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Home > Anti-aging Research > Vinegar


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  • Alkaline-Forming Food Chart - Bone Health - betterbones.com - I was surprised to see apple cider vinegar on it.  Google "how is vinegar alkalizing". Click here for the most thorough explanation I could find.
  • Vinegar and Diabetes: Dos and Don'ts - Medscape, 5/12/16 - "The limited available research suggests that vinegar taken before a meal may lower blood glucose from 20% to 33%.[10,12] The response may depend on the type of glucose load—that is, a more pronounced response with a high-glycemic vs low-glycemic meal or glucose-containing beverage ... Patients should limit consumption to a maximum of 1-2 tablespoons of vinegar diluted with water twice daily ... Patients should limit consumption to a maximum of 1-2 tablespoons of vinegar diluted with water twice daily" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 teaspoons of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
  • Ask Well: Can Vinegar Aid Weight Loss? - NYT, 3/29/16 - "The weight loss claims hinge mostly on a 2009 clinical trial of obese Japanese adults that found those who consumed a beverage containing one or two tablespoons of vinegar every day lost two to four pounds after 12 weeks, while a comparison group given a plain beverage did not lose weight ... Several studies have shown that consuming small amounts of vinegar before a meal containing starches may blunt a rise in blood sugar afterward, reducing the glycemic response by 20 to 40 percent"
  • Is apple cider vinegar really good for you? - Washington Post, 3/22/16 - "It turns out there is substantial evidence that consuming vinegar can help keep blood sugar under control, which in turn may ultimately decrease the risk of diabetes and heart disease, among other benefits ... “Vinegar appears to inhibit the enzymes that help you digest starch.” When starch is not completely digested, you get a smaller blood sugar (glycemic) response — “20-40% less in healthy people and in diabetics” — after eating a high-glycemic food such as a bagel ... On top of that, undigested starch may have a prebiotic effect, meaning as it passes through the intestines it becomes food for the good bacteria in your gut. Well-fed gut bacteria generally translates to a healthier you because these microorganisms help support good digestion and our immune systems, among other benefits ... Those undigested starch calories may also add up over time to some weight loss ... the active starch-inhibiting ingredient in vinegar is acetic acid, which is in all vinegars"
  • The Surprising Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar - U.S. News, 12/6/13 - "Weight loss ... Growth Hormone Production ... Iron Use ... Mood Enhancement"
  • Does a Spoonful of Vinegar Make the Sugar Go Down? - Medscape, 2/16/12
  • Really? - The Claim - Vinegar Can Help Lower Blood Sugar Levels - NYTimes.com, 11/23/09 - "THE BOTTOM LINE Studies suggest that adding vinegar to a meal may reduce its impact on blood sugar"
  • New Evidence That Vinegar May Be Natural Fat-fighter - Science Daily, 6/22/09 - "Their new study showed that laboratory mice fed a high-fat diet and given acetic acid developed significantly less body fat (up to 10 percent less) than other mice. Importantly, the new research adds evidence to the belief that acetic acid fights fat by turning on genes for fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The genes churn out proteins involved in breaking down fats, thus suppressing body fat accumulation in the body"
  • Could vinegar be natural fat fighter? - Nutra USA, 6/18/09 - "fed mice a high-fat diet, with 50 per cent of energy coming from fat, and treated the animals with 1.5 per cent vinegar (high-dose group), 0.3 per cent vinegar (low-dose group), or water (control group) ... the researchers noted that that both vinegar groups produced reductions in fat mass of about 10 per cent, with no apparent dose-dependent effect, compared to the control mice ... The results of this study suggest that acetic acid suppresses body fat accumulation by increasing fatty oxidation and thermogenesis in the liver through PPAR-alpha" - [Abstract]
  • Dietary Strategies for Improving Post-Prandial Glucose, Lipids, and More - Medscape, 1/29/08 - "The amount and type of carbohydrate consumed with a meal is a major determinant of the post-prandial glucose excursion.[21] The glycemic index of a food is defined as the incremental increase in the area under the post-prandial glucose curve after ingestion of 50 g of a specific food compared with that noted after ingestion of 50 g of oral glucose. A meal such as white bread and jelly with a glycemic index of 80 will result in a 2-fold higher incremental increase in glucose compared with an isocaloric meal of whole-grain bread and peanut butter with a glycemic index of 40. Most studies show that diets rich in high-glycemic-index, low-fiber foods independently increase the risk of both CV disease and type 2 diabetes ... Excess intake of processed carbohydrates sets up a vicious cycle whereby the transient spikes in blood glucose and insulin early after a meal trigger reactive hypoglycemia and hunger.[25] The chronic consumption of a diet high in processed carbohydrates leads to excess visceral fat, which increases both insulin resistance and inflammation and predisposes to diabetes, hypertension, and CV disease.[25] In contrast, restriction of refined carbohydrates will improve the post-prandial levels of both glucose and triglycerides and can reduce intra-abdominal fat, particularly in individuals with insulin resistance ... Recent studies show that 1 to 2 tablespoons of vinegar, when added to a meal containing high-glycemic-index foods such as white bread or white rice, will both: 1) lower post-prandial glucose by 25% to 35% (Fig. 5), and 2) increase post-meal satiety by more than 2-fold.[32] Thus the addition of vinegar to a standard meal can not only improve the meal-induced oxidant stress by blunting the post-prandial glucose excursion, but also can increase and prolong satiety, which should help to reduce food cravings and lower caloric intake over the subsequent 2 to 4 h" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.  I've been popping 4 of these with meals for years and more and more research keeps backing me up.    If 1 to 2 tablespoons is correct you could get by with just two tablets.
  • Vinegar at Bedtime Moderates Waking Glucose Level in Type 2 Diabetics - Medscape, 12/4/07 - "The investigators report that the vinegar treatment was especially effective for subjects with a typical fasting glucose greater than 7.2 mmol/L (n = 6). Fasting glucose in these participants was reduced 6% compared with a reduction of 0.7% in those with a typical fasting glucose less than 7.2 mmol/L"
  • Vinegar may help dieters eat less - Nutra USA, 9/7/05 - "Both glucose and insulin responses were about 25 per cent lower at 90 minutes when the volunteers had consumed the highest level of vinegar compared to the reference meal ... This level of vinegar is equivalent to about two to three tablespoons"
  • Vinegar as a Sweet Solution? - Science News, 12/18/04 - "2 tablespoons of vinegar before a meal—perhaps, as part of a vinaigrette salad dressing—will dramatically reduce the spike in blood concentrations of insulin and glucose that come after a meal ... vinegar cut their blood-glucose rise in the first hour after a meal by about half ... a 2-pound weight loss, on average, over the 4 weeks in the vinegar group"


  • Daily Vinegar Ingestion Improves Depression Scores and Alters the Metabolome in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Nutrients 2021 Nov 11 - "Daily vinegar ingestion has been linked to improved glycemic control, but recent data suggest a separate unexplored role for vinegar in mental health ... Participants were randomized to the vinegar group (VIN: n = 14; 1.5 g acetic acid/day as liquid vinegar) or the control group (CON: n = 11; 0.015 g acetic acid/day as a pill) with no change to customary diet or physical activity. At baseline and at study week four, participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) questionnaires and provided a first-morning urine sample for targeted metabolomics analyses. The change in both POMS depression scores and CES-D scores differed significantly between groups favoring improved affect in the VIN versus CON participants after four weeks. Metabolomics analyses pre and post-intervention suggested metabolite alterations associated with vinegar ingestion that are consistent for improved mood, including enzymatic dysfunction in the hexosamine pathway as well as significant increases in glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism" - [Nutra USA] - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 teaspoons of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
  • Neuroprotective Efficacy of Apple Cider Vinegar on Zinc-High Fat Diet-Induced Mono Amine Oxidase Alteration in Murine Model of AD - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Jul 29 - "Monoamine Oxidase (MAO), which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines present in the brain and peripheral tissues, is involved in the metabolism of monoamines and is vital for cognition. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) on MAO and amine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), non-adrenaline (NA) levels ... The findings suggest that ACV, might prove to be a beneficial nutraceutical & provide a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurological diseases"
  • Beneficial effect of apple vinegar on reproductive parameters in male rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Andrologia. 2018 Jun 19 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low testosterone levels in serum ... total antioxidant levels (TAC) ... Significant reduction in Lee index, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, liver enzymes and glucose levels was observed in vinegar treated group compared with HFD group. Vinegar lowered insulin resistance compared with HFD (p < 0.01). Steatosis in hepatocytes reduced from 56% in HFD group to 20% in group D (p < 0.05). Vinegar caused a significant increase in serum testosterone, improvement in sperm parameters and a reduced germ cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). There was an insignificant increase in TAC levels in the serum and homogenate tissue of liver and testis compared with HFD. This study reports apple vinegar has beneficial effects on male rat fertility indices in an in vivo model of NAFLD"
  • Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Mar 2;127:1-9 - "The findings suggest that vinegar can be effective in reducing postprandial glucose and insulin levels, indicating it could be considered as an adjunctive tool for improving glycemic control"
  • Vinegar treatment prevents the development of murine experimental colitis via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis - J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jan 21 - "This study investigated the preventive effects of vinegar and acetic acid (the active component of vinegar) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Vinegar (5% v/v) or acetic acid (0.3% w/v) treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histopathological scores, attenuated body weight loss and shortened the colon length in a murine experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ... Surprisingly, pretreatment with vinegar for 28 days before DSS induction increased levels of the commensal lactic acid-producing or acetic acid-producing bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus faecalis, whereas decreased Escherichia coli levels were found in the feces of mice. These results suggest that vinegar supplement might provide a new dietary strategy for the prevention of UC"
  • Vinegar reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with type II diabetes when added to a high, but not to a low, glycaemic index meal - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 May 26 - "first group (group A) were given a high-glycaemic index (GI) meal (mashed potatoes and low-fat milk) ... In group A, the incremental area under the curve of glucose (GiAUC(120)) was lower after the addition of vinegar (181+/-78 mmol.min/l vs 311+/-124 mmol.min/l, P=0.04)"
  • Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults - Ann Nutr Metab. 2010 Jan 4;56(1):74-79 - "Vinegar reduces postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy adults ... Two teaspoons of vinegar ( approximately 10 g) effectively reduced PPG, and this effect was most pronounced when vinegar was ingested during mealtime as compared to 5 h before the meal ... The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG by approximately 20% compared to placebo"
  • Acetic Acid Upregulates the Expression of Genes for Fatty Acid Oxidation Enzymes in Liver To Suppress Body Fat Accumulation - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 May 26 - "acetic acid (AcOH) ... AcOH suppresses accumulation of body fat and liver lipids by upregulation of genes for PPARalpha and fatty-acid-oxidation-related proteins by alpha2 AMPK mediation in the liver" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com.
  • Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun 2 - "Compared with the reference meal, the highest level of vinegar significantly lowered the blood glucose response at 30 and 45 min"