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Home > Health Conditions > Liver Disease

Liver Disease

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  • Association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)-‍a ‍population-based study - Endocr J 2021 Mar 4 - "Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new concept proposed in 2020. This study aimed to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level and MAFLD based on a population survey dataset (the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of the United States) ... The incidence of MAFLD and the grade of hepatic steatosis were both significantly higher in vitamin D insufficiency group. Multivariate analysis showed that vitamin D insufficiency was an independent risk factor for MAFLD after adjusted for other confounders (OR: 1.130, 95%CI: 1.035 to 1.234). In MAFLD population, the average serum 25(OH)D level decreased with the numbers of metabolic risks in MAFLD cases. Serum 25(OH)D level was not associated with the severity of fibrosis or steatosis in MAFLD group. In Conclusion, lower serum 25(OH)D level is associated with higher prevalence of MAFLD in general population. No relationship was found between serum 25(OH)D level and the severity of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis in MAFLD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • The Effects of Vitamin E, Silymarin and Carnitine on the Metabolic Abnormalities Associated with Nonalcoholic Liver Disease - J Diet Suppl 2021 Jan 25 - "Studies indicate that antioxidant supplementation may improve abnormal liver chemistries, glucose control, and hyperlipidemia, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The primary objective of the study was to determine the normalization of abnormalities in hepatic function testing in patients with NAFLD when treated with vitamin E 200 IU, Silymarin 750 mg, and l-carnitine 1 gram (VSC) for 18 weeks in comparison to a placebo-controlled group ... VSC caused a significant reduction in serum glucose, insulin, and HOMA levels. While there were downtrends in the other measured values these were not statistically significant. In this 18-week study, the ability of this supplement in reducing markers of liver inflammation, glucose, insulin, and triglycerides indicate that this supplement could play an important role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com, silymarin at Amazon.com and L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • High-protein Diet More Effectively Reduces Hepatic Fat Than Low-protein Diet Despite Lower Autophagy and FGF21 Levels - Medscape, 1/14/21 - "19 participants with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery were randomized into two hypocaloric (1500–1600 kcal/day) diet groups, a low protein (10E% protein) and a high protein (30E% protein), for three weeks prior to surgery ... HP diet more effectively reduces hepatic fat than LP diet despite of lower autophagy and FGF21. Our data suggest that liver fat reduction upon HP diets result primarily from suppression of fat uptake and lipid biosynthesis" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD): An Update - Nutrients 2020 Oct 28 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the first cause of chronic liver disease worldwide; it ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) and, potentially, cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. NAFLD is also an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. As it is largely associated with insulin resistance and related disorders, NAFLD has been recently re-named as Metabolic dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) ... Evidence so far available supports the hypothesis of potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in selected populations of NAFLD patients, as those with shorter disease duration and mild to moderate liver damage" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Common diabetes drug reverses inflammation in the liver - Science Daily, 9/10/20 - "The diabetes drug metformin -- derived from a lilac plant that's been used medicinally for more than a thousand years -- has been prescribed to hundreds of millions of people worldwide as the frontline treatment for type 2 diabetes. Yet scientists don't fully understand how the drug is so effective at controlling blood glucose ... the new work showed that the same proteins, regulated by metformin, controlled aspects of inflammation in mice, something the drug has not typically been prescribed for ... metformin is currently entering clinical trials in the United States as a general anti-aging treatment because it is effects are so well established from millions of patients and its side effects are minimal ... Metformin and exercise elicit similar beneficial outcomes, and research has previously shown that AMPK helps mediate some of the positive effects of exercise on the body" - See metformin at ReliableRX.
  • Rosmarinic acid protects mice from Concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury through AMPK signaling - Biol Pharm Bull 2020 Sep 4 - "Rosmarinic acid (RA) ... The objective of this study was to investigate the role of AMPK signaling involving the protective effects of RA on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced(AIH) in mice ... Compared with the Con A group, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in RA group (100 and 150 mg/kg/day) were significantly reduced. RA also reduced hepatocyte swelling, cell death, and infiltration of leukocytes in the liver of Con A-treated mice. Serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon-γ(IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-1(IL-1β), were reduced by RA pretreatment, while the levels of serum interferon-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was elevated. These protective effects were reversed by treatment with CC. RA treatment reduced the hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK in the mice of Con A-induced. So RA acts as a potential part in the therapy of autoimmune hepatitis" - See rosemary extract at Amazon.com and rosemary extract at iHerb.
  • Randomized Clinical Trial: Bergamot Citrus and Wild Cardoon Reduce Liver Steatosis and Body Weight in Non-diabetic Individuals Aged Over 50 Years - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 Aug 11 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the world. However, no effective pharmacological treatment for this condition has been found ... The intervention group received a nutraceutical containing a Bergamot polyphenol fraction and Cynara Cardunculus extract, 300 mg/day for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo daily ... We found a greater liver fat content reduction in the participants taking the nutraceutical rather than placebo (-48.2 ± 39 vs. -26.9 ± 43 dB/m" - [Nutra USA] - See bergamot supplement supplement at Amazon.com and Cynara Cardunculus extract at Amazon.com.
  • Delta-tocotrienol supplementation improves biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Aug 2020 - "patients with NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive δ-tocotrienol 300 mg twice daily or placebo for 24 weeks ... δ-tocotrienol effectively improved biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and steatosis in patients with NAFLD. δ-tocotrienol supplementation might be considered as a therapeutic option in the management of patients with NAFLD" - [Nutra USA] - See delta-tocotrienol at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Aerobic exercise could have the final say on fatty livers - Science Daily, 7/29/20 - "fitness may be a more important clinical endpoint for improvement in patients with fatty liver diseases during exercise trials, rather than weight loss"
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Panax ginseng Extract on Hepatic Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 Jul 16 - "Panax ginseng extract (GS-KG9) ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from December 2017 to January 2019. The trial included 60 subjects between the ages of 19 and 70 who had higher alanine transaminase (ALT) levels than the normal upper limit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: GS-KG9 (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30). The former was administered three GS-KG9 capsules (3 g/day) and the latter three placebo capsules (3 g/day) twice each day orally after meals in the morning and evening for 12 weeks ... After 12 weeks of treatment, the ALT levels were significantly reduced in the GS-KG9 group compared to the placebo group (p=0.009). The GGT level of the GS-KG9 group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p=0.036). Mild AEs, such as diarrhea, occurred during the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Resveratrol Alleviates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Hepatic Steatosis and Injury in Mice Challenged With Tunicamycin - Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 Jun 11 - "RSV attenuated the TM-induced increases in lipid peroxidation, hepatocyte apoptosis, and the overactivation of inflammatory signals ... Conclusion: RSV may have an auxiliary therapeutic potential to prevent the development of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis in the liver by alleviating severe ER stress" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D 3 Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular and Liver Diseases by Lowering Homocysteine Levels: Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Br J Nutr 2020 Jun 1 - "Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the placebo (n = 50) and the vitamin D (n = 50) which received 50,000 IU vitamin D3 per week for 2 months ... the tHcy, CRP, AST, ALT, and eGFR levels after the second month of vitamin D3 intervention were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased and the 25(OH)D, urea, and creatinine levels were significantly (p < 0.001) increased in the treatment group. In the placebo group, no significant changes were identified throughout the follow up period. In conclusion, vitamin D3 intervention with a treatment dose of 50,000 IU per week for at least 2 months may help in lowering homocysteine and CRP levels and may improve liver function tests, which in turn might help in minimizing the risk of CVD and liver diseases among overweight women but negatively affect kidney function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Combined Cranberry Supplementation and Weight Loss Diet in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr 2020 Apr 1 - "Participants were randomly allocated to receive either a cranberry supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. Both groups were assigned to follow a weight loss diet. At the end of the study, alanine aminotransferase and insulin decreased significantly in both groups (p < .05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in the cranberry group than in the placebo group (p < .05). Significant improvements in insulin resistance were observed in the cranberry group and between the two groups (p < .001 and p = .020, respectively). Also, there was an improvement in steatosis grade and anthropometric measurements in both groups (p < .05), and there was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to these factors (p > .05). It seems that 288 mg of cranberry extract might improve managing NAFLD, which is equivalent to 26 g of dried cranberry" - [Nutra USA] - cranberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Supplementation on the Progression of Advanced Liver Disease: A Korean Nationwide, Multicenter, Prospective, Observational, Cohort Study - Nutrients 2020 May 15 - "Liver cirrhosis patients with Child-Pugh (CP) scores from 8 to 10 were prospectively recruited from 13 medical centers. Patients supplemented with 12.45 g of daily BCAA granules over 6 months, and patients consuming a regular diet were assigned to the BCAA and control groups, respectively. The effects of BCAA supplementation were evaluated using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, CP score, serum albumin, serum bilirubin, incidence of cirrhosis-related events, and event-free survival for 24 months ... A total of 124 patients was analyzed: 63 in the BCAA group and 61 in the control group. The MELD score (p = 0.009) and CP score (p = 0.011) significantly improved in the BCAA group compared to the control group over time. However, the levels of serum albumin and bilirubin in the BCAA group did not improve during the study period. The cumulative event-free survival was significantly improved in the BCAA group compared to the control group (HR = 0.389" - See BCAA products at Amazon.com and iHerb.com.
  • Combined Amelioration of Prebiotic Resveratrol and Probiotic Bifidobacteria on Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Nutr Cancer 2020 May 21 - "Supplement of probiotics is considered as a promising strategy for NAFLD and obesity treatment ... We proposed that combination with a prebiotic substrate may improve the effects of probiotics. Thus, in this study, we investigated the separated and combined effects of Bifidobacteria and resveratrol (RSV) against obesity and NAFLD. NAFLD was caused by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 8 weeks. HFD-treated mice were orally treated with B. longum (1 × 109 CFU/mouse/day), RSV (100 mg/kg/day), and both of them from the fifth week. HFD feeding caused obesity and NAFLD as indicated by significantly increased body and liver weights, liver steatosis, elevated serum transaminases and lipid profiles, increased inflammation and imbalanced redox status. Based on these physical and biochemical parameters, inflammatory and antioxidant markers, individual administration of B. longum and RSV alleviated obesity and NAFLD, while coadministration of both products further enhanced the efficacy. These data suggested that combined prebiotic RSV and probiotic B. longum would be a potential candidate or adjuvant for the treatment of obesity and NAFLD" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at iHerb and resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.
  • Associations of Coffee Consumption with the Circulating Level of Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase. A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Apr 28 - "A total of 19 observational studies, which involved 222,067 individuals, were included in this meta-analysis. The combined SMD suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of ALT (SMD = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.06; p = 0.001) and AST (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.20 to -0.13; p < 0.001), respectively. Meanwhile, the overall multivariable adjusted OR showed that coffee consumption was inversely associated with the elevated ALT (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.79; p < 0.001) and AST (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.81; p < 0.001), respectively"
  • Effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial - Br J Nutr. 2020 Apr 21:1-18 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There is no proven drug treatment for NAFLD and diet modification is considered part of the main line of treatment for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of garlic supplementation in NAFLD patients. The effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile was investigated in NAFLD patients. Ninety NAFLD patients were randomly assigned to take either a garlic powder supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The treatment group received four tablets of garlic daily (each tablet contained 400 mg garlic powder). The control group received four tablets of placebo (each placebo contained 400 mg starch). At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (P = 0.001). In addition, a significant decrease was seen in the treatment group compared to the control group in the serum concentration of alanine transaminase (P < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (P = 0.002), gamma-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.003), as well as total cholesterol (P = 0.009), triglyceride (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the two groups in serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase. Overall, garlic powder supplementation improved hepatic features and lipid profile among NAFLD patients" - See garlic at iHerb.com and garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate Induces Hepatic Stellate Cell Senescence and Attenuates Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 Apr 6 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly morbid condition with lack of effective treatment options. HCC arises from chronically inflamed and damaged liver tissue; therefore, chemoprevention may be a useful strategy to reduce HCC incidence. Several reports suggest that Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), extracted from green tea, can suppress liver inflammation and fibrosis in animal models ... male Wistar rats were injected with DEN at 50 mg/kg for 18 weeks to induce cirrhosis and HCC, and EGCG was given in drinking water at a concentration of 0.02%. Clinically achievable dosing of EGCG was well tolerated in DEN-injured rats and was associated with improved serum liver markers including ALT, AST, and total bilirubin, and reduced HCC tumor formation. Transcriptomic analysis of DEN-injured hepatic tissue was notable for increased expression of genes associated with the Hoshida high risk HCC gene signature, which was prevented with EGCG treatment. EGCG treatment also inhibited fibrosis progression, which was associated with inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)" - See Epigallocatechin gallate at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of a Mixture of Astragalus membranaceus and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extract against Hepatic Steatosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Mar 19 - "The present study aimed to evaluate the potential synergistic and protective effects of ALM16, a mixture of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) extract in a ratio of 7 : 3, against hepatic steatosis in high fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mice. Forty-eight mice were randomly divided into eight groups and orally administered daily for 6 weeks with a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet alone (HFD), HFD with AM (HFD + 100 mg/kg AM extract), HFD with LE (HFD + 100 mg/kg LE extract), HFD with ALM16 (HFD + 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg ALM16), or HFD with MT (HFD + 100 mg/kg Milk thistle extract) as a positive control. ALM16 significantly decreased the body and liver weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), and serum glucose levels, compared to the HFD group. Moreover, ALM16 significantly ameliorated the HFD-induced increased hepatic injury markers, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-1. Furthermore, as compared to the mice fed HFD alone, ALM16 increased the levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), thereby upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 and downregulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS)" - See Astragalus at Amazon.com and Lithospermum erythrorhizon at Amazon.com.
  • Gut enzyme IAP found to prevent aging and frailty in animal models - Science Daily, 3/26/20 - "the enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphotase (IAP) helped prevent intestinal permeability and gut-derived systemic inflammation, resulting in less frailty and extended life span. "Oral IAP supplementation in older mice significantly preserved gut barrier function and was associated with preserving the homeostasis of the gut microbiota during aging," said Hodin. "In other words, the enzyme maintained the composition of the gut bacteria and controlled the low-grade chronic inflammation that can happen with aging." ... Because IAP is a naturally occurring enzyme that almost entirely remains in the gut rather than traveling throughout the system, Hodin believes it should prove nontoxic to humans, and those who are found have low levels, especially as they age, will simply be able to supplement. "Because IAP confers anti-inflammatory properties systemically," Hodin said, "it could have implications not only for inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, but also for other human conditions that we now know are linked to the gut and inflammation, such as obesity and diabetes." The team is already at work on the next steps toward getting FDA approval for a supplement."
  • How intermittent fasting changes liver enzymes and helps prevent disease - Science Daily, 3/10/20 - "every-other-day-fasting -- where no food was consumed on alternate days -- changed the metabolism of fatty acids in the liver, knowledge that could be applied to improvements in glucose tolerance and the regulation of diabetes ... Last year we published research into the impact of every-other-day-fasting on humans. Using these mouse data, we can now build up improved models of fasting for better human health"
  • Natural compound in vegetables helps fight fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 2/7/20 - "The National Cancer Institute also notes the benefits of indole-3-carbinol found in cruciferous vegetables, including their anti-inflammatory and cancer-fighting properties ... treatment of NAFLD-mimicking animal models with indole significantly decreased fat accumulation and inflammation in the liver ... in addition to reducing the amount of fat in liver cells, indole also acts on cells in the intestine, which send out molecular signals that dampen inflammation ... "Foods with a high capacity of indole production or medicines that mimic its effects may be new therapies for treatment of NAFLD" - See Indole-3-carbinol at Amazon.com.
  • 5 Liver-Saving Strategies for the New Year - Medscape, 12/23/19 - "Cut way down on calories, strategically ... Exercise your way to a healthier liver ... Celebrate dry January (or sober September) ... Adopt a Mediterranean diet ... Recognize the risk of a liver detox"
  • Dietary Choline Supplementation Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice - J Nutr. 2019 Dec 18 - "cohort fed an HFD (60% kcal fat) or an HFD with supplemental choline (60% kcal fat, 1.2% choline; HFD+C) for 30 wk ... HFD+C mice exhibited a 50-90% increase in both circulating choline and betaine concentrations in the fed state (P ≤ 0.05). Choline supplementation resulted in a 55% decrease in total tumor numbers, a 67% decrease in tumor surface area, and a 50% decrease in hepatic steatosis after 30 wk of diet (P ≤ 0.05). Choline supplementation increased the abundance of mitochondria and the relative expression of β-oxidation genes by 21% and ∼75-100%, respectively, in the liver. HFD+C attenuated circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells at 15 wk of feeding (P ≤ 0.05)" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus Granules Dose-Dependently Balance Intestinal Microbiome Disorders and Ameliorate Chronic Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury - J Med Food. 2019 Nov 20 - "Previously, we have demonstrated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) can prevent alcoholic liver injury ... We found LGG granules dose-dependently protected against chronic alcoholic liver disease. When alcohol was consumed for 8 weeks with LGG treatment during the last 2 weeks, we demonstrated that the dose dependence of LGG granules can improve alcohol-induced liver injury through decreasing the levels of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and prevent liver steatosis by suppressing triglyceride, free fatty acid, and malondialdehyde production in liver. Alcohol feeding caused a decline in the number of both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, with a proportional increase in the number of Clostridium perfringens in ileum, and expansion of the Gram-negative bacteria Proteobacteria, Campylobacterales, and Helicobacter in cecum. However, LGG granule treatment restored the content of these microorganisms. In conclusion, LGG granule supplementation can improve the intestinal microbiota, reduce the number of gram-negative bacteria, and ameliorate alcoholic liver injury" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of curcumin supplementation on body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Phytother Res. 2019 Dec 4 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity; its prevalence is elevating due to the rising epidemic of obesity ... Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced BMI (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.34 kg/m2 , 95% CI [-0.64, -0.04], p < .05) and WC (WMD = -2.12 cm, 95% CI [-3.26, -0.98], p < .001). However, no significant effects of curcumin supplementation on body weight were found. These results suggest that curcumin supplementation might have a positive effect on visceral fat and abdominal obesity that have been associated with NAFLD" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Whole Grain Consumption and Its Effects on Hepatic Steatosis and Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial - Br J Nutr. 2019 Nov 5 - "Over the 12 weeks of this open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial, 112 patients [mean age: 43± 8.7 y; body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2): 32.2 ± 4.3] were randomly assigned to two groups to receive dietary advice; either to obtain at least half of their cereal servings each day from whole-grain foods or from usual cereals. By the end of the study, the grades of NAFLD showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant reduction in serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001), γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.009), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) were observed in the intervention group compared to the control group. After adjusting, however, no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of lipid profile, glycemic status, and anthropometric measurements. Overall, our study demonstrated that consumption of whole grains for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and liver enzymes concentrations in patients with"
  • Curcuminoids plus piperine improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A clinical trial - J Cell Biochem. 2019 Sep;120(9):15989-15996 - "Supplementation with curcuminoids plus piperine significantly reduced the hematocrit (P = 0.027), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.048) and the serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.035), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.042), alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004), cholesterol (P < 0.016), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.017), Iron (P = 0.026), and Hemoglobin (P = 0.025) and increased total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.003). However, except albumin, changes in other parameters were not statistically different between groups. In addition, administration of curcuminoids plus piperine significantly improved NAFLD severity (P < 0.001), which was statistically different compared with the placebo group" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin at Amazon.com and piperine extract at Amazon.com.
  • Water Extract of Curcuma longa L. Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Nutrients. 2019 Oct 21;11(10) - "Our aim was to investigate whether hot water extract (CLW) of Curcuma longa L. could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... These results suggest that CLW could be a potentially useful agent for the prevention of NAFLD through modulating fatty acid uptake" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Can Bugs be Drugs? The Potential of Probiotics and Prebiotics as Treatment for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Medscape, 10/16/19 - "The most promising strategies thus far developed to alter the microbiome in NAFLD-NASH are probiotics and prebiotics. However, pre- and probiotic treatment of NAFLD-NASH is relatively new and still under development. Actual understanding of the involved mechanisms is lacking and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition after treatment are rarely measured. Furthermore, large clinical trials with comparative endpoints are unavailable. Personalised treatment based on metagenomics gut microbiota analysis will probably be part of the future diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD-NASH" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • High-fructose and high-fat diet damages liver mitochondria - Science Daily, 10/1/19 - "high levels of fructose in the diet inhibit the liver's ability to properly metabolize fat. This effect is specific to fructose. Indeed, equally high levels of glucose in the diet actually improve the fat-burning function of the liver. This explains why high dietary fructose has more negative health impacts than glucose does, even though they have the same caloric content ... Fructose makes the liver accumulate fat. It acts almost like adding more fat to the diet. This contrasts the effect of adding more glucose to the diet, which promotes the liver's ability to burn fat, and therefore actually makes for a healthier metabolism ... In the high-fat plus fructose group, these mitochondria are fragmented and they're not able to burn fat as well as the healthy mitochondria. But looking at the high-fat diet plus glucose group, those mitochondria become more normal looking because they are burning fat normally"
  • Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiome in the Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Potential Therapeutic Implications - Medscape, 8/26/19 - "Multiple pathophysiologic pathways connect the gut microbiome with the pathophysiology of NAFLD. Therefore, therapeutics that effectively target the gut microbiome may be beneficial for the treatment of patients with NAFLD" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Chronic inflammatory liver diseases and coffee intake - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019 Jun 18 - "A regular coffee consumption may have preventive healthy effects, especially if consumed without added sugars. Certainly, coffee consumption should not be prohibited in individuals with chronic inflammatory liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma"
  • Effects of phytosomal curcumin on anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, cortisolemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease indices: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - Eur J Nutr. 2019 Feb 22 - "Subjects were randomized to be treated with indistinguishable tablets (2 per day, to be taken after dinner) containing 800 mg phytosomal curcumin (Curserin®: 200 mg curcumin, 120 mg phosphatidylserine, 480 mg phosphatidylcholine and 8 mg piperine from Piper nigrum L. dry extract) for 8 weeks ... After 56-day treatment, the curcumin-treated group experienced a significant improvement in fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA index, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, liver transaminases, gamma-GT, index of liver steatosis and serum cortisol compared to the baseline. FPI, TG, liver transaminases, fatty liver index and serum cortisol level also significantly improved compared with the placebo-treated group. Compared to the baseline, at the end of the study placebo group experienced an improvement only in FPG and TG ... supplementation with a phytosomal preparation of curcumin containing phosphatidylserine and piperine could improve glycemic factors, hepatic function and serum cortisol levels in subjects with overweight and impaired fasting glucose" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin products at Amazon.com, phosphatidylserine at Amazon.com, phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com and piperine extract at Amazon.com.
  • Wuzhi capsule (Schisandra Sphenanthera extract) attenuates liver steatosis and inflammation during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, February 2019 - "Wuzhi (WZ) capsule contains an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera ... Liver histology revealed significantly less steatosis, inflammation, and necrosis, which was confirmed by decreased intrahepatic triglycerides and serum ALT in WZ-treated mice. WZ also reduced the liver mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the serum levels of IL-1β and IL-6. Sensitivity to steatohepatitis due to WZ administration correlated significantly with alterations in the expression of PPAR-α/γ, as well as the NF-κB signalling pathway ... WZ plays a protective role against MCD-induced steatohepatitis. The underlying mechanism likely involves the upregulation of PPAR-α/γ and downregulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. Based on its beneficial effects on the liver, WZ is a promising therapeutic for NAFLD patients" - [Nutra USA] - See schizandra at Amazon.com.
  • Does turmeric/curcumin supplementation improve serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Phytother Res. 2019 Jan 17 - "Results from pooled analysis revealed that turmeric/curcumin supplementation reduced ALT (MD: -7.31 UL/L, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.47], p = 0.014) and AST (MD: -4.68 UL/L, 95% CI [-8.75 -0.60], p = 0.026). When RCTs stratified on the basis of their treatment duration, the significant reduction in serum concentrations of ALT and AST was observed only in studies lasting less than 12 weeks. This review suggests that turmeric/curcumin might have a favorable effect on serum concentrations of ALT and AST in patients with NAFLD" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Beneficial Effects of Vitamin D Treatment in an Obese Mouse Model of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis - Nutrients. 2019 Jan 3;11(1) - "Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlate with obesity and associated disorders such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanisms linking low vitamin D (VD) status to disease progression are not completely understood ... Interestingly, preventive and to a lesser extent also interventional VD treatment resulted in improvements of liver histology. This included a significant decrease of steatosis, a trend towards lower non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score and a slight non-significant decrease of fibrosis in the preventive treatment group. In line with these changes, preventive VD treatment reduced the hepatic expression of lipogenic, inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes. Notably, these beneficial effects occurred in conjunction with a reduction of intestinal inflammation. Together, our observations suggest that timely initiation of VD supplementation (preventive vs. interventional) is a critical determinant of treatment outcome in NASH. In the applied animal model, the improvements of liver histology occurred in conjunction with reduced inflammation in the gut, suggesting a potential relevance of vitamin D as a therapeutic agent acting on the gut⁻liver axis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating lipid peroxidation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammasome activation - Biol Pharm Bull. 2018 Aug 21 - "ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) ... These results suggested that Rg1 may protect against NAFLD, through regulation of lipid peroxidation, ER stress and inflammasome activation" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Alcohol-related liver deaths have increased sharply - Washington Post, 7/18/18 - "The study suggests that a new generation of Americans is being afflicted "by alcohol misuse and its complications,” ... eople are at risk of life-threatening cirrhosis if they drink several drinks a night or have multiple nights of binge drinking — more than four or five drinks per sitting — per week. Women tend to be less tolerant of alcohol and their livers more sensitive to damage"
  • Gut bacteria markers could be a 'smoking gun' for liver disease - Science Daily, 6/25/18 - "NAFLD starts with the build-up of fat in liver and can lead to scarring and cirrhosis, where the scarred organ eventually shrinks and the risks of liver failure and cancer increase. Fatty liver also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases ... Their analysis also uncovered a link between the presence of fatty liver disease and subtle changes in the makeup of the microbiome itself. The more advanced the disease, the more the total number of genes encoded by gut bacteria began to decrease, an indirect measure that the microbiome was less diverse -- made up of fewer different types of bacteria ... Researchers have already discovered more than 10 million active genes linked to the microbes in our gut -- 500 times the number of genes in the human genome -- but their function remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have shown the number of active microbial genes drops dramatically with metabolic disorders, such as obesity ... According to the team, the drop in microbial diversity reveals that key gut bugs may be lost in patients with fatty liver disease" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Beneficial effect of apple vinegar on reproductive parameters in male rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Andrologia. 2018 Jun 19 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low testosterone levels in serum ... total antioxidant levels (TAC) ... Significant reduction in Lee index, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, liver enzymes and glucose levels was observed in vinegar treated group compared with HFD group. Vinegar lowered insulin resistance compared with HFD (p < 0.01). Steatosis in hepatocytes reduced from 56% in HFD group to 20% in group D (p < 0.05). Vinegar caused a significant increase in serum testosterone, improvement in sperm parameters and a reduced germ cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). There was an insignificant increase in TAC levels in the serum and homogenate tissue of liver and testis compared with HFD. This study reports apple vinegar has beneficial effects on male rat fertility indices in an in vivo model of NAFLD" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 teaspoons of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
  • Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in Finnish male smokers of the ATBC study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 May 2 - "Our results suggest a possible preventive role for vitamin D against liver cancer and CLD, although the importance of the liver for vitamin D metabolism and the lack of information about underlying liver disease makes reverse causality a concern" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Growing evidence that probiotics are good for your liver - Science Daily, 4/23/18 - "Saeedi and his colleagues focused their study on the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (known as LGG), a species common in many over-the-counter probiotic formulations. They gave mice food laced with LGG for two weeks and then examined how they responded to a high dose of acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol®) ... mice receiving the probiotic treatment suffered less liver damage when presented with an overdose of acetaminophen compared with mice that did not receive probiotics ... Administration of the probiotic LGG to mice improves the antioxidant response of the liver, protecting it from oxidative damage produced by drugs such as acetaminophen ... Other studies in mice have previously shown that LGG can protect against alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • High consumption of red and processed meat linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance - Science Daily, 3/20/18 - "The results showed that high consumption of red and processed meat is independently associated with NAFLD and insulin resistance regardless of saturated fat and cholesterol intake and other risk factors such as BMI. In addition, individuals who consumed large quantities of meat cooked using unhealthy methods and those already diagnosed with NAFLD who consumed high HCAs had a higher chance of having insulin resistance"
  • Positive Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Liver Enzymes Levels in Healthy Individuals: A Population-Based Study from Iran - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2018 Feb 22:1-6 - "According to results, there was a positive association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and ALT in individuals without liver diseases" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant activity and apoptotic induction as mechanisms of action of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) against a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line - J Int Med Res. 2018 Jan 1 - "Ashwagandha could be a powerful antioxidant and a promising anticancer agent against HCC" - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
  • Oral Supplementation of Glutamine Attenuates the Progression of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in C57BL/6J Mice - J Nutr. 2017 Nov;147(11):2041-2049 - "Universally accepted therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still lacking. Studies suggest a preventive effect of oral Gln supplementation on the development of NASH ... The liver histology scores significantly increased from 8 to 13 wk (+31%) in WSD-fed mice and were significantly higher than in controls (P ≤ 0.05 for both time comparisons), whereas scores did not differ between C diet-fed and WSD + Gln-fed mice after 13 wk of feeding" - [Nutra USA] - See l-glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Citrulline decreases hepatic endotoxin-induced injury in fructose-induced non-alcoholic liver disease: an ex vivo study in the isolated perfused rat liver - Br J Nutr. 2017 Jun 22:1-8 - "In vivo, citrulline significantly decreased dyslipidaemia induced by a high-fructose diet and insulin resistance. In the isolated perfused rat livers, endotoxaemia resulted in higher cytolysis (alanine aminotransferase release) and higher inflammation (Toll-like receptor 4) in livers of fructose-fed rats, and it was prevented by citrulline supplementation ... In this context of mild steatosis, our results suggest that fructose-induced NAFLD leads to an increased hepatic sensitivity to LPS-induced inflammation. Citrulline-induced restriction of the inflammatory process may thus contribute to the prevention of NAFLD" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Citrulline Powder.
  • Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases - J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Apr 26:1-7 - "Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p < 0.05 for all) over 12 weeks compared with those variables in the placebo group" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Saponins (ginsenosides) from the Leaves of Panax Quinquefolius Ameliorated Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Apr 21 - "Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent inducement of drug-induced acute liver injury (ALI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and the involved mechanism were investigated ... The present study clearly demonstrates that PQS exerts a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity due to its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings from the present investigation show that PQS might be an effective candidate extract against drug-induced ALI" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Pioglitazone May Improve NASH Histology for Many Patients - Medscape, 2/15/17 - "Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is becoming a major public health issue and is a leading cause of liver transplant ... treatment with the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone reverses the more advanced stages of liver disease in NASH regardless of the presence of diabetes, which provides a rationale for evaluating the effect of this drug on clinical outcomes in this subgroup of patients at higher risk of liver-related complications ... the combined results for all studies showed that treatment with thiazolidinedione therapy improved advanced fibrosis by more than threefold compared with no treatment"
  • Common antioxidant may guard against liver disease - Science Daily, 1/3/17 - "Pyrroloquinoline quinone, or PQQ, is a natural antioxidant found in soil and many foods and enriched in human breast milk ... fed adult mice healthy diets or Western-style diets heavy on fat, sugar and cholesterol. They gave a subset of both groups PQQ in their drinking water ... Their offspring were kept on the diets for 20 weeks. Those fed a Western diet gained more weight than those on a healthy diet. PQQ did not change the weight gain but it did reduce the fat in the livers even before the mice were born ... The antioxidant also reduced inflammation in the livers of mice fed the Western diet. The researchers found that PQQ protected adult mice from fatty liver, even when it was stopped after three weeks when the mice quit breastfeeding" - See pyrroloquinoline quinone at Amazon.com.
  • High-Protein Diet May Reduce Liver Fat in Patients With NAFLD - Medscape, 11/16/16 - "High-protein diets (30% energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrates, 30% from fats) with a favorable fatty acid composition potently reduced liver fat content in patients with type 2 diabetes and fatty liver independently of protein origin or body weight changes ... Eighteen patients ate animal protein (AP) and 19 consumed plant protein (PP) ... Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) were reduced by 48% in the AP group and 35.7% in the PP group after six weeks, both statistically significant decreases. Nine patients (three from the AP group, six from the PP group) had IHL levels below 5.56%, meaning they no longer had NAFLD"
  • Dietary sodium and potassium intake in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct;116(8):1447-1456 - "Increasing prevalence of NAFLD was observed with increasing Na intake. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of NAFLD comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted Na intake were 1·25 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·32; P trend<0·001) in men and 1·32 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·47; P trend <0·001) in women ... No inverse association was observed for energy-adjusted K intake. Our findings suggest that higher Na intake is associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults, which might be partly mediated by adiposity"
  • Effects of Dark Chocolate on NOX-2-generated Oxidative Stress in Patients With Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis - Medscape, 9/1/16 - "Compared to controls, NASH patients had higher sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and CK-18 levels. A significant difference for treatments was found in subjects with respect to sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and serum CK-18. The pairwise comparisons showed that, compared to baseline, after 14 days of dark chocolate intake, a significant reduction in sNOX2-dp serum isoprostanes and CK-18 M30 was found. No change was observed after milk chocolate ingestion" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com.
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids - Phytother Res. 2016 Jun 16 - "Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial - Phytother Res. 2016 Jun 8 - "patients with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive an amorphous dispersion curcumin formulation (500 mg/day equivalent to 70-mg curcumin) or matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks ... Compared with placebo, curcumin was associated with a significant reduction in liver fat content (78.9% improvement in the curcumin vs 27.5% improvement in the placebo group). There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive effects of citrulline on Western diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Br J Nutr. 2016 May 20:1-13 - "Cit improves Western diet-induced liver injuries via decreased lipid deposition, increased insulin sensitivity, lower inflammatory process and preserved antioxidant status. This may be related in part to its protective effects at the gut level" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Citrulline Powder.
  • Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet - J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):542-50 - "The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate ... Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli ... Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P < 0.001) and NAFLD scores (P < 0.0001), decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.0001), suppressed activation of hepatic CD68(+) macrophages (P < 0.0001), and slowed initiation and progression of hepatic neoplasm. Hepatic Cd36 was downregulated by broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Formulas BroccoMax, Supports Liver Health, 60 Delayed Veggie Caps at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Mar 23 - "Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study - Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 17:1-8 - "After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com.
  • Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Mar 17:1-9 - "The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice - Med Sci Monit. 2016 Mar 17;22:880-889 - "Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice" - See OPCs+95 at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli may offer protection against liver cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 3/3/16 - "including broccoli in the diet may also protect against liver cancer, as well as aid in countering the development of fatty liver or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which can cause malfunction of the liver and lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a liver cancer with a high mortality rate ... in mice on the Westernized diet both the number of cancer nodules and the size of the cancer nodules increased in the liver. But when broccoli was added to the diet, the number of nodules decreased ... There are actually two ways of getting fatty liver; one, by eating a high-fat, high-sugar diet and the other by drinking too much alcohol ... Broccoli stopped too much uptake of fat into the liver by decreasing the uptake and increasing the output of lipid from the liver"
  • High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2016 Feb 26:1-8 - "After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0.43 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.81), 0.51 (CI 0.27, 0.94) and 0.52 (CI 0.28, 0.97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Natural sugar may treat fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 2/23/16 - "a natural sugar called trehalose prevents the sugar fructose -- thought to be a major contributor to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease -- from entering the liver and triggers a cellular housekeeping process that cleans up excess fat buildup inside liver cells ... In general, if you feed a mouse a high-sugar diet, it gets a fatty liver ... We found that if you feed a mouse a diet high in fructose plus provide drinking water that contains three percent trehalose, you completely block the development of a fatty liver. Those mice also had lower body weights at the end of the study and lower levels of circulating cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides ... Trehalose is a natural sugar found in plants and insects ... We know the mice that received drinking water with three percent trehalose lost weight, and we suspect that weight loss was due to loss of fat, but we can't be certain that's the only effect" - See trehalose at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, evidence for their independent association in men in East China: a cross-sectional study (Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors (SPECT-China)) - Br J Nutr. 2016 Feb 18:1-8 - "In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43.3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84.56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40.8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62.2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.26, 1.88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes - Nutrients. 2016 Jan 20;8(1) - "The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy - Nutrients. 2016 Jan 5;8(1) - "Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Dairy Consumption Lowers Systemic Inflammation and Liver Enzymes in Typically Low-Dairy Consumers with Clinical Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Nov 23:1-7 - "This was a randomized study in which participants consumed low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz 1% milk, 6 oz nonfat yogurt, 4 oz 2% cheese) or a carbohydrate-based control (CNT) (1.5 oz granola bar and 12 oz 100% juice) for 6 weeks ... Participants had lower concentrations of both hepatic alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.005) after the LFD period. No significant changes in any of the plasma inflammatory compounds were found when all data were analyzed together. In contrast, expression of IL-1b and IL-6 were reduced by 46% and 63%, respectively, compared to the control period ... We conclude that three dairy servings per day improved both liver function and systemic inflammation in subjects with MetS" - See my Greek yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.
  • Resveratrol ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in methionine/choline-deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis through regulating autophagy - Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Oct 24;14(1):134 - "Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ... Resveratrol can attenuate hepatic steatosis and inflammation in MCD-induced NASH by regulating autophagy. Thus, resveratrol may be a promising agent for inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammatory processes associated with NASH" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Tri-iodothyronine preconditioning protects against liver ischemia reperfusion injury through the regulation of autophagy by the MEK/ERK/mTORC1 axis - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Oct 20 - "After 70% liver ischemia reperfusion injury, mice that were preconditioned with appropriate T3 displayed significantly preserved liver function, less histological damage, less apoptosis, and enhanced antioxidant capacity ... T3 preconditioning could be a potential therapeutic approach to prevent liver IR injury related to various clinical conditions" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Effects of Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Glycemic and Inflammatory Indices in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Oct 2:1-6 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition defined by exceeding triglycerides accumulation in the liver. The condition can develop into fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma ... Subjects in the intervention and control groups consumed 2 capsules/day probiotic or placebo, respectively, for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ... Means of FBS, insulin, insulin resistance, and IL-6 were significantly different between groups after intervention (p < 0.05), whereas TNF-α was not significantly modified (p > 0.05). In the probiotic group, insulin, insulin resistance, TNF-α, and IL-6 decreased significantly at the end of the study compared to the beginning of study" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Silymarin Accelerates Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:603529 - "The results showed that silymarin enhanced liver regeneration by accelerating the cell cycle in PHx liver. Silymarin led to increased G1 phase (cyclin D1/pRb), S phase (cyclin E/E2F), G2 phase (cyclin B), and M phase (cyclin A) protein and mRNA at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs PHx. HGF, TGFα, and TGFβ1 growth factor expressions were also enhanced. We suggest that silymarin plays a crucial role in accelerated liver regeneration after PHx" - See silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin A implicated in development of alcoholic liver disease - Science Daily, 9/1/15 - "Long-term drinking lowers vitamin A levels in the liver, which is the main site of alcohol breakdown and vitamin A storage, while raising vitamin A levels in many other tissues"
  • Citrulline and Nonessential Amino Acids Prevent Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 5 - "nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) ... Cit and NEAAs effectively prevented fructose-induced NAFLD. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we propose that NEAAs may exert their effects specifically on the liver, whereas Cit presumably acts at both the hepatic and whole-body level, in part via improved peripheral Arg metabolism" - See Stimulin at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics improve behavioral symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases in mice - Science Daily, 7/28/15 - "Mice that received the probiotics spent more time engaging in social behaviors compared to mice that received a placebo ... Mice that received the probiotics had lower blood levels of TNF-α and fewer activated immune cells in the brain compared to mice that received a placebo ... The findings suggest that probiotics improved behavioral symptoms by altering communication between the immune system and the brain" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E has a beneficial effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutrition. 2015 Jul-Aug;31(7-8):923-30 - "According to a random effect model analysis of the five studies, vitamin E significantly reduced aspartate transaminase (AST) by -19.43 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by -28.91 U/L, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by -10.39 U/L, steatosis by -0.54 U/L, inflammation by -0.20 U/L, and hepatocellular ballooning by -0.34 U/L compared with the control group. Vitamin E treatment with NASH adult patients showed obvious reductions in not only AST of -13.91 U/L, ALT by -22.44 U/L, steatosis of -0.67 U/L, inflammation of -0.20 U/L, but also fibrosis of -0.30 U/L compared to the control treatment" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched high fat diet delays the development of fatty liver in mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Jul 22 - "Dietary EPA and DHA counteracted development of HFD-induced fatty liver. The liver transcriptome data implicate that the quality of dietary fat could modulate Ppar-related gene expression that in turn affects hepatic lipid storage and maintenance of metabolic health" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The relationship between the parenteral dose of fish oil supplementation and the variation of liver function tests in hospitalized adult patients - Nutr J. 2015 Jul 2;14(1):65 - "parenteral nutrition (PN) ... GGT, AP and ALT improved with FO PN-supplementation. Moreover, the improvement was greater when the doses of FO were higher. FO administration in PN is safe" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Improves Depression in Women With Liver Disease - Medscape, 6/25/15 - "in depressed patients, we found a significant improvement in BDI-II scores after both 3 and 6 months of vitamin D therapy, after which patients got significantly worse on BDI-II scores once vitamin D treatment was stopped" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Liver Risk Increases With Daily Intake of Sugary Drinks - Medscape, 6/11/15 - "Compared with nonconsumers and individuals who consumed less than 1 serving of SSBs per month, those who consumed less than 1 serving of SSBs per week (but more than 1 serving per month) had a 16% increase in risk (95% CI, 0.88 - 1.54). Those who consumed from 1 serving per week to less than 1 serving per day had a 32% increased risk (95% CI, 0.93 - 1.86), and those who consumed more than 1 serving daily had a 61% increase in risk"
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Clin Nutr. 2015 May 21 - "In NASH patients, the supplementation of omega-3 PUFA from flaxseed and fish oils significantly impacts on plasma lipid profile of patients with NASH. Plasma increase of these PUFAs was associated with better liver histology" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on hepatic fat and associated cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Apr 25 - "The main outcome was the change in hepatic fat fraction as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes were changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), and left ventricular (LV) function, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), and insulin sensitivity. At 6 months, the liver fat was reduced by 53.4% (95% CI, 33.4-73.4) in the DHA group, as compared with 22.6% (6.2-39.0) in the placebo group (P = 0.040 for the comparison between the two groups). Likewise, in the DHA group VAT and EAT were reduced by 7.8% (0-18.3) and 14.2% (0-28.2%), as compared with 2.2% (0-8.1) and 1.7% (0-6.8%) in the placebo group, respectively" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin inhibits fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in cultured hepatocytes: Impact on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Metabolism. 2015 May 7 - "These findings suggest that niacin, through inhibiting hepatocyte DGAT2 and NADPH oxidase activity, attenuates hepatic fat accumulation and ROS production respectively. Decreased ROS production, at least in part, may have contributed to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory IL-8 levels. These mechanistic studies may be useful for the clinical development of niacin and niacin-related compounds for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH and its complications" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on hepatic dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced steatosis - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 May 28 - "Hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly decreased in obese mice, but increased with EPA administration. Our data suggest that EPA supplementation has a beneficial effect on NAFLD progression" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol improves hepatic steatosis by inducing autophagy through the cAMP signaling pathway - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 May 5 - "RSV improved hepatic steatosis partially by inducing autophagy in vitro and in vivo, via the cAMP-PRKA-AMPK-SIRT1 signaling pathway, which provides new evidence regarding RSV's effects on NAFLD treatment" - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com.
  • Pooled analysis confirms vitamin E as a treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis - Science Daily, 4/23/15 - "A pooled analysis of data from two randomised trials comparing vitamin E versus placebo, and the placebo group from another trial comparing vitamin E use versus non-use, demonstrates that the efficacy of vitamin E is comparable to other treatments for NASH, including pioglitazone, metformin and obeticholic acid. In addition, treatment with vitamin E is associated with significant improvements in both NASH histology (45% vs 22% in those not treated with vitamin E) and resolution of disease (38% vs 20% in those not treated with vitamin E)" - See vitamin E products at Amazon.com.
  • The Protective Effects Of Selenium-enriched Probiotics On Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Fibrosis In Rats - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Dec 16 - "Se-enriched probiotics (SP) ... SP significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (48.2%), aspartate aminotransferase (26.8%), hepatic hydroxyproline (29.3%) and malondialdehyde (30.1%) levels" - See se-methyl l-selenocysteine at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Astaxanthin lowers plasma TAG concentrations and increases hepatic antioxidant gene expression in diet-induced obesity mice - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 20:1-8 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significantly associated with hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. We have previously reported that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, lowers plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in apoE knockout mice ... ASTX supplementation lowered the plasma concentrations of TAG, ALT and AST, increased the hepatic expression of endogenous antioxidant genes, and rendered splenocytes less sensitive to LPS stimulation. Therefore, ASTX may prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and inflammation" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Drinking decaf or regular coffee maybe good for the liver - Science Daily, 10/9/14 - "researchers used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2010). The study population included 27,793 participants, 20 years of age or older, who provided coffee intake in a 24-hour period ... Participants who reported drinking three or more cups of coffee per day had lower levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT compared to those not consuming any coffee. Researchers also found low levels of these liver enzymes in participants drinking only decaffeinated coffee"
  • Antidiabetic drug metformin is effective on the metabolism of asymmetric dimethylarginine in experimental liver injury - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Sep 16 - "Our findings showed that metformin administration for one week has a potency to protect liver through regulating ADMA metabolism in LPS/d-GalN-induced injury" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Impact of Coffee on Liver Diseases - Medscape, 8/14/14 - "Coffee consumption was associated with improved serum gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in a dose dependent manner in individuals at risk for liver disease. In chronic liver disease patients who consume coffee, a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, a lowered mortality rate in cirrhosis patients, and a lowered rate of HCC development were observed. In chronic hepatitis C patients, coffee was associated with improved virologic responses to antiviral therapy. Moreover, coffee consumption was inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, in patients with chronic liver disease, daily coffee consumption should be encouraged"
  • Consuming probiotics for a month helps diminish fat accumulation in the liver, according to a new study - Science Daily, 7/18/14 - "In this current study, the strains were administered during thirty days in the diet of Zucker rats ... the administration of probiotics led to an accumulation of lipids (most of them triacylglycerides) in the liver which was significantly lower than that occurring in rats fed with a placebo" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin Attenuates d-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice - J Nutr. 2014 Jun 4 - "These results suggested that curcumin protects against d-GalN/LPS-induced liver damage by the enhancing antioxidant defense system, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting apoptosis. This was especially true for curcumin pretreatment, which highlighted its promise as a preventive treatment for acute liver injury in clinical settings" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Luteolin Alleviates Alcoholic Liver Disease Induced by Chronic and Binge Ethanol Feeding in Mice - J Nutr. 2014 May 14 - "Compared with the EtOH group, the EtOH + Lut group had significant reductions in serum concentrations of ALT (43%), TG (22%), LDL cholesterol (52%), and lipid accumulation in the liver" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • L-ascorbic acid- and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside accelerate in vivo liver regeneration and lower serum alanine aminotransaminase activity in 70% partially hepatectomized rats - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):597-603 - "L-Ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside significantly lowered the serum ALT on day 1 after PH compared with saline-, L-dehydroascorbic acid- and D-isoascorbic acid-administered rats. These results demonstrate that L-ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside significantly promote the regeneration of liver mass and function with full recovery after liver injury" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effect of genistein on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine- induced hepatic failure in mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):625-32 - "the protective effect of genistein on LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage was mainly due to its ability to block NF-κB signaling pathway for anti-inflammation response, attenuate hepatocellular apoptosis and increase HO level. These findings suggest that genistein can be considered as a potential agent for preventing acute hepatic failure" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:641597 - "silymarin (SLN) and glycyrrhizin (GLN) ...Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver" - See silymarin at Amazon.com and glycyrrhizin products at Amazon.com.
  • Can Coffee Treat Liver Disease? - Medscape, 4/14/14 - "Current studies suggest that caffeine binds to adenosine receptors and reduces the development of hepatic fibrosis from liver injury by limiting stellate cell activation and the secretion of connective-tissue growth factors and collagen.[4] The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol present in coffee can increase cholesterol formation, but cafestol and kahweol are retained on paper filters during coffee brewing ... Alcohol (ethanol) consumption and cigarette smoking can increase gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels.[6] Coffee appears to reduce circulating levels of GGT ... Alcoholics who also drank coffee had a significant reduction in the risk for alcoholic cirrhosis ... Whether the effect of coffee on liver disease is related to caffeine or some other agent in coffee is not clear. However, many studies have failed to show a significant effect of other caffeine-containing drinks, such as green or black tea, on reducing fibrosis or inhibiting the development of HCC"
  • Effects of a Diet Rich in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Hepatic Lipogenesis and Beta-Oxidation in Mice - Lipids. 2014 Mar 14 - "In conclusion, a diet rich in fish oil has beneficial effects on hepatic insulin resistance, lipogenesis and beta-oxidation and prevents hepatic tissue from liver damage and NAFLD" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) on croton oil-induced ear edema and Propionibacterium acnes plus LPS-induced liver damage in mice - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Feb 19 - "This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of bilberry extract (BE, containing 42.04% anthocyanin) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced liver injury and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. Results showed that BE could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and liver inflammation provoked by P. acnes plus LPS, as reflected by the reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. These findings were confirmed by hepatic pathological examination. Moreover, BE administration markedly suppressed the increase of liver mRNA levels of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and the protein levels of iNOS, TNF-α and NF-κB. In addition, liver malondialdehyde and NO contents were significantly reduced by BE treatment" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Genistein on Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced Hepatic Failure in Mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014 Jan 30 - "In conclusion, the protective effect of genistein on LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage was mainly due to its ability to block NF-κB signaling pathway for anti-inflammation response, attenuate hepatocellular apoptosis and increase HO level. These findings suggest that genistein can be considered as a potential agent for preventing acute hepatic failure" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • N-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation prevents high fat diet induced mouse liver steatosis and inflammation in relation to PPAR-α upregulation and NF-κB DNA binding abrogation - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Jan 16 - "Data presented indicate that n-3 LCPUFAs supplementation prevents liver steatosis and inflammation induced by HFD, with underlying mechanisms involving enhanced PPAR-α signaling and diminished NF-κB activation" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D levels and liver histological alterations in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Jan 10 - "73 consecutive overweight and obese children with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and diffusely hyperechogenic liver on ultrasonography underwent liver biopsy ... 25-OH-VD concentrations are inversely associated with NASH and fibrosis in children with NAFLD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Synbiotic supplementation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 8 - "52 patients with NAFLD were supplemented twice daily for 28 wk with either a synbiotic or a placebo capsule ... Synbiotic supplementation in addition to lifestyle modification is superior to lifestyle modification alone for the treatment of NAFLD, at least partially through attenuation of inflammatory markers in the body" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
    • Synbiotics - Wikipedia - "Synbiotics refer to nutritional supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics"
  • Tocotrienols for normalisation of hepatic echogenic response in nonalcoholic fatty liver: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial - Nutr J. 2013 Dec 27;12(1):166 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the commonest liver disorders. Obesity, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress have been identified amongst the possible hits leading to the onset and progression of this disease. Nutritional evaluation of NAFLD patients showed a lower-than-recommended intake of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a family of 8 isoforms, 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol has been widely investigated in liver diseases, whereas no previous clinical trial has investigated tocotrienols for NAFLD ... The treatment, either mixed tocotrienols 200 mg twice daily or placebo, had a 1-year duration ... As primary outcome, the normalisation of hepatic echogenic response was significantly higher for the tocotrienols treated group compared to the placebo group in the intention to treat analysis (P = 0.039; 95% CI = 0.896-6.488). As secondary objective, the per protocol assessment also showed significant rate of remission (P = 0.014; 95% CI = 1.117-9.456). Worsening of NAFLD grade was recorded in two patients in the placebo group, but none in the group treated with tocotrienols" - See mixed tocopherols at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee and tea may contribute to a healthy liver - Science Daily, 8/16/13 - "increased caffeine intake may reduce fatty liver in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... caffeine stimulates the metabolization of lipids stored in liver cells and decreased the fatty liver of mice that were fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that consuming the equivalent caffeine intake of four cups of coffee or tea a day may be beneficial in preventing and protecting against the progression of NAFLD in humans"
  • Sunshine hormone, vitamin D, may offer hope for treating liver fibrosis - Science Daily, 4/25/13 - "The Evans lab discovered a genetic switch through which vitamin D-related ligands such as calcitriol, a hormonally active form of the vitamin, can put the brakes on fibrosis. "Preclinical results suggest the 'vitamin D brake' is highly efficacious and led us to believe that the time is right to consider a trial in the context of chronic liver disease,"" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Liver enzymes, race, gender and diabetes risk: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Diabet Med. 2013 Mar 20 - "Compared with aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase was more strongly associated with diabetes risk. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in liver enzymes precede the diagnosis of diabetes by many years and that individuals with elevated liver enzymes, even within the normal range as defined in clinical practice, are at high risk for diabetes"
  • Antioxidant improves donated liver survival rate to more than 90% - Science Daily, 2/25/13 - "Results indicate that graft survival rates at 3 and 12 months were 93% and 90%, respectively, for patients receiving NAC infused livers; rates were 82% and 70% in the control group. Post-transplant complication rates were 23% for the NAC group and 51% in the control group. Analysis of the 61 patients receiving suboptimal livers the incidence of organ dysfunction was lower in the NAC group compared to controls at 15% and 32%, respectively" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Compared with matched controls, patients with NAFLD have significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels, suggesting that low 25(OH)D status might play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome - Endocr J. 2013 Feb 13 - "performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D(3) levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram ... The mean 25(OH)D(3) level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 +/- 9.0 vs. 39.7 +/- 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D(3) level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D(3) level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D(3) levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D(3) showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D(3) groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum potassium level is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related metabolic disorders - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Feb 13 - "Subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in metabolic disorders ... conducted a community-based study in 8592 subjects to investigate the association of serum potassium with the risk of prevalent NAFLD ... The prevalence rate of NAFLD was 30.3% in this population and gradually decreased across serum potassium quartiles. With the reduction of serum potassium level, participants have larger waist circumference (WC) and more severe insulin resistance. The correlations hold also in multivariate linear regression analysis. In logistic regression analysis, compared with subjects in the highest quartile of serum potassium level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the lowest quartile was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 - 1.60) for NAFLD, 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.49 - 2.19) for insulin resistance and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.30 - 1.93) for central obesity" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Some omega-3 oils better than others for protection against liver disease - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "EPA had comparatively little effect on preventing the fibrosis, or scarring, that's associated with NASH. However, DHA supplementation reduced the proteins involved in liver fibrosis by more than 65 percent ... A reduction of that magnitude in the actual scarring and damage to the liver is very important ... DHA was more effective than EPA at attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and hepatic damage" -  Note:  I take both.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic acid for the treatment of fatty liver: Randomised controlled trial in children - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Dec 7 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in children ... The odds of more severe versus less severe liver steatosis decreased to the same degree at 6 months in children treated with DHA 250 mg/day and DHA 500 mg/day vs. placebo and persisted virtually unmodified for 24 months (OR ≤ 0.02, p ≤ 0.05 for all time points). Triglycerides were lower in the DHA groups than in the placebo group at any time point and ALT was lower in these groups from month 12 onwards. HOMA was lower in the DHA 250 mg group vs. placebo at months 6 and 12 ... DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis in children with NAFLD. Doses of 250 mg/day and 500 mg/day of DHA appear to be equally effective in reducing liver fat content" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Silymarin Decreases Connective Tissue Growth Factor to Improve Liver Fibrosis in Rats Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride - Phytother Res. 2012 Aug 30 - "connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) ... The results suggest that oral administration of silymarin protects against CCl(4) -induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, likely due to the decrease in fibrotic parameters such as CTGF" - See silymarin at Amazon.com.
  • Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-9 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis ... We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial"
  • Garlic extract attenuating rat liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1 - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 24 - "These findings concurrently suggested that GE elicited therapeutic effect against liver fibrosis. Regression of liver fibrosis occurred by reducing myofibroblasts (through modulation of HSCs activation mechanisms), remodelling extracellular matrix (through increase of its degradation) and regenerating liver tissue and functions: three processes regulated by fine mechanisms where active TGF-β1 and tTG play a central role" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Soy protein alleviates symptoms of fatty liver disease, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/22/12 - "Almost a third of American adults have fatty liver disease, many of them without symptoms ... Obesity is a key risk factor for this condition, which can lead to liver failure ... When fat accumulates in an organ that's not supposed to store fat -- like the liver, that organ's vital function can be dangerously compromised ... Chen compared fat accumulation in the livers of lean and obese rats, which were assigned to either a diet containing casein, a milk-based protein, or a diet containing soy protein, for 17 weeks after weaning ... While diet had no effect on the liver profiles of lean animals, the obese rats that were fed soy showed a 20 percent reduction in triglycerides and overall fat accumulation in the liver"
  • Oral Tocotrienols Are Transported to Human Tissues and Delay the Progression of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score in Patients - J Nutr. 2012 Feb 1 - "The natural vitamin E family is composed of 8 members equally divided into 2 classes: tocopherols (TCP) and tocotrienols (TE). A growing body of evidence suggests TE possess potent biological activity not shared by TCP. The primary objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of TE (200 mg mixed TE, b.i.d.) and TCP [200 mg α-TCP, b.i.d.)] in vital tissues and organs of adult humans receiving oral supplementation ... α-TE was delivered to human brain at a concentration reported to be neuroprotective in experimental models of stroke. In prospective liver transplantation patients, oral TE lowered the Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 50% of patients supplemented, whereas only 20% of TCP-supplemented patients demonstrated a reduction in MELD score. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence demonstrating that orally supplemented TE are transported to vital organs of adult humans. The findings of this study, in the context of the current literature, lay the foundation for Phase II clinical trials testing the efficacy of TE against stroke and end-stage liver disease in humans" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Extract Suppresses NFκB Activation and Inflammatory Responses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 7 - "Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that exacerbate liver injury ... Adult Wistar rats were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF) diet containing no GTE or GTE at 1% or 2% (HF+2GTE) for 8 wk. The HF group had greater (P ≤ 0.05) serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases and hepatic lipids than the LF group. Both GTE groups had lower ALT and hepatic lipid than the HF group. In liver and epididymal adipose, the HF group had lower glutathione as well as greater mRNA and protein expression of TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and NFκB binding activity than the LF group. Compared to the HF group, the HF+2GTE group had greater glutathione and lower protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in both tissues. NFκB binding activities at liver and adipose were also lower, likely by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NFκB. NFκB binding activities in liver and adipose (P ≤ 0.05; r = 0.62 and 0.46, respectively) were correlated with ALT, and hepatic NFκB binding activity was inversely related to liver glutathione (r = -0.35). These results suggest that GTE-mediated improvements in glutathione status are associated with the inhibition of hepatic and adipose inflammatory responses mediated by NFκB, thereby protecting against NASH" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • α-Lipoic acid prevents mild portal endotoxaemia-induced hepatic inflammation and β cell dysfunction - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov 16 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: those with intraportal vehicle (saline) or low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.42 ng/kg/min) infusion, combined with oral administration of vehicle or LA, a potent antioxidant (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks ... The histopathological examination showed that inflammatory changes were clearly visible in liver and pancreatic islets of LPS-infused rats and rarely observed in those cotreated with LA. In addition, low-dose intraportal LPS infusion also significantly impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but not affect the systemic insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin. LA administration markedly reversed LPS-induced β cell dysfunction. Conclusions  α-Lipoic acid cotreatment could significantly prevent mild portal endotoxaemia-induced chronic hepatic inflammation and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion in absence of changing systemic insulin resistance" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of folic acid intervention on ALT concentration in hypertensives without known hepatic disease: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 16 - "A total of 480 participants with mild or moderate essential hypertension and without known hepatic disease were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) enalapril only (10 mg, control group); (2) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group); and (3) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.8 mg of FA, high FA group), once daily for 8 weeks ... This report included 455 participants in the final analysis according to the principle of intention to treat. We found a significant reduction in ALT level in the high FA group (median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), -0.6 (-6.9, 2.0)IU/l, P=0.0008). Compared with the control group, the high FA group showed a significantly greater ALT-lowering response in men (median ALT ratio (ALT at week 8 to ALT at baseline; 25th percentile, 75th percentile): 0.93 (0.67, 1.06) vs 1.00 (0.91, 1.21), P=0.032), and in participants with elevated ALT (ALT>40 IU/l) at baseline. There was no difference in ALT lowering between the control and the low FA group" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Combination Antioxidant Therapy May Help Fatty Liver - Medscape, 11/7/11 - "A combination of vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can improve the inflammatory and steatosis scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ... combination therapy resulted in a 70% difference in change in tumor necrosis factors-alpha levels from baseline. ... ALA alone or vitamin E alone were not as effective ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease in the world ... In the United States, 20% of the general population and 75% to 92% of the morbidly obese population suffer from the disease" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Lycopene against Radiation-induced Hepatic Toxicity in Rats - J Int Med Res. 2011;39(4):1239-52 - "Lycopene supplementation significantly reduced radiotherapy-induced oxidative liver injury" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • Creatine Supplementation Prevents the Accumulation of Fat in the Livers of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Aug 31 - "In conclusion, creatine supplementation prevented the fatty liver induced by feeding rats a HF diet, probably by normalization of the expression of key genes of β-oxidation" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol attenuates steatosis in obese Zucker rats by decreasing fatty acid availability and reducing oxidative stress - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 28:1-9 - "Resveratrol reduced liver weight and TAG content. It did not modify the activity of lipogenic enzymes but it did increase CPT-Ia and ACO activities. NEFA and ALP were reduced in both resveratrol-treated groups. AST/GOT was reduced only by the lowest dose. ALT/GPT, TAG and adiponectin remained unchanged. Resveratrol reduced liver oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that resveratrol can protect the liver from NAFLD by reducing fatty acid availability. Moreover, resveratrol also protects liver from oxidative stress" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E helps diminish a type of fatty liver disease in children, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/27/11 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease among U.S. children. NAFLD ranges in severity from steatosis (fat in the liver without injury) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH (fat, inflammation, and liver damage). Fatty liver increases a child's risk of developing heart disease and liver cirrhosis ... after 96 weeks of treatment, 58 percent of the children on vitamin E no longer had NASH, compared to 41 percent of the children on metformin (a diabetes drug), and 28 percent on placebo. Vitamin E was better than placebo because it significantly reduced enlargement and death of liver cells ... These results suggest that vitamin E improves or resolves NASH in at least half of children, which we previously showed to be true in adults" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Limiting carbs, not calories, reduces liver fat faster, researchers find - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "Curbing carbohydrates is more effective than cutting calories for individuals who want to quickly reduce the amount of fat in their liver ... could have implications for treating numerous diseases including diabetes, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD. The disease, characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the liver, affects as many as one-third of American adults. It can lead to liver inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer ... Weight loss, regardless of the mechanism, is currently the most effective way to reduce liver fat"
  • Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 13;10(1):57 - "Oral administration of the studied whey proteins products reduced the final body weight of rats. There was a significant reduction effect (P<0.05) of the tested proteins on hepatic triglycerides, liver enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level) and serum glucose. Feeding on whey proteins caused an increase in the reduced glutathione. Hepatic content of reduced glutathione was not affected by any of the used whey proteins, but it showed an increasing tendency (P>0.05). Liver histology showed an improvement of fatty infiltration in hepatocytes from whey protein groups and gives the histology of liver a normal appearance" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Aerobic exercise may improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "A study of 15 obese people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease revealed that the daily walks not only increase insulin sensitivity, but improve the liver's polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI), which is thought to be a marker of liver health ... The improvements are linked to an increase in the hormone adiponectin ... Adiponectin influences the body's response to insulin and is associated with a reduced risk of heart attack because of its anti-inflammatory properties"
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: improvement by a combination of nutrients - Br J Nutr. 2011 Mar 22:1-8 - "treatment with a combination of four nutrients, i.e. R-α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, nicotinamide and biotin, just as with pioglitazone, significantly improves glucose tolerance, insulin release, plasma NEFA, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats ... A 3-month treatment with the four nutrients significantly improved most of these abnormalities in GK rats, and the effects of the nutrient combination were greater than those of pioglitazone for most of these indices. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with nutrients that are thought to influence mitochondrial function may be an effective strategy for improving liver dysfunction in GK diabetic rats"
  • Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "whey protein isolate (WPI) ... Livers from WPI mice had significantly fewer hepatic lipid droplet numbers and less deposition of nonpolar lipids. Furthermore, WPI improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conclude that in mice receiving a HF diet, consumption of WPI results in higher basal metabolic rates and altered metabolism of dietary lipids. Because WPI mice had less hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance, WPI dietary supplements may be effective in slowing the development of fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and may be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) offers neuroprotective benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and function ... At the end of the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1 group showed significantly better improvement than did the placebo group in mental fatigue score (-1.7 compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity scale (-6.4 compared with 2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire score (17.1 compared with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical Performance Battery (2.1 compared with 0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed significantly better improvement in the fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05). Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were observed in both groups (P < 0.001)" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
    • Hepatic encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
  • Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 - "intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) ... 60 g/day whey protein supplement (WPS) for 4-weeks ... total liver volume (MR) ... IHCL were positively correlated with visceral fat and total liver volume at inclusion. WPS decreased significantly IHCL by 20.8 +/- 7.7%, fasting total TG by 15 +/- 6.9%, and total cholesterol by 7.3 +/- 2.7%. WPS slightly increased fat free mass from 54.8 +/- 2.2 kg to 56.7 +/- 2.5 kg, p = 0.005). Visceral fat, total liver volume, glucose tolerance, creatinine clearance and insulin sensitivity were not changed" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Whey protein holds fat fighting potential, suggests study - Nutra USA, 2/3/11 - "The amount of fat inside liver cells (known as intra-hepatocellular lipid concentrations – IHCL) in subjects fed a short term high fat diet has been previously shown to be reduced again through increasing dietary protein intake ... four weeks of supplementation with whey protein led to a significant decrease in IHCL of 21 percent, whilst fasting plasma triglyceride was observed to decrease by 15 percent, and total plasma cholesterol concentration decreased by over 7 percent" - [Abstract] - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Specific populations of gut bacteria linked to fatty liver - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "A new research finding showing a strong relationship between complex microbial ecologies in human intestines and the common but serious medical condition known as fatty liver illustrates this paradox ... Choline deficiency also implicates genetics, since many people lack the genes to efficiently make choline internally ... The implication of the finding is that these groups of bacteria may be influencing the body's ability to properly use the choline available in food ... bioinformatics researchers at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte found a strong correlation between the relative abundances of two specific classes of bacteria and the development of fatty liver ... Those patients with the highest abundance of Gammaproteobacteria at the beginning of the study seemed to have the lowest fatty liver development. The ones with the least developed the most fatty liver ... Erysipeoltrichi showed exactly the opposite association, though this relationship was not quite as strong. So there seemed to be change going on in opposite directions"
  • Preventive Effects of Taurine on Development of Hepatic Steatosis Induced by a High-Fat/Cholesterol Dietary Habit - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 2 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is also called hepatic steatosis and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing nations ... taurine (Tau) ... Tau shows preventive effects on the development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Spice in curry could prevent liver damage - Science Daily, 10/29/10 - "Curcumin, a chemical that gives curry its zing, holds promise in preventing or treating liver damage from an advanced form of a condition known as fatty liver disease ... non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Linked to obesity and weight gain, NASH affects 3 to 4 percent of U.S. adults and can lead to a type of liver damage called liver fibrosis and possibly cirrhosis, liver cancer and death ... High levels of leptin activate hepatic stellate cells, which are the cells that cause overproduction of the collagen protein, a major feature of liver fibrosis. The researchers found that among other activities, curcumin eliminated the effects of leptin on activating hepatic stellate cells, which short-circuited the development of liver damage" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Olive oil protects liver from oxidative stress, rat study finds - Science Daily, 10/29/10 - "researchers separated the rats into a control group, an olive oil group, and 6 groups that were exposed to the herbicide '2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid' with or without either whole olive oil, or one of two oil extracts -- the hydrophilic fraction or the lipophilic fraction. All rats given the herbicide showed signs of significant liver damage. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake induced a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and a decrease in markers of liver damage ... The hydrophilic fraction of olive oil seems to be the effective one in reducing toxin-induced oxidative stress, indicating that hydrophilic extract may exert a direct antioxidant effect on hepatic cells" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 14;9(1):116 - "The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group"
  • Oral vitamin D replacement is effective in chronic liver disease Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Aug 27 - "25[OH]D was suboptimal in 101/158 (64%), including severe deficiency in 24 patients (15%). Vitamin D deficiency occurred in liver disease of all aetiologies, including patients with only mild liver disease. 25[OH]D increased by 60.0% (19.11+/-13.20nmol/l) in patients with deficiency after vitamin D replacement and decreased by 25.2% (-18.33+/-12.02nmol/l) in non-treated initially replete patients over a median of 4 months ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency improves with oral vitamin D supplementation and levels fall without supplementation. Chronic liver disease patients are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency regardless of etiology or severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee and the liver: a potential treatment for liver disease? - Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug 26 - "Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers have a reduced risk of abnormal liver function tests, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is a clear dose response to this benefit"
  • Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study in Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "The prevalence of NAFLD was 45.3% in men and 17.5% in women. In comparison with the first tertile, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were 0.59 (0.31-1.14) and 0.45 (0.23-0.90), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.024), and the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking EPA+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.44 (0.23-0.86) and 0.48 (0.24-0.95), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.035). However, there was no significant relation between NAFLD and each of these nutrients in women.Conclusions:Dietary EPA and EPA+DHA may be independent and preventive nutrients for NAFLD in Japanese men" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Finally, Vitamin E May Work -- And It's in the Liver - Medscape, 7/6/10 - "We used to call this "fatty liver"; now it's got a fancier name -- it's "nonalcoholic steatohepatitis." ... It turned out that only the Vitamin E group managed to reach that level of significance" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • High fructose, trans fats lead to significant liver disease, says study - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "mice fed the normal calorie chow diet remained lean and did not have fatty liver disease. Mice fed high calorie diets (trans-fat alone or a combination of trans-fat and high fructose) became obese and had fatty liver disease ... it was only the group fed the combination of trans-fat and high fructose which developed the advanced fatty liver disease which had fibrosis ... This same group also had increased oxidative stress in the liver, increased inflammatory cells, and increased levels of plasma oxidative stress markers"
  • Blueberry ameliorates hepatic fibrosis, study finds - Science Daily, 6/17/10 - "An increasing number of natural substances have been studied to explore if they have protective effects on the liver. Blueberries have unique effects on human retinal, brain and tumor cells, but reports about the effects of blueberries on liver diseases are lacking ... The authors suggest that blueberry consumption is beneficial for hepatic diseases (including fibrosis)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chromium attenuates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in KK/HlJ mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 May 27 - "Chromium supplementation prevented progression of NAFLD and the beneficial effects were accompanied by reduction of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, elevation of hepatic lipid catabolic enzyme, improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism, suppression of inflammation as well as resolution of oxidative stress, probably through enhancement of insulin signaling. Our findings suggest that chromium could serve as a hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD" - See ChromeMate® products at iHerb.
  • Effects of a 1-year dietary intervention with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched olive oil on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a preliminary study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May 13 - "Consumption of olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA demonstrated a significant improvement of liver echo-texture and of the Doppler Perfusion Index after 12 months (after: 0.19 +/- 0.02 vs. pre: 0.15 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were seen at the end of follow-up in controls. Moreover, patients who consumed the olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA showed a significant amelioration of liver enzymes, and of triglycerides (post: 132.8 +/- 63.7 vs. pre: 164.5 +/- 85.5 mg/dl; P = 0.04) in a general linear model adjusted for age and gender. Interestingly, patients reported to have a significant increase of adiponectin levels (post: 1,487.9 +/- 96.7 vs. pre: 1,143 +/- 24.8 mug/ml; P = 0.04)"
  • Vitamin E may be new boon for liver disease - MSNBC, 4/28/10 - "In the study published online in the New England Journal of Medicine, 247 adults with advanced fatty liver disease were randomly assigned to take a high dose of vitamin E (800 international units), the diabetes drug Actos or dummy pills for nearly two years ... Biopsies before and after treatment showed that liver function improved in 43 percent of those in the vitamin E group compared with 19 percent in the placebo group ... participants on the diabetes drug Actos also improved, but to a lesser degree and with a drawback: gaining 10 pounds on average, which remained even after they stopped taking the drug" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Indian spice may delay liver damage and cirrhosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/24/10 - "The findings showed that the curcumin diet significantly reduced bile duct blockage and curbed liver cell (hepatocyte) damage and scarring (fibrosis) by interfering with several chemical signalling pathways involved in the inflammatory process" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • High fructose corn syrup linked to liver scarring, research suggests - Science Daily, 3/22/10 - "The researchers found only 19 percent of adults with NAFLD reported no intake of fructose-containing beverages, while 52 percent consumed between one and six servings a week and 29 percent consumed fructose-containing beverages on a daily basis"
  • Pomegranate oil-seaweed mix may improve liver health and waist size - Nutra USA, 1/25/10 - "Results showed that body weight was significantly reduced by an average of 5.5 kg in people in the NAFLD group and 4.9 kg in the normal liver function group. Women in the placebo group lost an average of 1.4 kilos. In addition, women with NAFLD experienced improvements in waist circumference, body and liver fat content, liver enzymes, and serum triglycerides" - [Abstract] - 5.5 kg is 12.1 pounds - See FucoThin at Amazon.com
  • The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Jan;12(1):72-81 - "Xanthigen-600/2.4 mg (300 mg PSO + 300 mg brown seaweed extract containing 2.4 mg fucoxanthin) resulted in statistically significant reduction of body weight (5.5 +/- 1.4 kg NAFLD group and 4.9 +/- 1.2 kg NLF group, p < 0.05), waist circumference (NAFLD group only), body (3.5 +/- 1.9 kg NAFLD group, p < 0.001; 3.6 +/- 0.7 kg NLF group, p < 0.05) and liver fat content, liver enzymes (NAFLD group only), serum triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Weight loss and reduction in body and liver fat content occurred earlier in patients with NLF than in patients with NAFLD. Fucoxanthin (> 2.4 mg) and Xanthigen-400/1.6 mg (200 mg PSO + 200 mg brown seaweed extract containing 1.6 mg fucoxanthin) significantly increased REE in NAFLD subjects compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Xanthigen promoted weight loss, reduced body and liver fat content, and improved liver function tests in obese non-diabetic women. Xanthigen and Fucoxanthin also increased REE. This product may be considered a promising food supplement in the management of obesity" - See FucoThin at Amazon.com
  • Review article: omega-3 fatty acids - a promising novel therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec 30 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 10-35% of the adult population worldwide; there is no consensus on its treatment ... Omega-3 fatty acids are important regulators of hepatic gene transcription. Animal studies demonstrate they reduce hepatic steatosis, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce markers of inflammation. Clinical trials in human subjects generally confirm these findings but have significant design inadequacies. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids are a promising treatment for NAFLD which require to be tested in randomised placebo controlled trials" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Review supports omega-3 for liver health - Nutra USA, 1/6/10 - "A review of four human studies found that the fatty acids could improve liver health and function, and increase insulin sensitivity in people suffering from fatty liver, a condition that is usually symptomless but said to increase the risk for liver inflammation, and ultimately results in liver failure" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Milk thistle herb protects cancer patients from chemotherapy-associated liver toxicity - Science Daily, 12/27/09 - "Fifty children with ALL were enrolled in the study and were randomized to receive milk thistle or placebo for 28 days. At the start of the study, all of the children had evidence of liver inflammation as measured by elevations in blood levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and amino alanine transferase (ALT). When the investigators performed liver function tests on the children at day 56 (28 days after receiving the herb or placebo), children receiving milk thistle had improvements in their liver enzymes compared with children receiving a placebo. Specifically, the group that took milk thistle had significantly lower levels of AST and a trend towards significantly lower levels of ALT. Taking milk thistle also seemed to help keep fewer patients from having to lower the dose of their medications: chemotherapy doses were reduced in 61 percent of the group receiving milk thistle, compared with 72 percent of the placebo group. In addition, milk thistle appeared to be safe for consumption" - See silymarin (milk thistle) products at iHerb.
  • Herb May Treat Chemotherapy Liver Damage - WebMD, 12/14/09 - "The youths who took milk thistle had significantly lower levels of AST and a trend toward significant lower levels of ALT, the researchers say ... Milk thistle also seemed to help keep fewer patients from having to lower the dose of their chemotherapy drugs ... Chemotherapy doses were reduced in 61% of those on milk thistle, compared to 72% in the placebo group. Milk thistle appeared to be safe for consumption, the researchers write" - See silymarin (milk thistle) products at iHerb.
  • Antifibrotic effects of green tea - Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "The researchers drew a conclusion that green tea may protect liver cells and reduce the deposition of collagen fibers in the liver. Green tea provides a safe and effective strategy for improving hepatic fibrosis" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Medication Effective For Acute Liver Failure In Early Stages Of Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/8/09 - "Researchers found that 52 percent of acute liver failure patients in mild to moderate comas survived when treated with NAC, compared to just 30 percent of those treated with only a placebo. In patients experiencing more severe coma, treatment with NAC did not result in a significant difference in survival rates" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Regular Aerobic Exercise Reduces Health Concerns Associated With Fatty Liver - Science Daily, 9/9/09
  • Liver Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of Insulin-Deficient Mice Is Altered by trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid - J Nutr. 2009 Aug 19 - "Feeding mice the trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and liver steatosis. It has been hypothesized that CLA-induced liver steatosis is the result of increased hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by high insulin levels. We studied the effects of a 12-d t10c12CLA treatment (1 g/100 g diet) on liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice. STZ mice were characterized by insulin deficiency, hypertriglyceridemia, and depletion of liver triglyceride and glycogen. Remarkably, feeding t10c12CLA to diabetic mice (STZ-CLA) normalized these variables. Reconstitution of fat stores in the livers of STZ-CLA mice was associated with lower fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates and greater malonyl-CoA concentration than in STZ mice. FA translocase and VLDL receptor mRNA levels were greater in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, suggesting that t10c12CLA increased liver lipid uptake. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels and AMP kinase phosphorylation were lower in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, indicating that t10c12CLA may reduce glucogenic activity and promote glycogenesis in diabetic mice. Because glycemia and glucokinase expression were not modified by t10c12CLA treatment, we postulated that glycogen accumulation is likely not the result of an effect of t10c12CLA on plasma glucose utilization, but rather is due to the contribution of lactate, the concentration of which was higher in muscle of STZ-CLA mice. The results demonstrate that t10c12CLA stimulates liver lipid accumulation in the absence of insulin and, thus, suggest that t10c12CLA can improve liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in type I diabetic mice" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Nutritional Supplement, SAMe, Effective In Preventing Formation Of Primary Liver Cancer In Rats - Science Daily, 7/30/09 - "A new study investigated the effectiveness of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer. SAMe, a widely available nutritional supplement, with little known side effects, was found to be effective in preventing the formation of HCC in rats" - [Abstract] - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • S-adenosylmethionine in the chemoprevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rat model - Hepatology. 2009 Apr 6 - "SAMe is effective in preventing HCC establishment but ineffective in treating established HCC because of induction of hepatic methyltransferases, which prevents SAMe level to reach high enough to kill liver cancer cells. SAMe's chemopreventive effect may be related to its proapoptotic action and its ability to inhibit angiogenes" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin suppresses expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, leading to the inhibition of LDL-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells - Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 7 - "This curcumin, a constituent of turmeric, may be useful in preventing hypercholesterolemia-associated hepatic fibrogenesis" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsions Prevent and Reverse Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: The Boston Experience - JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jul 1 - "Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is the most prevalent and most severe complication of long-term parenteral nutrition. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, largely remains to be elucidated. The currently approved parenteral lipid emulsions in the United States contain safflower or soybean oils, both rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Mounting evidence indicates that the omega-6 PUFAs originating from plant oils in these lipid emulsions may play a role in the onset of liver injury. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, are primarily composed of omega-3 PUFAs, thus providing a promising alternative. The authors review the literature on the role of lipid emulsions in the onset of PNALD and discuss prevention and treatment strategies using a fish oil- based lipid emulsion. They conclude that a fish oil-based emulsion is hepatoprotective in a murine model of PNALD, and it appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of this type of liver disease in children" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat-liver cells - Eur J Clin Invest. 2009 Jun 8 - "In hepatocytes from normal rats, the quercetin-induced decrease in both de novo fatty acid and TAG synthesis, with a consequent reduction in VLDL-TAG formation, may represent a potential mechanism contributing to the reported hypotriacylglycerolemic effect of quercetin" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Combination of vitamin K(2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates cumulative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma - J Hepatol. 2009 May 15 - "A 48-month follow-up revealed that the combination treatment with VK and ACE-I markedly inhibited the cumulative recurrence of HCC in association with suppression of the serum level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); a central angiogenic factor. The serum level of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein was also suppressed almost in parallel with VEGF. These beneficial effects were not observed with single treatment using VK or ACE-I" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Two Glasses Of Wine A Day Helps To Reduce Quantity Of Fat In Liver - Science Daily, 5/12/09 - "Alter four weeks, samples of liver and blood were taken from individuals of the three different groups for their subsequent analysis. It was shown that in the third group - the one treated with resveratrol -, infiltration of liver fat dropped in comparison with group two. After this and a number of other analyses, the researcher concluded that resveratrol reduces the severity of ESNA in models with rats because, in the animals treated with resveratrol, the percentage of the cells of affected liver cells was notably less in non-treated animals" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Liver Disease: The Next Big Thing - Science Daily, 4/19/09 - "New research in The Journal of Physiology connects low aerobic capacity to another serious condition – non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) – and suggests that the resulting liver problems play a crucial step developing obesity-related illnesses ... Sufferers of NAFLD accumulate fat in their livers and have high levels of fat in their blood, amplifying the risk-factors of obesity. The disease leads to a form of liver damage called fibrosis, similar to the results of alcohol abuse"
  • Resveratrol inhibits the expression of SREBP1 in cell model of steatosis via Sirt1-FOXO1 signaling pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Mar 13;380(3):644-9 - "Our results suggest that resveratrol may attenuate fat deposition by inhibiting SREBP1 expression via Sirt1-FOXO1 pathway and thus may have application for the treatment of NAFLD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Why Diets High In High-fructose Corn Syrup (found In Soda And Processed Foods) Can Lead To Insulin Resistance - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "mice on a high-fructose diet were protected from insulin resistance when a gene known as transcriptional coactivator PPARg coactivator-1b (PGC-1b) was "knocked down" in the animals' liver and fat tissue ... Fructose is much more readily metabolized to fat in the liver than glucose is and in the process can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... NAFLD in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and type II diabetes"
  • Fat-free Diet Reduces Liver Fat In Fat-free Mice, Researchers Report - Science Daily, 2/13/09
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3 fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin May Prevent Liver Damage That Afflicts Millions, Study Finds - Science Daily, 1/26/09 - "Simple aspirin may prevent liver damage in millions of people suffering from side effects of common drugs, alcohol abuse, and obesity-related liver disease"
  • New Therapeutic Properties Of N-acetyl-L-cysteine Discovered - Science Daily, 1/19/09 - "N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) combined with mesalamine produces a significant improvement in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine, is a drug normally used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to minimize the effects of cold and flu. Its hepatic protective properties also make this drug a useful tool in paracetamol intoxications ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduced the negative effects caused by azathioprine, a immunosuppressant of clinical use, on the liver" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • How Did Glycine Significantly Decrease Liver Injury? - Science Daily, 10/31/08 - "Recent studies demonstrated that dietary glycine protected both the lung and liver against lethal doses of endotoxin in rat or other animals and improved graft survival after liver transplantation" - See L-glycine products at iHerb.
  • Bilberry extract may ease the damages of stress: study - Nutra USA, 10/28/08 - "Mice supplemented with an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (Mirtoselect, Indena) at doses of 50, 100, and 200 milligrams per kilograms per day experienced lower ALT levels than non-supplemented restrained animals (17.23 versus 107.68 units per litre, respectively)"
  • Low-carb Diets Alter Glucose Formation By The Liver - Science Daily, 10/20/08 - "a low-carbohydrate diet changes hepatic energy metabolism. When carbohydrates are restricted, the liver relies more on substances like lactate and amino acids to form glucose, instead of glycerol ... They suggest that the shift in glucose metabolism associated with a low carbohydrate diet could be beneficial in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to improved disposal of hepatic fat"
  • Resveratrol Prevents Fat Accumulation In Livers Of 'Alcoholic' Mice - Science Daily, 10/14/08 - "The accumulation of fat in the liver as a result of chronic alcohol consumption could be prevented by consuming resveratrol, according to a new study with mice. The research found that resveratrol reduced the amount of fat produced in the liver of mice fed alcohol and, at the same time, increased the rate at which fat within the liver is broken down" - [WebMD] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Common In Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "analyzed vitamin D levels of 504 inflammatory bowel disease patients ... almost 50 percent of the patients were Vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11 percent being severely deficient ... 92.4 percent of chronic liver patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one third were severely deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common among cirrhotics" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease at Increased Risk of Vitamin D Deficiencies - Doctor's Guide, 10/7/08 - "conducted analysed vitamin D levels of 504 patients with IBD ... researchers found almost 50% of the patients were vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11% being severely deficient ... with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... 92.4% of the patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one-third was severely deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Can Taurine Be A Potent Antioxidant Drug In The Future? - Science Daily, 9/19/08 - "Taurine is a potent antioxidant with hepatoprotective effects. Organelle based changes in hepatocytes after taurine treatment in experimental liver fibrosis were searched systematically and organelle injury scores decreased were found to decrease significantly" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effects of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Extract on Restraint Stress-Induced Liver Damage in Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 9 - "Bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) was oral administrated to mice at 50, 100, and 200 mg/(kg.day) for five days, which remarkably decreased plasma ALT level to 17.23 +/- 2.49 U/L at the dose of 200 mg/(kg.day) and thus alleviated stress-induced liver damage. In addition, bilberry extracts increased glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels and significantly decreased MDA and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the liver tissues. These results suggest that bilberry extract plays an important role in protecting against restraint stress-induced liver damage by both scavenging free radicals activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. This study showed the beneficial health effects of bilberry extract through its antioxidative action" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Red wine keeps liver healthy, suggests new study - Nutra USA, 5/22/08 - "People who drank up to one glass of wine a day saw the risk of liver disease due to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) cut in half ... In contrast, compared with wine drinkers, people who reported modest consumption of beer or spirits had over four times the odds of having suspected NAFLD"
  • Fast-Food Liver Damage Can Be Reversed, Experts Say - Science Daily, 4/30/08 - "Diets high in fast food can be highly toxic to the liver and other internal organs, but that damage can be reversed ... You can likely reverse the damage to your liver and other vital organs if you simply give up the unhealthy lifestyle"
  • Effect of Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin on Tamoxifen treated postmenopausal breast cancer women with special reference to blood chemistry profiles - Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Apr 22 - "Tamoxifen (TAM) ... TAM also has estrogenic activity on liver and endometrium causing severe oxidative stress with various biochemical derangements. Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin (CoRN) are well-known potent antioxidants and protective agents against many diseases including cancer ... A statistically significant alteration in various blood chemistry parameters, such as serum total bilirubin (S. BIL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), uric acid (UA), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferases (LCAT), potassium, calcium and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in sole TAM-treated group, was favorably reverted back to near normal levels on combinatorial therapy with CoRN" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin b(12) on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury - Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Feb;31(2):309-11 - "Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils ... vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent" - Note:  Aspartate aminotransferase is the AST reading on blood tests and alanine aminotransferase is the ALT.  See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Extract Protects Leptin-Deficient, Spontaneously Obese Mice from Hepatic Steatosis and Injury - J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):323-331 - "Histologic evaluation showed a significant reduction in hepatic steatosis in GTE-fed obese mice only and histologic scores were correlated with hepatic lipid concentration (r = 0.84; P < 0.05), which was reduced dose dependently by GTE. GTE protected against hepatic injury as suggested by 30-41% and 22-33% lower serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, respectively" - Note:  Alanine aminotransferase is the "ALT" you see on blood tests and aspartate aminotransferase is the "AST" you see on blood tests.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea shows benefits against fatty liver - Nutra USA, 1/22/08 - "the obese mice fed the GTE-supplemented diets had 23 to 25 per cent less body than the obese mice fed the non-supplemented diet. Moreover, the lean mice fed the GTE-supplemented diets had 11 to 20 per cent less body than their lean counterpart on the non-supplemented diet ... Measurements of the blood enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, used as markers of liver damage, showed that GTE-supplementation was associated with 30 to 41 per cent and 22 to 33 per cent lower activities, respectively" - [Abstract] - Note:  Alanine aminotransferase is the "ALT" you see on blood tests and aspartate aminotransferase is the "AST" you see on blood tests.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Treatment With NAC Is Associated With Better Outcomes For Children With Liver Failure, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/3/08 - "The children who received NAC spent fewer days in intensive care, and in the hospital overall. 43 percent survived with their native liver, compared to 22 percent of children who did not receive NAC. And death rates while awaiting transplant, after transplant, and after ten years were notably lower in children who had received NAC" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 7;:1-9 - "Lipoic acid profoundly decreased serum and liver concentrations of TAG, and also lowered serum concentrations of phospholipid and NEFA, and the concentration of cholesterol in the liver. A hypoglycaemic effect of this compound was also observed. Lipoic acid dose-dependently decreased the activity and mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate lyase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and pyruvate kinase in the liver despite that reductions were considerably attenuated in the NADPH-producing enzymes. This compound also dose-dependently lowered the mRNA levels of spot 14, adiponutrin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and Delta5- and Delta6-desaturases. In addition, lipoic acid dose-dependently lowered serum concentrations of insulin and leptin, but increased those of adiponectin. Lipoic acid appeared to reduce hepatic lipogenesis and hence decreases serum and liver lipid levels. Alterations in serum concentrations of insulin and (or) adiponectin may trigger this consequence" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Quick-burning Carbs May Cause Fatty Liver: Low-glycemic Diet Protected Mice - Science Daily, 9/21/07 - "After six months, the mice weighed the same. However, mice on the low-glycemic index diet were lean, with normal amounts of fat in throughout their bodies. Mice on the high-glycemic index diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • Starchy diet 'may damage liver' - BBC News, 9/21/07 - ""High-glycaemic" foods - rapidly digested by the body - could be causing "fatty liver", increasing the risk of serious illness ... After six months on the diet, the mice weighed the same, but those on the high GI diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • The Effect of a Silybin-Vitamin E-Phospholipid Complex on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Apr 5 - "silybin conjugated with vitamin E and phospholipids could be used as a complementary approach to the treatment of patients with chronic liver damage"
  • Zinc and the Liver: An Active Interaction - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Apr 6 - "zinc could protect against liver diseases"
  • Sugar intake may hurt liver - Reuters, 10/31/06 - "fatty liver disease was more common in the group given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be directly" toxic"
    • Obesity and Fatty Liver disease - MedicineNet.com - "Doctors also are using medications to treat non alcoholic fatty liver disease. For example, insulin-sensitizing agents, such as the thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia), and metformin (Glucophage) not only help to control blood glucose in patients with diabetes, but they also improve enzyme levels in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease" - See pioglitazone or rosiglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com, XlPharmacy or SuperSaverMeds.com.
    • Avandia Positively Impacts On Factors Linked With Insulin Resistance - Doctor's Guide, 9/18/00 - "Increased deposits of fat around the internal organs and in the liver are commonly associated with insulin resistance and are found in many type 2 diabetes patients ... Avandia helps prevent accumulation of fat around the internal organs and significantly reduces hepatic fat"
    Is Coffee or Tea Good for Your Liver? - Medscape, 10/2/06 - "The consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of CLD"
  • Nutritional Support in Chronic Liver Disease - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/06
  • Prolonged n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr 15;23(8):1143-51 - "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA improves biochemical, ultrasonographic and haemodynamic features of liver steatosis. Our study supports the efficacy of n-3 PUFA as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of NAFLD"
  • Coffee and Tea Can Reduce Risk of Chronic Liver Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/2/05 - "people at high risk for liver injury may be able to reduce their risk for developing chronic liver disease significantly by drinking more than two cups of coffee or tea daily. This preventative effect was only seen in people at higher risk for liver disease due to heavy alcohol intake, being overweight or having diabetes or iron overload"
  • Component Of Green Tea Protects Injured Livers In Mice - Science Daily, 3/9/05
  • Food Can Have Powerful Effect on Health - WebMD, 5/17/04 - "people who drank more than two cups of coffee a day were about half as likely to have elevated liver enzyme blood tests compared with those who consumed less than a cup a day. And when divided into five groups according to the total amount of caffeine consumed, people in the highest group had about one-third the risk of liver damage than those in the lowest group"
  • Looking for a Liver Cure? - Dr. Weil, 5/13/04
  • Weight Loss Helpful in Chronic Liver Disease - Medscape, 2/20/04
  • A New Era for SAMe - Life Extension Magazine, 6/03
  • SAMe Beneficial in Treating Osteoarthritis, Depression, and Liver Disease - New Hope Natural Media, 12/12/02
  • Milk Thistle's Liver-Protective Properties - Nutrition Science News, 10/99
  • Can Cirrhosis be Prevented? - Nutrition Science News, 1/99
  • SAMe - Part 3: The Liver Super- Nutrient - Life Extension Magazine, 6/97

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