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Home > Anti-aging Research > Ginkgo

GinkGold is the EGB 761 Formula (U.S. Patent #5399348), manufactured by Schwabe Company in Germany, and distributed in U.S. under Nature's Way Brand.  It's the patented extract used in most clinical studies.  See Medline search of EGB 761


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Research & News:

  • Ginkgo biloba may aid in treating type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 8/22/19 - "In diabetic rats Ginkgo biloba had a very good effect on the beta cells of Langerhans -- cells in the pancreas responsible for insulin secretion -- by creating a restorative effect similar to what we see in healthy non-diabetic rats" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • A Ginkgo Biloba Extract Promotes Proliferation of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells - Science Daily, 7/23/13 - "Researchers found that the ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 promoted and prolonged the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia. The cells continued to proliferate at 4 months. EGb761 also significantly improved learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia"
  • Vitamins and minerals can boost energy and enhance mood - Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "In a series of studies she recently conducted in Canada, Kaplan found of the 97 adults with diagnosed mood disorders who kept a three-day food record, a higher intake of vitamins and minerals were significantly correlated with overall enhanced mental functioning ... Other vitamins that have been known to enhance mood, said C.J. Geiger, Ph.D., president of Geiger & Associates, LLC, and research associate professor in the division of nutrition at the University of Utah, include 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5 HTP), Vitamins B and D, as well as ginkgo biloba and Omega 3" - See 5-HTP products at Amazon.com and Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Best Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction? - Dr. Weil, 11/30/09 - "Ginkgo ... Ashwaganda ... Asian ginseng
  • Herbal Tonic For Radiotherapy? Gingko Biloba Tree May Protect Cells From Radiation Damage - Science Daily, 10/26/09 - "They found that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in the untreated cells compared with those treated with G. biloba extract. Almost a third of the untreated cells underwent apoptosis compared with approximately one in twenty of the treated cells. Parallel studies with laboratory mice also demonstrated a similar protective effect against radiation poisoning"
  • Ginkgo Reduces Neuropathic Pain In Animal Studies - Science Daily, 6/5/09 - "For both cold and pressure stimuli, pain responses were significantly reduced in ginkgo-treated rats. This was so on before-and-after treatment comparisons and on comparison of ginkgo-treated versus placebo-treated animals. The higher the dose of ginkgo extract, the greater the pain-relieving effect. Pain was reduced for at least two hours after ginkgo treatment"
  • Ginkgo biloba has no benefits against dementia: Study - Nutra USA, 11/19/08 - "The GEM Study involved 3,069 community volunteers with an average age of 79.1 ... Commenting on the study, Dr Fabricant said the study had two major limitations: “One, it looks exclusively at people almost 80 years old who are far more likely to have Alzheimer’s, while ignoring those in middle ages, where the risk for developing the disease rises quickly and prevention could best be analyzed,” ... Two, it excludes completely any consideration of the strong and established role that family history plays with Alzheimer’s. You can’t do a study on the weather without looking at wind and rain.”"
  • Most ginkgo products fail quality testing - Nutra USA, 11/18/08 - "Some companies put less of it in their products than they claim or use ingredient that has been adulterated with inexpensive material that can fool non-specific tests ... companies continued to make products with little to no ginkgo in them, leading Consumerlab to suggest “ginkgo is among the most adulterated herbs.”" - That's why I stay with the top brand names.  They have more to loose with bad  press.  I also think that's why some studies show benefits with certain supplement while other studies don't.  I've been taking Nature's Way, Ginkgold.  I get the paid version of Consumerlab and I thought it was strange that they didn't test that brand. - Ben
  • Ginkgo Biloba Does Not Reduce Dementia Risk, Study Shows - Science Daily, 11/18/08 - "The researchers found no statistical difference in dementia or Alzheimer's disease rates between the groups. Among those taking G. biloba, 277 developed dementia. Among those in the placebo group, 246 developed dementia. Mortality rates also were similar" - I read this after the above article and comments but like I said.
  • Ginkgo Extract May Reduce Stroke Damage - Medscape, 10/10/08 - "They found that mice pretreated with EGb761 had smaller brain infarcts and less neurologic dysfunction than their untreated counterparts ... Treatment with EGb761 after the stroke (4.5 hours post-reperfusion) was also associated with a significant reduction in infarct size"
  • Gingko may boost memory - if you remember to take it - Nutra USA, 2/28/08 - "The new study involved 118 people age 85 and older with no memory problems. The elderly subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a ginkgo biloba extract (240 mg daily, provided by Thorne Research) or placebo for three years. The extracts were independently verified to contain at least six per cent terpene lactones and 24 per cent flavone glycosides ... when the researchers considered only people who followed the directions in taking the study pills, they found that people took at least 84 per cent of the supplements as directed had a 68 per cent lower risk of developing mild memory problems"
  • A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline - Neurology. 2008 Feb 27 - "In the secondary analysis, where we controlled the medication adherence level, the GBE group had a lower risk of progression from CDR = 0 to CDR = 0.5 (HR = 0.33, p = 0.02), and a smaller decline in memory scores"
  • Ginkgo Biloba Less Effective for Raynaud's Disease Than Nifedipine - Medscape, 10/8/07 - "According to the poster, the percentage change of attack rate after 8 weeks of treatment was 50.1% in the group N and 31% in the group ... If the patient felt strongly about not using the nifedipine, I probably would tell them [gingko] is something you could use, but it's not as effective"
  • Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At Recommended Doses - Science Daily, 5/1/07 - "found daily use of ginseng or ginkgo biloba supplements at the recommended doses, or the combination of both supplements, are unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics - by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body - of the majority of prescription or over-the counter drugs"
  • Ginkgo's brain benefits questioned - Nutra USA, 3/16/07
  • Ginkgo Biloba Extract: More Than Just For Memory? - Science Daily, 2/24/06 - "treating mice with an extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba both before and after implanting human breast or brain (glioma) tumors decreased expression of a cell receptor associated with invasive cancer. This decreased expression slowed the growth of the breast tumors by 80 percent as long as the extract was used, compared to untreated mice"
  • Ginkgo Biloba and Huperzine A -- Memory Enhancers - ConsumerLab.com, 12/5/05 - "CL found significant amounts of lead in supplements made with a form of ginkgo, while those made with another form did not"
  • Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
  • Gingko biloba may reduce ovarian cancer risk - Nutra USA, 11/2/05 - "Women who took gingko supplements for six months or longer were shown to have a 60 per cent lower risk for ovarian cancer"
  • Complementary and Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 - "Ginkgo biloba, an herbal product long used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been studied extensively and found to be well tolerated with mild benefit, approximating that of the 2nd generation cholinesterase inhibitors"
  • Ginkgo May Ease Some Attention Problems in MS - WebMD, 5/6/05 - "they were assigned to take a placebo or ginkgo biloba (120 milligrams twice daily) for three months ... The ginkgo group shaved four seconds off their time on the Stroop test, a 13% decrease compared with their performance prior to starting ginkgo. The placebo group's time remained unchanged"
  • Newly Discovered Anti-Aging Effects of Ginkgo Biloba - Life Extension Magazine, 4/4/05 - "Not only can it improve memory and help relieve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, but recent evidence also suggests that it can improve mental health in healthy older adults and has uses in treating conditions as various as diabetic retinopathy, intermittent claudication, erectile dysfunction, ulcers, and arthritis"
  • Ginkgo Improves Some Glaucoma - New Hope Natural Media, 5/16/03 - "27 people with normal tension glaucoma and visual field losses were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group received 40 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract three times per day for four weeks, followed by eight weeks with no treatment and finally four weeks of placebo. The other group received placebo for four weeks, followed by the same eight weeks with no treatment and ending with four weeks of Ginkgo biloba. Both groups experienced significant improvement (approximately 24%) in indices used to evaluate visual fields after treatment with Ginkgo biloba. There were no improvements for either group during placebo phases ... Ginkgo biloba extract has several properties that might have contributed to the beneficial effects observed in this trial. Its antioxidant activity might have protected the optic nerve from oxidative damage, and its ability to increase blood flow and oxygen utilization might have protected the optic nerve from damage due to lack of oxygen"
  • Ginkgo Biloba Analysis: Few Pills Pass Quality Test - WebMD, 4/21/03 - "Brands that flunked random quality tests include ginkgo biloba products sold under the labels of Rite Aid and Longs drug stores. Only two of nine randomly tested products passed -- Maxi Ginkgo Biloba and Nature's Way Ginkgold.  Nutrilite Ginkgo Biloba, whose manufacturer paid for quality assurance, also passed the tests ... Many people taking ginkgo are not getting the effect they expected. This may be why ... ConsumerLab also tested four off-the-shelf brands of huperzine A ... One of these products -- Solaray Dietary Supplement -- contained unacceptably high levels of lead"
  • Ginkgo for Alzheimer's Disease - Clinical Psychiatry News, 12/02 - "A 4-point gain on the ADAS-Cog is roughly equivalent to a 6-month delay in disease progression. “It is noteworthy that 29% of the patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with EGb for at least 26 weeks improved by 4 or more points, compared with 13% treated with the placebo,” ... In a German multicenter study, 156 patients with Alzheimer's or multi-infarct dementia were randomized to 240 mg/day of EGb 761 or placebo; efficacy was assessed by three validated scales. By the end of the 24-week study, 28% of patients in the ginkgo group were classified as responders, compared with 10% in the placebo group, a significant difference" - There are many different extracts of ginkgo.  Note that they specify the EGb 761 extract.
  • Ginkgo Supplements Useful for SSRI-Related Sexual Dysfunction - Clinical Psychiatry News, 9/02 - "Ginkgo has multiple systemic effects. It acts as a free-radical scavenger, inhibits platelet aggregation, causes vasodilation, and allows more efficient cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose. The effects of ginkgo on sexual arousal are thought to result from increased blood circulation to the genital area ... The proprietary multi-ingredient ginkgo preparation ArginMax (Daily Wellness Co.) is “one of the best things I've ever seen for SSRI sexual dysfunction,”" - See ArginMax at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgo Doesn't Help Memory - WebMD, 8/20/02 - "Ginkgo was found to have no impact on memory or learning in a group of healthy older adults who took it for six weeks" - Ginkgo is an antioxidant.  If you're link me and believe that memory loss is partially do to free radical damage, it would make sense that ginkgo might help prevent memory loss long term.  It would also make sense that if memory loss was partially caused by free radical damage, ginkgo or anything else would not reverse that damage.  The media always seems to report things in black and white.  See the following article, which I feel the media should have mentioned:
    • Ginkgo Extract Efficacious for Alzheimer's/Dementia - Medscape, 8/3/00 - "New analysis of the breakthrough study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) shows that a patented Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, effectively improves the mental function of patients with Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia within the first 26 weeks of treatment"
  • Colchicine Found in Ginkgo Was a Case of Mistaken Identity - New Hope Natural Media, 7/18/02
  • Ginkgo May Boost Mental Function in MS - WebMD, 4/18/02 - "Millions of people take the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba in the belief that it boosts brain power, and several studies suggest it improves mental function in some patients with Alzheimer's disease. New research now shows that it may do the same thing for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)."
  • Basic Science Research: Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Collagen-Induced Aggregation and Thromboxane B2 Synthesis in Platelets - Medscape, 4/02
  • Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01
  • Study: Supplement Can Help Take the 'Dys' Out of Female Sexual Dysfunction, Researchers Promote Idea of 'Sexual Wellness' - WebMD, 6/5/01 - "ArginMax -- a dietary cocktail consisting of ginseng, ginkgo, B vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals -- is being heralded as one component of a lifestyle that improves sexual performance and helps prevent problems associated with intimacy"
  • Ginkgo Extract Efficacious for Alzheimer's/Dementia - Medscape, 8/3/00 - "New analysis of the breakthrough study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) shows that a patented Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, effectively improves the mental function of patients with Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia within the first 26 weeks of treatment"
  • Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."


  • Exposure-Response Analysis and Mechanism of Ginkgolide B's Neuroprotective Effect in Acute Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Stage in Rat - Biol Pharm Bull 2022 - "Ginkgolide B (GKB) is a well-established neuroprotectant for acute ischemia stroke. However, its cerebral exposure and real-time response remain elusive in acute ischemia/reperfusion stage, and it hinders its usage in therapeutic window of ischemia stroke ... GKB exhibits greater cerebral exposure in acute ischemia/reperfusion rats and neuroprotective effect through reducing PAF in exposure-response manner and mediating PAF-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. Our finding highlights clinical implications of GKB in therapeutic time window of ischemic stroke" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates atherosclerosis via rebalancing gut flora and microbial metabolism - Phytother Res 2022 Mar 21 - "The Ginkgo biloba leave extract (GbE) is widely applied in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice. However, its mechanism of actions has not been totally elucidated. In this study, we confirmed the beneficial effects of GbE in alleviating hypercholesterolemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice, which were fed 12 weeks of Western diet (WD). Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that GbE treatment reshaped the WD-perturbed intestinal microbiota, particularly decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and elevated the abundance of Akkermansia, Alloprevotella, Alistipes, and Parabacteroides. Furthermore, GbE treatment downregulated the intestinal transcriptional levels of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced the expression of tight junction proteins, exerting the roles of attenuating the intestinal inflammation as well as repairing the gut barrier. Meanwhile, the targeted metabolomic analysis displayed that GbE treatment significantly reversed the dysfunction of the microbial metabolic phenotypes, including promoting the production of short chain fatty acids, indole-3-acetate and secondary bile acids, which were correlated with the atherosclerotic plaque areas. Finally, we confirmed GbE-altered gut microbiota was sufficient to alleviate atherosclerosis by fecal microbiota transplantation"
  • Ginkgo biloba: A Treasure of Functional Phytochemicals with Multimedicinal Applications - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Feb 28 - "Ginkgo biloba is an ancient plant species that is thought to provide a variety of health benefits to living organisms and contains plenty of bioactive components, making it a chemically diversified plant. G. biloba has been shown to have a variety of medicinal and pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antidementia, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antilipidemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipid peroxidation, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidepressant, antiaging, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, and neuroprotective effects and is frequently used to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases, such as tardive dyskinesia ... The capacity of G. biloba components to act as free radical scavengers is critical, and combining its extract with other plant extracts has been shown to synergistically boost antioxidant properties. G. biloba used long-term or at high doses that resulted in some adverse effects. Severe drug interactions have also been reported in both animals and humans when combined with other medications" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Association Between Ginkgo Biloba Extract Prescriptions and Dementia Incidence in Outpatients with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Germany: A Retrospective Cohort Study - J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Feb 3 - "Overall, 24,483 MCI patients (mean age: 77.0 years, 56.3% women) were included. It was found that > 2 prescriptions of Ginkgo biloba were significantly associated with a reduced dementia incidence (HR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55-0.91), p = 0.007), as compared with no Ginkgo biloba prescription. The effect of receiving > 3 Ginkgo biloba prescriptions was even stronger, with an HR of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48-0.86), p = 0.003), while for > 4 prescriptions the HR was 0.58"
  • A Botanical Product Containing Cistanche and Ginkgo Extracts Potentially Improves Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms in Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Study - Front Nutr 2021 Nov 26 - "A total of 190 subjects (35-60 years old, non-obese) with CFS were randomized to receive one tablet of a low dose (120-mg ginkgo and 300-mg cistanche), a high dose (180-mg ginkgo and 450-mg cistanche) or a placebo once daily for 60 days. Blood samples and responses on the Chalder fatigue scale (CFQ 11), the World Health Organization's quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), and the sexual life quality questionnaire (SLQQ) were collected at baseline and post-intervention. CFS symptoms of impaired memory or concentration, physical fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, and post-exertional malaise were significantly improved (p < 0.001) in both of the treatment groups. The botanical intervention significantly decreased physical and mental fatigue scores of CFQ 11 and improved WHOQOL and SLQQ scores of the subjects (p < 0.01). Levels of blood ammonia and lactic acid in the treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (low-dose: p < 0.05; high-dose: p < 0.01). In addition, the change in lactic acid concentration was negatively associated with the severity of CFS symptoms (p = 0.0108) and was correlated with the change in total physical fatigue score of the CFQ" - [Nutra USA] - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and cistanche at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Ginkgolide B against Cognitive Impairment in Mice via Regulation of Gut Microbiota - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Oct 20 - "Ginkgolide B (GB) is one of the main bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts with neuroprotective activity. However, the neuroprotective mechanism link between the anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) efficiency of GB and gut microbiota have remained elusive ... These findings demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of GB in AD mice, which were partly mediated by modulating gut dysbiosis, indicating that GB might be a potentially active supplement to alleviate AD"
  • Ginkgolide B protects against cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated P8 mice by mitigating oxidative stress, inflammation and ferroptosis - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 28 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a destructive neurodegenerative disease that currently has no effective treatment option available. Ginkgolide B (GB) is a terpene lactone derivative of Ginkgo biloba that possesses neuroprotective effects in various diseases ... GB improved the cognitive dysfunction of SAMP8 mice in the Morris water maze and novel object recognition test, which was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) pathway-mediated ferroptosis. Furthermore, Ras-selective lethal small molecule 3, a GPX4 inhibitor and ferroptosis inducer, compromised GB-induced cognitive performance in SAMP8 mice. These findings suggested that GB alleviated AD-induced cognitive defects by mitigating oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and ferroptosis, and that the inhibition of ferroptosis is required for GB to have beneficial effects in AD"
  • Treatment effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on the spectrum of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Int Psychogeriatr. 2017 Sep 21:1-9 - "Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) ... Four trials involving 1628 patients (EGb 761®, 814; placebo, 814) were identified; treatment duration was 22 or 24 weeks; the daily dose of EGb 761® was 240 mg in all trials. Pooled analyses including data from the full analysis sets of all trials (EGb 761®, 796 patients; placebo, 802 patients) revealed significant superiority of EGb 761® over placebo in total scores and 10 single symptom scores. Regarding caregiver distress scores, EGb 761®-treated patients improved significantly more than those receiving placebo in all symptoms except delusions, hallucinations, and elation/euphoria. The benefit of EGb 761® mainly consists of improvement in symptoms present at baseline, but the incidence of some symptoms was also decreased" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Six-Week Ginkgo biloba Supplementation on Aerobic Performance, Blood Pro/Antioxidant Balance, and Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Physically Active Men - Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 803; doi:10.3390/nu9080803 - "six weeks’ supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract in physically active young men may provide some marginal improvements in their endurance performance expressed as VO2max and blood antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by specific biomarkers, and elicit somewhat better neuroprotection through increased exercise-induced production of BDNF" - [Nutra USA] - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb-761 on Neuropathic Pain in Mice: Involvement of Opioid System - Phytother Res. 2016 Nov;30(11):1809-181 - "In conclusion, this study suggests that the potential of EGb-761 as a new analgesic for neuropathic pain treatment, and opioid system may be involved in the EGb-761-induced attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia" - See ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb-761 on Neuropathic Pain in Mice: Involvement of Opioid System - Phytother Res. 2016 Jul 25 - "this study suggests that the potential of EGb-761 as a new analgesic for neuropathic pain treatment, and opioid system may be involved in the EGb-761-induced attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia"
  • Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats - Behav Brain Res. 2016 Jul 13 - "prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) ... Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0g.kg-1 EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals ... Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties"
  • Protection Efficacy of the Extract of Ginkgo biloba against the Learning and Memory Damage of Rats under Repeated High Sustained +Gz Exposure - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6320586 - "repeated high sustained positive Gz (+Gz) exposures are known for the harmful pathophysiological impact on the brain of rats, which is reflected as the interruption of normal performance of learning and memory. Interestingly, extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects ... Our animal behavioral tests indicated that EGb can release the learning and memory impairment caused by repeated high sustained +Gz. Administration of EGb to rats can diminish some of the harmful physiological effects caused by repeated +Gz exposures. Moreover, EGb administration can increase the biological activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) but reduce the production of malondialdehyde (MDA)" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015 - "This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and Coriolus versicolor at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb-761) on Recovery of Erectile Dysfunction in Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Injury Rat Model - Urology. 2015 Mar 12 - "Forty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cavernous nerve crush injury and were randomized into 4 groups, including: vehicle only, high-dose GBE, medium-dose GBE, and low-dose GBE ... Administration of GBE increases neuron survival and preserves the neural nitric oxide synthase nerve fiber and contents of the corpus cavernosum after bilateral cavernous nerve injury. These implications indicate the beneficial effects of GBE use in the repair of the cavernous nerve and recovery of erectile function after radical prostatectomy"
  • Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Oct 18 - "In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p < 0.0436) and HOMA-IR from 3.07 ± 0.63 to 2.60 ± 0.51mU/L × mg/dL (-15.3%) (p < 0.0120) as well as a beneficial change of arteriosclerotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were detected after 2-month treatment with Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced"
  • Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Anhedonic Depressive-like Behavior in Male Rats - Phytother Res. 2014 Oct 24 - "The peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior ... EGb 761 may be useful for reducing anhedonic depressive-like behavior"
  • A double-blind, randomized clinical trial of dietary supplementation on cognitive and immune functioning in healthy older adults - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Feb 4;14:43 - "On the Controlled Oral Word Association Trial-S, the scores significantly increased for the Ginkgo Synergy(®) plus Choline arm from baseline to 6 months follow-up ... Our study showed isolated and modest effects of a Ginkgo biloba plus choline-based formula on cognitive and immune functioning among healthy older adults with no history of significant cognitive deficits" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Standardized Extract of Ginkgo biloba against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:846126 - "Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent antitumor compound widely used with a notably side effect of nephrotoxicity inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidneys ... These findings suggested that EGb's renoprotective effect might be mediated by not only its well-known antioxidant activity but also the anti-inflammatory activity"
  • Preventative Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb761) on High Glucose-Cultured Opacity of Rat Lens - Phytother Res. 2013 Sep - "Diabetic cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes ... we examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on rat lenses cultured in high-glucose conditions ... The cultured rat lenses were divided into six groups: normal group, high-glucose group, high glucose plus low, medium, and high concentrations of EGb761 groups, and a high glucose plus bendazac lysine group ... Compared with the levels in the high glucose group, EGb761 decreased the intensity of oxidative stress, decreased aldose reductase activation and the level of advanced glycosylation end products, and suppress the transforming growth factor-β2 or Smad pathway activation, further increase the expression of E-cadherin and decrease α-smooth muscle actin, and therefore, prevents the pathological changes of high glucose-induced lens epithelial cells and ameliorated lens opacity. These results suggest that EGb761 has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of diabetic cataract and is a potential drug for the prevention of diabetic cataract"
  • The Inhibitory Effects of the Standardized Extracts of Ginkgo biloba on Aromatase Activity in JEG-3 Human Choriocarcinoma Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Jan 21 - "There are many endocrine adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients that are categorized according to their mechanisms. Among them, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) that block the synthesis of estrogens have proven superiority compared with tamoxifen and have replaced it as a first-line hormonal therapy. However, AIs also have limitations due to their side effects - increased rate of bone loss and musculoskeletal complaints ... The extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which contain phytochemicals from the tree, had biphasic effects for estrogens and osteoporosis-inhibiting activities in our previous experiments. In this study, we explored the possibility of EGb as an AI and their mechanisms. Aromatase activities were inhibited by EGb both in JEG-3 cells and in recombinant CYP19 microsomes ... From these results, we concluded that EGb could act as an AI at both the enzyme and transcriptional levels"
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®) and its specific acylated flavonol constituents increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex: possible implications for the cognitive enhancing properties of EGb 761® - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Aug;24 Suppl 1:S25-34 - "As seen for isorhamnetin, the effect on neurotransmitter levels seems not to be a general effect of flavonols but rather to be a specific action of acylated flavonol glycosides which are present in EGb 761®. The direct involvement of these two flavonol derivatives in the increase of dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be one of the underlying mechanisms behind the reported effects of EGb 761® on the improvement of cognitive function"
  • Gingko biloba extract EGb 761®: clinical data in dementia - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Aug;24 Suppl 1:S35-40 - "Research into Gingko biloba extract EGb 761® has been ongoing for many years. Early studies showed that the extract was superior to placebo in improving symptoms of dementia, and this has been confirmed by more recent research. The GINDEM-NP, GOTADAY and GOT-IT! studies showed that 240 mg/day EGb 761® improved cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life in patients with mild to moderate dementia compared with placebo, with results reproducible in independent trials. The strength of the effect in terms of improvements in neurosensory symptoms associated with old age and dementia was strong enough to be detected by caregivers and independent clinicians. A combination of 240 mg/day EGb 761® and 10 mg/day (initially 5 mg/day) donepezil was also more effective than either drug alone. Regarding the improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms, a cross-comparison of studies with different antidementia agents suggests that EGb 761® is at least as effective as memantine, galantamine, and donepezil. Safety data revealed no important safety concerns with EGb 761®"
  • Mitochondrial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract - Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Aug;24 Suppl 1:S18-20 - "The flavonoids, bilobalide and some of the ginkgolides (B and J) had a high protective capacity, indicating that a combination of several compounds within standardized Gingko biloba extracts contribute disproportionately for these protective effects"
  • Chronic Administration of Cardanol (Ginkgol) Extracted from Ginkgo biloba Leaves and Cashew Nutshell Liquid Improves Working Memory-Related Learning in Rats - Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(1):127-9 - "These findings suggest that cardanol is one of the components in Ginkgo biloba leaves that improves cognitive learning ability"
  • The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761((R)) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jan 25 - "A single oral dose of EGb 761 (100 mg.kg(-1)) had no effect on monoamine levels. However, following chronic (100 mg.kg(-1)/14 days/once daily) treatment, the same dose significantly increased extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline levels, while 5-HT levels were unaffected. Chronic treatment with EGb 761 showed dose-dependent increases in frontocortical dopamine levels and, to a lesser extent, in the striatum. The extracellular levels of HVA and DOPAC were not affected by either acute or repeated doses. Treatment with the main constituents of EGb 761 revealed that the increase in dopamine levels was mostly caused by the flavonol glycosides and ginkgolide fractions, whereas bilobalide treatment was without effect. Conclusions and implications: The present results demonstrate that chronic but not acute treatment with EGb 761 increased dopaminergic transmission in the PFC. This finding may be one of the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of G. biloba in improving cognitive function"
  • Long Term Safety and Efficacy of Ginkgo Biloba in the Treatment of Anti-Depressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction - Alan Jay Cohen, M.D., University of California at San Francisco Faculty
  • Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction - J Sex Marital Ther 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43 - "Ginkgo biloba generally had a positive effect on all 4 phases of the sexual response cycle: desire, excitement (erection and lubrication), orgasm, and resolution (afterglow)."