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Home > Anti-aging Research > Flavonoids


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  • Gut bacteria and flavonoid-rich foods are linked and improve blood pressure levels - AHA, 8/23/21 - "Eating 1.6 servings of berries per day (one serving equals 80 grams, or 1 cup) was associated with an average reduction in systolic blood pressure levels of 4.1 mm Hg, and about 12% of the association was explained by gut microbiome factors ... Drinking 2.8 glasses (125 ml of wine per glass) of red wine a week was associated with an average of 3.7 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure level, of which 15% could be explained by the gut microbiome." - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Flavonoids Dietary 'Powerhouses' for Cognitive Decline Prevention - Medscape, 8/9/21 - "Among the different types of flavonoids, flavones (found in some spices and yellow or orange fruits and vegetables) and anthocyanins (found in blueberries, blackberries, and cherries) seem to have most protective effect ... Those in the highest quintile of flavonoid consumption consumed about 600 mg daily on average while those in the lowest quintile only got about 150 mg daily ... Individuals in the highest quintile of daily consumption had about a 20% lower risk of SCD relative to peers in the lowest quintile (pooled multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76 - 0.89) ... The strongest protective associations were found for flavones (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.57 - 0.68), flavanones (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58 - 0.68), and anthocyanins (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72 - 0.84" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb and anthocyanins at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Adding color to your plate may lower risk of cognitive decline - Science Daily, 7/29/21 - "The people in the group that represented the highest 20% of flavonoid consumers, on average, had about 600 milligrams (mg) in their diets each day, compared to the people in the lowest 20% of flavonoid consumers, who had about 150 mg in their diets each day. Strawberries, for example, have about 180 mg of flavonoids per 100 gram serving, while apples have about 113 ... After adjusting for factors like age and total caloric intake, people who consumed more flavonoids in their diets reported lower risk of cognitive decline. The group of highest flavonoid consumers had 20% less risk of self-reported cognitive decline than the people in the lowest group."
  • FISETIN Benefits vs Resveratrol | Powerful Age Reversal 2020 - 16 minute YouTube video.  See my flavonoid, resveratrol and pterostilbene pages.  See Fisetin at Amazon.com, resveratrol products at Amazon.com and pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • High flavanol diet may lead to lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 10/21/20 - "The findings, published in Scientific Reports, studied the diet of more than 25,000 people in Norfolk, UK and compared what they ate with their blood pressure. In contrast to most other studies investigating links between nutrition and health, the researchers did not rely on study participants reporting their diet, but instead measured flavanol intake objectively using nutritional biomarkers -- indicators of dietary intake, metabolism or nutritional status that are present in our blood ... The difference in blood pressure between those with the lowest 10% of flavanol intake and those with the highest 10% of intake was between 2 and 4 mmHg. This is comparable to meaningful changes in blood pressure observed in those following a Mediterranean diet or Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Notably, the effect was more pronounced in participants with hypertension." - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • The Foods That May Lower Dementia Risk - NYT, 5/20/20 - "Compared with those in the 15th percentile or lower for flavonoid intake, those in the 60th or higher had a 42 to 68 percent lower risk for dementia, depending on the type of flavonoid consumed ... Intake of one type of flavonoid, anthocyanins, abundant in blueberries, strawberries and red wine, had the strongest association with lowered risk. Apples, pears, oranges, bananas and tea also contributed ... the amount consumed by those who benefited the most was not large. Their monthly average was about seven half-cup servings of strawberries or blueberries, eight apples or pears, and 17 cups of tea"
  • Fruits, Tea May Help Fend Off Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 5/13/20 - "The researchers suspect that flavonoids -- substances naturally found in plant foods -- are providing these potential benefits in brain health. One major health benefit associated with flavonoids is reduced inflammation. Inflammation has been linked to Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia"
  • More berries, apples and tea may have protective benefits against Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 5/5/20 - "The research team determined that low intake of three flavonoid types was linked to higher risk of dementia when compared to the highest intake. Specifically: Low intake of flavonols (apples, pears and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD ... Low intake of anthocyanins (blueberries, strawberries, and red wine) was associated with a four-fold risk of developing ADRD ... Low intake of flavonoid polymers (apples, pears, and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD ... The results were similar for AD" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • First Evidence Dietary Flavonols Linked to Lower Alzheimer Risk - Medscape, 1/30/20 - "Kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and myricetin may not be household names, but investigators at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, found that for those who reported diets highest in these flavonols, the rate of incident AD was 48% lower than that of their counterparts who consumed the lowest levels of these dietary compounds ... Kale, beans, spinach, apples, olive oil, and tomato sauce are among the sources richest of these flavonols"
  • Flavonoid-rich diet protects against cancer and heart disease, study finds - Science Daily, m8/13/19 - "Participants consuming about 500mg of total flavonoids each day had the lowest risk of a cancer or heart disease-related death ... It's important to consume a variety of different flavonoid compounds found in different plant based food and drink. This is easily achievable through the diet: one cup of tea, one apple, one orange, 100g of blueberries, and 100g of broccoli would provide a wide range of flavonoid compounds and over 500mg of total flavonoids."
  • An orange a day keeps macular degeneration away: 15-year study - Science Daily, 7/12/18 - "people who ate at least one serving of oranges every day had more than a 60% reduced risk of developing late macular degeneration 15 years later ... the data showed that flavonoids in oranges appear to help prevent against the eye disease ... Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants found in almost all fruits and vegetables, and they have important anti-inflammatory benefits for the immune system"
  • Compound in citrus oil could reduce dry mouth in head, neck cancer patients - Science Daily, 5/21/18 - "The compound, called d-limonene, protected cells that produce saliva in mice exposed to radiation therapy -- without diminishing the tumor-fighting effects of the radiation. The researchers, led by graduate student Julie Saiki, also showed that d-limonene taken orally is transported to the salivary gland in humans" - See d-limonene at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoids may slow lung function decline due to aging - Science Daily, 5/21/18 - "The study found individuals in the highest, compared to the lowest, quartile of anthocyanin intake had: a slower rate of annual decline in FEV1 than those in the lowest quartile: -9.8 milliliters per year (mL/yr) vs. -18.9 mL/yr ... a slower rate of annual decline in FVC than those in the lowest quartile: -9.8 mL/yr vs. -22.2 mL/yr ... a slower rate of annual decline in FEV1/FVC: -0.02/yr" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mulberry extract activates brown fat, shows promise as obesity treatment - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "a natural compound in mulberries, called "rutin," can activate the BAT in our bodies to increase metabolism and facilitate weight loss ... Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both the genetically obese mice and the mice with diet-induced obesity. Specifically, the researchers found that rutin directly binds to and stabilizes SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1), leading to hypoacetylation of PGC1α protein, which stimulates Tfam transactivation and eventually augments mitochondrial number and UCP1 activity in BAT" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Mulberry extract activates brown fat, shows promise as obesity treatment - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "a natural compound in mulberries, called "rutin," can activate the BAT in our bodies to increase metabolism and facilitate weight loss ... Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both the genetically obese mice and the mice with diet-induced obesity. Specifically, the researchers found that rutin directly binds to and stabilizes SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1), leading to hypoacetylation of PGC1α protein, which stimulates Tfam transactivation and eventually augments mitochondrial number and UCP1 activity in BAT" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Greater flavonoid intake is associated with improved CVD risk factors in US adults - Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 2:1-8 - "This study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with improved CVD risk factors. Further research is warranted to confirm the findings from this study as these associations were moderate in strength"
  • Blueberries, citrus fruits, red wine associated with reduced erectile dysfunction - Science Daily, 1/13/16 - "Of all the different flavonoids, Anthocyanins (found in blueberries, cherries, blackberries, radishes and blackcurrant), flavanones and flavones (found in citrus fruits) were found to offer the greatest benefits in preventing the condition ... It is already known that increased exercise can improve erectile function, but this research shows that eating a flavonoid-rich diet is as good for erectile function as briskly walking for up to five hours a week"
  • Tea, citrus products could lower ovarian cancer risk, new research finds - Science Daily, 10/28/14 - "The research reveals that women who consume foods containing flavonols and flavanones (both subclasses of dietary flavonoids) significantly decrease their risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer ... The main sources of these compounds include tea and citrus fruits and juices" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary cocoa flavanols reverse age-related memory decline in mice - Science Daily, 10/26/14 - "Most methods of processing cocoa remove many of the flavanols found in the raw plant ... 37 healthy volunteers, ages 50 to 69, were randomized to receive either a high-flavanol diet (900 mg of flavanols a day) or a low-flavanol diet (10 mg of flavanols a day) for three months. Brain imaging and memory tests were administered to each participant before and after the study ... When we imaged our research subjects' brains, we found noticeable improvements in the function of the dentate gyrus in those who consumed the high-cocoa-flavanol drink ... The high-flavanol group also performed significantly better on the memory test ... If a participant had the memory of a typical 60-year-old at the beginning of the study, after three months that person on average had the memory of a typical 30- or 40-year-old ... The precise formulation used in the CUMC study has also been shown to improve cardiovascular health ... the product used in the study is not the same as chocolate, and they caution against an increase in chocolate consumption in an attempt to gain this effect"
  • What Is Fisetin? And Does It Slow Dementia? - Medscape, 4/3/14 - "The compound is known to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on brain cells. They have now investigated the memory-protecting effects of fisetin in a strain of double-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. Three-month-old mice had fisetin added to their food. By 9 months of age, mice that had not received fisetin began performing more poorly in water mazes, a standard test of animal learning and memory. Mice fed fisetin daily performed as well as control mice without the Alzheimer's transgene at both 9 months and 1 year old. The researchers next found that in AD mice with memory impairment, pathways involved in cellular inflammation were activated. In fisetin-fed AD mice, those pathways were dampened, and anti-inflammatory molecules were activated" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Natural plant compound prevents Alzheimer's disease in mice - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "A chemical that's found in fruits and vegetables from strawberries to cucumbers appears to stop memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer's disease in mice ... In experiments on mice that normally develop Alzheimer's symptoms less than a year after birth, a daily dose of the compound -- -a flavonol called fisetin -- -prevented the progressive memory and learning impairments" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Ingredients in Chocolate, Tea, Berries Could Guard Against Diabetes - Science Daily, 1/20/14 - "Researchers studied almost 2,000 healthy women volunteers from TwinsUK who had completed a food questionnaire designed to estimate total dietary flavonoid intake as well as intakes from six flavonoid subclasses ... those who consumed plenty of anthocyanins and flavones had lower insulin resistance. High insulin resistance is associated with Type 2 diabetes, so what we are seeing is that people who eat foods rich in these two compounds -- such as berries, herbs, red grapes, wine- are less likely to develop the disease ... We also found that those who ate the most anthocyanins were least likely to suffer chronic inflammation -- which is associated with many of today's most pressing health concerns including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer ... those who consumed the most flavone compounds had improved levels of a protein (adiponectin) which helps regulate a number of metabolic processes including glucose levels" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Celery, artichokes contain flavonoids that kill human pancreatic cancer cells - Science Daily, 8/15/13 - "Apigenin alone induced cell death in two aggressive human pancreatic cancer cell lines. But we received the best results when we pre-treated cancer cells with apigenin for 24 hours, then applied the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine for 36 hours ... our study indicated that taking antioxidant supplements on the same day as chemotherapeutic drugs may negate the effect of those drugs ... One of the ways that chemotherapeutic drugs kill cells is based on their pro-oxidant activity, meaning that flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs may compete with each other when they're introduced at the same time ... In one of the cancer cell lines, the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis went from 8.4 percent in cells that had not been treated with the flavonoid to 43.8 percent in cells that had been treated with a 50-micromolar dose. In this case, no chemotherapy drug had been added"
  • Strawberries, blueberries may cut heart attack risk in women - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "Blueberries and strawberries contain high levels of naturally occurring compounds called dietary flavonoids, also found in grapes and wine, blackberries, eggplant, and other fruits and vegetables. A specific sub-class of flavonoids, called anthocyanins, may help dilate arteries, counter the buildup of plaque and provide other cardiovascular benefits ... Nurses' Health Study II ... women completed questionnaires about their diet every four years for 18 years ... Women who ate the most blueberries and strawberries had a 32-percent reduction in their risk of heart attack compared to women who ate the berries once a month or less"
  • Increased flavonoid intake reduced risk for aggressive prostate cancer - Science Daily, 10/17/12 - "Men with the highest total intake of flavonoids had a 25 percent lower risk for aggressive prostate cancer compared with those men with the lowest flavonoid intake ... higher total flavonoid intake was associated with reduced odds for aggressive prostate cancer in both African-American and European-American men, but no individual subclass of flavonoids appeared to be protective independently, suggesting that it is important to consume a variety of plant-based foods in the diet, rather than to focus on one specific type of flavonoid or flavonoid-rich food"
  • Dark chocolate, cocoa compounds, may reduce blood pressure - Science Daily, 8/14/12 - "The researchers reviewed evidence from short-term trials in which participants were given dark chocolate or cocoa powder daily and found that their blood pressure dropped slightly compared to a control group ... Cocoa contains compounds called flavanols, thought to be responsible for the formation of nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide causes blood vessel walls to relax and open wider, thereby reducing blood pressure. The link between cocoa and blood pressure stems from the discovery that the indigenous people of San Blas Island in Central American, who drink flavanol-rich cocoa drinks every day, have normal blood pressure regardless of age ... Flavanol-rich chocolate or cocoa powder reduced blood pressure on average by 2-3 mm Hg" -  [Abstract]
  • Cocoa May Sharpen Aging Brain - WebMD, 8/13/12 - "included 90 elderly people who already had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ... For eight weeks, they drank a cocoa drink that had high, medium, or low amounts of antioxidants called flavanols. Those who got high and medium levels of flavanols in their drink did better on tests of attention and other mental skills, compared to people who got low amounts of flavanols"
  • Flavonoid compound found in foods and supplements may prevent the formation of blood clots, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/8/12 - "It's not always fully appreciated that the majority of Americans will die as the result of a blood clot in either their heart or their brain ... The study focused on protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) which is found in all cells. Investigators in BIDMC's Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis had previously shown that PDI is rapidly secreted from both platelets and endothelial cells during thrombosis, when a clot forms in a blood vessel, and that inhibition of PDI could block thrombosis in a mouse model ... Among the more than 5,000 compounds that were screened, quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) emerged as the most potent agent ... Surprisingly, studies of the rutin molecule demonstrated that the same part of the molecule that provides rutin with its ability to inhibit PDI also prevents the compound from entering cells ... "That finding explained how this compound can be both a potent inhibitor of PDI and a safe food supplement," ... Rutin proved to be the most potently anti-thrombotic compound that we ever tested in this model ... This discovery suggests that a single agent can treat and prevent both types of clots" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Evidence for a Protective Effect of Polyphenols-containing Foods on Cardiovascular Health - Medscape, 4/5/12 - "There is supportive clinical evidence for the beneficial effects of some flavonoids-rich foods or supplements on multiple endpoints of cardiovascular risk, the more convincing being reduction in BP and improvement in endothelial function ... In addition to their identified beneficial impact on BP and endothelial function, flavonoid-rich dietary sources might also favourably modulate arterial stiffness" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Eating flavonoids protects men against Parkinson's disease, study finds - Science Daily, 4/4/12 - "This latest study is the first study in humans to show that flavonoids can protect neurons against diseases of the brain such as Parkinson's ... male participants who ate the most flavonoids were shown to be 40 per cent less likely to develop the disease than those who ate the least. No similar link was found for total flavonoid intake in women ... a sub-class of flavonoids called anthocyanins may have neuroprotective effects ... In this study the main protective effect was from higher intake of anthocyanins, which are present in berries and other fruits and vegetables including aubergines, blackcurrants and blackberries. Those who consumed the most anthocyanins had a 24 per cent reduction in risk of developing Parkinson's disease and strawberries and blueberries were the top two sources in the US diet" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Skip the carrots. Chocolate improves eyesight, too - MSNBC, 8/8/11 - "They took the tests twice, once after eating a dark chocolate bar, and once after eating a white chocolate bar. The difference between the two chocolate bars was the amount of flavanols -- a natural compound in cocoa -- they contained. Of course, the dark chocolate bar contained loads of cocoa flavanols, the white chocolate bar only a trace ... the study participants did perform better on the vision tests and on some of the brain function tests after eating the dark chocolate ... They attribute their findings to cocoa flavanol’s known ability to increase blood flow to the brain, and they speculate that the stuff might also increase blood flow to the retina of the eye"
  • Eating berries may lower risk of Parkinson's - Science Daily - Science Daily, 2/13/11 - "Flavonoids are found in plants and fruits and are also known collectively as vitamin P and citrin. They can also be found in berry fruits, chocolate, and citrus fruits such as grapefruit ... participants were followed for 20 to 22 years ... the top 20 percent who consumed the most flavonoids were about 40 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than the bottom 20 percent of male participants who consumed the least amount of flavonoids. In women, there was no relationship between overall flavonoid consumption and developing Parkinson's disease. However, when sub-classes of flavonoids were examined, regular consumption of anthocyanins, which are mainly obtained from berries, were found to be associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in both men and women" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Chocolate eaters may have healthier hearts: study - MSNBC, 11/8/10 - "The authors found that women older than 70 who ate chocolate at least once per week were 35 percent less likely to be hospitalized or die from heart disease over the course of the study, and nearly 60 percent less likely to be hospitalized or die from heart failure ... The danger is that many people will start eating more of it than is necessary, without cutting back in calories from other snacks, which will result in weight gain and will counteract any beneficial effects of chocolate ... Flavonoids are thought to reduce the risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death in many industrialized countries, by helping to increase nitric oxide, which in turn helps boost the functioning of blood vessels and lower blood pressure"
  • Cocoa flavanols improve vascular and blood pressure measures for coronary artery disease patients - Science Daily, 7/6/10 - "The findings indicate that foods rich in flavanols -- such as cocoa products, tea, wine, and various fruits and vegetables -- have a cardio-protective benefit for heart disease patients ... The study found a protective effect from a cocoa drink with 375 mg of flavanols, but according to researchers, a standard or recommended dosage has not yet been defined to achieve optimal health benefit ... In the current study, the benefit seen from the two-fold increase in circulating angiogenic cells was similar to that achieved by therapy with statins and with lifestyle changes such as exercise and smoking cessation"
  • Dark chocolate lowers blood pressure, research finds - Science Daily, 6/28/10 - "Flavanols have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide, which promotes vasodilation and consequently may lower blood pressure. There have, however, been conflicting results as to the real-life effects of eating chocolate. We've found that consumption can significantly, albeit modestly, reduce blood pressure for people with high blood pressure but not for people with normal blood pressure ... The pressure reduction seen in the combined results for people with hypertension, 5mm Hg systolic, may be clinically relevant -- it is comparable to the known effects of 30 daily minutes of physical activity (4-9mm Hg) and could theoretically reduce the risk of a cardiovascular event by about 20% over five years"
  • Flavonols may slash stroke risk in women: Study - Nutra USA, 2/9/10 - "the researchers noted that a high intake of flavonols, predominantly from tea in the Dutch population and from tea, onions, apples, and broccoli in US studies, was associated with a 20 per cent reduction in stroke risk" - [Abstract]
  • Chemicals Found In Fruit And Vegetables Offer Dementia Hope - Science Daily, 7/19/09 - "a new concept is emerging that suggests flavonoids do not act simply as antioxidants but exert their biological effects through other mechanisms. A small number of recent studies carried out in models of Alzheimer’s disease have found that oral administration of green tea flavonoids or grape flavonoids reduces brain pathology and, in some cases, improves cognition. Dr Williams and colleagues have focused their own cellular studies on a flavonoid called epicatechin, which is abundant in a number of foodstuffs, including cocoa ... epicatechin protects brain cells from damage but through a mechanism unrelated to its antioxidant activity and shown in laboratory tests that it can also reduce some aspects of Alzheimer’s disease pathology" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95, 100 mg, 100 Capsules
  • Citrus-derived Flavonoid Prevents Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/14/09 - "Naringenin corrected the elevations in triglyceride and cholesterol, prevented the development of insulin resistance and completely normalized glucose metabolism. The researchers found it worked by genetically reprogramming the liver to burn up excess fat, rather than store it ... Furthermore, the marked obesity that develops in these mice was completely prevented by naringenin ... These studies show naringenin, through its insulin-like properties, corrects many of the metabolic disturbances linked to insulin resistance and represents a promising therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome" - See naringenin products at iHerb.
  • Chemopreventive Agents In Black Raspberries Identified - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids in black raspberries, inhibited growth and stimulated apoptosis in the esophagus of rats treated with an esophageal carcinogen" - [Nutra USA]
  • Flavonoids’ heart health benefits in the blood vessels: Study - Nutra USA, 10/10/08 - "A daily dose of quercetin or (-)-epicatechin led to improvements in endothelial function, a key marker of cardiovascular health" - [Abstract]
  • Isoflavones and Flavonols Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk - oncologystat.com, 8/22/08 - "Women with the highest flavonoid intake had a 37% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with the lowest intake. A high intake of isoflavones, in particular, was associated with a 49% decreased ovarian cancer risk"
  • Cocoa for Diabetes? - WebMD, 5/27/08 - "Researchers caution that the high-dose flavonol cocoa used in their study greatly exceeds the typical U.S. dietary intake of 20 to 100 milligrams daily, and you can't buy the extra-strength version in stores. Rather, they are optimistic that flavonol-containing diets offer an innovative approach to preventing heart disease"
  • Plant Flavonoid In Celery And Green Peppers Found To Reduce Inflammatory Response In The Brain - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "The new study looked at luteolin (LOO-tee-OH-lin), a plant flavonoid known to impede the inflammatory response in several types of cells outside the central nervous system ... Those cells that were also exposed to luteolin showed a significantly diminished inflammatory response. Jang showed that luteolin was shutting down production of a key cytokine in the inflammatory pathway, interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effects of luteolin exposure were dramatic, resulting in as much as a 90 percent drop in IL-6 production in the LPS-treated cells ... Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 are very well known to inhibit certain types of learning and memory that are under the control of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is also very vulnerable to the insults of aging ... If you had the potential to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in the brain you could potentially limit the cognitive deficits that result" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • Plants' Flavonoids Have Beneficial Effect On Alzheimer's Disease, Study In Mice Suggests - Science Daily, 5/7/08 - "Researchers administered molecules called flavonoids, which are found in certain fruits and vegetables, to a mouse model genetically programmed to develop Alzheimer's disease. Using two of these molecules, luteolin and diosmin, they were able to reduce the levels of a protein called amyloid-beta, which forms the sticky deposits that build up in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's"
  • Flavonoid intake and the risk of ischaemic stroke and CVD mortality in middle-aged Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study - Br J Nutr. 2008 Apr 1;:1-6 - "men in the highest quartile of flavonol and flavan-3-ol intakes had a relative risk of 0.55 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.99) and 0.59 (95 % CI 0.30, 1.14) for ischaemic stroke, respectively, as compared with the lowest quartile. After multivariate adjustment, the relative risk for CVD death in the highest quartile of flavanone and flavone intakes were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.32, 0.92) and 0.65 (95 % CI 0.40, 1.05), respectively"
  • Flavonoid intake and liver cancer: a case-control study in Greece - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Mar 19 - "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ... Flavone intake, mostly derived from spinach and peppers, was inversely associated with both virus positive (P-trend, 0.049) and virus negative (P-trend, 0.084) HCC"
  • Could foods prevent ovarian cancer? - MSNBC, 3/14/08 - "Kaempferol — a flavonoid found in tea, broccoli, kale and spinach — and luteolin — which is provided by peppers, carrots, cabbage and celery — were both identified as cancer protective. Women who consumed the most of these two flavonoids were 40 percent and 34 percent less likely, respectively, to develop ovarian cancer compared to women who consumed the least ... A 2007 study published in the British Journal of Nutrition linked greater consumption of carotenoid phytochemicals with a 67 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer. This included not only beta-carotene, the oft-cited carotenoid in deep-orange vegetables and fruits, but also alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin — carotenoids found in a wide range of red, orange, yellow and green vegetables" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus flavanones show neuroprotection potential - Nutra USA, 1/21/08 - "These results first demonstrate that the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells ... These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases ... One such disease that is mentioned Alzheimer's disease" - [Abstract] - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Chemical In Red Wine, Fruits And Vegetables Counters Unhealthy Effects Of High-fat Foods - Science Daily, 1/2/08 - "consuming polyphenols (natural compounds in red wine, fruits, and vegetables) simultaneously with high-fat foods may reduce health risks associated with these foods"
  • Flavonoid-rich Diet Helps Women Decrease Risk Of Ovarian Cancer - Science Daily, 11/19/07 - "the researchers found a 40 percent reduction in ovarian cancer risk among the women with the highest kaempferol intake, compared with women with the lowest intake. They also found a 34 percent reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer among women with the highest intake of luteolin, compared with women with the lowest intake"
  • Antioxidants may stop fat cells formation, says study - Nutra USA, 11/12/07 - "These results suggest that o-coumaric acid and rutin targeted for adipocyte functions could be effective in improving the symptoms of metabolic syndrome" - [Abstract]
  • Dark Chocolate Fights Heart Woes - WebMD, 11/5/07 - "After two weeks, coronary circulation significantly improved in participants who ate dark chocolate. There was no change among those who ate white chocolate ... Cacao polyphenol contains four times as many disease-fighting flavonoids per serving than red wine or tea"
  • Antioxidants May Fight Fat - WebMD, 11/2/07 - "Those antioxidants didn't kill fat cells or slash the number of fat cells in the test tubes. Instead, they made fat cells cut their production of triglycerides, which are a heart hazard. The antioxidants did that by curbing an enzyme needed to make triglycerides ... That particular enzyme was most effectively reduced by the phenolic acid o-coumaric acid and the flavonoid rutin"
  • Flavonoids Govern Cell Processes, Enhance Health - Science Daily, 10/11/07
  • Apples and onions may slash pancreatic cancer risk - Nutra USA, 10/1/07 - "Of the three individual flavonols, they report that kaempferol was associated with the largest risk reduction (22 per cent) across all participants"
  • Flavonoids in Orange Juice Make It a Healthy Drink, Despite the Sugar - Doctor's Guide, 7/17/07 - "the two types of flavonoids in orange juice -- hesperetin and naringenin -- inhibited ROS generation by 52% and 77%, respectively ... Our data are relevant to patients with diabetes ... because stress from ROS and inflammation are increased significantly in this population and may contribute to development of atherosclerosis"
  • Tea, Chocolate Chemical May Boost Memory - WebMD, 5/30/07 - "studied epicatechin, which is a type of antioxidant called a flavonol, in female mice ... The mice that consumed epicatechin did better at memorizing the maze than the mice that got no epicatechin. The mice that consumed epicatechin and also ran on their running wheels had the best results of all"
  • Red Wine Protects The Prostate - Science Daily, 5/25/07 - "men who drink an average of four to seven glasses of red wine per week are only 52% as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as those who do not drink red wine ... when white wine was compared with red, red had the most benefit ... But much of the speculation focuses on chemicals—including various flavonoids and resveratrol—missing from other alcoholic beverages"
  • Flavonoids linked to colorectal cancer protection - Nutra USA, 8/9/06 - "A diet rich in certain flavonoids, from eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by over 40 per cent, says a large observational study from Italy"
  • Researchers Reveal Apples' Protective Ways: Molecular Mechanism Of Flavonoid-rich Fruit Discovered - Science Daily, 5/18/06 - "the flavonoids in apples and apple juice can inhibit signals in this pathway that would otherwise damage or kill cells in the body"
  • Food Antioxidants, Vitamin D Fight Breast Cancer - HealthDay, 4/7/06 - "postmenopausal women who consumed high levels of flavonoids, a class of antioxidants found in plants, had a 45 percent lower risk of breast cancer ... Those who had the highest levels of intake of kaempferol had a 38 percent decrease in the incidence of ovarian cancer compared to women with the lowest levels of this flavonoid ... those with the highest blood levels of a vitamin D metabolite known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D had a 50 percent reduced risk of breast cancer" - [Science Daily]
  • Grapefruit flavonoid could repair DNA, may protect against cancer - Nutra USA, 2/15/06 - "Naringenin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and oranges, helped to repair damaged DNA in cancer cells"
  • Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified - Science Daily, 1/20/06 - "epicatechin, one of a group of chemicals known as flavanols, was directly linked to improved circulation and other hallmarks of cardiovascular health"
  • Why Cocoa May Help Heart Health - WebMD, 1/18/06 - "cocoa's antioxidants -- called flavonoids -- coax the body into making more nitric oxide, which relaxes the blood vessels"
  • Flavonoids May Inhibit Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 10/21/05 - "Our findings suggest that apigenin could be developed as a promising agent against prostate cancer"
  • Dark Chocolate May Cut High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 7/18/05 - "With dark chocolate, 24-hour systolic blood pressure dropped 12 points; diastolic blood pressure dipped 8.5 points ... Insulin sensitivity and LDL cholesterol also improved with dark chocolate ... the dark chocolate we used had a high level of flavonoids"
  • In Chocolate, More Cocoa Means Higher Antioxidant Capacity - Science Daily, 4/23/05
  • Chocolate compound stops cancer cell cycle in lab - Nutra USA, 4/18/05 - "the breast cancer cells stopped dividing when treated with pentamer and that all four proteins were inactivated ... the novel aspect here is that a pattern of several regulatory proteins are jointly deactivated, probably greatly enhancing the inhibitory effect compared to targeting any one of the proteins singly"
  • Is chocolate good for you? - MSNBC, 4/1/05 - "One study that compared the total antioxidant activity in single servings of cocoa, green tea, black tea and red wine scored cocoa markedly higher than the rest"
  • Grapes May Stop Cancer Cells - WebMD, 3/31/05 - "grapes (and lots of other fruits and vegetables) are rich in antioxidant compounds called flavonoids ... We are getting direct evidence that these components in grapes work synergistically in fighting cancer"
  • Flavonoids work together to inhibit cancer cells - Nutra USA, 3/30/05 - "Components in grapes, including some newly identified ones, work together to dramatically inhibit an enzyme crucial to the proliferation of cancer cells"
  • Chocolate - Food of the Gods? - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 3/31/04
  • Hot Cocoa May Prevent Heart Disease - WebMD, 11/6/03 - "Hot cocoa has more disease-fighting antioxidants than tea or red wine ... black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are "major" sources of antioxidants called phenols and flavonoids -- antioxidant chemicals found naturally in foods that can help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer" - Yeah, but what about the sugar and calories.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com. - Ben
  • Disease-Fighting Benefits of Organic Foods - WebMD, 3/6/03 - "Recent evidence suggests that these micronutrients play important roles in preventing cancer and heart disease ... organic berries and corn had significantly more flavonoids than those grown by conventional methods. And a third method -- called sustainable farming -- yielded even higher flavonoid levels"
  • Plant Compound May Prevent Lung Cancer - WebMD, 2/19/03 - "deguelin is found in several different types of plant species and is part of a class of compounds in the flavonoid family ... deguelin appeared to target the cancerous and precancerous cells, stopping their growth, while having minimal effects on the normal, healthy cells ... deguelin is highly specific and seems to work by zeroing in on a particular molecular pathway associated with lung cancer ... the findings are especially interesting because there have been so few agents that have shown potential to stop the progression of lung cancer"
  • Flavonoids found in chocolate may help reduce risk of heart disease - HealthScout, 2/13/03 - "the main flavonoids in cocoa -- flavan-3-ols -- are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease ... Also, a third of the fat in chocolate is made up of oleic acid. That's a monosaturated fat, also found in olive oil, that's been shown to benefit heart health"
  • Garlic, Chives Reduce Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/5/02 - "filling your diet with garlic and scallions can help reduce the chance of this potentially deadly cancer ... Garlic and scallions, along with onions, leeks, chives, and shallots, are rich in flavonols, substances in plants that have been shown to have antitumor effects. All of these vegetables have previously been linked to lower risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, esophagus, and perhaps breast ... although fruits and vegetables slightly reduced prostate cancer, the lower risk associated with allium vegetables was much more pronounced"
  • Apple a Day Gets Rid of Doctor and More - WebMD, 9/13/02 - "People eating foods rich in a variety of flavonoids -- plant products that act like antioxidants -- were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, and asthma. Type 2 diabetes also appeared to be less common in this group. Plus, men that ate flavonoids had less lung and prostate cancers"
  • Say Cheers: White Wine May Aid Lungs - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/02
  • The Lungs Favor White Wine - WebMD, 5/20/02 - "those studies have shown that a daily dose of 1 to 3 glasses of red wine can improve cardiovascular health ... We found that white wine intake was strongly associated with better [lung] function ... One glass of wine per day equaled a 1.5% higher lung function, adding one or two more years to the person's lifetime; 3 glasses a day improved lung capacity by 3% ... He speculates that white wine drinkers have higher levels of vitamin antioxidants in their blood" - Also see grape seed extract/Pycnogenol.
  • Drinking Tea May Help Prevent Heart Attacks - Doctor's Guide, 5/9/02 - "Drinking more tea and increasing flavonoid intake may help primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease ... The intake of the dietary flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin was significantly associated inversely with fatal myocardial infarction only in upper tertiles of intake"
  • Tea Prolongs Survival After Heart Attack - WebMD, 5/6/02 - "Researchers say the findings add to a growing notion that the antioxidant-rich flavonoids found in black and green teas prevent heart disease. But this is the first study to suggest that drinking tea can actually protect the heart after damage has already occurred"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Chocolate Boosts 'Good' Cholesterol And Protects Against Heart Disease - Intelihealth, 10/25/01
  • Chocolate Is Good for the Heart - WebMD, 10/23/01 - "chocolate ... has loads of antioxidants in the form of flavonoids, which are known to reduce cardiovascular risk ... certain cocoas and chocolates -- taken in small, regular doses -- seem to raise HDL, or the "good" cholesterol, while lowering the "bad" variety called LDL, which can clog the arteries ... half the group ate a "typical American diet" that was purposely low in flavonoids. The other half ate the "experimental diet," which essentially was the typical American diet plus cocoa powder (3/4 of an ounce) and dark chocolate (half an ounce) ... They found that LDL cholesterol was oxidized 8% more slowly -- and that HDL cholesterol increased by 4% -- after the people ate chocolate"
  • Pomegranates a Top Antioxidant - Nutrition Science News, 3/01 - "pomegranate juice exhibits three times greater antioxidant activity than other bioflavonoids such as red wine or green tea"


  • Repurposing Natural Dietary Flavonoids in the Modulation of Cancer Tumorigenesis: Decrypting the Molecular Targets of Naringenin, Hesperetin and Myricetin - Nutr Cancer 2021 Nov 5 - "In the past few years flavonoids have been gaining more attention regarding their (still un) exploited anticancer properties. Flavonoids are natural compounds present in fruits, vegetables, and seeds, meaning that they are already present in the daily life of every person, with a described broad-spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ... Although some mechanisms underlying their activities remain still unclear, they can act as potential inhibitors of key tumorigenic signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK and NF-κB. Simultaneously, they can reset the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins that belong to the Bcl-2 and caspase family and decrease the intracellular levels of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Together with their synergetic effect they have the potential to become key elements in the prevention and/or treatment of several types of cancer, with the major improvement to the patient life quality, due to their non-existent toxicity" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin promotes white adipose tissue "browning" and brown adipose tissue activation partially through the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway - Endocr J 2021 Oct 29 - "Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) "browning" and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation could contribute to increasing energy expenditure ... Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks with/out rutin. In HFD-fed mice, rutin treatment significantly inhibited weight gain, improved the metabolic profile of plasma samples, decreased the weights of epididymal WAT (eWAT), inguina WAT (iWAT), and liver, and adipocyte size. Furthermore, rutin also increased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) and other thermogenic markers in the WAT and BAT. In 3T3-L1 cells, rutin effectively reduced the formation of lipid droplets, stimulated the expression of thermogenic markers, and reduced the expression of adipogenic genes. Additionally, rutin markedly upregulated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, and these effects were diminished by treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). Pretreatment with the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) inhibitor STO-609 blocked the induction of thermogenic markers in 3T3-L1 cells by rutin. Our results indicated that rutin increased energy consumption, induced WAT "browning" and BAT activation, and thus was a promising target for the development of new therapeutic approaches to improve adipose tissue energy metabolism" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com.
  • Fisetin Improves Hyperuricemia-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease via Regulating Gut Microbiota-Mediated Tryptophan Metabolism and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 22 - "The intestinal flora serves a critical role in the development of hyperuricemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We previously found that natural flavonol fisetin exhibited nephroprotective effects in hyperuricemic mice ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ... These results highlighted that fisetin protected against hyperuricemia-induced CKD via modulating gut microbiota-mediated tryptophan metabolism and AHR activation" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside, an ALK5 inhibitor, affects the proliferation, migration, and invasion of tumor cells via blockade of the TGF-β/ALK5/Smad signaling pathway - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 12 - "This study provided novel insight into the anticancer effects of KPF-3-O-G and indicated that KPF-3-O-G might be developed as potential therapeutics for cancer treatment after further validation" - See kaempferol at Amazon.com.
  • The anticarcinogenic and anticancer effects of the dietary flavonoid, morin: Current status, challenges, and future perspectives - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 8 - "Flavonoids constitute one of the most important classes of polyphenols, which have been found to have a wide range of biological activities such as anticancer effects. A large body of evidence demonstrates that morin as a pleiotropic dietary flavonoid possesses potent anticarcinogenic and anticancer activities with minimal toxicity against normal cells. The present review comprehensively elaborates the molecular mechanisms underlying antitumorigenic and anticancer effects of morin. Morin exerts its anticarcinogenic effects through multiple cancer preventive mechanisms, including reduction of oxidative stress, activation of phase II enzymes, induction of apoptosis, attenuation of inflammatory mediators, and downregulation of p-Akt and NF-κB expression. A variety of molecular targets and signaling pathways such as apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), NF-κB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Hippo pathways have been found to be involved in the anticancer effects of morin" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Dietary Naringenin Preserves Insulin Sensitivity and Grip Strength and Attenuates Inflammation but Accelerates Weight Loss in a Mouse Model of Cancer Cachexia - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Sep 9 - "Cancer cachexia is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle resulting in functional impairment, reduced quality of life and mortlity. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, improves insulin sensitivity and reduces inflammation and tumor growth in preclinical models ... Dietary supplementation of naringenin improved multiple aspects of metabolic disturbance and inflammation during cancer cachexia progression in [C-26 tumor-bearing] mice. However, the acceleration of anorexia and weight loss was also observed. These findings emphasize the link between inflammation and insulin resistance as a basis for understanding their roles in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia" - See naringenin at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin inhibits androgen synthesis and metabolism in rat immature Leydig cells in vitro - Andrologia 2021 Aug 29 - "In the early stage of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, cancer cells require androgens to grow. Hormone therapy that lowers androgen output or blocks androgen receptor can suppress the growth of this type of prostate cancer. Rutin, a flavonoid derivative of many plants, has numerous pharmacological effects ... In conclusion, rutin suppresses androgen biosynthesis in Leydig cells through multiple mechanisms, thereby having benefits for the treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com.
  • Rutin: A Flavonoid as an Effective Sensitizer for Anticancer Therapy; Insights into Multifaceted Mechanisms and Applicability for Combination Therapy - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Aug 23 - "Rutin is demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancers and other tumors. Furthermore, rutin alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents has been shown to regulate several signalling pathways involving the Ras/Raf and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and TGF-β2/Smad2/3Akt/PTEN, etc., which are related to the processes of carcinogenesis and induction of apoptosis. The combination of rutin with other chemotherapy drugs may benefit on prevention of tumor cells by decreasing drug resistance and chemotherapy side effects. Moreover, rutin induces apoptosis synergistically with the therapeutic agent. More in vivo and clinical data are however needed to evaluate the true potential of rutin as an anticancer agent as an adjuvant. The present review highlights the effects of rutin which can be a promising candidate in combination with other antitumor drugs or alone for cancer treatment in vitro. Also, rutin can lead to decrease in drug resistance and chemotherapeutic side effects" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com.
  • Luteolin combined with low-dose paclitaxel synergistically inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and induces cell apoptosis on esophageal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 7 - "Although paclitaxel is a promising frontline chemotherapy agent for various malignancies, the clinical applications have been restricted by side effects, drug resistance, and cancer metastasis. The combination of paclitaxel and other agents could be the promising strategies against malignant tumor, which enhances the antitumor effect through synergistic effects, reduces required drug concentrations, and also suppresses tumorigenesis in multiple ways. In this study, we found that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, combined with low-dose paclitaxel synergistically regulated the proliferation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells in vitro, as well as synergistically inhibited tumor growth without obvious toxicity in vivo. The molecular mechanism of inhibiting cell migration and EMT processes may be related to the inhibition of SIRT1, and the mechanism of apoptosis induction is associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway" - See luteolin products at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Subjective Cognitive Decline in US Men and Women - Neurology 2021 Jul 28 - "Higher intake of total flavonoids was associated with lower odds of SCD after adjusting for age, total energy intake, major non-dietary factors, and specific dietary factors. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total flavonoid intake, the pooled multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) of 3-unit increments in SCD was 0.81 (0.76, 0.89). In the pooled results, the strongest associations were observed for flavones (OR=0.62 [0.57, 0.68]), flavanones (0.64 [0.58, 0.68)]), and anthocyanins (0.76 [0.72, 0.84]) (p trend <0.0001 for all groups). The dose-response curve was steepest for flavones, followed by anthocyanins. Many flavonoid-rich foods, such as strawberries, oranges, grapefruits, citrus juices, apples/pears, celery, peppers, and bananas, were significantly associated with lower odds of SCD" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Flavan-3-ol Microbial Metabolites Modulate Proteolysis in Neuronal Cells Reducing Amyloid-beta (1-42) Levels - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 28 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegeneration characterized by extensive protein aggregation and deposition in the brain, associated with defective proteasomal and autophagic-lysosomal proteolytic pathways. Since current drugs can only reduce specific symptoms, the identification of novel treatments is a major concern in AD research. Among natural compounds, (poly)phenols and their derivatives/metabolites are emerging as candidates in AD prevention due to their multiple beneficial effects"
  • Fisetin for COVID-19 in Skilled Nursing Facilities (COVID-FIS): Senolytic Trials in the COVID Era - J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Aug 10 - "The burden of senescent cells (SnCs), which do not divide but are metabolically active and resistant to death by apoptosis, is increased in older adults and those with chronic diseases. These individuals are also at greatest risk for morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 complications include cytokine storm and multi-organ failure mediated by the same factors as often produced by SnCs through their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP can be amplified by infection-related pathogen-associated molecular profile factors (PAMPs). Senolytic agents, such as Fisetin, selectively eliminate SnCs and delay, prevent, or alleviate multiple disorders in aged experimental animals and animal models of human chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Senolytics are now in clinical trials for multiple conditions linked to SnCs, including frailty, obesity/diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular, kidney, and lung diseases, which are also risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. A clinical trial is underway to test if senolytics decrease SARS-CoV-2 progression and morbidity in hospitalized older adults" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Habitual Flavonoid Intakes Are Associated With A Lower Incidence Of Diabetes - J Nutr 2021 Jul 27 - "These findings suggest that a diet abundant in flavonoid-rich foods may help to ameliorate diabetes risk, in part through a reduction in body fat" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Quercetin and Luteolin Improve the Anticancer Effects of 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma In Vitro Model: A Mechanistic Insight - Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 26 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of quercetin and luteolin combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells ... These findings suggested that quercetin and luteolin synergistically enhanced the anticancer effect of 5-FU in HT 29 cells and may therefore minimize the toxic effects of 5-FU in the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb and iHerb and luteolin products at Amazon.com.  Note:  The cream form of fluorouracil is what they use to remove the pre-cancerous sun damage to your face.  I used it and enjoyed going up to people and asking them in their face if they knew whether smallpox was contagious.  It makes you look that bad until it heals but then you end up with baby skin for a while but if you're not careful it can cause scarring.
  • Flavan-3-ol Microbial Metabolites Modulate Proteolysis in Neuronal Cells Reducing Amyloid-beta (1-42) Levels - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 28 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegeneration characterized by extensive protein aggregation and deposition in the brain, associated with defective proteasomal and autophagic-lysosomal proteolytic pathways. Since current drugs can only reduce specific symptoms, the identification of novel treatments is a major concern in AD research. Among natural compounds, (poly)phenols and their derivatives/metabolites are emerging as candidates in AD prevention due to their multiple beneficial effects. Here, we investigated the ability of a selection of phenyl-γ-valerolactones, gut microbiota-derived metabolites of flavan-3-ols, to modulate the functionality of cellular proteolytic pathways ... Our findings establish, for the first time, that these metabolites exert a neuroprotective activity by regulating intracellular proteolysis and confirm the role of autophagy and cathepsin B as possible targets of AD preventive/therapeutic strategies" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Neuroprotective effects of rutin on ASH neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Jul 26;1-14 - "Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease. It occurs due to a mutated huntingtin gene that contains an abnormal expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, leading to a variable-length N-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) chain. The mutation confers toxic functions to mutant huntingtin protein, causing neurodegeneration. Rutin is a flavonoid found in various plants, such as buckwheat, some teas, and apples ... we investigated the effects of rutin in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of HD, focusing on ASH neurons and antioxidant defense ... our data demonstrate that chronic rutin treatment maintains the function of ASH neurons, and decreases the degeneration of their sensory termination ... Our findings provide new evidence of rutin's potential neuroprotective role in the C. elegans model and should inform treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases caused by age-related protein aggregation" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com.
  • The protective effects of dietary intake of flavonoids and its subclasses on metabolic syndrome incidence - Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 6 - "Participants in the highest tertile of flavonoid, flavonol, and flavone had a significantly lower MetS risk as compared to those in the lowest tertile. Also, in participants with weight gain <7%, all flavonoid subclasses had a more pronounced risk-reducing effect. Overall, the total flavonoid, flavonol, and flavone reduced the risk of MetS; this association could be modified by weight gain" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Luteolin and its derivative apigenin suppress the inducible PD-L1 expression to improve anti-tumor immunity in KRAS-mutant lung cancer - Cancer Lett 2021 May 27 - "Upregulated expression of immune checkpoint molecules correlates with exhausted phenotype and impaired function of cytotoxic T cells to evade host immunity. By disrupting the interaction of PD-L1 and PD1, immune checkpoint inhibitors can restore immune system function against cancer cells. Growing evidence have demonstrated apigenin and luteolin, which are flavonoids abundant in common fruits and vegetables, can suppress growth and induce apoptosis of multiple types of cancer cells with their potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties ... Luteolin and apigenin significantly inhibited lung cancer cell growth, induced cell apoptosis, and down-regulated the IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3. Both luteolin and apigenin showed potent anti-cancer activities in the H358 xenograft and Lewis lung carcinoma model in vivo, and the treatment with monoclonal PD1 antibody enhanced the infiltration of T cells into tumor tissues. Apigenin exhibited anti-tumor activity in Genetically engineered KRASLA2 mice. In conclusion, both apigenin and luteolin significantly suppressed lung cancer with KRAS mutant proliferation, and down-regulated the IFN-γ induced PD-L1 expression. Treatment with the combination of PD-1 blockade and apigenin/luteolin has a synergistic effect and might be a prospective therapeutic strategy for NSCLC with KRAS-mutant" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • Pharmaceutical Values of Calycosin: One Type of Flavonoid Isolated from Astragalus - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 May 6 - "Astragalus is a popular Materia Medica in China, and it could be applied in the treatment of various diseases. It contains a variety of chemically active ingredients, such as saponins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Plant-derived bioactive chemicals are considered natural, safe, and beneficial. Among the infinite plant-identified and isolated molecules, flavonoids have been reported to have positive effects on human health. Calycosin is the most important active flavonoid substance identified predominantly within this medicinal plant. In recent years, calycosin has been reported to have anticancer, antioxidative, immune-modulatory, and estrogenic-like properties" - See astragalus at Amazon.com.
  • The flavonoid, kaempferol-3-O-apiofuranosyl-7-O-rhamnopyranosyl, as a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer with a promoting effect on ovarian function - Phytother Res 2021 Apr 28 - "It is widely known that breast cancer cells eventually develop resistance to hormonal drugs and chemotherapies, which often compromise fertility. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the flavonoid, kaempferol-3-O-apiofuranosyl-7-O-rhamnopyranosyl (KARP), on 1) the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and 2) ovarian function in rats. A dose-dependent decrease in MCF-7 cell survival was observed, and the IC50 value was found to be 48 μg/ml. Cells in the control group or those exposed to increasing concentrations of KARP experienced a similar generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. For the rats, estradiol levels correlated negatively to KARP dosages, although a recovery was obtained at administration of 30 mg/kg per day. Noteworthily, when compared against the control, this dosage led to significant increases in mRNA levels for CYP19, CYP17a, CCND2, GDF9, and INSL3 among the treatment groups, and ER1 and ER2 mRNA levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner. KARP shows great promise as an ideal therapy for breast cancer patients since it induced apoptosis and autophagy in cancerous cells without harming fertility in our animal model" - See kaempferol at Amazon.com.
  • Trilobatin Induces Apoptosis and Attenuates Stemness Phenotype of Acquired Gefitinib Resistant Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of NF-κB Pathway - Nutr Cancer 2021 Apr 16 - "Trilobatin is a common type of flavonoids compounds derived from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd leaves. Previous report suggests that trilobatin was potentially involved in pro-and anticancer, antioxidative and anti-hyperglycemic activities. Here, we investigated the anticancer efficiency of trilobatin on gefitinib resistant lung cancer cells ... trilobatin inhibits proliferation of gefitinib resistant lung cancer cells. In addition, the proportions of apoptotic cells were increased along with down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial Cytochrome C while up-regulated Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, -9, and cytosolic Cytochrome C expression. Moreover, trilobatin decreased tumor sphere formation and expression levels of multiple stemness markers (ALDH1, CD133, Nanog, and ABCG2) in gefitinib resistant lung cancer cells. Furthermore, investigation of the mechanism indicated that trilobatin suppressed activity of NF-κB via decreasing constitutive phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α in gefitinib resistant lung cancer cells. All these results indicate that trilobatin induces apoptosis and attenuates stemness phenotype of gefitinib resistant lung cancer cells, involved with, or partly, the suppression of NF-κB activity" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of citrus flavonoid extract supplementation on anaerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes: a randomized controlled trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jan 6 - "citrus flavonoid extract (CFE) supplementation ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel clinical study was conducted in 92 moderately trained healthy men and women. Subjects were randomized to receive 400 mg of CFE (n = 30), 500 mg of CFE (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) daily, for 8 consecutive weeks ... After 4 weeks supplementation, average power output significantly increased in the 400 mg group (Estimated difference [ED] = 38.2 W [18.0, 58.3]; p < 0.001; effect size [ES] = 0.27) and in the 500 mg group (ED = 21.2 W [0.91, 41.4]; p = 0.041; ES = 0.15) compared to placebo. The 5 s peak power output was also increased in the 400 mg group (ED = 53.6 [9.96, 97.2]; p = 0.017; ES = 0.25) after 4 weeks compared to placebo. After 8 weeks of supplementation, average power output was significantly improved in the group receiving 400 mg of CFE (ED = 31.6 [8.33, 54.8]; p = 0.008; ES = 0.22) compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - Note: The Nutra article claims it's the WATTS'UP brand containing "90% hespereting-7-O-rutinoside of which > 75% is composed of the 2S enantiomer" and that "The two doses were equivalent to ingesting 0.7 to 0.9 liters of the juice of sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis)
  • Bergamot phytosome improved visceral fat and plasma lipid profiles in overweight and obese class I subject with mild hypercholesterolemia: A randomized placebo controlled trial - Phytother Res 2020 Nov 13 - "Bergamot has been traditionally used for the relief of diseases related to oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the effect of bergamot phytosome on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and on metabolic profile, in overweight and obese subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia. A total of 64 participants were randomized into two groups for 12 weeks: a supplemented group (33 individuals, BMI 27 ± 3 kg/m2 receiving 500 mg of bergamot phytosome, two daily tablets) and placebo group (31 subjects, BMI 28 ± 3 kg/m2 , two daily tablets) ... this clinical study gives evidence that bergamot phytosome provides beneficial effects, such as decrease of VAT and modulation of metabolic alterations, after just 30 days of supplementation, resulting a very promising protection of cardiovascular health" - See bergamot at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Oral Intake of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. Leaves Extract Improves Wrinkles, Hydration, Elasticity, Texture, and Roughness in Human Skin: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - Nutrients 2020, 12(6) - "Participants (n = 151) were randomly assigned to receive either WHS 300 mg, WHS 600 mg, or placebo, once daily for 12 weeks ... Compared to the placebo, skin wrinkles were significantly reduced in both WHS groups after 8 and 12 weeks. In both WHS groups, five parameters (R1–R5) of skin wrinkles significantly improved and skin hydration was significantly enhanced when compared to the placebo group after 12 weeks. Compared with the placebo, three parameters of skin elasticity, including overall elasticity (R2), net elasticity (R5), and ratio of elastic recovery to total deformation (R7), improved after 12 weeks of oral WHS (600 mg) administration. Changes in skin texture and roughness were significantly reduced in both WHS groups. No WHS-related adverse reactions were reported. Hence, WHS could be used as a health supplement for skin anti-aging" - [Nutra USA] - See Hydrangea serrata supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of a Combination of Citrus Flavones and Flavanones and Olive Polyphenols for the Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: An Exploratory Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects - Nutrients 2020 May 19 - "A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a food supplement based on a combination of grapefruit, bitter orange, and olive extracts administered for eight weeks (n = 51) versus placebo (n = 45) on reduction of cardiovascular risk in healthy volunteers ... In the active product group, there were statistically significant within-group differences at eight weeks as compared with baseline in FMD, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL-C, LDL-oxidase, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, protein carbonyl, and IL-6. Significant between-group differences in these variables were also found. Significant changes in anthropometric variables and quality of life were not observed in the study groups. Changes in the level of physical activity were not recorded. Treatment with the active product was well tolerated. All these findings, taken together, support a beneficial effect of supplementation with a mixture of grapefruit, bitter orange fruits, and olive leaf extracts on underlying mechanisms that may interact each other to decrease the cardiovascular risk in healthy people" - [Nutra USA] - See citrus extracts at Amazon.com and iHerb and olive leaf extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort - Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 1 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 22 - "Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) ... We used data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort exams 5 through 9. Participants were ADRD-free with a valid FFQ at baseline. Flavonoid intakes were updated at each exam to represent the cumulative average intake across the 5 exams, and were expressed as percentile categories of intake (≤15th, >15th to 30th, >30th to 60th, >60th) to handle their nonlinear relation with ADRD and AD ... Over an average follow-up of 19.7 y in 2801 participants (mean baseline age = 59.1 y; 52% females), there were 193 ADRD events of which 158 were AD. After multivariate and dietary adjustments, individuals with the highest (>60th percentile) intakes of flavonols, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers had a lower risk of ADRD relative to individuals with the lowest intakes (≤15th percentile), with HRs (95% CI; P-trend) of 0.54 (0.32, 0.90; P = 0.003) for flavonols, 0.24 (0.15, 0.39; P < 0.001) for anthocyanins, and 0.58 (0.35, 0.94; P = 0.03) for flavonoid polymers. The same pattern of associations was seen with AD for flavonols and anthocyanins but not for flavonoid polymers" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.
  • Cytoprotective Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Rutin against Oxidative Changes in the Proteome of Skin Fibroblasts Cultured in a Three-Dimensional System - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 13 - "The combination of ascorbic acid and rutin, commonly used in oral preparations for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, can also be used to protect skin cells from the effects of UV radiation in sunlight ... Proteomic findings revealed a combined effect of ascorbic acid and rutin in UV-irradiated fibroblasts against overexpression of pro-inflammatory signaling proteins and DNA reorganization/expression. These effects were not observed when cells were treated with either compounds alone. The antioxidant effects of ascorbic acid and rutin also prevented protein modifications by lipid peroxidation products. Further, ascorbic acid stimulated rutin-protein adduct formation, which supports intra/extracellular signaling and the Nrf2/ARE antioxidant pathway, contributing to the protective effects against UV-induced oxidative stress. The combined effect of ascorbic acid and rutin suggests that this combination of compounds is potentially effective against skin damage caused by UV radiation" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com and vitamin C at iHerb.com.
  • The 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone Suppresses Sarcopenia by Regulating Protein Turnover and Mitochondria Biogenesis-Related Pathways - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia is a muscle disease featured by the loss of muscle mass and dysfunction with advancing age. The 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), a major flavone found in Kaempferia parviflora, has biological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammation ... Eighteen-month-old mice were orally administered DMF at the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·day-1 or 50 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 8 weeks. DMF not only stimulated grip strength and exercise endurance but also increased muscle mass and volume. Besides, DMF stimulated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway, consequently activating the mammalian target of rapamycin-eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1-70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase pathway for protein synthesis. DMF reduced the mRNA expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase- and autophagy-lysosomal-related genes involved in proteolysis via the phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3. DMF upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A along with the increase of relative mitochondrial DNA content. DMF alleviated inflammatory responses by reducing the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 serum and mRNA levels. Collectively, DMF can be used as a natural agent to inhibit sarcopenia via improving protein turnover and mitochondria function" - See Kaempferia parviflora at Amazon.com and Kaempferia parviflora at iHerb.com.
  • The citrus flavonoid nobiletin confers protection from metabolic dysregulation in high-fat-fed mice independent of AMPK - J Lipid Res. 2020 Mar;61(3):387-402 - "The flavonoid nobiletin displays potent lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing properties in mice with metabolic dysfunction ... In mice fed a high-fat diet, nobiletin robustly prevented obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, and it improved energy expenditure in Ampkβ1 -/-, AccDKI, and iβ1β2AKO mice to the same extent as in WT controls. Thus, the beneficial metabolic effects of nobiletin in vivo are conferred independently of hepatic or adipocyte AMPK activation. These studies further underscore the therapeutic potential of nobiletin and begin to clarify possible mechanisms" - See nobiletin at Amazon.com.
  • Fisetin Improved Rotenone-Induced Behavioral Deficits, Oxidative Changes, and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease - J Diet Suppl. 2020 Jan 29 - "Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly the inhibition of mitochondrial complex-I. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fisetin in the rotenone-induced rat model of PD. Rotenone was administered (2 mg/kg s.c.) for 35 days to induce PD in animals. Fisetin was administered at two doses (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg p.o.) for 25 days to the animals that were given rotenone ... Fisetin treatment improved motor function in the cylinder test and reversed the rotenone-induced changes in mitochondrial enzymes, striatal dopamine levels, antioxidant enzyme levels and histological changes. An important finding of this study was both the doses of fisetin significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced rotenone-induced behavioral and biochemical changes and the effects were found to be dose dependent. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that fisetin may improve the mitochondrial enzyme activity, thereby preventing the pathogenesis of PD" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary flavonols and risk of Alzheimer dementia - Neurology. 2020 Jan 29 - "Participants with the highest intake of total flavonols had higher levels of education and more participation in physical and cognitive activities. In Cox proportional hazards models, dietary intakes of flavonols were inversely associated with incident Alzheimer dementia in models adjusted for age, sex, education, APOE ɛ4, and participation in cognitive and physical activities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the fifth vs first quintiles of intake were as follows: for total flavonol, 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.84); for kaempferol, 0.49 (95% CI, 0.31-0.77); for myricetin, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.4-0.97); and for isorhamnetin, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.39-0.98). Quercetin was not associated with Alzheimer dementia (HR, 0.69" - Note:  I don't know why they're saying 0.69 is not associated.  Maybe it has to do with being 'statistical significant'.
  • Flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract substantially reduces progressive cognitive and molecular deficits in a triple-transgenic animal model of Alzheimer disease - Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Oct 11:1-15 - "Effective treatment to prevent or arrest the advance of Alzheimer disease (AD) has yet to be discovered. We investigated whether OligonolR, an FDA-approved flavanol-rich extract prepared from lychee fruit and green tea, exerted beneficial effects relevant to AD in a triple transgenic male mouse model of AD (3×Tg-AD). At 9 months of age, untreated 3×Tg-AD mice vs. wild-type (WT) controls displayed cognitive deficits in behavioral assays and, at 12 months, elevated levels of hippocampal amyloid beta-protein (Aβ), amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. 3×Tg-AD mice given Oligonol showed fewer cognitive deficits and attenuated pathological indices at 12 months. Oligonol treatment of 3×Tg-AD mice modulated expression of some critical brain proteins that involve multiple pathways relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasomal failure, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and synaptic impairment. Together, these results demonstrate that continuous Oligonol treatment attenuates AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment of 3×Tg-AD mice and set the stage for clinical trials of this flavanol-rich plant extract in patients with early AD" - See Oligonol at Amazon.com.
  • A Selective Role of Dietary Anthocyanins and Flavan-3-ols in Reducing the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Recent Evidence - Nutrients. 2019 Apr 13;11(4) - "Diet plays a critical role in reducing T2DM risk. Therapeutic dietary approaches routinely recommend diets high in plant foods (i.e., vegetables, fruits, whole-grains). In addition to essential micronutrients and fiber, plant-based diets contain a wide-variety of polyphenols, specifically flavonoid compounds. Evidence suggests that flavonoids may confer specific benefits for T2DM risk reduction through pathways influencing glucose absorption and insulin sensitivity and/or secretion ... Collectively, the research indicates that certain flavonoids, explicitly anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols and foods rich in these compounds, may have an important role in dietary algorithms aimed to address diabetes risk factors and the development of T2DM" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chemo-preventive and therapeutic effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol: A comprehensive review - Phytother Res. 2018 Nov 7 - "Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid present in several plants, possesses a wide range of therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory. It has a significant role in reducing cancer and can act as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of diseases and ailments such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, oxidative stress, asthma, and microbial contamination disorders. Kaempferol acts through different mechanisms: It induces apoptosis (HeLa cervical cancer cells), decreases cell viability (G2/M phase), downregulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (protein kinase B) and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus-I (HTLV-I) signaling pathways, suppresses protein expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers including N-cadherin, E-cadherin, Slug, and Snail, and metastasis-related markers such as matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2)" - See kaempferol at Amazon.com.
  • Flavanone-rich citrus beverages counteract the transient decline in postprandial endothelial function in humans: a randomised, controlled, double-masked, cross-over intervention study - Br J Nutr. 2017 Jan 9:1-12 - "In summary, citrus flavanones are effective at counteracting the negative impact of a sequential double meal on human vascular function, potentially through the actions of flavanone metabolites on nitric oxide" - [Nutra USA] - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of rutin on diabetic-induced erectile dysfunction: Possible involvement of testicular biomarkers in male rats - Andrologia. 2016 Oct 26 - "Diabetic-induced alterations in male sexual behaviour and sperm count, motility and viability were markedly corrected following 5 weeks of rutin treatment to the diabetic animals. Rutin also attenuated the inhibited serum testosterone and penile cGMP content, while improved diabetic-associated inflammation and testicular lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Histopathological evaluation revealed damaged testicular tissues in diabetic rats, which was protected following rutin treatment. In conclusion, treatment with rutin improved sexual functionality and also protects against diabetic-induced testicular damage" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies - Nutrients. 2016 Jun 8;8(6) - "Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids - Phytother Res. 2016 Jun 16 - "Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD"
  • The flavonoid baicalein rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Behav Brain Res. 2016 May 24 - "Baicalein prevented Aβ-induced impairments in hippocampal LTP through activation of serine threonine Kinase (Akt) phosphorylation. Long-term oral administration of baicalein inhibited 12/15LO and GSK3β activity, reduced β-secretase enzyme (BACE1), decreased the concentration of total Aβ, and prevented phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, baicalein restored spine number, synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicalein as a novel and promising oral bioactive therapeutic agent that prevents memory deficits in AD"
  • Rutin protects rat articular chondrocytes against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide through SIRT1 activation - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Apr 14 - "The progressive degeneration and ossification of articular chondrocytes are main symptoms in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Several flavonoids may provide an adjunctive alternative for the management of moderate OA in humans. Rutin, a natural flavone derivative (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside), is well known for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties against oxidative stress ... The findings of these studies suggested the potential involvement of SIRT1 in the pathogenesis of OA, and indicated that rutin is a possible therapeutic option for OA" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoid intake and incident hypertension in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar 2 - "In this large prospective cohort of French middle-aged women, participants with greater flavonol, anthocyanin, and polymeric flavonoid intakes and greater total flavonoid intake were less likely to develop hypertension"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of ED only in men <70 y old and not older men (11-16% reduction in risk; P-interaction = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.007 for flavones, flavanones, and anthocyanins, respectively). In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED"
  • Citrus flavonoid, naringenin, increases locomotor activity and reduces diacylglycerol accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese ovariectomized mice - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Nov 17 - "Dietary naringenin suppressed weight gain, lowered hyperglycemia, and decreased intra-abdominal adiposity evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Naringenin-fed mice exhibited elevated locomotor activity monitored by infrared beam breaks, maintained muscle mass, and reduced muscle diacylglycerol content" - See naringenin at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis with AMPK Activation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats - Nutrients. 2015 Sep 22 - "Supplementation with rutin reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, despite equivalent energy intake (p < 0.05). Rutin significantly increased mitochondrial size and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as well as gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), transcription factor A (Tfam), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, sirtulin1 (SIRT1) in skeletal muscle (p < 0.05). Moreover, rutin consumption increased muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by 40% (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggested at least partial involvement of muscle mitochondria and AMPK activation in the rutin-mediated beneficial effect on obesity" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds to β-tubulin and disrupts microtubule dynamics in prostate cancer cells - Cancer Lett. 2015 Jul 30 - "Fisetin significantly inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Nudc, a protein associated with microtubule motor dynein/dynactin complex that regulates microtubule dynamics was inhibited with fisetin treatment. Further, fisetin treatment of a P-glycoprotein overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES, inhibited the viability and colony formation. Our results offer in vitro proof-of-concept for fisetin as a microtubule targeting agent. We suggest fisetin could be developed as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Higher dietary anthocyanin and flavonol intakes are associated with anti-inflammatory effects in a population of US adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 27 - "calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... an inverse association between higher anthocyanin and flavonol intakes and IS was observed with a mean ± SE difference between quintile categories 5 and 1 of -1.48" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 100mg, Grape Seed Extract, 100 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Purified anthocyanin supplementation reduces dyslipidemia, enhances antioxidant capacity, and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients - J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):742-8 - "A total of 58 diabetic patients were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 29/group) for 24 wk ... Anthocyanin supplementation significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol (by 7.9%; P < 0.05), triglycerides (by 23.0%; P < 0.01), apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 (by 16.5%; P < 0.05), and apo C-III (by 11.0%; P < 0.01) and increased HDL cholesterol (by 19.4%; P < 0.05) compared with placebo after the 24-wk intervention ... Furthermore, supplementation with anthocyanin lowered fasting plasma glucose (by 8.5%; P < 0.05) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (by 13%; P < 0.05), and elevated serum adiponectin (by 23.4%; P < 0.01) and β-hydroxybutyrate (by 42.4%; P = 0.01) concentrations compared with placebo supplementation" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 100mg, Grape Seed Extract, 100 Capsules at Amazon.com.
    • Anthocyanin  - Wikipedia - "They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals"
    • Anthocyanin Pigments and Polyphenolics - oregonstate.edu - "Anthocyanins are one class of flavonoid compounds, which are widely distributed plant polyphenols"
  • Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 1 - "to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake ... Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low levels of total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relationships were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1489-1497 - "Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging"
  • Luteolin Induces Apoptosis in BE Colorectal Cancer Cells by Downregulating Calpain, UHRF1, and DNMT1 Expressions - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Sep 10:1-8 - "We conclude from these results that targeting calpain, UHRF1, and DNMT1 using luteolin could be an interesting way to prevent and/or treat colorectal cancers" - See luteolin products at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of low and high concentrations of luteolin on cultured human endothelial cells under normal and glucotoxic conditions: involvement of integrin-linked kinase and cyclooxygenase-2 - Phytother Res. 2014 Sep;28(9):1301-7 - "Luteolin protects against high glucose (HG)-induced endothelial dysfunction whereas its cytotoxicity has been reported against normal endothelial cells ... The protective effect of luteolin was associated with decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) (Cai(2+) ) levels and enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production" - See luteolin products at Amazon.com.
  • Luteolin Alleviates Alcoholic Liver Disease Induced by Chronic and Binge Ethanol Feeding in Mice - J Nutr. 2014 May 14 - "Compared with the EtOH group, the EtOH + Lut group had significant reductions in serum concentrations of ALT (43%), TG (22%), LDL cholesterol (52%), and lipid accumulation in the liver" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 24 - "Rutin, an active flavonoid compound, has been shown to potently protect the brain against several insults via its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown so far ... Studies were carried out in rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion ...BCCAO rats showed remarkable cognitive deficits, which were significantly improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses, and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus as compared with sham-operated rats, all of which were significantly alleviated by long-term treatment of rutin" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin improves spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by reducing Aβ oligomer level and attenuating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Feb 7 - "orally administered rutin significantly attenuated memory deficits in AD transgenic mice, decreased oligomeric Aβ level, increased super oxide dismutase activity and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, reduced GSSG and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, downregulated microgliosis and astrocytosis, and decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the brain. These results indicated that rutin is a promising agent for AD treatment because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reducing Aβ oligomer activities" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
    • Rutin - Wikipedia - "Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in many plants including buckwheat,[6] the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and asparagus"
  • Luteolin is effective in the non-small-cell lung cancer model with L858R/T790M EGFR mutation and erlotinib resistance - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 29 - "We found that luteolin exerted remarkable anti-tumorigenic effects on EGFR L858R/T790M mutation and erlotinib-resistant NSCLC both at cell and animal levels. Mechanistically, luteolin induced EGFR degradation through inhibiting the association of Hsp90 and mutant EGFR and therefore obviously prevented PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling and led to NSCLC cell apoptosis" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
    • Luteolin - Wikipedia - "Luteolin is a flavone, a type of flavonoid. Like all flavonoids, it has a yellow crystalline appearance"
  • Dietary Intakes of Individual Flavanols and Flavonols Are Inversely Associated with Incident Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations - J Nutr. 2013 Dec 24 - "The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 8 European countries across 26 study centers with 340,234 participants contributing 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, among whom 12,403 incident T2D cases were ascertained and a center-stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals was defined. We estimated flavonoid intake at baseline from validated dietary questionnaires using a database developed from Phenol-Explorer and USDA databases ... Among the flavanol subclass, we observed significant inverse trends between intakes of all individual flavan-3-ol monomers and risk of T2D in multivariable models (all P-trend < 0.05). We also observed significant trends for the intakes of proanthocyanidin dimers (HR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92; P-trend = 0.003) and trimers (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.04; P-trend = 0.07) but not for proanthocyanidins with a greater polymerization degree. Among the flavonol subclass, myricetin (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.93; P-trend = 0.001) was associated with a lower incidence of T2D" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Anthocyanins and Flavones Are Associated with Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Women - J Nutr. 2013 Dec 11 - "In multivariable analyses, higher anthocyanin and flavone intake were associated with significantly lower peripheral insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; quintile 5 (Q5) to Q1 = -0.1, P-trend = 0.04 for anthocyanins and flavones] as a result of a decrease in insulin concentrations (Q5-Q1 = -0.7 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.02 anthocyanins; Q5-Q1 = -0.5 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.02 flavones). Higher anthocyanin intake was also associated with lower hs-CRP levels (Q5-Q1 = -0.3 mg/L, P-trend = 0.04), whereas those in the highest quintile of flavone intake had improved adiponectin levels (Q5-Q1 = 0.7 μg/L, P-trend = 0.01). Anthocyanin-rich foods were also associated with lower insulin and inflammation levels"
    • Anthocyanin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Anthocyanins ... are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanin supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity and enhances cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with hypercholesterolemia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 27 - "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties ... A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of each group) for 24 wk in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ... Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.018 and P<0.001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the activity of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P<0.001)" - See anthocyanin products at iHerb.
  • Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 30 - "performed a search in 3 databases for meta-analyses and compared them with studies they subsumed ... In the case of stroke, a consistent, dose-response association with tea consumption on both incidence and mortality was noted with RRs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.98) for flavonoids and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.85) for tea when high and low intakes were compared or the addition of 3 cups/d was estimated" - Note:  Blueberries are one of the highest in flavonoids.  My pick for flavonoids would be Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • An encapsulated juice powder concentrate improves markers of pulmonary function and cardiovascular risk factors in heavy smokers - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):18-25 - "75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 +/- 10.6 years, >20 cigarettes/d, duration ≥10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) ... FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T 0"
  • Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Sep 2 - "Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration" - See rutin products at iHerb.
    • Rutin - Wikipedia -"Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat,[4] the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and asparagus ... Rutin is also found in the fruit of the fava d'anta tree (from Brazil), fruits and flowers of the pagoda tree, fruits and fruit rinds (especially the citrus fruits orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) and apple; berries such as mulberry, ash tree fruits and cranberries ... Rutin (quercetin rutinoside), like quercitrin, is a glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. As such, the chemical structures of both are very similar, with the difference existing in the hydroxyl functional group. Both quercetin and rutin are used in many countries as medications for blood vessel protection"
  • Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 16:1-11 - "The summary RR for CVD for every 10 mg/d increment in flavonol intake was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.99). The present systematic review suggests that the dietary intakes of six classes of flavonoids, namely flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, flavones, flavanones and flavan-3-ols, significantly decrease the risk of CVD"
  • Flavonoid apigenin modified gene expression associated with inflammation and cancer and induced apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of GSK-3β/NF-κB signaling cascade - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Aug 14 - "Flavonoids have a protective role in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis"
  • Dietary flavonoids intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 26 - "searched PubMed through March 2013 for relevant cohort studies that assessed total flavonoids and type 2 diabetes risks ... The summary relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake of total flavonoids compared with the lowest was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-0.96). Furthermore, an increase in the total flavonoids intake of 500mg/d was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.98)"
  • The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis - Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 22:1-8 - "Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2 % grape juice control group; 1 % grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1 % grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women - Circulation. 2013 Jan 15 - "We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment ... Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk"
  • Raf and PI3K are the Molecular Targets for the Anti-metastatic Effect of Luteolin - Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 21 - "Metastases are the primary cause of human cancer deaths. Luteolin, a naturally occurring phytochemical, has chemopreventive and/or anticancer properties in several cancer cell lines ... An in vivo mouse study showed that oral administration (10 or 50 mg/kg) of luteolin significantly inhibited tumor nodules and tumor volume of lung metastasis induced by intravenous injection of CT-26 cells. Luteolin also inhibited MMP-9 expression and activity in CT-26-induced mouse lung tissue. These results suggest that luteolin may have considerable potential for development as an anti-metastatic agent"
    • Luteolin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Luteolin is a yellow crystalline compound. It is a flavonoid; to be specific, it is one of the more common flavones.[1] From preliminary research, it is thought to play a role in the human body possibly as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger, a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism, or an immune system modulator"
  • Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 17 - "gastric cancer (GC) ...followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline ... average follow-up of 11 y ... We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log(2) transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). In women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes"
  • The risk of lung cancer related to dietary intake of flavonoids - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Oct;64(7):964-74 - "Overall, total flavonoid intake was not associated with lung cancer risk, the effect being similar regardless of sex and smoking level. However, low flavonoid intake from food, but not from beverages, was associated with an increased risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of intake were 0.63 (0.47-0.85) for total flavonoids, 0.82 (0.61-1.11) for anthocyanidins, 0.67 (0.50-0.90) for flavan-3-ols, 0.68 (0.50-0.93) for flavones, 0.62 (0.45-0.84) for flavonols, and 0.70 (0.53-0.94) for flavanones. An inverse association with total flavone and flavanone intake was observed for squamous cell carcinoma but not adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, low flavonoid intake from food may increase lung cancer risk" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Habitual flavonoid intakes are positively associated with bone mineral density in women - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 May 1 - "The aim of this observational study was to examine the association between habitual intake of flavonoid sub-classes with bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of female twins. 3160 women from the TwinsUK adult twin registry participated in the study. Habitual intakes of flavonoids and sub-classes (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, polymers, flavonols, flavones) were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires using an updated and extended USDA database ... total flavonoid intake was positively associated with higher BMD at the spine but not at the hip ... total flavonoid intake was positively associated with BMD, with effects observed for anthocyanins and flavones at both the hip and spine supporting a role for flavonoids present in plant-based foods on bone health"
  • Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease - Neurology. 2012 Apr 10;78(15):1138-45 - "We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both)" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 4 - "Men and women with total flavonoid intakes in the top (compared with the bottom) quintile had a lower risk of fatal CVD (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Five flavonoid classes-anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins-were individually associated with lower risk of fatal CVD (all P-trend < 0.05). In men, total flavonoid intakes were more strongly associated with stroke mortality (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89; P-trend = 0.04) than with ischemic heart disease (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.13). Many associations appeared to be nonlinear, with lower risk at intakes above the referent category.Conclusions: Flavonoid consumption was associated with lower risk of death from CVD. Most inverse associations appeared with intermediate intakes, suggesting that even relatively small amounts of flavonoid-rich foods may be beneficial"
  • Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - "Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited glycation as assessed by SDS-PAGE, AGE-fluorescence, boronate affinity chromatography and immunodetection of specific AGE. Further, we provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition of protein glycation that rutin not only scavenges free-radicals directly but also chelates the metal ions by forming complexes with them and thereby partly inhibiting post-Amadori formation. These findings indicate the potential of rutin to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation and the prospects for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo" - See rutin products at iHerb.  AGE's are a major cause of aging.  See my AGE page.
  • Luteolin induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant cancer cells without affecting the drug transporter function: involvement of cell line-specific apoptotic mechanisms - Int J Cancer. 2011 Jul 25 - "These results suggest that luteolin possesses therapeutic potential to control the proliferation of MDR cancers without affecting the physiological function of drug transporters in the body tissues"
  • Naringin Protects against Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats: Evidence for an Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Intervention - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):360-5 - "The effect of naringin, a bioflavanoid, with potent antioxidant activity was studied on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, cognitive deficit and oxidative stress. Rats were administered KA (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and observed for behavioral changes and incidence and latency of convulsions over 4 h. The rats were thereafter sacrificed and oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in the brain. The level of proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also determined in the rat brain. It was observed that pretreatment with naringin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) increased the latency of seizures as compared to the vehicle treated-KA group. Naringin (40, 80 mg/kg) also significantly prevented the increase in MDA and fall in GSH levels due to KA. In addition, naringin dose-dependently attenuated the KA-induced increase in the TNF-α levels of brain. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased retention latency in the passive avoidance task. This shows that naringin reduced the cognitive deficit induced by KA. The results of our study suggest that naringin has therapeutic potential since it suppresses KA-induced seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the brain. These neuroprotective effects are a result of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity" - See naringin products at iHerb.
  • Flavanol-rich cocoa ameliorates lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction - Heart Vessels. 2010 Dec 8 - "Consumption of flavanols improves chronic endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether it can also improve acute lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 healthy subjects received a fatty meal with cocoa either rich in flavanols (918 mg) or flavanol-poor. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were then determined over 6 h. After the flavanol-poor fat loading, the FMD deteriorated over 4 h. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa, in contrast, improved this deterioration in hours 2, 3, and 4 without abolishing it completely. Flavanols did not have any influence on triglycerides or on free fatty acids. Flavanol-rich cocoa can alleviate the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably through an improvement in endothelial NO synthase"
  • Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):871-7 - "Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers)"
  • Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and the risk of stomach cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 3 - "Strong inverse relations were found for proanthocyanidins. The OR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) for monomers and dimers combined and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.63) for polymers with three or more mers. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetables, or vitamin C, did not materially change these associations. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest that dietary proanthocyanidins have a favorable role on gastric cancer risk"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep 7:1-8 - "We concluded that flavonols, specifically quercetin, obtained from non-tea components of the diet may be linked with reduced risk of developing colon cancer" - See quercetin products at iHerb.
  • Dietary Flavonol Intake May Lower Stroke Risk in Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "A high intake of flavonols compared with a low intake was inversely associated with nonfatal and fatal stroke with a pooled relative risk of 0.80"
  • Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jan 19:1-5 - "randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design ... the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals"
  • Flavonoid intake and disability-adjusted life years due to Alzheimer's and related dementias: a population-based study involving twenty-three developed countries - Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan 11:1-7 - "Flavonols and combined flavonoids (all five combined) intakes were the only two parameters with significant (P < 0.05) negative dementia correlations. Multiple linear regression models confirmed this relationship, and excluded confounding from some other dietary and non-dietary factors. Similar analyses with non-dementia, neurological/psychiatric diseases did not yield significant correlations. CONCLUSIONS: At a global level, and in the context of different genetic backgrounds, our results suggest that higher consumption of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, is associated with lower population rates of dementia in these countries"
  • Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (-)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1018-25 - "Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin and (-)-epicatechin, can augment nitric oxide status and reduce endothelin-1 concentrations and may thereby improve endothelial function"
  • Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1 - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 19 - "Luteolin consumption reduced LPS-induced IL-6 in plasma 4 h after injection. Furthermore, luteolin decreased the induction of IL-6 mRNA by LPS in hippocampus but not in the cortex or cerebellum. Taken together, these data suggest luteolin inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 production in the brain by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway and activation of AP-1 in microglia. Thus, luteolin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women's Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 May 19 - "After multivariable adjustment, lung cancer incidence was inversely associated with intakes of flavanones (HR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.86, all results highest vs. lowest quintile) and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57-0.97). Among current and past smokers, those with intakes in the highest quintile for flavanones (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.86), and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.66; 95% CI; 0.49-0.89) had significantly lower lung cancer incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Similar associations were not seen in never smokers. Isoflavone intake was inversely associated with overall cancer incidence (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00). This study provides further support for a beneficial effect of flavonoid intake on lung cancer risk, especially among current and past smokers"
  • Flavonoids and ovarian cancer risk: A case-control study in Italy - Int J Cancer. 2008 May 19 - "In logistic regression models including study center, education, year of interview, parity, oral contraceptive use and family history of ovarian or breast cancer or both, an inverse relation with significant trend in risk was found between ovarian cancer and flavonols [odds ratio (OR), 0.63; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47-0.84] as well as isoflavones (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69), comparing the highest versus the lowest quintile. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetable intake did not modify these associations, suggesting that isoflavones and flavonols may have a distinct role in explaining the effect of fruit and vegetable against ovarian cancer. On the basis of our findings and the relevant literature, we infer that isoflavones, and perhaps flavonols, may have favorable effects with respect to ovarian cancer risk"
  • Serum C-reactive protein concentrations are inversely associated with dietary flavonoid intake in u.s. Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Apr;138(4):753-60 - "Among the flavonoid compounds investigated, quercetin, kaempferol, malvidin, peonidin, daidzein, and genistein had inverse associations with serum CRP concentration"
  • Neuroprotective Effects of the Citrus Flavanones against H2O2-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jan 12 - "the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H 2O 2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8404-10 - "These results suggest that o-coumaric acid and rutin targeted for adipocyte functions could be effective in improving the symptoms of metabolic syndrome"
  • Flavonoids and the risk of renal cell carcinoma - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jan;16(1):98-101 - "After adjustment for major recognized confounding factors and total energy intake, the odds ratios for subjects in the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.58-1.11] for total flavonoids, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.56-1.03) for isoflavones, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.60-1.47) for anthocyanidins, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56-1.06) for flavan-3-ols, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.67-1.21) for flavanones, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50-0.93) for flavones, and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.50-0.95) for flavonols"
  • Flavonoids and laryngeal cancer risk in Italy - Ann Oncol. 2007 Mar 19 - "Significant inverse relations were found for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake for flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.64), flavanones (OR = 0.60), flavonols (OR = 0.32) and total flavonoids (OR = 0.60)"
  • Treatment of metastatic melanoma B16F10 by the flavonoids tangeretin, rutin, and diosmin - J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6791-7 - "The greatest reduction in the number of metastatic nodules (52%) was obtained with diosmin"
  • Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults - J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):197-204 - "Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function"
  • Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation - J Nutr. 2000 Jan;130(1):53-6
  • Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids - Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Jun;22(3):309-12