep onset than the group with Trp < 1g supplementation (Trp <1 g vs Trp ≥1 g: 56.55 vs 28.91 min; P = 0.001) ... Conclusion: Trp supplementation, especially at ≥1 g can help improve sleep quality" - See tryptophan at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Saffron Extract on Sleep Quality: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial - Nutrients 2021 Apr 27 - "A saffron extract has been found to be effective in the context of depression and anxiety, but its effect on sleep quality has not been investigating yet using objective approaches ... Sixty-six subjects were randomized and supplemented with a placebo (maltodextrin) or a saffron extract (15.5 mg per day) for 6 weeks ... Six weeks of saffron supplementation led to an increased time in bed assessed by actigraphy, to an improved ease of getting to sleep evaluated by the LSEQ questionnaire and to an improved sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, and global scores evaluated by the PSQI questionnaire, whereas those parameters were not modified by the placebo. In conclusion, those results suggest that a saffron extract could be a natural and safe nutritional strategy to improve sleep duration and quality" - [Nutra USA] - See saffron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Gut microbes: a key to normal sleep - Science Daily, 11/30/20 - "The researchers gave a group of mice a powerful cocktail of antibiotics for four weeks, which depleted them of intestinal microorganisms. Then, they compared intestinal contents between these mice and control mice who had the same diet. Digestion breaks food down into bits and pieces called metabolites. The research team found significant differences between metabolites in the microbiota-depleted mice and the control mice. As Professor Yanagisawa explains, "we found more than 200 metabolite differences between mouse groups. About 60 normal metabolites were missing in the microbiota-depleted mice, and the others differed in the amount, some more and some less than in the control mice." ... the biological pathways most affected by the antibiotic treatment were those involved in making neurotransmitters, the molecules that cells in the brain use to communicate with each other. For example, the tryptophan-serotonin pathway was almost totally shut down; the microbiota-depleted mice had more tryptophan than controls, but almost zero serotonin. This shows that without important gut microbes, the mice could not make any serotonin from the tryptophan they were eating. The team also found that the mice were deficient in vitamin B6 metabolites, which accelerate production of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine." - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Clinical evaluation of the pharmacological impact of ashwagandha root extract on sleep in healthy volunteers and insomnia patients: A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study - J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Aug 17 - "In both healthy and insomnia subjects, there was a significant improvement in the sleep parameters in the Ashwagandha root extract supplemented group. The improvement was found more significant in insomnia subjects than healthy subjects. Repeat measure Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed the significant improvement in SOL (p 0.013), HAM-A outcomes (p < 0.05), mental alertness (p 0.01), and sleep quality (p < 0.05) of the insomnia patients. A two-way ANOVA was used to confirm the outcomes that denoted sleep onset latency (p < 0.0001) and sleep efficiency (p < 0.0001) as the most improved parameters, followed by TST (p < 0.002) and WASO(p < 0.040). All these parameters (SOL, TST, WASO, TIB, SE, PSQI, HAM-A, Mental Alertness, and Sleep quality) were also statistically assessed for the significant improvement within the group both for the treatment, and the placebo groups in the healthy and the insomnia datasets. Obtained results suggest statistically significant (p < 0.0001) changes between the baseline values and the end of the study results except for the HAM-A and the mental alertness scoresn the healthy subject group." - [Nutra USA] - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Gut microbiome plays important role in sleep regulation - Science Daily, 9/23/20 - "the gut microbiome plays a major role in sleep regulation. This ultimately could translate into treatments that target the gut microbiome in humans with OSA ... The study exposed male mice to either room air or intermittent hypoxia -- a condition in which the body doesn't get enough oxygen -- designed to mimic OSA. After six weeks, researchers collected fecal material from all of the rodents. A third group of mice was divided up and given either a fecal transplant from the mice breathing room air or those exposed to intermittent hypoxia. The transplanted mice underwent sleep recordings for three consecutive days. Researchers found the mice who received transplants from the intermittent hypoxia group slept longer and slept more often during their normal period of wakefulness, suggesting increased sleepiness" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults - Sleep Med 2020 Mar 21 - "150 healthy subjects scoring high on non-restorative sleep measures were given 120 mg of standardized ashwagandha extract (Shoden®) once daily for six weeks. Subjects were evaluated using the Restorative Sleep Questionnaire-weekly version and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL) scale ... A total of 144 subjects completed the study, with no dropouts due to adverse events. A 72% increase in self-reported sleep quality was found for the treatment group, compared with 29% in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Based on activity monitoring data, the treatment group showed significant improvement in sleep efficiency (SE) (p < 0.01), total sleep time (p < 0.001) and sleep latency (p < 0.01) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p < 0.05) versus placebo after six weeks. In the ashwagandha group quality of life (QOL) scores showed significant improvement in physical (p < 0.001), psychological (p < 0.001), and environment domains" - [Nutra USA] - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Efficacy and Tolerability of Ashwagandha Root Extract in the Elderly for Improvement of General Well-being and Sleep: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study - Cureus. 2020 Feb 23 - "Participants were randomized to receive Ashwagandha root extract at a dose of 600 mg/day (n = 25) orally, or identical placebo capsules with the same dose (n = 25) for 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, sleep quality, mental alertness on rising, and Physician's Global Assessment of Efficacy to Therapy (PGAET) ... Statistically significant (P<0.0001) improvement was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group compared to the placebo. The mean (SD) total score of WHOQOL-BREF improved from 140.53 (8.25) at the baseline to 161.84(9.32) at the end of the study. The individual domain scores were also improved. At baseline, the sleep quality and the mental alertness on rising were comparatively low in both the groups. However, upon intervention, a significant increase in the quality of sleep (P<0.0001) and mental alertness (P<0.034) was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group when compared to the placebo group. Overall improvement was observed for the general wellbeing, sleep quality, and mental alertness in the study population" - [Nutra USA] - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
  • Can't sleep? Prebiotics could help - Science Daily, 3/3/20 - "Most people are familiar with probiotics, friendly bacteria present in fermented foods like yogurt and sauerkraut. More recently, scientists have taken an interest in prebiotics -- dietary compounds that humans cannot digest but serve as nourishment for our microbiome, or the trillions of bacteria residing within us. While not all fibers are prebiotics, many fibrous foods like leeks, artichokes, onions and certain whole grains are rich in them ... rats on the prebiotic diet had a substantially different "metabolome," or make-up of metabolites. Theirs was higher in dozens of them, including fatty acids, sugars and steroids which may, via gut-brain signaling pathways, influence behavior. The rats' metabolome also looked different after stress ... For instance, the rats on the standard chow diet saw dramatic spikes in allopregnanolone precursor and Ketone Steroid, potentially sleep-disrupting metabolites, while those on the prebiotic diet saw no such spike ... The rats were fed very high doses of four specific prebiotics, including: galactooligosaccharides, which are present in lentils and cabbage; polydextrose (PDX) an FDA-approved food additive often used as a sweetener; lactoferrin, found in breast milk; and milk fat globular protein, abundant in dairy products." - [Nutra USA] - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Saffron on Sleep Quality in Healthy Adults With Self-Reported Poor Sleep: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Clin Sleep Med. 2020 Feb 14 - "Sixty-three healthy adults aged 18 to 70 with self-reported sleep problems were recruited and randomised to receive either saffron extract (affron, 14mg twice daily) or a placebo ... Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) (primary outcome measure) ... Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (RSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PSD) ... saffron was associated with greater improvements in ISI total score (p=.017), RSQ total score (p=.029), and PSD sleep quality ratings (p=.014) than the placebo. Saffron intake was well-tolerated with no reported adverse effects" - See saffron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study - Cueus, 28 Sep 19 - "Test product was a capsule containing highest concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract 300 mg, and the placebo was an identical capsule containing starch ... Sleep actigraphy (Respironics Philips) was used for assessment of sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) ... The sleep onset latency was improved in both test and placebo at five and 10 weeks. However, the SOL was significantly shorter (p, 0.019) after 10 weeks with test [29.00 (7.14)] compared to placebo [33.94 (7.65)]. Also, significant improvement in SE scores was observed with Ashwagandha which was 75.63 (2.70) for test at the baseline and increased to 83.48 (2.83) after 10 weeks, whereas for placebo the SE scores changed from 75.14 (3.73) at baseline to 79.68 (3.59) after 10 weeks. Similarly, significant improvement in sleep quality was observed with test compared to placebo (p, 0.002). Significant improvement was observed in all other sleep parameters, i.e., SOL, SE, PSQI and anxiety (HAM-A scores) with Ashwagandha root extract treatment for 10 weeks." - [Nutra USA] - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
    • Sleep onset latency - Wiki - "In sleep science, sleep onset latency (SOL) is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep"
    • Ashwagandha Dosage: How Much Should You Take per Day? - Healthline - "The medicinal herb appears to help lower levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by your adrenal glands in response to stress. More specifically, daily doses of 125 mg to 5 grams for 1–3 months have shown to lower cortisol levels by 11–32% (2, 3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source) ... Moreover, 500–600 mg of ashwagandha per day for 6–12 weeks may reduce anxiety and lower the likelihood of insomnia in people with stress and anxiety disorders"
  • Warm Bath Can Send You Off to a Sound Slumber - WebMD, 7/25/19 - "It should be warm. Not too hot or cold ... Actually, a too cold or too hot bath can have an effect opposite than that desired, causing an increase, rather than a decrease, in core body temperature, and disturbed sleep"
  • As Melatonin Use Rises, So Do Safety Concerns - WebMD, 11/12/18 - "One review of 15 studies involving 284 otherwise healthy subjects found that those who took melatonin before bed fell asleep 3.9 minutes faster on average and slept 13 minutes longer. Another, of 19 studies involving 1,700 people, found that melatonin users fell asleep 7 minutes faster on average and slept 8 minutes longer ... circadian rhythm disorders ... One study, published in June in the journal PLOS Medicine, looked at 116 men with the disorder and found that those who took 0.5 milligrams of fast-release melatonin 1 hour before their desired bedtime at least 5 nights per week fell asleep 34 minutes earlier on average, slept more soundly, and saw their sleep patterns normalize after 4 weeks" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Amber-Tinted Glasses Might Get You More Sleep - WebMD, 12/26/17 - "adults diagnosed with insomnia got about 30 minutes more sleep when wearing wrap-around amber lenses for two hours before bedtime ... participants also reported better-quality sleep and an overall reduction in their insomnia symptoms" - See amber tinted glasses at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of chamomile extract on sleep quality among elderly people: A clinical trial - Complement Ther Med. 2017 Dec;35:109-114 - "The treatment group received chamomile extract capsules (200mg) twice a day for 28 consecutive days ... The use of chamomile extract can significantly improve sleep quality among elderly people. Thus, it can be used as a safe modality for promoting elderly people's sleep" - [Nutra USA] - See chamomile extract at Amazon.com.
  • A preliminary examination of gut microbiota, sleep, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults - Sleep Med. 2017 Oct;38:104-107 - "Better sleep quality was associated with better Stroop performance and higher proportions of the gut microbial phyla Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Stroop Word and Color-Word performance correlated with higher proportions of Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Partial correlations suggested that the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop Color-Word performance was better accounted for by sleep quality; sleep quality remained a significant predictor of Color-Word performance, independent of the Lentisphaerae proportion, while the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop performance was non-significant. Verrucomicrobia and sleep quality were not associated with Stroop Word performance independent of one another" - [Nutra USA]
  • Pilot Study of the Tart Cherry Juice for the Treatment of Insomnia and Investigation of Mechanisms - Am J Ther. 2017 Mar 27 - "The 8 completers with insomnia increased sleep time by 84 minutes on polysomnography (P = 0.0182) and sleep efficiency increased on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ... Cherry juice increased sleep time and sleep efficiency. Cherry juice procyanidin B-2 inhibited IDO, increased tryptophan availability, reduced inflammation, and may be partially responsible for improvement in insomnia" - [Nutra USA] - See cherry juice extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Valerian/Hop Mixture on Sleep-Related Behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster - Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(7):1101-1110 - "Xanthohumol (Cascade: 827.49 µg/g, Hallertau: 763.60 µg/g, Saaz: 186.93 µg/g) ... This study demonstrates that a Valerian/Cascade mixture extract improves sleep-related behaviors, including sleeping time, by modulating GABAergic/serotonergic signaling" - See valerian root at Amazon.com and xanthohumol at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Valerian in Preventing Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Efavirenz in HIV-Positive Patients: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Jun;51(6):457-464 - "Several neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz are known. Preventing these adverse effects may improve patients' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... Patients received valerian (530 mg) or placebo nightly 1 hour before sleep for 4 weeks ... In the first 4 weeks of ART including efavirenz, valerian significantly improved sleep and anxiety in HIV-positive patients. Valerian may be considered as a potential option in preventing neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive patients" - See Valerian Nighttime at Amazon.com.
  • Sound waves boost older adults' memory, deep sleep - Science Daily, 3/8/17 - "Gentle sound stimulation -- such as the rush of a waterfall -- synchronized to the rhythm of brain waves significantly enhanced deep sleep in older adults and improved their ability to recall words ... Recall ability after the sham stimulation generally improved on the morning test by a few percent. However, the average improvement was three times larger after pink-noise stimulation ... After the sound stimulation, the older participants' slow waves increased during sleep" - See Adaptive Sound Technologies Sound+Sleep SE Special Edition Sleep Sound Machine, White Noise Machine at Amazon.com or the Sleep Pillow Sounds app at iTunes.  If you go with the app you'll probably need an external speaker.  See the Cambridge SoundWorks OontZ Angle 3 Next Generation Ultra Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker at Amazon.com.  The app might sounds like the less expensive route but they soak you $20 for the water sounds plus the price of an external speaker which is still cheaper but probably not the same sound quality.
  • Dietary prebiotics improve sleep, buffer impacts of stress, says study - Science Daily, 2/25/17 - "Prebiotics are dietary fibers found naturally in foods like chicory, artichokes, raw garlic, leeks and onions. When beneficial bacteria digest prebiotic fiber, they not only multiply, improving overall gut health, but they also release metabolic byproducts. Some research suggests these byproducts can influence brain function ... the rats on the prebiotic diet spent more time in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, which is restful and restorative, than those on the non-prebiotic diet ... After being exposed to a stressor, the rats on the prebiotic diet also spent more time in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is believed to be critical for promoting recovery from stress, with research showing that those who get more REM sleep post-trauma are less likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc-rich oysters as well as zinc yeast- and astaxanthin-enriched food improved sleep efficiency and sleep onset in a randomized controlled trial of healthy individuals - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Dec 25 - "These subjects were divided into 4 groups: placebo, zinc-rich food, zinc- and astaxanthin-rich food, and placebo supplemented with zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc-rich food group efficiently decreased the time necessary to fall asleep and improved sleep efficiency, whereas the group that ingested zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil significantly improved the sleep onset latency" - See Nutrex Hawaii BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin, 120 Gel Caps supply, 4mg Astaxanthin per Serving and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.  Cut and paste from my 11/9/16 newsletter:
  • Protein, salt drive post-meal sleepiness - Science Daily, 11/22/16 - "new research with fruit flies suggests higher protein and salt content in our food, as well as the volume consumed, can lead to longer naps ... "In Drosophila, there is a well-documented interaction between sleep and metabolism, whereby flies suppress sleep or increase their activity when starved ... after eating a meal, the animals sleep more before returning to a normal state of wakefulness ... only protein and salt were effectors of post-meal sleep, suggesting that this form of sleep can indeed be regulated by specific food types" - Note: I figured that on my own a long time ago.  A lot of people have been telling me I have it backwards by eating before bedtime but it gives me a sounder sleep and I'm the one with the 40 inch chest and 30 inch waist and they're not.
  • Not sleeping so well? Eating fiber might help - CNET, 1/16/16 - "a new study published in the January issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine zeroes in the specific impact of fiber on sleep, saying it leads to deeper, more restorative rest. The study also suggests more saturated fats and sugar consumed throughout the day have the opposite effect ... The study out of Columbia University associates a higher fiber intake with more time spent in a dreamless deep stage of sleep known as slow-wave sleep ... Fill your day with whole grains, fruits and vegetables and steer clear of too much sugar and saturated fats"
  • Intensive training affects the sleep, performance and mood of athletes, but more carbs may help - Science Daily, 12/11/15 - "the extra time under the covers didn't result in any more actual sleep. "Sleep efficiency was significantly reduced during the intensified training period," the researchers observed, with the number of times the athletes woke throughout the night significantly increased. In addition, the cyclists reported changes in their moods as the study went on, including higher tension, anger, fatigue, confusion, depression and increased feelings and symptoms of stress ... he team concluded that a high carbohydrate regime reduced some, but not all, of the effects of hard training. The moderate-carb athletes recorded more sleep time, but this may demonstrate higher levels of fatigue and a greater need for recovery when following that diet"
  • Long sleep and high blood copper levels go hand in hand - Science Daily, 9/14/15 - "Based on this study, however, it is impossible to say whether sleeping long results in high serum copper concentrations or vice versa" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of melatonin on sleep and quality of life in patients with advanced breast cancer - Support Care Cancer. 2015 Aug 11 - "Thirty-two patients with metastatic breast cancer, receiving hormonal or trastuzumab therapy, took 5 mg of melatonin at bedtime for 2 months ... Bedtime melatonin was associated with a significant improvement in a marker of objective sleep quality, sleep fragmentation and quantity, subjective sleep, fatigue severity, global quality of life, and social and cognitive functioning scales. Morning clock gene expression was increased following bedtime melatonin intake" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.  I like the peppermint flavored by Source Naturals.
  • iPads, tablets, smartphones disrupt good sleep, study finds - The Washington Post, 12/22/14 - "During a two-week inpatient experiment involving a dozen adults, some participants were asked to read on an iPad for four hours each night before bedtime, for five consecutive nights. Others read printed books in dim light. After a week, the groups switched ... participants using iPads displayed reduced levels of melatonin, a hormone that typically increases in the evening and helps induce sleepiness. They took longer to fall asleep, and spent less time in restorative REM, or rapid-eye movement, sleep ... the iPad readers reported being sleepier and less alert the following morning, even after eight hours of sleep. They also displayed delayed circadian rhythms ... although the study used only iPads, the effect isn't unique to that device. Other products produce similar blue-light emissions, including tablets, e-readers, smartphones, laptops and LED monitors" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • New Study Shows Melatonin Makes Old Bones Stronger - Dr. Michael Murray, 6/3/14 - "One of the underlying causes of low melatonin levels as a person ages may be low vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 is a necessary cofactor in the manufacture of melatonin ... Methylcobalamin is the body’s active form of vitamin B12. Methylcobalamin has been shown to help some people suffering from what is referred to as sleep-wake disorder ... In people with sleep wake disorders, taking methylcobalamin (3 mg daily first thing in the morning) has often led to improved sleep quality, increased daytime alertness and concentration, and improved mood. Much of the benefit appears to be a result of methylcobalamin influencing melatonin secretion" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Higher levels of omega-3 in diet are associated with better sleep, study shows - Science Daily, 3/6/14 - "Of the children rated as having poor sleep, the researchers fitted wrist sensors to 43 of them to monitor their movements in bed over five nights. This exploratory pilot study showed that the children on a course of daily supplements of omega-3 had nearly one hour (58 minutes) more sleep and seven fewer waking episodes per night compared with the children taking the corn or soybean placebo ... higher blood levels of the long-chain omega-3 DHA (the main omega-3 fatty acid found in the brain) are significantly associated with better sleep, including less bedtime resistance, parasomnias and total sleep disturbance. It adds that higher ratios of DHA in relation to the long-chain omega-6 fatty acid AA (arachidonic acid) are also associated with fewer sleep problems" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary amino acids improve sleep problems in mice with traumatic brain injury - Science Daily, 12/11/13 - "the scientists gave the injured mice a dietary therapy of branched chain amino acids -- which humans get most often through foods high in protein, including red meat, poultry and eggs. Branched chain amino acids are the building blocks of neurotransmitters, the chemicals released by neurons in the brain. Like the oil in a car engine, branched chain amino acids keep neurons running smoothly and boost neuron excitability. The branched chain amino acids restored the orexin neurons in the injured mice to a normal activity level, and improved wakefulness ... If a dietary supplement can improve sleeping and waking patterns as well as cognitive problems, it could help brain-injured patients regain crucial functions ... human patients with a variety of disorders have been treated with branched chain amino acid therapy for up to two years without adverse effects" - See BCAA products at Amazon.com.
  • The relationship between metformin therapy and sleep quantity and quality in patients with Type 2 diabetes referred for potential sleep disorders - Diabet Med. 2013 Nov 16 - "Given that sleep disorders are known to be related to insulin resistance, and metformin has favourable effects on insulin resistance and on ventilatory drive, we sought to determine whether metformin therapy was related to sleep variables in a group of patients with Type 2 diabetes ... Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were higher in metformin-treated patients than in patients not treated with metformin [total sleep time: 6 h 39 min vs. 6 h 3 min, respectively (P = 0.002); sleep efficiency: 77.9 +/- 12.3 vs. 71.5 +/- 17.2%, respectively" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Melatonin Prolonged Release : In the Treatment of Insomnia in Patients Aged ≥55 years - Drugs Aging. 2012 Oct 9 - "Melatonin prolonged release (PR) 2 mg is approved for the treatment of primary insomnia characterized by poor sleep quality in patients aged ≥55 years in the EU and elsewhere ... Administration of melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime mimics the natural secretion pattern of melatonin, thereby leading to improvements in the circadian regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In older adults, melatonin PR 2 mg had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo, and was associated with significantly less impairment on many of these tasks relative to zolpidem 10 mg alone or in combination with melatonin PR 2 mg. In 3-week and 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ≥55 years, melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness and health-related quality of life. Melatonin PR 2 mg was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile that was similar to that of placebo. Short- or longer-term treatment with melatonin PR 2 mg was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms" - See Source Naturals, Melatonin, Peppermint Flavored Sublingual, 2.5 mg, 240 Tablets.
  • Light from self-luminous tablet computers can affect evening melatonin, delaying sleep - Science Daily, 8/27/12 - "To produce white light, these electronic devices must emit light at short wavelengths, which makes them potential sources for suppressing or delaying the onset of melatonin in the evening, reducing sleep duration and disrupting sleep. This is particularly worrisome in populations such as young adults and adolescents, who already tend to be night owls ... Melatonin suppression after a one-hour exposure to the tablet was not significantly affected. However, after a two-hour exposure there was significant suppression" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Valerian may ease menopausal sleep woes - msnbc.com, 8/30/11 - "For the new study, researchers in Iran randomly assigned 100 postmenopausal women with insomnia to take either two valerian capsules or inactive placebo capsules every day for a month ... Overall, the study found, 30 percent of the women assigned to valerian reported an improvement in their sleep quality -- which includes factors like how long it takes to fall asleep at night and how often a person wakes up overnight ... In contrast, only four percent of women taking the placebo reported better sleep ... Women in this study reported no side effects ... Women in the current study took two valerian capsules a day, each containing 530 milligrams of valerian root extract. Both the valerian and placebo capsules they used were made specifically for the study ... A recent report by ConsumerLab.com, an independent testing company, found that of nine valerian supplements sold in the U.S., five had lower amounts of the herb than indicated on the packaging. That included one product with no valerian in it at all" - See valerian root at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of valerian on sleep quality in postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial - Menopause. 2011 Jul 14 - "About 50% of postmenopausal women experience sleep disturbances such as insomnia ... A randomized, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. Participants consisted of 100 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 60 years who were experiencing insomnia. A demographic data form and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received either 530 mg of concentrated valerian extract or a placebo twice a day for 4 weeks. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data ... A statistically significant change was reported in the quality of sleep of the intervention group in comparison with the placebo group (P < 0.001). Also, 30% of the participants in the intervention group and 4% in the placebo group showed an improvement in the quality of sleep" - Note:  My sleep combo is two Nature's Way, Valerian Nighttime, Odor Free, 100 Tablets, one Jarrow Formulas, Theanine 200, 200 mg, 60 Capsules and three Source Naturals, Melatonin, Peppermint Flavored Sublingual, 1 mg, 300 Tablets.
  • Passion flower may boost sleep quality: Study - Nutra USA, 2/17/11 - "sleep quality showed a significantly better rating for the passion flower compared to the placebo, with an increase of over five percent in sleep quality reported" - [Abstract] - See Passion flower products at iHerb.  Also see valerian, lemon balm, theanine and melatonin.
  • A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Investigation of the Effects of Passiflora incarnata (Passionflower) Herbal Tea on Subjective Sleep Quality - Phytother Res. 2011 Feb 3 - "Passiflora incarnata is a traditional herbal sedative, anxiolytic and a popular sleep aid used for the treatment of sleep disturbance ... Forty-one participants (18-35 years) were exposed to each treatment for a week, whereby they consumed a cup of the tea and filled out a sleep diary for 7 days, and completed Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory on the seventh morning. Ten participants also underwent overnight PSG on the last night of each treatment period. Of six sleep-diary measures analysed, sleep quality showed a significantly better rating for passionflower compared with placebo (t(40) = 2.70, p < 0.01). These initial findings suggest that the consumption of a low dose of Passiflora incarnata, in the form of tea, yields short-term subjective sleep benefits for healthy adults with mild fluctuations in sleep quality" - See Passion flower products at iHerb.  Also see valerian, lemon balm, theanine and melatonin.
  • Isoflavones May Reduce Insomnia Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 2/9/11 - "For the isoflavone group vs the placebo group, sleep efficiency measured by polysomnography increased significantly (from 77.9% to 83.9% vs from 77.6% to 81.2%). In addition, frequency of insomnia was reduced more readily in the isoflavone group. At the beginning of the study, 94.7% of women in the placebo group had moderate or intense insomnia compared with 63.2% at the end of the study; whereas in the isoflavone group these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively ... Isoflavones were also effective in reducing the number of hot flashes in postmenopausal women with insomnia compared with the placebo group (P = .001). This trend became apparent after 2 months of treatment, but the results became significant only after the fourth month of treatment. The intensity of hot flashes was significantly lower in the isoflavone group than in the placebo group at both evaluation points (months 2 and 4 of treatment; 1.6 vs 5.8 and 0.5 vs 3.8; P < .001)" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Progesterone Prevents Sleep Disturbances and Modulates GH, TSH, and Melatonin Secretion in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb 2 - "Progesterone had no effect on undisturbed sleep but restored normal sleep when sleep was disturbed (while currently available hypnotics tend to inhibit deep sleep), acting as a "physiologic" regulator rather than as a hypnotic drug. Use of progesterone might provide novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of sleep disturbances, in particular in aging where sleep is fragmented and of lower quality" - See progesterone products at iHerb.
  • Room light before bedtime may impact sleep quality, blood pressure and diabetes risk - Science Daily, 1/13/11 - "exposure to electrical light between dusk and bedtime strongly suppresses melatonin levels and may impact physiologic processes regulated by melatonin signaling, such as sleepiness, thermoregulation, blood pressure and glucose homeostasis ... researchers evaluated 116 healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years who were exposed to room light or dim light in the eight hours preceding bedtime for five consecutive days. An intravenous catheter was inserted into the forearms of study participants for continuous collection of blood plasma every 30-60 minutes for melatonin measurements. Results showed exposure to room light before bedtime shortened melatonin duration by about 90 minutes when compared to dim light exposure. Furthermore, exposure to room light during the usual hours of sleep suppressed melatonin by greater than 50 percent" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Aerobic exercise relieves insomnia - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "Exercise improved the participants' self-reported sleep quality, elevating them from a diagnosis of poor sleeper to good sleeper. They also reported fewer depressive symptoms, more vitality and less daytime sleepiness"
  • Isoflavones decrease insomnia in postmenopause - Menopause. 2010 Aug 19 - "Polysomnography revealed a significant increase in sleep efficiency in the isoflavone group (from 77.9% to 83.9%) when compared with the placebo group (from 77.6% to 81.2%). Isoflavones induced a decrease in the intensity and number of hot flashes and the frequency of insomnia: among the women in the placebo group, 94.7% had moderate or intense insomnia at the beginning of the study, compared with 63.2% at the end, whereas in the isoflavone group, these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Insomnia Is Bad For The Heart; Increases Blood Pressure - Science Daily, 9/4/09 - "A new study published in the journal Sleep has found that people who suffer from insomnia have heightened nighttime blood pressure, which can lead to cardiac problems"
  • Does valerian improve sleepiness and symptom severity in people with restless legs syndrome? - Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;15(2):22-8 - "The results of this study suggest that the use of 800 mg of valerian for 8 weeks improves symptoms of RLS and decreases daytime sleepiness in patients that report an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score of 10 or greater. Valerian may be an alternative treatment for the symptom management ofRLS with positive health outcomes and improved quality of life" - See valerian root at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of prolonged release melatonin in insomnia patients aged 55-80 years: quality of sleep and next-day alertness outcomes - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Sep 14 - "PR-melatonin results in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in sleep quality, morning alertness, sleep onset latency and quality of life in primary insomnia patients aged 55 years and over" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Carbs May Help You Fall Asleep Faster - WebMD, 2/14/07 - "Carbs which quickly raise blood sugar (those with a high glycemic index) may hasten sleep, especially when eaten four hours before bedtime ... The men fell asleep fastest after eating the jasmine rice meal four hours before bedtime. It took them nine minutes, on average, to fall asleep that night ... They were slowest to fall asleep after eating the long-grain rice meal four hours before bedtime, taking nearly 18 minutes, on average, to fall asleep"
  • Seditol helps sleepless in Cincinnati - Nutra USA, 6/15/06 - "Ninety-two percent of the subjects reported Seditol helped them relax and 89 percent reported it helped reduce fatigue due to lack of sleep" - See Seditol at iHerb.
  • Stopping Jet Lag Before It Starts - WebMD, 11/2/05 - "The body clocks of those who took melatonin adapted better to the new schedule. The higher dose of melatonin fared best in that regard, but not by much. Plus, people who took the higher dose were sleepier in the evenings after taking the pill"
  • Melatonin to Fight Insomnia: Timing Is Key - WebMD, 10/25/05 - "melatonin was most effective in resetting the body's internal, or circadian, clock when it was timed to the individual's sleep patterns ... If you only want to induce sleep you can take it about two hours before you want to go to sleep"
  • Melatonin for Jet Lag and Sleep Disorders - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/04 - "Those given melatonin reported improved sleep latency and morning “restedness,” and had higher scores on the California Verbal Learning Test" - See iHerb melatonin products.
  • Short Insomnia Therapy Beats Sleeping Pills - WebMD, 9/27/04
  • Sleep easy with green tea - Nutra USA, 3/16/04 - "200mg of L-theanine or a placebo ... all subjects reported a significant absence of feeling exhausted and a reduced need for sleep when administered with the L-theanine, compared to the placebo"
  • Morning Exercise May Help You Sleep - WebMD, 11/4/03
  • Sleep Problems, Anxiety May Be Connected - WebMD, 9/12/03 - "both sleep and mood problems may result from a lack of the same brain chemical ... The brain chemical -- gamma-aminobutryric acid, or GABA -- is involved in regulating brain activity ... Specifically, GABA deficiencies interfere with the most important stage of sleep -- the "deep" delta sleep" - See iHerb GABA products.
  • Nighttime Computer Users May Lose Sleep - WebMD, 6/20/03 - "the bright light of a computer screen may alter the body's biological clock and suppress the natural production of melatonin that's critical to the normal sleep-wake cycle" - See iHerb melatonin products.
  • Herbal With Valerian Helps Treat Sleep-Onset Insomnia - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/03 - "Those who took the supplement experienced a significant decrease in subjective sleep latency from baseline of 12.61 minutes, according to daily sleep diaries. Patients taking the placebo experienced an average increase of 7.98 minutes in subjective sleep latency ... Blissful Sleep contains 160 mg of valerian and smaller amounts of Rosa centifolia, Nardostachys jatamansi, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera, Piper nigrum, Alpinia galangal, Convolvulus pluricalis, and Glycyrrhiza glabra" - See iHerb valerian products.  My favorite is Valerian Nighttime at iHerb.
  • Melatonin Appears Safe for Child Insomniacs - Clinical Psychiatry News, 3/03 - "Melatonin appears to be a safe and effective treatment for children with insomnia ... The average age of the patients was 9.6 years ... Dr. Ivanenko, who is a child psychiatrist at the University of Louisville (Ky.), said she typically starts children at 1-5 mg of melatonin and titrates up to as much as 8-10 mg in adolescents" - See iHerb melatonin products.

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