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4/14/21 (under construction)
3/31/21
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Newsletter archive

Recent Longevity News for the week ending 3/31/21

GlyNAC improves multiple defects in aging to boost strength and cognition in older humans - Science Daily, 3/29/21 - "supplementation with GlyNAC -- a combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine as precursors of the natural antioxidant glutathione -- could improve many age-associated defects in older humans to improve muscle strength and cognition, and promote healthy aging ... older humans taking GlyNAC for 24 weeks saw improvements in many characteristic defects of aging, including glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, body fat, genomic toxicity, muscle strength, gait speed, exercise capacity and cognitive function. The benefits declined after stopping supplementation for 12 weeks. GlyNAC supplementation was well tolerated during the study period ... Mitochondria generate energy needed for supporting cellular functions by burning fat and sugar from foods, therefore mitochondrial health is critically important for life. Sekhar believes that improving the health of malfunctioning mitochondria in aging is the key ... I am particularly encouraged by the improvements in cognition and muscle strength ... Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are serious medical conditions affecting memory in older people and leading to dementia, and there are no effective solutions for these disorders. We are exploring the possibility that GlyNAC could help with these conditions by conducting two pilot randomized clinical trials to test whether GlyNAC supplementation could improve defects linked to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and in MCI, and possibly improve cognitive function." - See glycine products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.

People with severe gum disease may be twice as likely to have increased blood pressure - Science Daily, 3/29/21 - "a diagnosis of gum disease was associated with higher odds of hypertension, independent of common cardiovascular risk factors. Individuals with gum disease were twice as likely to have high systolic blood pressure values ?140 mm Hg, compared to people with healthy gums (14% and 7%, respectively). Researchers also found: ... The presence of active gum inflammation (identified by bleeding gums) was associated with higher systolic blood pressure ... Participants with periodontitis exhibited increased glucose, LDL ("bad" cholesterol), hsCRP and white blood cell levels, and lower HDL ("good" cholesterol) levels compared to those in the control group ... Nearly 50% of participants with gum disease and 42% of the control group had blood pressure values for a diagnosis of hypertension, defined as ?130/80 mmHg."

Serum 25(OH)D Level on Hospital Admission Associated With COVID-19 Stage and Mortality - Medscape, 3/29/21 - "Vitamin D deficiency on admission was not confounded by age, ethnicity, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease/hypertension, or diabetes and was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR], 3.87" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Cardiac and Kidney Benefits of Empagliflozin in Heart Failure Across the Spectrum of Kidney Function - Medscape, 3/29/21 - "Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome and total HF hospitalizations in patients with and without CKD: hazard ratio (HR)=0.78 (95% CI, 0.65–0.93) and HR=0.72 (95% CI, 0.58–0.90), respectively (interaction P=0.63). Empagliflozin slowed the slope of eGFR decline by 1.11 (0.23–1.98) ml/min/1.73 m2/yr in patients with CKD and by 2.41 (1.49–3.32) ml/min/1.73 m2/yr in patients without CKD. The risk of the composite kidney outcome was reduced similarly in patients with and without CKD: HR=0.53 (95% CI, 0.31–0.91) and HR=0.46 (95% CI, 0.22–0.99), respectively. The effect of empagliflozin on the primary composite outcome and key secondary outcomes was consistent across a broad range of baseline kidney function, measured by clinically relevant eGFR subgroups or by albuminuria, including patients with eGFR as low as 20 ml/min/1.73 m2. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in CKD patients ... In EMPEROR-Reduced, empagliflozin had a beneficial effect on the key efficacy outcomes and slowed the rate of kidney function decline in patients with and without CKD, and regardless of the severity of kidney impairment at baseline."

Pot Use as a Teen, Less Success as an Adult? - WebMD, 3/29/21 - "A teenager who uses more marijuana than their identical twin is less likely to wind up in a highly skilled occupation with better pay than their brother or sister ... twins who smoked more pot did more poorly in school, which set them on a rockier life path moving forward ... Those teens had a lower GPA, on average, less academic motivation and more discipline problems, and were more likely to hang out with antisocial peers ... Pot use can affect regions of the brain associated with learning, memory and attention"

Air pollution kills millions every year, like a ‘pandemic in slow motion’ - National Geographic, 3/16/21 - "Dirty air, his committee reported, affects nearly all the body’s essential systems. It may cause about 20 percent of all deaths from strokes and coronary artery disease, triggering heart attacks and arrhythmias, congestive heart failure and high blood pressure. It’s linked to lung, bladder, colon, kidney, and stomach cancers and to childhood leukemia. It harms kids’ cognitive development and raises older people’s risk of contracting dementia or dying of Parkinson’s disease. It’s been credibly tied to diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, decreased fertility, miscarriage, mood disorders, sleep apnea—the list goes on ... Climate change and air pollution have the same cause and the same solution, but they play out on different time scales. One of the most striking things about air pollution is how quickly health improves when it clears. The economic shutdowns triggered by COVID-19 last year temporarily slowed the world’s carbon emissions, but the total amount of carbon in the atmosphere continued to rise, and the long-term threat from climate change got that much worse. In contrast, every incremental and local decline in pollutants such as PM2.5 or nitrogen dioxide translates immediately into fewer asthma attacks, heart attacks, and deaths"

Cholesterol may be key to new therapies for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes - Science Daily, 3/25/21 - "Type 2 diabetes occurs when insulin becomes less efficient at removing glucose from the bloodstream, resulting in high blood sugar that can cause abnormal cholesterol levels. A similar situation occurs in Alzheimer's disease, but rather than affecting the body as a whole, the effects are localized in the brain ... Alzheimer's and diabetes share many common causes"

Anabolic androgenic steroids accelerate brain aging - Science Daily, 3/25/21 - "Steroid hormones readily enter the brain, and receptors for sex hormones are found throughout the brain. Because AAS are administered at much higher doses than those naturally found in the body, they could have a harmful impact on the brain, particularly over a long period of use. Previous studies have shown that AAS users performed worse on cognitive tests than non-users ... Not surprisingly, AAS users had a bigger brain age gap compared to non-users. Those with dependence on AAS, or with a longer history of use, showed accelerated brain aging. The researchers accounted for use of other substances and for depression in the men, which did not explain the difference between the groups"

Green leafy vegetables essential for muscle strength - Science Daily, 3/24/21 - "Researchers examined data from 3,759 Australians taking part in Melbourne's Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute AusDiab study over a 12-year period. They found those with the highest regular nitrate consumption had 11 per cent stronger lower limb strength than those with the lowest nitrate intake. Up to 4 per cent faster walking speeds were also recorded ... The research found nitrate-rich vegetables, such as lettuce, spinach, kale and even beetroot, provided the greatest health benefits" - Note:  I get the organic at Costco and steam it for 13 minutes.  Start out at high then when the steam starts, lower it.  Nuoc MaM Pha San Fish Sauce for Spring Roll makes it take good.  You'll probably need to go to a Vietnamese grocery store to get it.

 

Flu shot associated with fewer, less severe COVID cases, study finds - Science Daily, 3/23/21 - "People who received a flu shot last flu season were significantly less likely to test positive for a COVID-19 infection when the pandemic hit, according to a new study. And those who did test positive for COVID-19 had fewer complications if they received their flu shot ... There's robust data that the flu shot prevents heart attack and hospitalizations for heart failure, which is an additional reason to get your vaccine every flu season"

Could Taking Viagra Come With an Extra Perk? - Medscape, 3/24/21 - "The researchers identified around 240,000 Swedish men who had a prior myocardial infarction or revascularization. Of that group, around 20,000 were receiving medication for ED — mostly PDE5 inhibitors but enough on alprostadil to do the analysis. ... Topline results: Men taking PDE5 inhibitors for ED were way less likely to have MIs, coronary revascularization, or heart failure than those taking alprostadil. In fact, over the course of up to 15 years of follow-up, 14% of men died of any cause in the PDE5 group compared with 26% in the alprostadil group" - Related study:

  • Erectile dysfunction drug 'effective' as heart failure treatment - Science Daily, 5/1/19 - "The study of Tadalafil -- which is in the same class as Viagra -- proves that the drug is biologically effective as a treatment for heart failure in sheep ... When the animals had heart failure -- induced by pace makers -- which was sufficiently advanced to need treatment, the team administered the drug. Within a short period the progressive worsening of the heart failure was stopped and, importantly the drug reversed the effects of heart failure ... And the biological cause of breathlessness in heart failure- the inability of the heart to respond to adrenaline was almost completely reversed" - See tadalafil at reliablerxpharmacy.com.

Exercise boosts blood flow to the brain, study finds - Science Daily, 3/23/21 - "when older adults with mild memory loss followed an exercise program for a year, the blood flow to their brains increased"

High vitamin D levels may protect against COVID-19, especially for Black people, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/22/21 - "This research is an expansion of an earlier study showing that a vitamin D deficiency (less than 20 ng/ml) may raise the risk of testing positive for COVID-19. In the current study, those results were further supported, finding that individuals with a vitamin D deficiency had a 7.2% chance of testing positive for the virus. A separate study recently found that over 80% of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were vitamin D deficient." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D for All Over 50s to Prevent Cancer Deaths? - Medscape, 3/17/21 - "The recent data come from three meta-analyses published in 2019 that show a consistent and significant 13% reduction in cancer mortality with vitamin D ... If all persons older than 50 in Germany were given a daily dose of 1000 IU of vitamin D, almost 30,000 cancer deaths a year could be prevented, and Germany's annual costs for cancer care would be slashed by more than €250 ($300) million ... I was surprised by the magnitude of the effect that could be achieved with something as cheap as vitamin D, which costs almost nothing ... In the United States, distributing a 5-cent vitamin D tablet to persons older than 50 would cost about $2.2 billion per year but would prevent 78,000 cancer deaths, save $3.7 billion, and endow older Americans with an additional 870,000 years of life" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

A strong coffee half an hour before exercising increases fat-burning - Science Daily, 3/22/21 - "the findings of this study suggest that the combination of acute caffeine intake and aerobic exercise performed at moderate intensity in the afternoon provides the optimal scenario for people seeking to increase fat-burning during physical exercise"

Combo Thyroid Hormones as Good as Levothyroxine for Hypothyroidism - Medscape, 3/22/21 - "Patients with hypothyroidism treated with the three most common pharmacological strategies of levothyroxine (LT4) alone, LT4 in combination with triiodothyronine (T3), or desiccated thyroid extract showed no differences in thyroid symptoms or secondary outcomes in a double-blind randomized study ... Additionally, some patients treated with LT4 alone report greater improvements in symptoms with the addition of T3 ... Overall, 45% of patients indicated they preferred desiccated thyroid as their first choice of treatment, 32% preferred LT4/T3 as their first choice, and 23% preferred LT4 alone ... When Switched to Desiccated Thyroid, Many Felt 'Much Better' ... A further exploratory analysis revealed that those who experienced symptoms while taking LT4 alone reported greater alleviation of symptoms with the other two treatments ... However, with the subgroup analysis based on the scores of symptom questionnaires, we found that symptomatic patients on LT4 improved while being treated with LT4/T3 or desiccated thyroid ... Reports of improvements in switching to desiccated thyroid were notable, Hoang added. "Many patients when switched from LT4 to desiccated thyroid extract said they felt much better, [with] more energy, less mental fogginess, a better outlook, less flair of lupus symptoms, easier to lose weight, etc."" - Note:  So why is trying to get a prescription for desiccated thyroid extract or a t4/t3 combo like trying to get a prescription for cocaine?  Lotta old-timer endocrinologists think they know it all when the research doesn't back them up.

Eating processed meat could increase dementia risk - Science Daily, 3/21/21 - "consuming a 25g serving of processed meat a day, the equivalent to one rasher of bacon, is associated with a 44% increased risk of developing the disease ... But their findings also show eating some unprocessed red meat, such as beef, pork or veal, could be protective, as people who consumed 50g a day were 19% less likely to develop dementia ... Those who consumed higher amounts of processed meat were more likely to be male, less educated, smokers, overweight or obese, had lower intakes of vegetables and fruits, and had higher intakes of energy, protein, and fat (including saturated fat)"

Cells burn more calories after just one bout of moderate aerobic exercise, OSU study finds - Science Daily, 3/22/21 - "OSU researchers recruited participants who do not follow a regular exercise routine and had them ride a stationary bike for an hour at a moderate intensity. They biopsied their muscles 15 minutes later to test how efficient the mitochondria were after the exercise was completed and compared those results with a resting day ... Post-exercise, study participants' mitochondria burned 12-13% more fat-based fuel and 14-17% more sugar-based fuel. While the effects were not drastic, they were consistent ... It's pretty remarkable that even after just one hour of exercise, these people were able to burn off a little more fuel"

Dietary Magnesium and Migraine in Adults - Medscape, 3/22/21 - "Magnesium consumption in the highest quartile (Q) was associated with lower odds of migraine than in the lowest Q for both dietary (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92, p = 0.006) and total (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.99, p = 0.042) magnesium intake in adjusted models ... These results suggest inadequate consumption of magnesium intake is associated with migraine in U.S. adults ages 20–50. Further prospective investigations are warranted to evaluate the role of dietary magnesium intake on migraine" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

How to boost happiness hormones like serotonin and dopamine - CNET, 11/18/20 - "Almost everything that makes you feel "happy" is linked to one of the four happiness hormones: dopamine, serotonin, endorphin and oxytocin. Here are some ways you can boost them" - Note:  They keep claiming exercise but I've been exercising my entire life.  I think you get more bang plus anti-aging benefits by taking deprenyl.  See deprenyl at reliablerxpharmacy.com.

1 in 3 on Levothyroxine Take Meds That Interfere With Thyroid Tests - Medscape, 3/21/21 - "Among the drugs with potential thyroid test interference, about 28% of patients were taking prednisone or prednisolone, 8% were taking amiodarone, and 1.42% were taking phenytoin. Other reported drugs that could potentially interfere included carbamazepine (0.91%), phenobarbital (0.15%), lithium (0.40%), and tamoxifen (0.11%)."

THC Persists in Breast Milk 6 Weeks After Quitting Cannabis - Medscape, 3/19/21 - "projected time to elimination of more than 6 weeks"

Blood Pressure Meds Tied to Increased Schizophrenia Risk - Medscape, 3/18/21 - "The major finding was that a one-standard deviation (1-SD) lower expression of the ACE gene in blood was associated with lower systolic blood pressure of 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 2.7 - 5.3), but also an increased risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 1.75" - Note:  But I don't know of anyone that's taking ACE inhibitors these days.

Which fruits and vegetables don’t count toward your ‘5 a day’? New study has answers - Washington Post, 3/18/21 - "Variety is key, since fruits and vegetables all contain different beneficial nutrients and antioxidants. Wang’s study showed that almost all fruits and vegetables, including leafy greens, citrus fruits and berries, were associated with lower mortality, but there were some exceptions ... Fruit juices and starchy vegetables such as peas, corn and potatoes were not associated with reduced risk of death or chronic diseases. It may be due to their higher glycemic load compared to other fruits and vegetables, which means they have a greater ability to raise blood sugar levels ... Potatoes “account for more than a quarter of U.S. vegetable consumption,” Collins says. The problem? At least half of the potatoes that Americans eat are in the form of french fries or potato chips, which are high in salt and fat. There’s no need to avoid potatoes, but choose options that are roasted or boiled most often, rather than those that are deep-fried."

Strawberries, Spinach, Kale Top ‘Dirty Dozen’ List Again - WebMD, 3/17/21 - "Strawberries, spinach, and kale top this year's "Dirty Dozen" list, released annually by the Environmental Working Group as a shopper's guide to avoid pesticide in produce ... Nearly 70% of the non-organic fresh produce sold in the U.S. has residues of potentially harmful pesticides, the latest report found"

ApoB May Better Predict Mortality Risk in Statin-Treated Patients - Medscape, 3/17/21 - "many doctors are brainwashed that that is the only thing they should look at, just to keep LDL cholesterol down ... Previous work has shown that apoB and non-HDL cholesterol better reflect atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk than LDL cholesterol. This is the first study, however, to show that elevated apoB and non-HDL cholesterol are associated with a higher risk for all-cause death in statin-treated patients with low LDL cholesterol ... discordant apoB above the median with LDL cholesterol below was associated with a 21% increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07 - 1.36) and 49% increased risk for MI (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15 - 1.92), compared with concordant apoB and LDL cholesterol below the medians ... Current guidelines define apoB greater than 130 mg/dL as a risk modifier in patients not using statins but, the authors write, "based on our results, the threshold for apoB as a risk modifier in statin-treated patients should be closer to 92 mg/dL than to 130 mg/dL."" - Note:  It seems like many doctors are brainwashed on a lot of things.  The t4/t3 controversy, SHBG not being a problem, etc.

Consumption of added sugar doubles fat production - Science Daily, 3/16/21 - "Eighty grams of sugar daily, which is equivalent to about 0,8 liters of a normal soft drink, boosts fat production in the liver. And the overactive fat production continues for a longer period of time, even if no more sugar is consumed ... Ninety-four healthy young men took part in the study. Every day for a period of seven weeks, they consumed a drink sweetened with different types of sugar, while the control group did not. The drinks contained either fructose, glucose or sucrose (table sugar which is a combination of fructose and glucose) ... Overall, the participants did not consume more calories than before the study, as the sugary drink increased satiety and they therefore reduced their calorie intake from other sources. Nevertheless, the researchers observed that fructose has a negative effect: "The body's own fat production in the liver was twice as high in the fructose group as in the glucose group or the control group -- and this was still the case more than twelve hours after the last meal or sugar consumption," says Gerber. Particularly surprising was that the sugar we most commonly consume, sucrose, boosted fat synthesis slightly more than the same amount of fructose. Until now, it was thought that fructose was most likely to cause such changes ... the World Health Organization recommends limiting daily sugar consumption to around 50 grams or, even better, 25 grams" - Note: a 12-ounce can of coke has 39 grams of sugar.

Abstracts from this week:

The therapeutic effect of ALT-711 on erectile function in rats treated with high-level AGEs (advanced glycation end products) containing diet - Int J Impot Res 2021 Mar 12 - "To investigate, if advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in erectile dysfunction (ED) and also ALT-711, a cross-link breaker of AGEs, has the therapeutic potential against the development of ED in rats treated with high concentrated AGEs including food ... To investigate, if advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in erectile dysfunction (ED) and also ALT-711, a cross-link breaker of AGEs, has the therapeutic potential against the development of ED in rats treated with high concentrated AGEs including food" - Note:  I haven't come across any articles on ALT-711 in years.  It was big in the 90s.  I tried to buy some from a chemical company,  One of their reps called and asked me what I was going to do with it.  When I told him, he freaked out and wouldn't sell it.  There was a chemical recipe to make it posted on the internet.  I saved it but don't know where.  AGEs are a big area in anti-aging.

  • Alteon, Alagebrium, ALT-711 - fightaging.org - 9/24/06 - "ALT-711 was one of the most promising products for the same type of long-term, low-dose usage that seligilene (trade name Deprynl, a parkinsons medication with a 70 year history of medical use) and Metformin (a medication often given for Type II diabetes. Rather than working on insulin release, it works to maintain glucose tolerance, diabetes being a case of extreme glucose intolerance.)that became popular amongst anti-aging aficianados ... In the case of these two other meds, both the diseases they are used upon are among the groups that we all get eventually. Some of us die before we manifest symptoms, some of us manifest symptoms before we die. In either case, the oxidation of glial brain cells (parkinson's) and progressive glucose intolerance (diabetes) are inevitable. In both cases, these meds, formerly used for treatment, have proven useful as prophylactics against the diseases. They are both off-patent, and available inexpensively. Good ... In the case of ALT-711, the chemical compound had been discovered many years ago, and had traveled a circuitous route through academia, research firms, and finally, Alteon. There are two prominent attributes to Alagebrium (as Alteon renamed it). The first is that it is not a difficult compound to sysnthesize. An active black market rose very quickly after the early Phase I and II tests came in. Independent, lab-tested, certified for purity product was available for a short time on the grey market at about $3 per gram." -

Quercetin alleviates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors by promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis via FoxG1/CREB/ BDNF signaling pathway - Behav Brain Res 2021 Mar 18 - "Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to exert antidepressant effects, however, the underlying mechanisms are still uncertain. Recent studies have demonstrated that Forkhead box transcription factor G1 (FoxG1) regulates the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and exerts neuroprotective effects. In this study, we explored whether quercetin plays an anti-depressant role via regulation of FoxG1 signaling in mice and revealed the potential mechanisms. To explore the antidepressant effects of quercetin, mice were subjected to behavioral tests after a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) exposure. We found that chronic quercetin treatment (15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg) obviously restored the weight loss of mice caused by CUMS and alleviated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors, such as increased sucrose consumption, improved locomotor activity and shorten immobility time. In addition, to clarify the relationship between quercetin and AHN, we detected neurogenesis markers in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Furthermore, FoxG1-siRNA was employed and then stimulated with quercetin to further investigate the mechanism by which FoxG1 participates in the antidepressant effects of quercetin. Our results indicate that chronic quercetin treatment dramatically increased the number of doublecortin (DCX)-positive and BrdU/NeuN-double positive cells. Besides, the expression levels of FoxG1, p-CREB and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also enhanced by quercetin in the DG. Strikingly, quercetin failed to reverse the levels of p-CREB and BDNF after FoxG1-siRNA was performed in SH-SY5Y cells and Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs). Our results thus far suggest that quercetin might exert antidepressant effects via promotion of AHN by FoxG1/CREB/ BDNF signaling pathway." - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

N-acetyl cysteine co-treatment abates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats - Andrologia 2021 Mar 16 - "Perfluorooctanoic acid is a synthetic perfluoroalkyl-persistent in the environment and toxic to humans. N-acetylcysteine is a pro-drug of both amino acid l-cysteine and glutathione-a non-enzymatic antioxidant. N-acetylcysteine serves as an antidote for paracetamol poisoning and alleviates cellular oxidative and inflammatory stressors ... Co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine significantly (p < .05) reversed perfluorooctanoic acid-mediated decreases in reproductive enzyme activities, and adverse effect on testosterone, luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. N-acetylcysteine treatment alone, improved sperm motility, count and viability, and reduced total sperm abnormalities. Co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine mitigated perfluorooctanoic acid-induced alterations in sperm function parameters. N-acetylcysteine abated (p < .05) perfluorooctanoic acid-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats testes and epididymis, and generally improved antioxidant enzyme activities and cellular thiol levels. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine suppressed inflammatory responses and remedied perfluorooctanoic acid-mediated histological injuries in rat. Cooperatively, N-acetylcysteine enhanced reproductive function in perfluorooctanoic acid dosed rats, by lessening oxidative and nitrative stressors and mitigated inflammatory responses in the examined organ." - See See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 fatty acids during adolescence prevent schizophrenia-related behavioural deficits: Neurophysiological evidences from the prenatal viral infection with PolyI:C - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Mar 15 - "The likely involvement of inflammation and oxidative stress (IOS) in mental disease has led to advocate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic strategies in the treatment of schizophrenia. Since omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) show anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties, we aim to evaluate whether ω-3 treatment during adolescence in the maternal immune stimulation (MIS) animal model of schizophrenia could prevent the brain and behavioural deficits described in adulthood ... prepulse inhibition test (PPI) ... MIS-offspring showed a PPI deficit compared with VH-offspring and ω-3 treatment prevented this deficit. Also, ω-3 reduced the brain metabolism in the deep mesencephalic area and prevented the volumetric abnormalities in the hippocampus but not in the ventricles in MIS-offspring. Besides, ω-3 reduced the expression of iNOS and Keap1 and increased the activity/concentration of HO1, NQO1 and GPX. Our study demonstrates that administration of ω-3 during adolescence prevents PPI behavioural deficits and hippocampal volumetric abnormalities, and partially counteracts IOS deficits via iNOS and Nrf2-ARE pathways in the MIS model" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Patients with Lower Extremity Arterial Disease - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Mar 22 - "This meta-analysis showed that the use of marine-based omega-3 PUFAs was significantly associated with a reduced level of triglycerides. The strength of the association depended on the dosage of eicosapentaenoic acid" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Uric Acid Associates With Executive Function in Children and Adolescents With Hypertension - Hypertension 2021 Mar 22 - "Observational studies show that serum uric acid levels associate with cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical target organ damage. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of traditional cardiometabolic risk factors and uric acid with the executive performance in children and adolescents. Ninety-nine children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years referred for assessment of primary hypertension were include ... we found a positive association of serum uric acid with worse executive performance in children at risk for primary hypertension. Extending these cross-sectional findings with longitudinal studies may determine whether high uric acid levels increases the risk of cognitive decline in youth"

Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts on Peripheral and Hippocampal Antioxidant Defensiveness: The Analysis of the Serum Fatty Acid Species and Gut Microbiota Profile - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 12 - "The current study investigated the positive effects of blueberry anthocyanin-rich extracts (BAE) on either peripheral or hippocampal antioxidant defensiveness and established the connection of the improved antioxidant status with the altered fatty acid species and gut microbiota profile. High-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6 mice was attenuated by BAE administration, which was reflected by strengthened antioxidant enzymes, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and improved hippocampal neuronal status. Serum lipidomics analysis indicated that the fatty acid species were altered toward the elevated unsaturated/saturated ratio, along with phospholipid species toward enriched n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions. The modulated antioxidant pattern could be attributed to the increased bacteria diversity, stimulated probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers (Roseburia, Faecalibaculum, and Parabacteroides) improved by anthocyanins and their metabolites, which improved the colon environment, characterized by promoted SCFAs, restored colonic mucosa, and reorganized microbial structure. Thus, anthocyanin-rich dietary intervention is a promising approach for the defensiveness in human oxidative damage and neurodegeneration" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.

Dose-response relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of metabolic syndrome - Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 4 - "There are conflicting results for the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and MetS and its components in a Chinese adult population ... Of the 43,837 participants aged 18-96 years, the prevalence of MetS was 21.0%. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS decreased gradually with increasing 25(OH)D concentrations (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with the lowest 25(OH)D quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for MetS from second to the highest quartile were 0.95 (0.88-1.02), 0.82 (0.76-0.88), and 0.70 (0.65-0.75), respectively. We observed a linear dose-response relationship between 25(OH)D concentrations and MetS risk (P for nonlinear trend = 0.35); the risk of MetS decreased by 20% (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.77-0.82) for each 10 ng/ml increment in 25(OH)D concentration. The inverse association was more evident in men and participants with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or AST ≥40 U/L (all P for interaction < 0.05). Moreover, significant inverse relationships were observed between 25(OH)D and elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated blood pressure ... These findings suggested that higher 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with a dose-response decreased risk of MetS among Chinese adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Long lasting protective effects of early l-arginine treatment on endothelium in an in vitro study - Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 3 - "Excess nutrient supply, such as high fat and high glucose intake, promotes oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products accumulation. Oxidative stress and AGE accumulation cause pathological elevation of arginase activity and pro-inflammatory signaling implicated in endothelial dysfunction. Several studies showed positive effects of l-arginine supplementation in endothelial function but little is currently known about the role of l-arginine as prevention of endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive nutrient supply (overfeeding). Our aim was to evaluate a possible protective effect of l-arginine on endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive nutrient supply (overfeeding), using human endothelial cells line in an in vitro study ... Endothelial EA.hy926 cells were pre-treated with 1.72 mM of l-arginine for 24 h and afterwards subjected to nutritional stress (high lipid, high insulin and high glucose concentrations) for further 24 h ... l-arginine pretreatment reduces AGEs generation ... An early l-arginine treatment is able to prevent oxidative stress and AGEs accumulation caused by overfeeding in human endothelial cell line by regulating STAB1/RAGE gene expression and by reducing excess arginase activity. The positive effects of l-arginine pretreatment continue even after treatment discontinuation in normal conditions" - See l-arginine products at Amazon.com.

l-Arginine Alleviates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in Ovine Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Function, and Autophagy - J Nutr 2021 Mar 9 - "Previous studies demonstrated that dietary l-arginine (Arg) alters the equilibrium between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and biological defenses to resist oxidant-induced toxicity. Whether supplying Arg can protect ovine intestinal epithelial cells (OIECs) from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage is unclear ... Supply of Arg protects OIECs against H2O2-induced damage partly by improving mitochondrial function and alleviating cellular apoptosis and autophagy" - See l-arginine products at Amazon.com.

Potassium chloride-based replacers: modeling effects on sodium and potassium intakes of the US population with cross-sectional data from NHANES 2015-2016 and 2009-2010 - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 23 - "Sodium intake in the USA exceeds recommendations. The replacement of added sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) provides a potential strategy to reduce sodium intake ... feasible and practical (F&P) replacement of added NaCl with KCl in foods ... The F&P replacement of NaCl with KCl in top-ranking sources of dietary sodium modeled in this study can result in decreased sodium to a level consistent with the short-term intake goal targeted by the FDA of 3000 mg/d, with the mean potassium intake remaining in the range recommended for the apparently healthy population" - See Lite Salt at Amazon.com.

Dietary protein intake, kidney function, and survival in a nationally representative cohort - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 19 - "High-protein diets (e.g., Paleo, Atkins, South Beach, ketogenic) have gained popularity as a means to promote weight loss and avoid excess carbohydrate consumption. Yet in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, evidence suggests low dietary protein intake (DPI) leads to attenuation of kidney function decline, although concerns remain for risk of protein-energy wasting ... high biological value (HBV) protein ... Among participants with impaired kidney function, a higher DPI and greater HBV consumption were associated with higher mortality, whereas a lower DPI was associated with higher mortality in those with normal kidney function"

DHA intake relates to better cerebrovascular and neurodegeneration neuroimaging phenotypes in middle-aged adults at increased genetic risk of Alzheimer disease - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 18 - "The number of APOE-ε4 alleles is a major nonmodifiable risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). There is increasing evidence on the benefits of dietary DHA (22:6n-3) before the onset of AD symptoms, particularly in APOE-ε4 carriers. Brain alterations in the preclinical stage can be detected by structural MRI ... In 340 participants of the ALFA (ALzheimer and FAmilies) study, which is enriched for APOE-ε4 carriership (n = 122, noncarriers; n = 157, 1 allele; n = 61, 2 alleles), we assessed self-reported DHA intake through an FFQ. We measured cognitive performance by administering episodic memory and executive function tests. We performed high-resolution structural MRI to assess cerebral small vessel disease [white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)] and AD-related brain atrophy (cortical thickness in an AD signature). We constructed regression models adjusted for potential confounders, exploring the interaction DHA × APOE-ε4 ... We observed no significant associations between DHA and cognitive performance or WMH burden. We observed a nonsignificant inverse association between DHA and prevalence of lobar CMBs (OR: 0.446; 95% CI: 0.195, 1.018; P = 0.055). DHA was found to be significantly related to greater cortical thickness in the AD signature in homozygotes but not in nonhomozygotes (P-interaction = 0.045). The association strengthened when analyzing homozygotes and nonhomozygotes matched for risk factors" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.

Effect of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extracts and regular low-intensity exercise on muscle strength and mass in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 12 - "Studies suggest that Schisandra chinensis Baillon (Sc) may enhance muscle strength and mass because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in adults >50 y of age. Fifty-four participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups and, for 12 wk, received either 1 g SCe/d or a placebo. All participants were required to walk for 30-60 min/d for >3 d/wk during the trial period. At baseline and at 4 and 12 wk after treatment, the participants were examined for knee extension strength using Biodex isokinetic dynamometers, handgrip strengths, and body composition, and blood tests were performed ... SCe supplementation over 12 wk caused a higher increase in right knee extensor strength by 10.2 Nm (95% CI: 3.7, 16.8 Nm; P = 0.003) and left knee extensor strength by 6.7 Nm (95% CI: 0.3, 13.1 Nm; P = 0.041) than did the placebo. However, no differences were observed in the muscle mass, anti-inflammatory markers, antioxidative markers, and EQ-5D score between the groups. None of the participants experienced adverse events" - See Schizandra at Amazon.com.

Testosterone Therapy Effects on Bone Mass and Turnover in Hypogonadal Men with Type 2 Diabetes - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 18 - "Male hypogonadism is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fragility fracture risk. Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have relatively higher BMD, but greater fracture risk ... Testosterone therapy results in greater improvements in the skeletal health of hypogonadal men with T2D than their non-diabetic counterparts"

Dapagliflozin Reduces Systolic Blood Pressure and Modulates Vasoactive Factors - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Mar 17 - "24 and 23 patients receiving dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively, completed the 12 weeks' study. Systolic BP fell significantly, compared to placebo, both after a single dose (by 7 ± 3 mmHg) and 12-week (by 7 ± 2 mmHg) treatment with dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin suppressed angiotensin II and angiotensinogen (by 10.5 ± 2.1 pg/mL and 1.45 ± 0.42 μg/mL, respectively) and increased ANP and cGMP (by 34 ± 11 pg/mL and 29 ± 11 pmol/mL, respectively) compared to placebo group. cGMP levels also increased acutely following a single dose of dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin also suppressed PDE5 expression by 26 ± 11% in MNC. There was no change in the other vasoactive mediators investigated." - Note: So which is better, dapagliflozin (Farxiga) or empagliflozin (Jardiance)?  It seems like it's usually the one that costs a lot more which is Jardiance in this case.

SGLT-2 inhibitors for prevention of cardiorenal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Mar 12 - "A total of 8 cardiorenal outcomes trials of SGLT-2i (empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin, sotagliflozin) were identified, with 66 601 patients ... Overall, SGLT-2i were associated with a 12% reduced risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, HR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93; Q statistic, P = 0.19), with no significant heterogeneity (p for interaction = 0.465) between subgroups of patients with or without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of the composite renal outcome was significantly reduced by treatment with SGLT-2i (HR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.54-0.70), with no significant heterogeneity of associations with outcome (I2 = 37%, P = 0.11), and no difference in the risk between patients with or without CVD (p for interaction = 0.665). SGLT-2i have moderate benefits on MACE and major benefits on the progression of diabetic kidney disease"

Statin use is associated with lower prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes - Metabolism 2021 Mar 11 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and advanced liver fibrosis related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Statin use is known to reduce the incidence of CVD while evidence on an effect on NAFLD severity is limited ... After adjustment for age, sex, race-ethnicity, BMI, albumin, total cholesterol, HbA1c, triglycerides and liver enzymes, statin use was associated with lower odds of advanced fibrosis (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.90, p = 0.03). No significant interaction was found between statin use and steatosis" -

Intermittent Fasting with a High Protein Diet Mitigated Osteoarthritis Symptoms by Increasing Lean Body Mass and Reducing Inflammation in Osteoarthritic rats with Alzheimer's Disease-Like Dementia - Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 10 - "Alzheimer's-like disease (AD) ... intermittent fasting(IMF) ... high-protein(H-P) ... high-fat(H-F) or H-P diets for two weeks ... AD exacerbated the articular cartilage deterioration and memory impairment, and IMF with H-P alleviated the memory impairment and osteoarthritic symptoms by decreasing hippocampal amyloid-β deposition and proinflammatory cytokine expressions and by increasing LBM" -

Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss in competitive wrestlers - Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 15 - "We aimed to assess the effects of spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss on serum concentrations of follistatin (FST), myostatin (MST), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body composition in competitive wrestlers. Forty competitive wrestlers (age: 22 ± 2 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: gradual weight loss + spirulina (SP; n=20) or gradual weight loss + placebo (PL; n=20). Subjects in both groups lost weight according to a designed diet over 12 days and were required to reduce baseline body mass by 4%. Subjects in the SP group received two tablets of spirulina, while subjects in the PL received two tablets of placebo before each meal ... Body mass (SP = -3.1 kg and PL= -2.9 kg), body fat percentage (SP = -2.1 % and PL= -0.6 %), fat mass (SP = -2.2 kg and PL= -0.9 kg), and skeletal muscle mass (SP = -1.4 kg and PL= -1.5 kg) significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.05). The changes in body fat percentage and fat mass were significantly greater in SP compared to the PL group (P<0.001). Additionally, MST (SP = -0.1 ng/ml), AST (SP = -2.1 u/l), and ALT (SP = -2.7 u/l) concentrations significantly diminished in SP group (P=0.005) while FST (PL = -0.1 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (PL = -2.6 ng/ml) concentrations significantly decreased in PL group (P<0.05). Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss is beneficial in reducing body fat percentage, fat mass, MST, and liver enzymes while maintaining IGF-1 and FST concentrations in competitive wrestlers" - See spirulina at Amazon.com.

Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on Elderly Body Composition and Muscle Strength: A Review of Clinical Trials - Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 12 - "The aging process has great impact on body composition, such as the increase of adipose tissue in abdominal region, and the decrease of lean body mass, due to skeletal muscle loss. A reduction in muscle mass is associated to high risk of fractures and falls, loss of mobility, and increased number of hospitalizations. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a biological substance derived from leucine metabolism, with anabolic and anticatabolic properties. Some HMB effects are tissue repair stimulation and protein anabolism ... Supplementation of 3 g of HMB has shown to be most beneficial in improving strength and body composition in people over 65 years, especially in bed rest and untrained conditions ... Our findings suggest that HMB has a positive effect on body composition and strength, especially in bedridden or sedentary elderly, due to its anticatabolic properties" - See HMB at Amazon.com.

Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation increases the efficacy of exercise- and diet-induced obesity treatment and induces immunometabolic changes in female mice and women - FASEB J 2021 Apr - "First, we showed by in vitro experiments that ALA favors the polarization of mice CD4 + T cells toward Tregs. Next, we have carried out a translational study where female obese mice and women were supplemented with ALA or vehicle/placebo (mice: 2.5 gALA /kgfood ; 6 weeks; women: 600 mgALA /day, 8 weeks) while following a protocol including regular exercise and a change in diet. Fatty acid oxidation potential and activity of nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) of mouse secondary lymphoid tissues were improved by ALA supplementation. ALA reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass and preserved Tregs in VAT in mice. In women, ALA supplementation induced significant metabolic changes of circulating CD4 + T cells including increased oxidative capacity and fatty acid oxidation, ameliorated their redox status, and improved the reduction of visceral fat mass" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.

Melatonin prevents diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction from microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by activating autophagy via TLR4/Akt/mTOR pathway - FASEB J 2021 Apr - "Cognitive dysfunction often occurs in diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of melatonin (MLT) in improving diabetes-associated cognitive decline and the underlying mechanism involved. Type 2 diabetic mice and palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated BV-2 cells were treated by MLT, and the potential mechanisms among MLT, cognition, and autophagy were explored. The results showed that type 2 diabetic mice showed obvious learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze test compared with normal controls, which could be ameliorated by MLT treatment. Meanwhile, MLT administration significantly improved neuroinflammation and regulated microglial apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased the microglial inflammation and apoptosis, indicating that the treatment effect of MLT was mediated by autophagy. Lastly, MLT treatment significantly decreased the levels of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), phosphorylated-protein kinase B (Akt), and phosphorylated-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), indicating that blocking TLR4/Akt/mTOR pathway might be an underlying basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects of MLT. Collectively, our study suggested that MLT could improve learning and memory in type 2 diabetic mice by activating autophagy via the TLR4/Akt/mTOR pathway, thereby inhibiting neuroinflammation and microglial apoptosis" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.

Effects of Folic Acid Combined with DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Amyloid-β-Related Biomarkers in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment by a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Mar 13 - "We divided 160 MCI patients aged > 60 years into four regimen groups randomly: folic acid (0.8 mg/day) + DHA (800 mg/day), folic acid (0.8 mg/day), DHA (800 mg/day), and placebo, for 6 months. Cognitive function and blood amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) biomarker levels were measured at baseline and 6 months. Cognitive function was also measured at 12 months ... Folic acid improved the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), arithmetic, and picture complement scores; DHA improved the FSIQ, information, arithmetic, and digit span scores; folic acid + DHA improved the arithmetic (difference 1.67, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.31) and digital span (1.33, 0.24 to 2.43) scores compared to placebo. At 12 months, all scores declined in the intervention groups. Folic acid and folic acid + DHA increased blood folate (folic acid + DHA: 7.70, 3.81 to 11.59) and S-adenosylmethionine (23.93, 1.86 to 46.00) levels and reduced homocysteine levels (-6.51, -10.57 to -2.45) compared to placebo. DHA lower the Aβ40 levels (-40.57, -79.79 to -1.35) compared to placebo (p < 0.05), and folic acid + DHA reduced the Aβ42 (-95.59, -150.76 to -40.43) and Aβ40 levels (-45.75, -84.67 to -6.84) more than DHA ... Folic acid and DHA improve cognitive function and reduce blood Aβ production in MCI patients. Combination therapy may be more beneficial in reducing blood Aβ-related biomarkers" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.

Neuroprotective Effect of Turmeric Extract in Combination with Its Essential Oil and Enhanced Brain Bioavailability in an Animal Model - Biomed Res Int 2021 Jan 26 - "Swiss albino mice received turmeric extract (TE), TE-essential oil combination (TE+EO) at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day orally, vehicle (control), and a positive control group. Neurotoxicity was induced by injecting aluminum chloride (40 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and the effect of the intervention was studied for 45 days. The pharmacokinetic and behavioral biochemical markers of brain function and brain histopathological changes were evaluated ... The AUC 0- showed a 30.1 and 54.2 times higher free curcumin concentration in plasma with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of TE+EO vs. TE, respectively. The concentration of free curcumin in the brain was 11.01 and 13.71-fold higher for 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of TE+EO vs. TE, respectively. Aluminum impairs spatial learning and memory, which was significantly reversed with TE+EO by 28.6% (25 mg/kg) and 39.4% (50 mg/kg). In the elevated plus maze test, 44.8% (25 mg/kg) and 67.1% (50 mg/kg) improvements were observed. A significant reduction in aluminum-induced lipid peroxidation was observed. Also, the levels of glutathione, acetylcholinesterase, and catalase were improved with TE+EO. Damage to the hippocampal pyramidal cells was averted with TE+EO. Conclusion. The neuroprotective and antioxidant response confirms the benefits of TE+EO against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. The presence of free curcumin and its metabolites in the brain and plasma establishes its improved bioavailability and tissue distribution. Therefore, the benefits of TE+EO could be harnessed in neurodegenerative diseases" - [Nutra USA] - See turmeric extract at Amazon.com and turmeric extract essential oil at Amazon.com (but I don't see any oils).

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

The only thing our cat will eat.  She won't ouch poultry.  It's got to be fish and  it's got to be in a sauce.

Health Focus (Alzheimer's Disease):

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