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Home > Anti-aging Research > Isoflavones.


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  • Researchers use soy to improve bone cancer treatment - Science Daily, 9/15/20 - "Soybeans contain isoflavones, plant-derived estrogens that have been shown to impede cancer cell growth for many types of cancer without being toxic to normal cells. Isoflavones have also been shown to improve bone health and possibly prevent osteoporosis ... One of the soybean compounds caused a 90% reduction in bone cancer cell viability in their samples after 11 days. Two other soy compounds, meanwhile, significantly improved the growth of healthy bone cells. Furthermore, using the soy compounds in animal models also reduced inflammation, which could benefit bone health as well as overall recovery."
  • Eating Soy Tied to Reduced Breast Cancer Death Risk - Medscape, 3/6/17 - "Specifically, after a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 1224 deaths were documented. And women in the highest quartile of dietary isoflavone intake (≥1.5 mg/day) had a 21% decrease in all-cause mortality compared with women in the lowest quartile (<0.3 mg/day; fourth quartile vs first quartile: hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64"
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators for BPH - Medscape, 10/17/13 - "Many epidemiological and experimental researches have shown that dietary estrogens are beneficial to men's health.[29,31,32] This may be evident from the fact that men living in Western nations have higher incidence of prostate cancer and BPH, plausibly because of their lower dietary phytoestrogen intake, as compared with their counterparts in Asian countries.[33–35] Many of these phytoestrogens are found to display ERβ receptor selectivity, especially compounds whose core structures have isoflavone or flavones group. Genistein, a naturally occurring SERM which shows 22-fold selectivity for ERβ, is an isoflavone usually found in soy ... Our in vivo studies in rat[3] indicated that irrespective of the molecular structure and mechanism of action, the SERMs universally and significantly reduce prostate weight. This response was better in combination with a 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. We found that the ventral prostate of adult mature rats receiving tamoxifen, BP and ormeloxifene each at 1.0 mg kg−1 dose for 21 days regressed significantly by 37%, 32%, 36% respectively" - Note:  It's a nine page article.  I was disappointed that it didn't get in to aromatase inhibitors such as Femara (letrozole).  See genistein at Amazon.com.
    • Letrozole - Steroidal.com - "Letrozole (Femara) belongs to a category and class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Aromatase inhibitors belong to an even broader class of drugs known as anti-estrogens. The other subcategory of drug under the anti-estrogens category is known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as Nolvadex and Clomid. AIs and SERMs make up anti-estrogens. Aromatase inhibitors differ greatly from SERMs in their action and how they deal with the issues of estrogen control"
  • Scientists learn how soy foods protect against colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/5/13 - "lifelong exposure to genistein, a bioactive component in soy foods, protects against colon cancer by repressing a signal that leads to accelerated growth of cells, polyps, and eventually malignant tumors ... the scientists modeled lifetime exposure to soy by feeding pregnant rats and their offspring a diet containing soy protein isolate and a diet that contained genistein compound. At seven weeks of age, offspring rats were exposed to a carcinogen, and they continued eating either the soy protein or the genistein diet until they were 13 weeks old ... At that time, the researchers inspected the colons of rats in both soy groups and compared them to rats in a control group, noting the number and severity of tiny abnormal growths in each ... Genistein decreased the expression of three genes and repressed this signaling process that is associated with abnormal cell growth and cancer development" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Soy-based compound may reduce tumor cell proliferation in colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 4/11/13 - "The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely driven by cellular signaling in the Wnt pathway, a network of proteins critical to cellular growth ... the research team treated colon cancer cell lines with genistein and found that it inhibited cell growth and blocked Wnt signaling hyperactivity ... Genistein is a natural product with low toxicity and few side effects and our research shows that it may be beneficial in treating colorectal cancer"
  • Soy-based formula? Neonatal plant estrogen exposure leads to adult infertility in female mice - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - "A paper published May 2 in Biology of Reproduction describes the effects of brief prenatal exposure to plant estrogens on the mouse oviduct, modeling the effects of soy-based baby formula on human infants. The results suggest that exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the womb or during childhood has the potential to affect a woman's fertility as an adult, possibly providing the mechanistic basis for some cases of unexplained female infertility ... part of the National Institutes of Health, previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the plant estrogen genistein results in complete infertility in female adult mice. Causes of infertility included failure to ovulate, reduced ability of the oviduct to support embryo development before implantation, and failure of the uterus to support effective implantation of blastocyst-stage embryos ... The team now reports that neonatal exposure to genistein changes the level of immune response in the mouse oviduct, known as mucosal immune response. Some of the immune response genes were altered beginning from the time of genistein treatment, while others were altered much later, when the mouse was in early pregnancy. Together, those changes led to harmfully altered immune responses and to compromised oviduct support for preimplantation embryo development, both of which would likely contribute to infertility ... estrogenic chemical exposure to the female fetus, infant, child, and adolescent all have potential impacts on mucosal immunity in the reproductive tract and, therefore, on adult fertility. The authors present the view that limiting such exposures, including minimizing use of soy-based baby formula, is a step toward maintaining female reproductive health"
  • Soy Supplements Can Cool Hot Flashes - WebMD, 4/9/12 - "look at 19 published studies ... What this study shows is that ingesting soy isoflavones will help you ... Soy supplements with higher amounts of the isoflavone called genistein were more than twice as good at reducing hot flash frequency than those with low amounts" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Plant compound reduces breast cancer mortality, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/13/11 - "The most important type of phytoestrogens in our Western diet are lignans, which are contained in seeds, particularly flaxseeds, as well as in wheat and vegetables. In the bowel, these substances are turned into enterolactone, which is absorbed by the mucous tissue and which was determined by the Heidelberg researchers as a biomarker in the patients' blood ... Compared to the study subjects with the lowest enterolactone levels, the women with the highest blood levels of this biomarker had an approximately 40 percent lower mortality risk ... Another observation that may be interpreted in this direction is that Asian women are less frequently affected by breast cancer. Their soy-rich diet contains large amounts of another type of phytoestrogens, isoflavones. On the other hand, scientists fear that isoflavones might imitate the growth-promoting properties of real hormones and, thus, accelerate hormone-dependent tumors such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. "It has not yet been finally determined whether lignans in the body imitate the hormone effect or, on the contrary, counteract it,""
  • Soy increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, study shows - Science Daily, 4/1/11 - "These natural soy isoflavones can sensitize cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy, by inhibiting survival mechanisms which cancer cells activate to protect themselves ... At the same time, soy isoflavones can also act as antioxidants in normal tissues, which protect them against unintended damage from the radiotherapy ... soy isoflavones increase killing of cancer cells by radiation via blocking DNA repair mechanisms, which are turned on by the cancer cells to survive the damage caused by radiation ... Researchers used a formulation consisting of the three main isoflavones found in soybeans, including genistein, daidzein and glycitein ... Previously, researchers had found that pure genistein demonstrated antitumor activity in human NSCLC cell lines and enhanced the effects of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study showed that the soy mixture had an even greater antitumor effect than pure genistein"
  • Isoflavones May Reduce Insomnia Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 2/9/11 - "For the isoflavone group vs the placebo group, sleep efficiency measured by polysomnography increased significantly (from 77.9% to 83.9% vs from 77.6% to 81.2%). In addition, frequency of insomnia was reduced more readily in the isoflavone group. At the beginning of the study, 94.7% of women in the placebo group had moderate or intense insomnia compared with 63.2% at the end of the study; whereas in the isoflavone group these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively ... Isoflavones were also effective in reducing the number of hot flashes in postmenopausal women with insomnia compared with the placebo group (P = .001). This trend became apparent after 2 months of treatment, but the results became significant only after the fourth month of treatment. The intensity of hot flashes was significantly lower in the isoflavone group than in the placebo group at both evaluation points (months 2 and 4 of treatment; 1.6 vs 5.8 and 0.5 vs 3.8; P < .001)"
  • Soy isoflavones may modify risk of breast cancer - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "Those women with the highest isoflavone intake had an approximately 30 percent decreased risk of having an invasive breast tumor, and an approximately 60 percent decreased risk of having a grade 1 tumor ... Among premenopausal women, the highest intake of isoflavones had a 30 percent decreased risk of stage I disease, a 70 percent decreased risk of having a tumor larger than 2 cm, and a 60 percent decreased risk of having stage 2 breast cancer. These connections were not seen among postmenopausal women"
  • Soy may stop prostate cancer spread: Experimental soy-based drug shows benefits in men with localized prostate cancer - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "A recent phase II randomized study of 38 men with localized prostate cancer found that genistein, when given once a day as a pill, one month prior to surgery, had beneficial effects on prostate cancer cells ... genistein increased the expression of genes that suppress the invasion of cancer cells and decreased the expression of genes that enhance invasion" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Soy intake associated with lower recurrence of breast cancer in hormone-sensitive cancers - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "The recurrence rate of estrogen- and progesterone- positive breast cancer was 12.9% lower among patients in the highest quartile of soy isoflavone intake than among those in the lowest quartile and was 18.7% lower for patients receiving anastrozole therapy in the highest quartile"
  • Isoflavone Use May Improve Endothelial Function in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 12/11/09 - "In the overall analysis, isoflavone use significantly increased FMD"
  • Resveratrol could prove HRT alternative, study - Nutra USA, 11/23/09 - "While genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all increased apoptosis and reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resveratrol reduced this ratio more than either genistein or glycitein ... Because it (resveratrol) stimulated the transcription of endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) and proapoptotic effects, this phytoestrogen is the most promising candidate as an HRT alternative and chemopreventive reagent for breast cancer ... The researchers added that their results indicated that daidzein causes a slight cell-stimulating effect in the absence of E2, which may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women taking supplements containing these phytoestrogens" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Could soy isoflavones extend life? - Nutra USA, 9/11/09
  • How Soy Reduces Diabetes Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/09 - "They found that daidzein and equol enhanced adipocyte differentiation, or the formation of fat cells, through activation of a key transcription regulator, the same receptor that mediates the insulin-sensitizing effects of anti-diabetes drugs. Thus, daidzein and equol daidzein and equol seem to work in a similar manner as anti-diabetic drugs currently in the market"
  • Soy may help men remember anniversaries: Study - Nutra USA, 7/9/09 - "men receiving the isoflavones required 18 per cent fewer attempts to correctly complete the tasks, committed 23 per cent fewer errors, and achieved the tasks in 17 per cent less time than they did during the placebo phase" - [Abstract]
  • Teen soy intake linked to lower breast cancer risk - Nutra USA, 6/1/09 - "Adolescent intakes of soy foods were associated with a 43 per cent reduction in pre-menopausal breast cancer risk, while high intakes of soy protein and isoflavones were associated with 59 and 56 per cent reductions in the risk of breast cancer before the menopause" - [Abstract]
  • Soy Consumption Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 1/29/09 - "For each 5-g/day increment in dietary intake of soy as measured by dry weight (equivalent to approximately 1 oz [28.35 g] tofu/day), there was an 8% reduction in risk ... Compared with women in the lowest tertile of soy intake, those in the highest tertile had a multivariate relative risk (RR) of 0.67 ... were similar for soy protein and isoflavone intakes"
  • Genistein Safely Improves Bone Formation in Osteopenic, Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 1/14/09 - "Usually, the drugs used in the management of osteopenia/osteoporosis have been classified as predominantly 'antiresorptive agents' or as 'bone-forming agents' but, on the basis of our results, genistein might represent the first therapy that overcomes this classification by combining a powerful bone-forming as well as an antiresorptive activity ... All postmenopausal women with bone loss would be ideal candidates for genistein aglycone treatment ... Genistein aglycone has a good safety profile, and in addition it is effective against climacteric syndrome (i.e., hot flushes and night sweats)"
  • Isoflavone Dietary Supplement Improves Functioning Of Arteries In Stroke Patients - Science Daily, 9/23/08 - "A dietary supplement containing isoflavone – a chemical found in soybeans, chickpeas, legumes and clovers – can improve artery function in stroke patients ... 12 weeks of isoflavone supplement, at a dose of 80 mg a day, significantly improved brachial FMD and, therefore, vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients who had suffered an ischaemic stroke (a stroke caused by blood clots or other obstructions)"
  • Dietary Supplement Genistein Can Undermine Breast Cancer Treatment - Science Daily, 9/23/08
  • Isoflavones and Flavonols Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk - oncologystat.com, 8/22/08 - "Women with the highest flavonoid intake had a 37% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with the lowest intake. A high intake of isoflavones, in particular, was associated with a 49% decreased ovarian cancer risk"
  • Soy Compound May Halt Spread Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/14/08 - "the amount of the chemical, an antioxidant known as genistein, used in the experiments was no higher than what a human would eat in a soybean-rich diet ... genistein decreased metastasis of prostate cancer to the lungs by 96 percent compared with mice that did not eat the compound in their chow"
  • Daidzein-rich supplement shows menopause potential - Nutra USA, 1/11/08 - "The new study, led by George Blackburn, assigned the subjects to receive daily supplements of the daidzein-rich isoflavone-aglycone (DRI) supplement at a dose of either 40 or 60 milligrams, or placebo for 12 weeks ... At the end of the study, the researchers report that the number of hot flushes in the group receiving the lower dose was reduced by 52 per cent, while the women receiving the higher dose experienced a 51 per cent reduction in the number of hot flushes. The placebo group reported a 39 per cent reduction in hot flush frequency" - [Abstract]
  • Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women - Menopause. 2007 Jul 18 - "DRI supplementation may be an effective and acceptable alternative to hormone treatment for menopausal hot flashes"
  • Isoflavones may stop benign breast lumps: study - Nutra USA, 12/18/07 - "the highest plasma levels of genistein (more than 76.95 nanograms per millilitre) were 74 per cent less likely to have breast cancer, and 60 per cent less likely to have benign conditions, relative to women with the lowest average levels (less than 9.42 ng/mL)"
  • New Proof of Genistein's Efficacy and Safety for Osteopenia and Osteoporosis Published in Annals of Internal Medicine - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/07 - "85% of the women taking genistein showed a gain in bone density ... In addition, women taking genistein with calcium and vitamin D achieved a gain in bone density of approximately 3% per year over baseline and 6% per year over those taking the placebo"
  • Soy Compound May Bolster Women's Bones - WebMD, 6/18/07 - "After two years, the DEXA scans showed increases in bone mineral density in women taking genistein"
  • Broccoli, soy anti-cancer benefits suggested - Nutra USA, 4/16/07 - "this attraction between CXCR4 and CXCL12 draws cancer cells to the organs they spread to ... exposure with either DIM or genistein cut movement by 80 per cent"
  • Soy isoflavones linked to lower prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 3/8/07 - "The highest intake of soy isoflavones (at least 32.8 milligrams of genistein per day) had a 40 per cent reduced risk compared to those with the lowest intake (less than 13.2 mg/d)"
  • Isoflavone treatment for acute menopausal symptoms - Menopause. 2007 Feb 6 - "In women receiving 60 mg isoflavones daily, hot flashes and night sweats were reduced by 57% and 43%, respectively"
  • Meta-analysis supports isoflavones for hot flushes - Nutra USA, 1/15/07
  • Calcitriol and genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway: potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer - J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):205S-10S - "the combination of calcitriol and genistein is an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of PCa"
  • Soy Isoflavones Protect Postmenopausal Women From Bone Loss - Medscape, 7/14/06 - "There was a significant, linear dose-related response for isoflavones vs placebo in terms of bone density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but not at the trochanter"
  • Soy isoflavones could improve mood, mental function - Nutra USA, 6/28/06
  • Daidzein from soy linked to heart health benefits - Nutra USA, 6/23/06
  • Soy isoflavones attenuate bone loss in early postmenopausal Chinese women : A single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Nutr. 2006 Jun 8 - "There is a significantly dose-dependent effect of soy isoflavones on attenuating bone loss at the spine and femoral neck possibly via the inhibition of bone resorption in non-obese postmenopausal Chinese women with high Kuppermann Scale"
  • Isoflavones for bone health depends on other factors - Nutra USA, 7/15/04
  • Soy: Prevent Prostate Cancer, Male Baldness? - WebMD, 3/30/04 - "A little-known molecule called equol ... is showing promise as a powerful blocker of a potent male hormone involved in prostate cancer, male baldness, even acne ... Actually, the protective effects occur when two chemicals in soy protein -- genistin and daidzin -- reach the digestive system, Setchell explains. There, they are metabolized to form genistein and daidzein. Daidzein is metabolized once again, to form equol"
  • Soy blocks prostate cancer? - Nutra USA, 3/30/04 - "Equol, the major metabolite of the phytoestrogen daidzein - one of the main isoflavones found abundantly in soybeans - completely stops in its tracks the male hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which normally stimulates prostate growth and causes male pattern baldness"
  • Phytoestrogens May Not Prevent Breast Cancer - WebMD, 2/4/04
  • Soy Isoflavones May Improve Cognition in Postmenopausal Women - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/2/03 - "Women taking soy isoflavones had significant improvements in recall, logical thinking, planning tasks, and attention compared with women taking a placebo, which translates to better memory and ability to focus on a particular task"
  • Soy For Prevention of Memory Decline Still Under Investigation - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/03
  • Soy May Cut Endometrial Cancer Risk - WebMD, 8/5/03 - "consumption of isoflavones and lignans, but not coumestans, were associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women"
  • Chemical in Miso and Other Soy Foods Believed to Block Certain Tumors - WebMD, 6/17/03 - "identified 21,852 women between the ages of 40 and 59 and surveyed them about various lifestyle issues ... They traced the women 10 years later ... Women with the most isoflavones in their diet had the lowest risk of breast cancer. This was especially true of postmenopausal women"
  • Soy Protein May Be Better Than Supplements for Menopause - WebMD, 4/24/03
  • Got Milk - WebMD, 9/27/02 - "A combination of soy and cow's milk could have some beneficial, anti-cancer nutrients ... He says he thinks the most potent cancer-fighting component of soy is a compound called genistein ... He demonstrated that by feeding rats a diet containing genistein before exposing them to a cancer-causing drug. The number of breast tumors was reduced by 50%"
  • Diet Rich In Soy Protein Lowers Estrogens Associated With Breast Cancer - Intelihealth, 9/24/02 - "Isoflavones, the main constituent of soybeans, are believed to be responsible for anti-cancer effects observed in an accumulating number of human and animal studies ... However, the effect of soy on the breast is controversial ... There are some in vitro studies of breast cancer cells - animal studies, as well as short-term soy intervention studies in women - suggesting that soy isoflavines may have stimulatory effects"
  • Ipriflavone in Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment - Medscape, 9/4/02
  • Red Clover May Tame Hot Flashes - WebMD, 8/16/02 - "Promensil is an isoflavone supplement produced from red clover and contains the same key isoflavones commonly found in soy foods. Isoflavones are plant compounds -- found commonly in soy -- that act like weak form of the female sex hormone estrogen ... Only red clover contains all four isoflavones that women need ... 30 women were given either 40 mg of Promensil or a placebo for 16 weeks. The group taking Promensil reported a 48% reduction in frequency of hot flashes, whereas the control group had an 11% decrease" - See iHerb or Promensil products.
  • Soy Protein In The Diet Produces Health Benefits, Regardless Of Isoflavone Content - Intelihealth, 7/25/02 - "After each soy diet, total cholesterol, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, homocysteine concentrations, and estimated overall cardiovascular risk were lower than they were after the control diet. Additionally, serum concentrations of LDL were lower after the high-isoflavone diet. The only significant difference between the sexes was a tendency toward reduced blood pressure in men after the high-soy isoflavone diet ... the soy diets continued to improve the subjects' blood lipid profiles even after dietary saturated fat consumption was maximally reduced"
  • Phytoestrogen review - ConsumerLab.com, 7/16/02
  • Soy Comparable to Some Diabetes Drugs - WebMD, 6/20/02 - "Soy may help people with diabetes control their blood sugar as well as some prescription drugs ... One group sprinkled their food daily with a white powder containing 30 grams of soy protein and 132 milligrams of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks ... The soy products lowered the women's blood sugar as much as some prescription diabetes drugs"
  • Soy Isoflavone May Improve Bone Metabolism in Perimenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "The isoflavone group (n=12) received daily capsules of soy isoflavone extract (61.8 mg of isoflavones) ... Excretion of bone resorption markers was reduced significantly in the isoflavone group"
  • Soy Formulas May Weaken Immune System - WebMD, 5/20/02 - "the researchers examined immune system effects in mice fed diets high in the isoflavone. At levels similar to those found in soy-fed infants, genistein appeared to produce a large decrease in thymus size and immune cell function ... The study appears to contradict recently published research, sponsored by a soy formula manufacturer, suggesting that infants fed soy-based diets have normal immune development as measured by response to routine childhood immunizations. Infants fed soy-based formulas also demonstrated immune status similar to infants who were breastfed ... But a Danish study assessing soy supplementation in postmenopausal women did find evidence of immune suppression"
  • Ovulatory Cycles Not Affected By Isoflavones Supplement - Doctor's Guide, 3/21/02
  • Phytoestrogens May Reduce Heart Disease Risk In Older Women - Intelihealth, 2/21/02 - "phytoestrogen consumption was associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. Women who consumed the highest amount of isoflavones and lignans had significantly lower triglyceride (fatty material found in blood) levels than those who consumed the least amount of phytoestrogens. Similarly, those who consumed significant amounts of lignan-rich foods had less weight concentrated around their waists than those who ate little or no lignan-rich food. (Excessive weight around the waist is a risk factor for heart disease.)"
  • The Magic of Soy Beans - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "In the group receiving the highest doses of soy isoflavones, there was a 74% reduction in the median number of metastatic tumors to the lungs. The study showed that the higher doses of isoflavones significantly decreased tumor size and volume, in addition to reducing the number of metastatic lesions."
  • Long-Term Soy Consumption Does Not Effect Hormones In Postmenopausal Women - Intelihealth, 12/21/01 - "Though small hormonal fluctuations occurred in all three groups over time, the researchers found no significant changes in serum estrogen, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, or follicle stimulating hormone in any of the subject groups. Circulating thyroid hormone levels were modestly increased in women taking the highest dose of soy isoflavones for more than 6 months. Other effects of soy isoflavones observed in the study, such as increased bone mineral density and higher HDL concentrations in women who took the highest dose for 6 months, suggest that soy may possess estrogen effects that are better reflected in these end-points rather than in serum hormone concentrations"
  • Soy And Breast Cancer: Safe Or Unsafe? - Intelihealth, 11/8/01
  • Soy Isoflavone Stimulates Breast Cancer Tumor Growth - Intelihealth, 11/8/01
  • Product Review: Phytoestrogens -- Soy and Red Clover Isoflavones - ConsumerLab, 8/15/01
  • Soy Isoflavones May Protect Postmenopausal Women From Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/3/01
  • Widely Used Supplement Doesn't Stop Bone Loss, Study Finds No Postmenopausal Benefit From Ipriflavone - WebMD, 3/22/01
  • Osteoporosis Supplement Doesn't Prevent Bone Loss In Study - Intelihealth, 3/20/01 - "ipriflavone, a synthetic form of an estrogen-like substance found in plants such as soybeans ... ipriflavone supplements had no effect on preserving bone density. But women who took the supplements, in standard doses of 600 milligrams daily, were more likely than those on dummy pills to develop a reduction in disease-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes ...  The women remained otherwise healthy, but low lymphocyte counts are a symptom of an immune system that is potentially more vulnerable to infection ... The study was funded by Chiesi Pharmaceuticals Inc., an Italian maker of ipriflavone (so it may have been that brand)"
  • Soy and Health: What's the Scoop? Most Recent Addition to Soy Research Shows Lower Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 12/21/00 - "eating a diet rich in soy products may cut the risk of breast cancer in half"
  • Bone Up on Osteoporosis - Nutrition Science News, 11/00 - "Most research demonstrates that soy foods also increase mineral density in menopausal women and reduce bone loss"
Foods with Isoflavones


Isoflavones (mg.)

Beef(Not) textured soy protein granules, 1/4 c. dry 62
Nutlettes breakfast cereal, 1/4 c. 61
Roasted soy nuts, 1/4 c. 60
Tempeh, 1/2 c. 35
Tufu, low-fat and regular, 1/2 c. 35
Take Care High Protein Beverage Powder, 2 scoops 35
Regular soy milk, 1 c. 30
Low-fat soy milk, 1 c. 20
Roasted soy butter, 2 tbsp. 17
Morningstar Farms Ground Meatless all-vegetable crumbles, 1/2 c. 8.5


  • Genistein exerts anti-colorectal cancer actions: clinical reports, computational and validated findings - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is presently a health challenge in China. Although clinical chemotherapy is prescribed availably, the negative effects and poor prognoses still occur. Genistein has antitumor properties in our previous studies ... All 48 potential targets of genistein-anti-CRC-associated autophagy were screened accordingly. Further bioinformatics analyses identified 10 core genistein-anti-CRC targets related to autophagy, and enrichment-assayed results revealed that the biological processes of these core targets might regulate multiple molecular pathways, including the estrogen signaling pathway. Additionally, molecular docking data demonstrated that genistein has a high affinity for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). Both EGFR and ESR1 proteins were highly expressed in clinical CRC samples. Preliminary in vitro data showed that genistein effectively reduced cellular proliferation, activated apoptosis, and suppressed EGFR and ESR1 protein expressions in CRC cells. Our research findings uncovered the molecular mechanisms of genistein against CRC, and the potential drug targets associated with autophagy in genistein treatment of CRC were identified and validated experimentally, including EGFR and ESR1" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein lowers fertility with pronounced effect in males: Meta-analyses on pre-clinical studies - Andrologia 2022 Jun 27 - "Genistein, an isoflavonoid, is found in a plethora of plant-based foods, and has been approved for use in various therapies. A couple of studies in adult men observed a negative correlation between genistein exposure and reproductive parameters ... Pooled analysis showed significant decreases in sperm count in males exposed to genistein during adulthood (Hedges's g = -2.51, p = 0.013) and in utero (Hedges's g = -0.861, p = 0.016) compared with controls. In males exposed to genistein in utero, serum testosterone levels decreased (Hedges's g = -6.301, p = 0.000) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (Hedges's g = 7.127, p = 0.000) and FSH (Hedges's g = 6.19, p = 0.000) levels increased in comparison with controls. In females, the number of corpora lutea (Hedges's g = -2.103, p = 0.019) and the litter size (Hedges's g = -1.773, p-value = 0.000) decreased; however, female reproductive hormones remained unaffected. These meta-analyses show that genistein has detrimental effects on male reproductive system and on the progression and sustenance of pregnancy, with more pronounced adverse impact in males, particularly when exposed in utero"
  • Effects of whey and soy protein supplementation on inflammatory cytokines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr 2022 Jun 16 - "These data support that whey and soy protein supplementation elicit anti-inflammatory effects by reducing circulating IL-6 and TNF-a levels, respectively. This effect may be enhanced by soy isoflavones and may be more prominent in individuals with sarcopenia" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Soy isoflavones protects against cognitive deficits induced by chronic sleep deprivation via alleviating oxidative stress and suppressing neuroinflammation - Phytother Res 2022 Apr 3 - "chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) ... Soy isoflavones (SI) have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotective effects ... SI administration remarkably improved the cognitive performance of CSD-treated mice in OLR, NOR, and MWM tests. In addition, SI significantly elevated total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities, decreased malondialdehyde level, promoting antioxidant element nuclear erythroid-2-related factor 2, and its downstream targets, including heme oxygenase 1, and quinone oxidoreductase 1 protein expressions. Moreover, SI treatment significantly suppressed nuclear factor kappa B p65, nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 activation, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) release in the hippocampus of CSD-treated mice" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein Improves Bone Healing via Triggering Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Mediated Expressions of Osteogenesis-Associated Genes and Consequent Maturation of Osteoblasts - J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 8 - "Results of microcomputed tomography revealed that administration of genistein increased trabecular bone numbers and improved the bone thickness and volume. This study showed that genistein can improve bone healing via triggering ERα-mediated osteogenesis-associated gene expressions and subsequent osteoblast maturation" - See genistein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Genistein protects against amyloid-beta-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by regulation of Akt and Tau phosphorylation - Phytother Res. 2019 Dec 3 - "Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated for 24 hr with genistein (1 and 10 nM) and exposed to Aβ25-35 (25 μM), and we found that genistein partially inhibited Aβ induced cell death, primarily apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of genistein was associated with the inhibition of Aβ-induced Akt inactivation and Tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective effects of genistein against Aβ toxicity and provide evidence that its mechanism may involve regulation of Akt and Tau proteins"
  • Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 4 - "Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, isoflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Also, isoflavone supplements consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein ... an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein inhibits human prostate cancer cell detachment, invasion, and metastasis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 28 - "genistein inhibits cell detachment, protease production, cell invasion, and human PCa metastasis at concentrations achieved in humans with dietary intake. Finally, phase I and phase II clinical trials conducted by us and others showed that concentrations of genistein associated with antimetastatic efficacy in preclinical models are achievable in humans, and treatment with genistein inhibits pathways that regulate metastatic transformation in human prostate tissue"
  • Protective effect of genistein on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine- induced hepatic failure in mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):625-32 - "the protective effect of genistein on LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage was mainly due to its ability to block NF-κB signaling pathway for anti-inflammation response, attenuate hepatocellular apoptosis and increase HO level. These findings suggest that genistein can be considered as a potential agent for preventing acute hepatic failure"
  • Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Mar 27:1-5 - "The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P < 0.001) total soya foods (mean 57.2 (sd 119.0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18.8 (sd 51.7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93.3 (sd 121.5) g/d and mean 35.7 (sd 73.0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0.33 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.49) and OR = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk"
  • Protective Effect of Genistein on Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced Hepatic Failure in Mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014 Jan 30 - "In conclusion, the protective effect of genistein on LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage was mainly due to its ability to block NF-κB signaling pathway for anti-inflammation response, attenuate hepatocellular apoptosis and increase HO level. These findings suggest that genistein can be considered as a potential agent for preventing acute hepatic failure"
  • Genistein and endothelial function in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome - Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Jul 10 - "metabolic syndrome (MS) ... Twenty postmenopausal women with MS, according to modified NCEP-ATP III criteria were randomly assigned to receive placebo or genistein (54 mg/day) for 6 months, along with a Mediterranean-style diet. Postmenopausal women without MS (n = 15), served as controls ... After 6 months of treatment, FMD at 50s and peak FMD significantly increased in genistein recipients compared with placebo. Moreover, genistein significantly decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine and visfatin compared with placebo, while blood adiponectin levels were increased. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side-adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study"
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study"
  • Inhibitory effects of isoflavones on tumor growth and cachexia in newly established cachectic mouse models carrying human stomach cancers - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):578-89 - "Isoflavone treatment on the models induced tumor cytostasis, attenuation of cachexia, and prolonged survival whereas discontinuation of the treatment resulted in progressive tumor growth and weight loss" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Habitual Dietary Isoflavone Intake Is Associated with Decreased C-Reactive Protein Concentrations among Healthy Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2013 Apr 24 - "Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles ... Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h recalls ... Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations"
  • Population versus hospital controls in the assessment of dietary intake of isoflavone for case-control studies on cancers in china - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Apr;65(3):390-7 - "Three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast, and colorectal cancers in China in 2009-2010 were conducted, using population and hospital outpatient controls to separately match 560 incident cases at a 1:1 ratio ... Risk estimates for breast cancers were adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) for daidzein, 0.35 (0.20-0.61) and 0.28 (0.16-0.52) for genistein, 0.66 (0.41-1.08) and 0.53 (0.32-0.88) for glycitein, and 0.53 (0.33-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.71) for total isoflavone using hospital outpatient and population controls respectively"
  • Soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the takayama study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 6 - "We assessed the associations of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were members from the Takayama study, aged 35 years or older in 1992 ... Soy and isoflavone intakes were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... The relative risks of postmenopausal breast cancer were lower among women with higher intakes of soy (trend p=0.023) and isoflavone (trend p=0.046), although the relative risks of premenopausal breast cancer were not associated with intakes of soy and isoflavone. Decreased risks of breast cancer were found even among women with a moderate intake of soy and isoflavone. These results suggested that soy and isoflavone intake have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer"
  • Effects of Soy Isoflavone and Endogenous Oestrogen on Breast Cancer in MMTV-erbB2 Transgenic Mice - J Int Med Res. 2012;40(6):2073-82 - "Five-week-old mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-erbB2 female transgenic mice (n = 180) were divided into three equal groups: low-, normal- and high-oestrogen groups. Each group was then subdivided into an experimental group (given soybean feed) and a control group (given control feed) ... In the high-oestrogen environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly lower in the experimental versus the control group, whereas in the low-oestrogen environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in the experimental versus the control group"
  • Beneficial effect of genistein on lowering blood pressure and kidney toxicity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 21:1-7 - "The study evaluates the effects of genistein on blood pressure (BP) and ultrastructural changes in kidney of fructose-fed hypertensive rats ... Genistein administration lowered BP, restored ACE, PKC-βII and eNOS expression and preserved renal ultrastructural integrity. These findings demonstrate that genistein has effects on eNOS activity in renal cells, leading to eNOS activation and NO synthesis. These effects could have been mediated by activation of PKC-βII. The observed benefits of genistein make it a promising candidate for therapy of diabetic kidney disease" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Relationship Between Serum Isoflavone Levels and Disability-Free Survival Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals: Nested Case-Control Study of the Tsurugaya Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Oct 9 - "The longer healthy life expectancy observed in Japan may be partly attributed to the Japanese diet ... The researchers used a nested case-control study to compare serum isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and equol) levels between 165 participants that died or were certificated as disabled (cases) and 177 controls ... Higher serum equol levels, but not any other isoflavones, were inversely associated with the composite endpoint of disability and death. Although it cannot be concluded that equol per se has preventive effects on disability or death, higher equol levels appear associated with better health"
  • Use of isoflavone supplements is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2012 Aug 13 - "Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario, Canada were evaluated using cases (n=3101) identified in 2002-2003 from the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n=3471) identified through random digit dialing methods ... Several individual supplements were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (e.g. Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; n(users) =58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when ≥3 were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; n(users) =332; P(trend) =0.008) or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n(users) =325; P(trend) =0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among high content users who ever took ≥3 supplements (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81; n(users) =118; P(trend) =0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; n(users) =60; P(trend) =0.03). Associations did not differ by estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein, a Soy Phytoestrogen, Reverses Severe Pulmonary Hypertension and Prevents Right Heart Failure in Rats - Hypertension. 2012 Jul 2 - "PH was induced in male rats by 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline. After 21 days, when PH was well established, rats received daily injection of genistein (1 mg/kg per day) for 10 days or were left untreated to develop RHF by day 30. Effects of genistein on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy were assessed in vitro. Severe PH was evident 21 days after monocrotaline, as peak systolic right ventricular pressure increased to 66.35+/-1.03 mm Hg and right ventricular ejection fraction reduced to 41.99+/-1.27%. PH progressed to RHF by day 30 (right ventricular pressure, 72.41+/-1.87 mm Hg; RV ejection fraction, 29.25+/-0.88%), and mortality was ≈75% in RHF rats. Genistein therapy resulted in significant improvement in lung and heart function as right ventricular pressure was significantly reduced to 43.34+/-4.08 mm Hg and right ventricular ejection fraction was fully restored to 65.67+/-1.08% similar to control. Genistein reversed PH-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo and inhibited human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by ≈50% in vitro likely through estrogen receptor-β. Genistein also reversed right ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricular hypertrophy index, 0.35+/-0.029 versus 0.70+/-0.080 in RHF), inhibited neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy, and restored PH-induced loss of capillaries in the right ventricle. These improvements in cardiopulmonary function and structure resulted in 100% survival by day 30. Genistein restored PH-induced downregulation of estrogen receptor-β expression in the right ventricle and lung. In conclusion, genistein therapy not only rescues preexisting severe PH but also prevents the progression of severe PH to RHF" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective observational study of isoflavone and the risk of stroke recurrence: potential clinical implications beyond vascular function -J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(4):383-8 - "Stroke recurrence and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were documented. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Isoflavone intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Median isoflavone intake was 6.9 (range: 2.1 - 14.5) mg/day. Isoflavone intake was independently associated with increased FMD (Pearson R=0.23, p=0.012). At 30 months, there were 10 stroke recurrence and 12 MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with isoflavone intake higher than median value had significantly longer median stroke recurrence-free survival time (19.0 [range: 10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 5.0 [range: 4.1 - 5.9] mth, p=0.021) and MACE-free survival time (19.0 [range: 10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 4.0 [range: 2.4 - 5.6] mth, p=0.013). Using multivariate cox regression, higher isoflavone intake was an independent predictor for lower risk of stroke recurrence (hazards ratio 0.18 [95%CI: 0.03 - 0.95], risk reduction 82%, p=0.043) and MACE (hazards ratio 0.16 [95%CI: 0.03 - 0.84], risk reduction 84%, p=0.030)"
  • Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years - Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 29:1-7 - "Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors ... Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG ( - 38.2 (95 % CI - 70.4, - 5.9) %, P = 0.012) and CCA-IMT ( - 4.9 (95 % CI - 9.7, - 0.3) %, P = 0.033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes ( - 5.4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT ( - 16.2 %, P = 0.035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1.5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only"
  • Differential Influence of Dietary Soy Intake on the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence Related to HER2 Status - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jan 2 - "Legume intake (mostly from black soybeans) was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer recurrence in HER2 negative cancer patients (HR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.13-0.57, P for trend < 0.01), whereas legume intake was positively associated in HER2 positive cancer patients (P for trend = 0.02). In HER2 negative cancer patients, isoflavone was inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89; P for trend = 0.01). Total soy intake was not associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence. In conclusion, overall soy food intake might not affect the risk of cancer recurrence, but high intake of soy isoflavones increased the risk of cancer recurrence in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, further research is needed to confirm these results due to the small number of cancer recurrence events"
  • Genistein Mitigates Radiation-induced Testicular Injury - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 9 - "Genistein significantly attenuated radiation-induced reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial depth and sperm head count in the testes (p < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated irradiated mice at 21 days post-irradiation). Repopulation and stem cell survival indices of the seminiferous tubules were increased in the genistein-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated irradiation group at 21 days post-irradiation (p < 0.01). The irradiation-mediated decrease in the sperm count and sperm mobility in the epididymis was counteracted by genistein (p < 0.01), but no effect on the frequency of abnormal sperm was evident. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using DCFDA method and exposure to irradiation elevated ROS levels in the testis and genistein treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of radiation-induced ROS production"
  • Legume, Soy, Tofu, and Isoflavone Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Dec 12 - "conducted a prospective analysis of 46 027 nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women who were recruited into the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study between August 1993 and August 1996 and provided detailed baseline information on diet and other endometrial cancer risk factors ... A total of 489 women diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registry linkages during a median follow-up period of 13.6 years ... A reduced risk of endometrial cancer was associated with total isoflavone intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥7.82 vs <1.59 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91), daidzein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.54 vs <0.70 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.90), and genistein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.40 vs <0.69 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91). No statistically significant association with endometrial cancer risk was observed for increasing intake of legumes, soy, tofu, or glycitein. Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of endometrial cancer for the highest vs lowest quintile of total isoflavone intake were 55 vs 107 per 100 000 women per year, respectively. The partial population attributable risk percent for total isoflavone intake lower than the highest quintile was 26.7% (95% CI = 5.3% to 45.8%)"
  • Inhibitory Effects of Combination of Lycopene and Genistein on 7,12- Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Carotenoids and soy isoflavones have been postulated to have breast cancer preventive effects ... 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen known to induce breast tumors ... Tumor weight decreased by 48%, 61%, and 67%, and mean tumor volume decreased by 18%, 35%, and 65% with lycopene, genistein, and lycopene + genistein, respectively (P < 0.01 for the combination). The proportions of adenocarcinoma masses decreased with lycopene and genistein combination (P < 0.05). Administration of lycopene and genistein combination suppressed breast cancer development and was associated with a decrease in MDA, 8-isoprostane, and 8-OhdG levels and with an increase in serum lycopene and genistein levels. Animals administered DMBA developed breast cancer, which was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9 in mammary tissues. Administration of genistein and lycopene in combination was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced breast tumors and modulating the expression of apoptosis associated proteins than the administration of each agent alone" - See lycopene at Amazon.com and genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of soy isoflavones on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb 8 - "A total of eleven trials were reviewed. Meta-analysis results showed a mean decrease of 2.5 mm Hg (95% CIs, - 5.35 to 0.34 mm Hg; P = 0.08) for systolic blood pressure and 1.5 mm Hg (95% CIs, - 3.09 to 0.17 mm Hg; P = 0.08) for diastolic blood pressure in the soy isoflavones-treated group compared to placebo. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated that blood pressure status was a significant predictor of heterogeneity for the effect of soy isoflavones on blood pressure. Subgroup analysis of hypertensive subjects revealed that a greater blood pressure reduction was identified in the soy isoflavone-treated group compared to placebo (5 trials; SBP: - 5.94, 95% CIs [- 10.55, - 1.34] mm Hg, P = 0.01; DBP: - 3.35, 95% CIs [- 6.52, - 0.19] mm Hg, P = 0.04). In contrast, treatment with soy isoflavones did not lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure in normotensive subjects (6 trials; SBP: 0.29, 95% CIs [- 2.39, 2.97] mm Hg, P = 0.83; DBP: - 0.43, 95% CIs [- 1.66, 0.81] mm Hg, P = 0.50)"
  • Plasma isoflavones and the risk of lung cancer in women: A nested case-control study in Japan - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jan 14 - "After exclusion of 20 lung cancer cases diagnosed in the first 3 years after blood collection, an inverse association was found between plasma genistein concentration and lung cancer risk. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) of lung cancer in the highest quintile of plasma genistein concentration as compared with that in the lowest quintile was 0.31 (0.12, 0.86) (P for trend = 0.085). Other isoflavones and total isoflavones were not associated with a significant decrease in the risk of lung cancer" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "Of the 75 relevant studies located, we considered 38 studies to be appropriate for review. Results revealed support for intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fish oils (Cohen's d = 0.21-0.81) and soy isoflavones (Cohen's d = 0.35-0.39) in the treatment of arterial stiffness. There was limited but consistent evidence to suggest that salt restriction (Cohen's d = 0.28-0.37) as well as consumption of fermented-milk products (Cohen's d = 0.15-0.33) that contain bioactive peptides improved arterial stiffness. The evidentiary support for intakes of vitamins, micronutrients, and herbal medicines was insufficient. Limited but consistent evidence suggested that caffeine intake acutely increased arterial stiffness (Cohen's d = 0.34-0.51) ... Current evidence from several small studies suggests that omega-3 and soy isoflavone supplementation provides an effective means of reducing arterial stiffness" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Soy food and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 24 - "Energy-adjusted intakes of soy foods (dry weight) and isoflavones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men and postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03, p for trend = 0.03) for soy foods and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.10, p for trend = 0.051) for isoflavones in men. The corresponding values for postmenopausal women were 0.60 (95% CI 0.29-1.25, p for trend = 0.053) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.33-1.40, p for trend = 0.049)"
  • Soy isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):996-1000 - "Soy isoflavones sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting cell survival pathways activated by radiation. At the same time, soy isoflavones have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which may help prevent the side effects of radiation ... Adverse effects of radiation therapy on bladder, bowel, and sexual function were assessed by a self-administered quality of life questionnaire at 3 and 6 mo. Only 26 and 27 patients returned completed questionnaires at 3 and 6 mo, respectively. At each time point, urinary, bowel, and sexual adverse symptoms induced by radiation therapy were decreased in the soy isoflavone group compared to placebo group. At 3 mo, soy-treated patients had less urinary incontinence, less urgency, and better erectile function as compared to the placebo group. At 6 mo, the symptoms in soy-treated patients were further improved as compared to the placebo group. These patients had less dripping/leakage of urine (7.7% in Group 1 vs. 28.4% in Group 2), less rectal cramping/diarrhea (7.7% vs. 21.4%), and less pain with bowel movements (0% vs. 14.8%) than placebo-treated patients. There was also a higher overall ability to have erections (77% vs. 57.1%). The results suggest that soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate cancer"
  • Isoflavones decrease insomnia in postmenopause - Menopause. 2010 Aug 19 - "Polysomnography revealed a significant increase in sleep efficiency in the isoflavone group (from 77.9% to 83.9%) when compared with the placebo group (from 77.6% to 81.2%). Isoflavones induced a decrease in the intensity and number of hot flashes and the frequency of insomnia: among the women in the placebo group, 94.7% had moderate or intense insomnia at the beginning of the study, compared with 63.2% at the end, whereas in the isoflavone group, these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively"
  • Genistein reduced the neural apoptosis in the brain of ovariectomised rats by modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun 28:1-7 - "genistein (Gen) ... these results suggest that Gen confers protection against Ovx-induced neurodegeneration by attenuating oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in a region- and dose-dependent manner"
  • Genistein induces growth inhibition and g2/m arrest in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Jul;62(5):641-7 - "These findings provide new insights into the potential intervention of NPC with genistein"
  • Soy food intake and breast cancer survival - JAMA. 2009 Dec 9;302(22):2437-43 - "Soy food intake, as measured by either soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The hazard ratio associated with the highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.92) for total mortality and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.87) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The multivariate-adjusted 4-year mortality rates were 10.3% and 7.4%, and the 4-year recurrence rates were 11.2% and 8.0%, respectively, for women in the lowest and highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident among women with either estrogen receptor-positive or -negative breast cancer and was present in both users and nonusers of tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence"
  • Soya isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun 1:1-7 - "Compared with placebo supplementation, there were 18 % fewer attempts (P = 0.01), 23 % fewer errors (P = 0.02) and 17 % less time (P = 0.03) required to correctly identify the requisite information" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis - Fertil Steril. 2009 Jun 11 - "No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model"
  • Soya isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun 1:1-7 - "Volunteers were randomised to take four capsules/d containing soya isoflavones (116 mg isoflavone equivalents/d: 68 mg daidzein, 12 mg genistein, 36 mg glycitin) or placebo for 6 weeks, and the alternate treatment during the following 6 weeks. Assessments of memory (verbal episodic, auditory and working), executive function (planning, attention, mental flexibility) and visual-spatial processing were performed at baseline and after each treatment period. Isoflavone supplementation significantly improved spatial working memory (P = 0.01), a test in which females consistently perform better than males. Compared with placebo supplementation, there were 18 % fewer attempts (P = 0.01), 23 % fewer errors (P = 0.02) and 17 % less time (P = 0.03) required to correctly identify the requisite information. Isoflavones did not affect auditory and episodic memory (Paired Associate Learning, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Backward Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing), executive function (Trail Making and Initial Letter Fluency Task) or visual-spatial processing (Mental Rotation Task). Isoflavone supplementation in healthy males may enhance cognitive processes which appear dependent on oestrogen activation"
  • Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1920-6 - "Adult soy food consumption, measured either by soy protein or isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and the association was highly statistically significant (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for isoflavone intake. High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.97). Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer. No significant association with soy food consumption was found for postmenopausal breast cancer"
  • Breast cancer cell response to genistein is conditioned by BRCA1 mutations - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Jan 3 - "We showed that growth of BRCA1 mutant cells was strongly inhibited by genistein whereas it only had a weak effect in cells expressing wild-type BRCA1 protein. BRCA1 mutant cells hypersensitivity could be linked to higher expression of ERbeta gene, which suggests that genistein may be an efficient inhibitor of cancer development in BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells"
  • Genistein protects against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative DNA damage in non-cancerous breast cells MCF-10A - Br J Nutr. 2008 Jun 23:1-6 - "These enzymes, in turn, will metabolise the PAH into their ultimate carcinogenic forms. Genistein can significantly suppress the expressions within 5 mum. The comet assay indicated that DMBA introduced DNA damage to these cells, and co-treatment with genistein at 5 or 10 mum could alleviate the damage. In addition to the chelation of DMBA metabolites to DNA, flow cytometry results revealed that oxidation was also a factor of DNA damage. The oxidative DNA damage could be removed by co-treating with 10 mum-genistein. Because no increased oxidative DNA repair was observed, suppression on the cytochrome enzymes appeared to be the underlying mechanism"
  • Soy phytochemicals decrease nonsmall cell lung cancer growth in female athymic mice - J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1360-4 - "soy phytochemicals slow the in vivo growth of NSCLC xenografts; the modulation of the Akt-signaling pathway observed in tumors of SSE-treated mice may have a role in the activity observed. Our research provides further support for the concept that consumption of phytoestrogens may be effective in delaying lung cancer progression"
  • Genistein reduced the invasive activity of human breast carcinoma cells as a result of decreased tight junction permeability and modulation of tight junction proteins - Cancer Lett. 2008 Jun 14 - "Taken together our results indicate a possible role of genistein as an inhibitor of cancer cell invasion through the tightening of TJs, which may counteract the up-regulation of claudins. In addition, our results indicate that may be beneficial for the inhibition of tumor metastasis"
  • Legume and isoflavone intake and prostate cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 2 - "legume intake is associated with a moderate reduction in prostate cancer risk and that the isoflavones in soy products are probably not responsible for this effect"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women's Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 May 19 - "Isoflavone intake was inversely associated with overall cancer incidence (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00)"
  • Plasma Isoflavone Level and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer Among Japanese Women: A Nested Case-Control Study From the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Group - J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 3 - "We found a statistically significant inverse association between plasma genistein and risk of breast cancer, but no association for plasma daidzein. Adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma level were 0.34 for genistein (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.74; P for trend, .02) and 0.71 for daidzein (95% CI, 0.35 to 1.44; P for trend, .54). Median plasma genistein values in the control group were 31.9 ng/mL for the lowest and 353.9 ng/mL for the highest quartile groups"
  • Effects of One-Year Treatment with Isoflavone Extract from Red Clover on Prostate, Liver Function, Sexual Function, and Quality of Life in Men with Elevated PSA Levels and Negative Prostate Biopsy Findings - Urology. 2008 Feb;71(2):185-90 - "isoflavonoid extract from red clover ... daily 60-mg dose of an isoflavone extract for 1 year ... The average PSA level was 10.16 ng/mL at baseline versus 7.15 ng/mL after 12 months, for a statistically significant reduction of 33% ... The sexual hormone levels did not change throughout the study. We registered a significant increase in all three liver transaminases after 3 months"
  • Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women - Menopause. 2008 Jan-Feb;15(1):125-32 - "When comparing the two treatment groups with the placebo group, there were significant reductions in mean daily hot flash frequency. The supplement (either 40 or 60 mg) reduced hot flash frequency by 43% at 8 weeks (P = 0.1) and 52% at 12 weeks (P = 0.048) but did not cause any significant changes in endogenous sex hormones or thyroid hormones" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Soy isoflavone intake increases bone mineral density in the spine of menopausal women: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec 4 - "Isoflavone intervention significantly attenuates bone loss of the spine in menopausal women. These favorable effects become more significant when more than 90mg/day of isoflavones are consumed. And soy isoflavone consumption for 6 months can be enough to exert beneficial effects on bone in menopausal women"
  • Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):1-7 - "The data suggest that lycopene and soy isoflavones have activity in prostate cancer patients with PSA relapse disease and may delay progression of both hormone-refractory and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer"
  • Genistein and daidzein prevent diabetes onset by elevating insulin level and altering hepatic gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzyme activities in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Oct 11 - "Blood glucose levels of genistein and daidzein groups were 40 and 36% of control value at the end of study (9th week). The genistein and daidzein supplements increased insulin/glucagon ratio and C-peptide level with preservation of insulin staining beta-cell of pancreas in the NOD mice ... The supplementation of genistein and daidzein are seemingly helpful for preventing IDDM onset"
  • Isoflavone intake in persons at high risk of cardiovascular events: implications for vascular endothelial function and the carotid atherosclerotic burden - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):938-945 - "In persons at high risk of cardiovascular events, a greater isoflavone intake is associated with better vascular endothelial function and lower carotid atherosclerotic burden"
  • Exposure to the phytoestrogen daidzein attenuates apomorphine-induced penile erection concomitant with plasma testosterone level reduction in dose and time-related manner in adult rats - Urology. 2007 Sep;70(3):613-7 - "The phytoestrogen daidzein has the potential to adversely affect erectile function in a dose and time-related manner that is at least partly attributable to androgen deficiency. These findings implicate that phytoestrogens, especially isoflavones, if overconsumed for a long period, might be a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction"
  • Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on some predictors of cardiovascular risk in osteopenic, postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;92(8):3068-75 - "Compared with placebo, genistein significantly reduced fasting glucose and insulin as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance after both 12 and 24 months of treatment"
  • Genistein induces the metastasis suppressor kangai-1 which mediates its anti-invasive effects in TRAMP cancer cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jul 16 - "This work provides the first evidence that genistein treatment may counteract KAI1 downregulation, which is observed in many cancer types and therefore, could be used in anti-metastatic therapies"
  • Dietary Isoflavones May Protect against Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2007 Aug;137(8):1974-1979 - "Isoflavones and their aglycones (genistein and daidzein) were significantly associated with decreased risk. The odds ratio for the highest category (>/=89.9 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<30.5 mg/d) of isoflavone intake was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.24-0.72) and the linear trend was significant"
  • Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar 28 - "Isoflavone intervention significantly inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation"
  • Effect of 6 months of exercise and isoflavone supplementation on clinical cardiovascular risk factors in obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind study - Menopause. 2007 Feb 6 - "Compared to an aerobic exercise program alone, 70 mg/day of isoflavones combined with exercise may promote significant improvements in body composition parameters that are known to influence cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women"
  • Six months of isoflavone supplement increases fat-free mass in obese-sarcopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21 - "fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle mass index (MMI=appendicular FFM/height(2)) ... The isoflavone group increased significantly appendicular (P=0.034), leg (P=0.016) FFM and MMI (P=0.037), but not the placebo group"
  • Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 - "a genistein-rich extract as the sole treatment for prostate cancer does not appear to be an effective treatment for prostate cancer when given alone. However, eight of 13 evaluated patients in the active surveillance group had either no rise or a decline in PSA levels of less than 50 per cent"
  • The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk - Prostate. 2004 May 1;59(2):141-7 - "These data suggest that supplementing early stage prostate cancer patients with soy isoflavones, even in a study of short duration, altered surrogate markers of proliferation such as serum PSA and free testosterone in a larger number of subjects in the isoflavone supplemented group than the group receiving placebo"
  • The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;79(2):326-33 - "These data suggest that, through attenuation of bone loss, isoflavones have a potentially protective effect on the lumbar spine in women"
  • Usual dietary isoflavone intake and body composition in postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):427-32 - "A significant inverse relation was shown between genistein consumption and weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and total body fat mass by bioelectric impedance analysis ... This study suggests that usual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with reduced total body fat and may consequently have a role in the prevention of chronic disease"
  • Phytoestrogen supplement use by women - J Nutr 2003 Jun;133(6):1983S-6S - "Until safety with respect to breast cancer is established, phytoestrogen supplements should not be recommended, particularly for women at high risk of breast cancer"
  • Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens - Br J Nutr 2003 Jun;89 Suppl 1:838-52
  • Phyto-oestrogens and osteoporosis: what is a safe dose? - Br J Nutr 2003 Jun;89 Suppl 1:898-906
  • Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the Soy and Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study - Menopause. 2003 May-Jun;10(3):196-202 - "Women randomized to active treatment (n = 27) took two pills per day, each containing 55 mg of soy-extracted isoflavones (110 mg total isoflavones per day ... Comparisons of percentage change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up showed greater improvement in category fluency for women on active treatment as compared with the case of those on placebo (P = 0.02) and showed (nonsignificantly) greater improvement on the two other tests of verbal memory"
  • Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "Although isoflavones are capable of inducing genetic damage in vitro, a similar effect was not observed in subjects treated with a purified soy unconjugated isoflavone mixture"
  • Potential risks and benefits of phytoestrogen-rich diets - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):120-6 - "Phytoestrogens are strikingly similar in chemical structure to the mammalian oestrogen, oestradiol, and bind to oestrogen receptors (ER) with a preference for the more recently described ER beta ... Whether phytoestrogens have any biological activity in humans, either hormonal or non hormonal is a contentious issue and there is currently a paucity of data on human exposure ... The limited studies conducted so far in humans clearly confirm that soya isoflavones can exert hormonal effects. These effects may be of benefit in the prevention of many of the common diseases observed in Western populations (such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis) where the diet is typically devoid of these biologically active naturally occurring compounds"