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Home > Health Conditions > Crohn's Disease

Crohn’s Disease/IBD/Colitis


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  • Curcumin Alleviated Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Regulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and TLRs Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Sep 16 - "Curcumin has shown good efficacy in mice with experimental colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis, but the mechanism of action through the regulation of M1/M2 macrophage polarization has not been elaborated ... Our study suggested that curcumin exerted therapeutic effects in colitis mice by regulating the balance of M1/M2 macrophage polarization and TLRs signaling pathway" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii Attenuates Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis by Regulating Inflammatory Responses and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice - J Nutr 2021 Aug 12 - "Probiotics are beneficial in intestinal disorders. However, the benefits of Lactobacillus johnsonii in experimental colitis remain unknown ... L. johnsonii supplementation is a promising nutritional strategy for preventing C. rodentium-induced colitis in mice" - See Lactobacillus johnsonii at Amazon.com.
  • Pectins that Structurally Differ in the Distribution of Methyl-esters Attenuate Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 9 - "Pectins have anti-inflammatory properties on intestinal immunity through direct interactions on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the small intestine or via stimulating microbiota-dependent effects in the large intestine. Both the degree of methyl-esterification (DM) and the distribution of methyl-esters (degree of blockiness; DB) of pectins contribute to this influence on immunity but whether and how the DB impacts immunity through microbiota-dependent effects in the large intestine is unknown ... Pectins prevent C. rodentium-induced colonic inflammation by lowering the C. rodentium load in the caecum independently of the DB" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of olives and their constituents on the expression of ulcerative colitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials - Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 8 - "Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is often associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Its effects on inflammatory conditions such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) however has yet to be defined ... Milder disease expression including weight maintenance, reduced rectal bleeding and well-formed stools favouring olive-based interventions was statistically significant in 16/19 studies, with moderate-to-large effect sizes (ESs -0.66 (95% CI -1.56, 0.24) to -12.70 (95% CI -16.8, -8.7)). Olive-based interventions did not prevent the development of colitis-like pathologies in any study. In conclusion, effects of olive-based interventions on murine models of UC appear promising, with milder disease outcomes favouring the intervention in most trials and effect sizes suggesting potential clinical relevance. However, the lack of published randomized controlled human trials warrants further investigation to determine if these effects would translate to individuals living with UC" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of a curcumin extract (Curcugen™) on gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal microbiota in adults with self-reported digestive complaints: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jan 21 - "There is preliminary evidence to suggest curcumin can alleviate digestive symptoms in adults with self-reported digestive complaints and irritable bowel syndrome ... 79 adults with self-reported digestive complaints were recruited and randomised to receive either a placebo or 500 mg of the curcumin extract, Curcugen™ ... The curcumin extract, Curcugen™, administered for 8 weeks at a dose of 500 mg once daily was associated with greater improvements in digestive complaints and anxiety levels in adults with self-reported digestive complaints" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Supplemental Choline Modulates Growth Performance and Gut Inflammation by Altering the Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Weaned Piglets - J Nutr 2020 Nov 26 - "Choline supplementation improved growth performance and prevented gut inflammation in weaned piglets by altering gut microbiota and lipid metabolism" - See citicholine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Chlorogenic Acid Suppresses miR-155 and Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis Through the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome Pathway - Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 Oct 20 - "These findings indicate that CGA prevented colitis by downregulating miR-155 expression and inactivating the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in macrophages. The current study may have promising therapeutic implications in the treatment of ulcerative colitis" - See chlorogenic acid at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of saffron supplementation on oxidative/antioxidant status and severity of disease in ulcerative colitis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Phytother Res 2020 Oct 4 - "Supplementation with saffron helps improve antioxidant status. Oxidative stress plays an important role in ulcerative colitis (UC) ... Participants were randomly divided into intervention (100 mg saffron/daily) and placebo (100 mg maltodextrin/daily) groups. Of all the participants, 75 completed the study. After 8 weeks, there were significantly increased in the mean score of simple clinical colitis activity index questionnaire (3.83 ± 1.78 to 3 ± 1.60, p = .004), the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (2.68 ± 0.90 to 2.79 ± 0.87, p = .016), superoxide dismutase (60.69 ± 9.59 to 66.30 ± 10.79, p = .009) and glutathione peroxidase (22.05 ± 14.27 to 29.67 ± 17.97, p = .011) in patients received saffron compared to the placebo group ... dietary saffron as an alternative therapy may effective in improving antioxidant factors and reducing the severity of disease in UC patients" - See saffron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Berry good news: newly discovered compound from blueberries could treat inflammatory disorders - Science Daily, 9/23/20 - "In their latest study, published in The FASEB Journal, the scientists identified a polyphenolic compound called "pterostilbene" (PSB) with strong immunosuppressive properties -- making it a potential therapeutic option for chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This compound is very similar to another phytocompound known to have important medicinal effects, called "resveratrol" (RSV) ... Our findings showed that PSB possesses a strong immunosuppressive property, paving the way for a new, natural treatment for IBD" - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Vitamin D Tied to Lower Risk for Immunotherapy-Induced Colitis - Medscape, 7/2/20 - "Taking vitamin D before starting immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy may decrease the risk for treatment-related colitis ... Results from animal studies suggest that vitamin D may modulate the immune system and protect against inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. ICI colitis shows similarities with inflammatory bowel disease, which may account for why vitamin D may be protective against ICI colitis ... Vitamin D use was linked to 65% decreased odds of developing ICI colitis (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 – 0.9; P = .01) ... For the confirmatory cohort of patients from Massachusetts General, results were similar: 29% (49/169) developed ICI colitis, and vitamin D intake was tied to 54% decreased odds of colitis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D may help prevent a common side effect of anti-cancer immunotherapy - Science Daily, 6/22/20 - "The study included information on 213 patients with melanoma who received immune checkpoint inhibitors between 2011 and 2017. Thirty-seven (17 percent) of these patients developed colitis. Sixty-six patients in the study (31 percent) took vitamin D supplements before starting treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors ... Patients who took vitamin D had 65 percent lower odds of developing colitis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Walnut Oil Alleviates Intestinal Inflammation and Restores Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice - Nutrients. 2020 May 2 - "Ulcerative colitis belongs to inflammatory bowel diseases, which is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a debilitating condition with a wide range of symptoms including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and visceral pain. Current dietary habits often lead to imbalance in n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in favor of n-6 PUFA. Recent data showed the potential anti-inflammatory advantage of n-3 PUFA. Walnut oil (WO) is rich in those fatty acids and mainly consists of linoleic and linolenic acids that may act via free fatty acids receptors (FFARs). We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of WO in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined changes in the expression of tight junction proteins (TJ), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and FFAR proteins in the inflamed mouse colon. WO improves the damage score in inflamed tissue, significantly restoring ion transport and colonic wall permeability. Inflammation caused changes in TJ, FFAR, and pro-inflammatory gene proteins expression, which WO was able to partially reverse. WO has anti-inflammatory properties; however, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. This stems from the pleiotropic effects of n-3 PUFA ligands associated with receptor distribution and targeted signaling pathways" - See walnut oil at Amazon.com and walnut oil at iHerb.
  • Certain foods common in diets of US adults with inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 5/6/20 - "Foods, such as French fries, cheese, cookies, soda, and sports and energy drinks, are commonly found in the diets of United States adults with inflammatory bowel disease"
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 30 - "The primary outcome was the change in Abdominal Pain Severity - Numeric Rating Scale (APS-NRS). Over the intervention period, APS-NRS was significantly improved in both probiotic groups vs. placebo in absolute terms (DDS-1: -2.59 ± 2.07, p = 0.001; UABla-12: -1.56 ± 1.83, p = 0.001) and in percentage of significant responders (DDS-1: 52.3%, p < 0.001); UABla-12 (28.2%, p = 0.031). Significant amelioration vs. placebo was observed in IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) scores for L. acidophilus DDS-1 (-133.4 ± 95.19, p < 0.001) and B. lactis UABla-12 (-104.5 ± 96.08, p < 0.001) groups, including sub-scores related to abdominal pain, abdominal distension, bowel habits and quality of life. Additionally, a significant normalization was observed in stool consistency in both probiotic groups over time and as compared to placebo. In conclusion, L. acidophilus DDS-1 and B. lactis UABla-12 improved abdominal pain and symptom severity scores with a corresponding normalization of bowel habits in adults with IBS" - [Nutra USA]  - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic supplements at iHerb.
  • A Phase I Trial of Berberine in Chinese with Ulcerative Colitis - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Oct 16 - "The Chinese natural product, berberine, has biological properties supporting potential efficacy as a colon cancer prevention agent. Its longstanding use in China to treat gastrointestinal tract and rheumatologic disorders is generally regarded as safe, supporting initial investigations in an at-risk population, such as individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the safety of berberine in this population is not established. Individuals living in China with biopsy-proven UC, ≤ grade 2 dysplasia, and with a UC disease activity index (UCDAI) score ≤ 1 on mesalamine, were randomized 3:1 in a double-blind phase I trial to berberine 900 mg/day or placebo for 3 months, with the primary objective of assessing safety ... The combination of berberine and mesalamine is well tolerated in Chinese with UC, and may enhance mesalamine's anti-inflammatory effects in colonic tissue" - See berberine at Amazon.com.
  • The diet-microbiome connection in inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 9/9/19 - "The bacteria in the gut are known to be a really important factor in tipping the scales toward disease ... And the environmental factor that seems to contribute the most to rapid changes in the microbiome is what you eat. Given that dogs' microbiomes are extremely similar to those of humans, we thought this was an intriguing model to ask, 'Could diet be impacting this disease through an impact on the microbiome?'" ... One of these "good" microbes that can give rise to secondary bile acids was the bacterium Clostridium hiranonis, which the researchers found in greater numbers in dogs that went into remission ... Youngsters who responded to the therapy had an increase in numbers of the bacteria species Clostridium scindens, which, like C. hiranonis, is a potent producer of secondary bile acids" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Hesperidin Protects Against Intestinal Inflammation By Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Up Regulating Treg Cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Feb 28 - "Hesperidin supplementation ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Specifically, hesperidin ameliorates intestine inflammation through decreasing MDA activity and enhancing SOD and GSH activities. Hesperidin also obviously upregulation Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and increased the protein expression of HO-1 and NQO1. Additionally, hesperidin significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory factors and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory factors in the colon tissues. Further analysis showed that hesperidin could improve the expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal permeability, as well as increased the Treg population. In Caco-2 cells, we showed that hesperidin prevented TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced reduced in TEER and morphological disruption. Moreover, hesperidin also was shows decreased the epithelial permeability and suppress proinflammatory responses" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • The Efficacy of Prebiotics, Probiotics, Synbiotics and Antibiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Medscape, 11/22/18 - "The search identified 4017 citations. Data for prebiotics and synbiotics were sparse. Fifty-three RCTs of probiotics, involving 5545 patients, were eligible. Particular combinations of probiotics, or specific species and strains, appeared to have beneficial effects on global IBS symptoms and abdominal pain, but it was not possible to draw definitive conclusions about their efficacy. There were five trials of similar design that used rifaximin in non-constipated IBS patients, which was more effective than placebo (RR of symptoms persisting = 0.84; 95% CI 0.79–0.90). Adverse events were no more common with probiotics or antibiotics" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics, Fecal Transplant Promising in Ulcerative Colitis - Medscape, 10/15/18 - "the researchers reviewed 16 relevant randomized controlled trials that used markedly different protocols ... Overall, probiotics were effective for clinical remission and clinical response in ulcerative colitis. And when we divided it to see which probiotic actually was effective, FMT was number one and VSL#3 was number two" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Strawberries could help reduce harmful inflammation in the colon - Science Daily, 8/20/18 - "The sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits of many people in this country -- high-sugar, high-animal-fat, but low-fiber diets -- may promote colonic inflammation and increase the risk of IBD ... The researchers found that dietary consumption of whole strawberries at a dose equivalent to as low as three-quarters of a cup of strawberries per day in humans significantly suppressed symptoms like body weight loss and bloody diarrhea in mice with IBD. Strawberry treatments also diminished inflammatory responses in the mice's colonic tissue ... But decreased inflammation wasn't the strawberry's only conferred benefit during this study. Colonic inflammation adversely impacts the composition of microbiota in the gut. With IBD, the abundance of harmful bacteria increases, while levels of beneficial bacteria decrease in the colon. Following the dietary treatments of whole strawberries, the researchers observed a reversal of that unhealthy microbiota composition in the IBD mice"
  • New research on probiotics in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer - Science Daily, 9/13/17 - "These results suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome with probiotics may become a new preventative or therapeutic strategy for patients at risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated CRC ... The active probiotic also reduced inflammation induced by the carcinogen plus DSS, as indicated by suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (i.e., those encoding KC, interleukin (IL)-22, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-1?) and reduced cytokine concentrations in plasma (i.e., KC, IL-22, and IL-6). The active probiotic also counteracted an increase in immature myeloid cells induced by the carcinogen" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Lycopene Ameliorates Experimental Colitis in Rats via Reducing Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Jul 19:1-9 - "The results obtained in this study indicate that lycopene may exert protective effects in experimental colitis and might, therefore, be useful for treatment of IBD" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Vinegar treatment prevents the development of murine experimental colitis via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis - J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jan 21 - "This study investigated the preventive effects of vinegar and acetic acid (the active component of vinegar) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Vinegar (5% v/v) or acetic acid (0.3% w/v) treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histopathological scores, attenuated body weight loss and shortened the colon length in a murine experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ... Surprisingly, pretreatment with vinegar for 28 days before DSS induction increased levels of the commensal lactic acid-producing or acetic acid-producing bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus faecalis, whereas decreased Escherichia coli levels were found in the feces of mice. These results suggest that vinegar supplement might provide a new dietary strategy for the prevention of UC" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D shows promise for treating Crohn's disease - Science Daily, 6/12/15 - "the authors assigned 27 CD patients in remission to 2000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation or placebo for 3 months. They found, that patients treated with the supplementation were more likely to maintain their intestinal permeability, whereas this deteriorated in the placebo group. Increased intestinal permeability is considered a measure of gut leakiness, which is shown to predict and precede clinical relapse in CD. In addition, patients with the highest blood levels of vitamin D had signs of reduced inflammation (measured by C-reactive protein and antimicrobial peptides), and these patients also reported better quality of life" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Boswellia serrata has Beneficial Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties in a Model of Experimental Colitis - Phytother Res. 2014 Mar 12 - "Boswellia serrata plant ... The B. serrata extract has protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that inhibit inflammatory mediators in acute experimental colitis" - See Boswellia at Amazon.com.
  • Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model - Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 21 - "Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Panax pseudoginseng - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax"
  • Extra Vitamin D May Ease Crohn's Symptoms, Study Finds - WebMD, 5/20/13 - "Extra vitamin D "was associated with significantly less physical, emotional and general fatigue, greater quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living," ... evaluated 27 patients who had Crohn's in remission. (Even in remission, fatigue and quality of life can be problematic.) The patients were assigned to take either 2,000 IUs (international units) of vitamin D a day or a dummy vitamin for three months" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis - Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 22:1-8 - "Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2 % grape juice control group; 1 % grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1 % grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • The importance of vitamins D and K for the bone health and immune function in inflammatory bowel disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Aug 20 - "The levels of vitamins D and K are lower than normal in patients with IBD, especially in Crohn's disease. Although vitamins D and K are important for the maintenance of bone mineral density in non-IBD patients, an association between vitamins D or K and bone metabolism is not apparent in IBD patients. Recent studies showed that vitamins D and K are suggested to have immune-suppressive effects, both in animal models of colitis and human trials. In particular, vitamin D suppresses dendritic and T-cell functions by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Insufficiency of vitamin D is associated with the activated phenotype of IBD ... Vitamins D and K potentially contribute to the maintenance of bone health in IBD, but this effect may be diminished by other factors such as steroid use, reduced exposure to sunlight, and inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D and possibly vitamin K are suggested to be involved in the suppression of immune-mediated inflammation and modulation of disease activity"
  • Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Medscape, 8/9/12 - "Current understanding points to beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with IBD in terms of bone and muscle preservation, reduction in inflammation and potentially reduced risk of cancer in patients with IBD. However, these beneficial effects must be balanced with potential adverse effects in the clinical setting. The precise thresholds of serum 25(OH) vitamin D for beneficial and potentially adverse effects remain poorly defined in the literature. Until further evidence is available, we recommend to aim for a serum 25(OH) vitamin D level of 75 nmol/L. In a condition with a propensity to affect young people and a disproportionate effect on quality of life and productivity, the potential advent of inexpensive supplementary therapies presents an attractive option for ongoing research" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Invisible helpers: How probiotic bacteria protect against inflammatory bowel diseases - Science Daily, 4/26/12 - "In experiments with mice, the scientists observed that lactocepin -- an enzyme produced from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei -- can selectively interrupt inflammatory processes. As the scientists observed, lactocepin degrades messengers from the immune system, known as chemokines, in the diseased tissue. As a part of the "normal" immune response, chemokines are needed to guide defense cells to the source of the infection. In chronic intestinal disorders like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the otherwise highly effective defense mechanism against infectious agents is malfunctioning. Chemokines such as "IP-10" then contribute to the tissue damage due to chronic inflammatory processes, preventing the tissue from healing" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated linoleic acid modulates immune responses in patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's disease - Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr 19 - "Thirteen patients with mild to moderately active CD were enrolled in an open-label study of CLA (6 g/d orally) for 12 weeks ... CD activity index (CDAI) ... Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) ... CLA significantly suppressed the ability of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets to produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 and lymphoproliferation at week 12. There was a statistically significant drop in CDAI from 245 to 187 (P = 0.013) and increase in IBDQ from 141 to 165 (P = 0.017) on week 12" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Decrease Risk for Crohn's Disease - Medscape, 3/1/12 - "An analysis of the data based on predefined plasma 25(OH)D levels showed that vitamin D–sufficient women (levels ≥ 30 ng/mL) were 62% less likely to be diagnosed with CD during the 22-year interval than those with deficient vitamin D levels (<20 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 - 0.97; Ptrend = .048)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Crohns Disease - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jul;81(4):205-10 - "Results: IL-10 levels were significantly lower in patients with vitamin D insufficiency compared with the vitamin D replete group (mean and SE 2.48 +/- 0.51 v 6.77 +/- 2.49 pg/mL, p < 0.001). There were, however, no differences in serum TNF-alpha or CRP levels based on vitamin D status. The use of a vitamin D supplement at a low dose (200 IU) did not significantly influence IL-10 levels. Conclusion: Circulating levels of IL-10, but not TNF-alpha, were significantly lower in CD patients with inadequate serum 25(OH)D. This suggests that poor vitamin D status may be linked to reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in this group" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Bilberries may reduce bowel inflammation, boost gut health - Nutra USA, 11/9/11
  • Olive extract shows benefits for inflammatory bowel disease - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Olive oil and the hydroxytyrosol it contains may reduce inflammation linked with the development of colitis ... Hydroxytyrosol is thought to be the main antioxidant compound in olives, and believed to play a significant role in the many health benefits attributed to olive oil. Previous research has linked the compound to cardiovascular benefits, with reductions in LDL or 'bad' cholesterol. Data has also suggested the compound may boost eye health and reduce the risk of against macular degeneration ... the olive oil-fed animals had an attenuation of the colonic damage, as well as a 50% reduction in the mortality rate caused by DSS. The results were improved further by hydroxytyrosol supplement ... levels of the pro-inflammatory compound interleuking-10 (IL-10) were “significantly improved” in both olive oil-fed groups" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effect of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in intestinal microvascular endothelium - Clin Nutr. 2011 May 30 - "DHA led to a decreased VCAM-1, TLR4, cyclooxygenase-2 and VEGFR2 expression and a decreased production of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF and a reduced production of PGE(2) and LTB(4) (p < 0.001) in IL-1β-induced HIMEC. Similarly, dietary intervention with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA significantly decreased colon production of PGE(2) and LTB(4,) endothelial VCAM-1 and VEGFR2 in rats with colitis ... Data obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies reveal a potential anti-angiogenic role of long chain n-3 PUFA in intestinal endothelial cells. This protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFA may partly explain the observed benefit of dietary intake of long chain n-3 PUFA in IBD development" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Comfort food: Protein from probiotic bacteria may alleviate inflammatory bowel disorders - Science Daily, 5/23/11 - "A protein isolated from beneficial bacteria found in yogurt and dairy products could offer a new, oral therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD) ... the protein supports intestinal epithelial cell growth and function, and reduces inflammatory responses that can cause intestinal cells to die. Importantly, the investigators showed that oral consumption of p40 by mice in a protective delivery system prevents and treats colitis in multiple models of the disease ... Many of the hundreds of bacterial species that live in our gut (known as the "human microbiome") are helpful to us: they help us digest certain substances, produce vitamins and fight off more dangerous bacteria. But miscommunication between these bacteria and our gut lining can lead to conditions like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Prophylactic Application of Bovine Colostrum Ameliorates Murine Colitis via Induction of Immunoregulatory Cells - J Nutr. 2011 Apr 27 - "Herein, we addressed the question whether bovine colostrum, the first milk produced by mammals, is able to prevent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice ... Following 2 wk of observation, the colons were removed for histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammation. Flow cytometric phenotyping of leukocyte subsets was performed from peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleens. Administration of bovine colostrum improved the clinical and histologic severity of colorectal inflammation. Compared with BSA-fed and water-fed controls, BV-20 pretreated mice had significantly less severe weight loss and decreased colon shortening. Beneficial effects were accompanied by redistribution of immunoregulatory, peripheral and splenic γδ TCR(+) cells, and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Higher colostrum doses did not affect disease activity. In summary, prophylactic administration of colostrum improved clinical symptoms of colorectal inflammation in a well-established mouse model of DSS-induced colitis" - See colostrum at Amazon.com.
  • New probiotic combats inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "Northwestern Medicine researchers deleted a gene in the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and fed the new form to mice with two different models of colitis. After 13 days of treatment, the novel probiotic strain nearly eliminated colon inflammation in the mice and halted progression of their disease by 95 percent ... In the study, the modified Lactobacillus acidophilus entered the gut, which is akin to a battlefield of friendly fire with immune cells attacking the intestine. The Lactobacillus acidophilus acted as the gut's peacekeeping force, calming the overstimulated immune cells ... The probiotic restored intestinal peace by mobilizing messenger immune cells, called dendritic cells. The dendritic cells, in turn, enhanced the production of other functional immune cells, regulatory T-cells that rebalanced intestinal and systemic inflammation"
  • Vitamin D absorption is diminished in patients with Crohn's disease, researchers find - Science Daily, 1/18/11 - "CD patients had on average a 30 percent decrease in their ability to absorb vitamin D2 when compared to normal subjects"
  • Cheese whey may protect against IBD: Study - Nutra USA, 12/9/10
  • Vitamin d deficiency puts inflammatory bowel disease patients at greater risk of osteoporosis, study finds - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "IBD patients with an abnormal bone density exam had a significantly higher rate of Vitamin D deficiency than those who had normal DEXA scans .... This finding is not surprising since Crohn's disease usually affects the small intestine, which is the part of the gut that absorbs the most nutrients" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Pectin Regulates the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines and Immunoglobulins in Interleukin-10 Knockout Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 14 - "Pectin has protective, anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the exact mechanism is unknown ... Pectin treatment reduced expression of TNF-α and GATA-3, an important transcription factor for the Th2 immune response. These mice also expressed lower levels of IgE in the spleen and Peyer's patches (PP) and lower IgG and IgM expression in PP. Interestingly, IL-10 deficiency resulted in lower CD4(+) and CD8(+) populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and PP; however, pectin counteracted these declines in the MLN and PP. Therefore, dietary pectin downregulates the inflammatory response in the colon by moderating the production of proinflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Plant extract may be effective against inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 7/7/10 - "PEITC is found in the Brassica genus of plants, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, watercress and broccoli ... it not only alleviates several clinical signs of ulcerative colitis -- for example, it attenuates the damage that occurs in the colon tissues and colon epithelium, as well as the clinical signs like diarrhea and blood in stool. The weight loss is a major sign in colitis and that was alleviated, too"
  • Bilberry extract shows colitis benefits: Animal study - Nutra USA, 6/2/10
  • Chronic colitis patients could benefit from resveratrol, says Spanish study - Nutra USA 5/4/10 - "dietary administration of resveratrol reduced the severity and extension of progressive chronic colonic damage and also significantly counteracted the clinical signs reducing the inflammatory process" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary supplementation of resveratrol attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in mice - Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 May 10;633(1-3):78-84 - "Our results demonstrated that resveratrol group significantly attenuated the clinical signs such as loss of body weight, diarrhea and rectal bleeding improving results from disease activity index and inflammatory score. Moreover, the totality of resveratrol-fed animals survived and finished the treatment while animals fed with standard diet showed a mortality of 40%. Three weeks after DSS removal, the polyphenol caused substantial reductions of the rise of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Also resveratrol reduced prostaglandin E synthase-1 (PGES-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins expression, via downregulation of p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signal pathway. We conclude that resveratrol diet represents a novel approach to the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Regular use of aspirin increases risk of Crohn's disease by 5 times, study finds - Science Daily, 5/4/10 - "the researchers discovered that those taking aspirin regularly for a year or more were around five times more likely to develop Crohn's disease"
  • Olive oil could guard against developing ulcerative colitis - Science Daily, 5/3/10 - "those with the highest intake of oleic acid had a 90 per cent lower risk of developing the disease ... Oleic acid seems to help prevent the development of ulcerative colitis by blocking chemicals in the bowel that aggravate the inflammation found in this illness ... We estimate that around half of the cases of ulcerative colitis could be prevented if larger amounts of oleic acid were consumed. Two-to-three tablespoons of olive oil per day would have a protective effect"
  • Blueberries counteract intestinal diseases - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "blueberry fibre are important and can alleviate and protect against intestinal inflammations, such as ulcerative colitis. The protective effect is even better if the blueberries are eaten together with probiotics ... probiotics proved to have a protective effect on the liver, an organ that is often negatively impacted by intestinal inflammations" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplements could fight Crohn's disease - Science Daily, 1/27/10 - "Vitamin D acts directly on the beta defensin 2 gene, which encodes an antimicrobial peptide, and the NOD2 gene that alerts cells to the presence of invading microbes. Both Beta-defensin and NOD2 have been linked to Crohn's disease. If NOD2 is deficient or defective, it cannot combat invaders in the intestinal tract ... Siblings of patients with Crohn's disease that haven't yet developed the disease might be well advised to make sure they're vitamin D sufficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Promising probiotic treatment for inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 1/21/10 - "Several recent studies have identified butyric acid as a potential therapeutic agent for IBD. Some gut bacteria produce butyric acid naturally in the intestines, but in IBD patients some of these strains are heavily depleted. Trials in mice have shown that injecting one such strain Faecalibacterium prausnitzii into the digestive tract is effective at restoring normal levels of gut bacteria and treating the symptoms of IBD. In addition, novel identified butyrate-producing strains, such as Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, have been shown to exert similar effects"
  • Curcumin suppresses p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reduces IL-1beta and matrix metalloproteinase-3 and enhances IL-10 in the mucosa of children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease - Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov 2:1-9 - "We conclude that curcumin, a naturally occurring food substance with no known human toxicity, holds promise as a novel therapy in IBD" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics May Help Treat IBD Symptoms - WebMD, 10/29/09 - "A new study shows treatment with the probiotic Bacillus polyfermenticus reduced rectal bleeding, lessened tissue inflammation, and promoted weight gain in mice with colitis. The mice also had increased blood vessel growth in their intestinal lining, which is important for healing damaged tissue. The probiotic also encouraged the growth process of new blood vessels in laboratory tests with human intestinal cells" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Oxidized Form Of A Common Vitamin May Bring Relief For Ulcerative Colitis - Science Daily, 10/1/09 - "Here's another reason why you should take your vitamins. A new research report appearing in the October 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests that retinoic acid, the oxidized form of vitamin A, could be a beneficial treatment for people suffering from ulcerative colitis and other irritable bowel diseases"
  • Supplement Of Probiotics Provides A New Therapy For Ulcerative Colitis - Science Daily, 2/27/09
  • New Therapeutic Properties Of N-acetyl-L-cysteine Discovered - Science Daily, 1/19/09 - "N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) combined with mesalamine produces a significant improvement in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine, is a drug normally used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to minimize the effects of cold and flu. Its hepatic protective properties also make this drug a useful tool in paracetamol intoxications ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduced the negative effects caused by azathioprine, a immunosuppressant of clinical use, on the liver" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic May Help Treat Crohn's Disease - WebMD, 10/20/08 - "A gut bacterium called F. prausnitzii may make a good probiotic treatment for Crohn's disease"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Common In Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "analyzed vitamin D levels of 504 inflammatory bowel disease patients ... almost 50 percent of the patients were Vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11 percent being severely deficient ... 92.4 percent of chronic liver patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one third were severely deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common among cirrhotics" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease at Increased Risk of Vitamin D Deficiencies - Doctor's Guide, 10/7/08 - "conducted analysed vitamin D levels of 504 patients with IBD ... researchers found almost 50% of the patients were vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11% being severely deficient ... with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... 92.4% of the patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one-third was severely deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Is Probiotic Yakult Helpful In The Treatment Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome? - Science Daily, 9/10/08 - "A pilot study was undertaken to determine the effect of L. strain Shirota (Yakult®) on intestinal fermentation patterns of IBS patients. After 6 week of treatment with 1 x 65 mL dose of Yakult(R) daily, 9 of 14 patients (64%) completing the study had reversal of ERBHAL, with the median time of first rise increasing from 45 to 75 min (P = 0.03). Furthermore, symptoms improved in those in whom ERBHAL was corrected"
  • Suboptimal Vitamin D Status Common in Patients With IBD - Medscape, 7/3/08
  • Prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease - Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007 Sep 20 - "Vitamin B(12) abnormalities are common in patients with CD and patients with a prior ileal or ileocolonic resection are at particular risk" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain - Pain. 2007 Feb 28 - "The results suggest that omega-3 PUFAs are an attractive adjunctive treatment for joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and dysmenorrhea" - See Mega Twin EPA at iHerb.
  • A Cure for Crohn's Disease? - Dr. Weil, 2/6/07
  • Omega-3, quercitrin combo could ease bowel inflammation - Nutra USA, 6/5/06
  • Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn's disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study - World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 7;11(45):7118-21 - "Enteric-coated omega-3 FAs in addition to treatment with 5-ASA are effective in maintaining remission of pediatric CD"
  • Essential fatty acid depletion in children with inflammatory bowel disease - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 May;40(5):573-7 - "Children with inflammatory bowel disease have a high risk of n-6 PUFA depletion, which is related to disease activity"
  • Probiotics in the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Medscape, 7/18/05
  • Supplement May Ease Ulcerative Colitis - WebMD, 4/8/05
  • Nutritional Supplement Reduces Need For Traditional Ulcerative Colitis Treatment - Doctor's Guide, 4/6/05
  • Calcium, Vitamin D Most Effective for Treatment of Crohn's-Related Bone Loss - Doctor's Guide, 2/1/05 - "calcium and vitamin D treatment alone can improve bone mineral density (BMD) in Crohn's patients by 3 to 4 percent per year"
  • Fish Oil Could Help Crohn's Disease - WebMD, 12/10/04
  • Vitamin K status in patients with Crohn's disease and relationship to bone turnover - Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Nov;99(11):2178-85 - "Vitamin K status of CD patients was lower than that of the healthy controls. Furthermore, the rate of bone resorption in the CD was inversely correlated with vitamin K status, suggesting that it might be another etiological factor for CD-related osteopenia"
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease Needs Fish/Cod Liver Oil - mercola.com, 11/28/04
  • Good Bacteria Trigger Proteins To Protect The Gut - Science Daily, 7/23/04 - "Often antibiotics are used in such cases as Crohn's disease, to eliminate gut bacteria. However, given our findings, the beneficial role of commensal bacteria might have to be taken into account in such treatments," - See iHerb probiotics products.
  • Porcine Whipworm Active Against Crohn's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/04
  • Wormy Cocktail Fights Crohn's Disease - WebMD, 5/19/04
  • Nutrition Q&A with Dan Lukaczer, N.D. - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 4/04 - "Crohn’s subjects were supplemented with vitamin E (800 IU) and C (1,000 mg) or placebo each day for four weeks ... These patients were on medications and had what would be termed inactive or mildly active disease"
  • Porcine Whipworm Ova Safe for Treatment of IBD - Medscape, 9/26/03
  • Can probiotic supplements help those with inflammatory bowel disease? - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03
  • Probiotic Therapy May Be Effective for Treating Ulcerative Colitis - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/03 - "adding a probiotic with multiple strains and a high concentration of bacteria to the treatment regimen may have the potential to stop this disease in its tracks and avoid any treatment-related side effects" - See iHerb probiotics products.
  • Beneficial Bacteria Reduce Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis - New Hope Natural Media, 5/8/03 - See iHerb probiotics products.
  • Low Vitamin B6 Increases Thrombosis Risk In Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Doctor's Guide, 1/29/03
  • Research Sharpens Interest in Cat's Claw - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 1/03 - "The plant [cat's claw] has been shown to be effective in treating a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, including Crohn's disease, parasites, diverticulitus, leaky bowel syndrome and ulcers"
  • Lactobacillus GG Not Helpful in Maintaining Remission of Crohn's Disease in Children - Doctor's Guide, 10/25/02
  • New Research Validates Use Of Once-Daily High Dose "Good" Bacteria In Patients With Recurrent Or Refractory Pouchitis - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/02 - "We are excited about the results of this study because a specific amount and type of probiotic has demonstrated that it can dramatically improve patient outcome for pouchitis," said lead investigator, Dr. Mimura. "Furthermore, because pouchitis may be considered a model for other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), these findings indicate we may have found an effective, inexpensive, and widely available therapeutic treatment for various forms of IBD, such as ulcerative colitis."
  • Fighting Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Antioxidants Show Promise in Reducing Inflammation - WebMD, 4/10/01 - "scientists say a combination of antioxidants and drugs may help suppress the inflammation more than either approach could alone ... Grisham and colleagues gave a powerful antioxidant to mice with inflammatory bowel disease. The antioxidant, which was put in the animals' water, helped raise the level of a naturally occurring antioxidant called glutathione, he says. The amount of inflammation was significantly reduced after the mice drank the antioxidant-spiked water"
  • The Probiotic Solution for Colitis - Nutrition Science News, 12/00
  • Control Stress and Eat Well: It May Help Your Gut - WebMD, 6/2/00 - "I may also supplement them with calcium and vitamin D, and with folic acid if they are on medication which interferes with folic acid absorption."
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Gut Reaction - Nutrition Science News, 3/00
  • Enteral Nutrition Decreases Inflammation In Crohn's Patients - Doctor's Guide, 3/13/00

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