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Home > Anti-aging Research > Soy


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Foods with Isoflavones
Food Isoflavones (mg.)
Beef(Not) textured soy protein granules, 1/4 c. dry 62
Nutlettes breakfast cereal, 1/4 c. 61
Roasted soy nuts, 1/4 c. 60
Tempeh, 1/2 c. 35
Tufu, low-fat and regular, 1/2 c. 35
Take Care High Protein Beverage Powder, 2 scoops 35
Regular soy milk, 1 c. 30
Low-fat soy milk, 1 c. 20
Roasted soy butter, 2 tbsp. 17
Morningstar Farms Ground Meatless all-vegetable crumbles, 1/2 c. 8.5

  • Dietary soybeans worsen dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by disrupting intestinal ecology - Food Funct 2022 May 18 - "the intake of soybeans and soybean carbohydrates is not conducive to recovery from IBDs based on changes in gut microbiota and metabolites affecting the activities of macrophages."
  • Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Mar 27:1-5 - "The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P < 0.001) total soya foods (mean 57.2 (sd 119.0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18.8 (sd 51.7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93.3 (sd 121.5) g/d and mean 35.7 (sd 73.0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0.33 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.49) and OR = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk"
  • The effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on acute hormonal reponses to resistance exercise in men - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):66-74 - "For many resistance-trained men concerns exist regarding the production of estrogen with the consumption of soy protein when training for muscle strength and size. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on sex hormones following an acute bout of heavy resistance exercise in resistance trained men ... Ten resistance-trained men (age 21.7 +/- 2.8 [SD] years; height 175.0 +/- 5.4 cm; weight 84.2 +/- 9.1 kg) volunteered to participate in an investigation ... all subjects completed 3 experimental treatment conditions supplementing with whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), and maltodextrin placebo control for 14 days with participants ingesting 20 g of their assigned supplement each morning at approximately the same time each day ... This investigation observed lower testosterone responses following supplementation with soy protein in addition to a positive blunted cortisol response with the use of whey protein at some recovery time points. Although sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was proposed as a possible mechanism for understanding changes in androgen content, SHBG did not differ between experimental treatments. Importantly, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in estradiol concentrations" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Apr;32(2):122-35 - "Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis ... randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22) ... Lean body mass gains were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in whey (3.3 +/- 1.5 kg) than carb (2.3 +/- 1.7 kg) and soy (1.8 +/- 1.6 kg). Fat mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses"
  • Soy Milk Consumption and Blood Pressure Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Nephropathy - J Ren Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 29 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing soy milk, or a diet containing cow's milk, each for 4 weeks ... Consumption of soy milk resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared with consumption of cow's milk (percent change: -4.50 vs. 5.89%; P = .03). Serum triglyceride levels decreased significantly after soy milk consumption (percent change: -15.22 vs. 2.37%; P = .02). After adjustment for carbohydrate intake, the effect of soy milk on triglyceride level was not significant. There were no significant differences between soy milk and cow's milk consumption in terms of their effect on cardiovascular risks and markers of kidney function"
  • Soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the takayama study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 6 - "We assessed the associations of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were members from the Takayama study, aged 35 years or older in 1992 ... Soy and isoflavone intakes were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... The relative risks of postmenopausal breast cancer were lower among women with higher intakes of soy (trend p=0.023) and isoflavone (trend p=0.046), although the relative risks of premenopausal breast cancer were not associated with intakes of soy and isoflavone. Decreased risks of breast cancer were found even among women with a moderate intake of soy and isoflavone. These results suggested that soy and isoflavone intake have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer"
  • Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years - Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 29:1-7 - "Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors ... Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG ( - 38.2 (95 % CI - 70.4, - 5.9) %, P = 0.012) and CCA-IMT ( - 4.9 (95 % CI - 9.7, - 0.3) %, P = 0.033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes ( - 5.4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT ( - 16.2 %, P = 0.035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1.5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only"
  • Differential Influence of Dietary Soy Intake on the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence Related to HER2 Status - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jan 2 - "Legume intake (mostly from black soybeans) was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer recurrence in HER2 negative cancer patients (HR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.13-0.57, P for trend < 0.01), whereas legume intake was positively associated in HER2 positive cancer patients (P for trend = 0.02). In HER2 negative cancer patients, isoflavone was inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89; P for trend = 0.01). Total soy intake was not associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence. In conclusion, overall soy food intake might not affect the risk of cancer recurrence, but high intake of soy isoflavones increased the risk of cancer recurrence in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, further research is needed to confirm these results due to the small number of cancer recurrence events"
  • Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 9 - "A total of 11 epidemiologic studies that consisted of 8 case-control and 3 prospective cohort studies were included. A significantly inverse association was shown between soy intake and lung cancer with an overall RR of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.92). Findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to 5 high-quality studies (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99). In a subgroup meta-analysis, a statistically significant protective effect of soy consumption was observed in women (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93), never smokers (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.76), and Asian populations (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98)"
  • Effect of soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 28 - "Previous clinical trials have documented that soy protein reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with milk protein ... Compared with carbohydrate, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% confidence interval (CI)) in total cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of -3.97 mg/dl (-7.63 to -0.31, P=0.03) and -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01, P=0.03), respectively. Compared with milk protein, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of 1.54 mg/dl (0.63 to 2.44, P=0.0009) and -0.14 (-0.22 to -0.05, P=0.001), respectively. Compared with carbohydrate, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL of -1.13 mg/dl (-2.05 to -0.22, P=0.02). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial indicates that soy protein, but not milk protein, supplementation improves the lipid profile among healthy individuals"
  • Effect of Dietary Protein Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial - Circulation. 2011 Jul 18 - "The trial participants were assigned to take 40 g/d soy protein, milk protein, or carbohydrate supplementation each for 8 weeks in a random order. A 3-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Three BPs were measured at 2 baseline and 2 termination visits during each of 3 intervention phases with a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Compared with carbohydrate controls, soy protein and milk protein supplementations were significantly associated with -2.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -3.2 to -0.7 mm Hg, P=0.002) and -2.3 mm Hg (-3.7 to -1.0 mm Hg, P=0.0007) net changes in systolic BP, respectively. Diastolic BP was also reduced, but this change did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions achieved between soy or milk protein supplementation"
  • Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "Indexes of diet quality have been shown to be associated with decreased risk of mortality in several countries. It remains unclear if the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), designed to provide dietary guidelines to combat major chronic diseases, is related to mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the AHEI and cause-specific mortality over 18 y of follow-up in a British working population. Design: Analyses are based on 7319 participants (mean age: 49.5 y; range: 39-63 y; 30.3% women) from the Whitehall II Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to analyze associations of the AHEI (scored on the basis of intake of 9 components: vegetables, fruit, nuts and soy, white or red meat, trans fat, polyunsaturated or saturated fat, fiber, multivitamin use, and alcohol) with mortality risk. Results: After potential confounders were controlled for, participants in the top compared with the bottom third of the AHEI score showed 25% lower all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.95] and >40% lower mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD; HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.91). Consumption of nuts and soy and moderate alcohol intake appeared to be the most important independent contributors to decreased mortality risk. The AHEI was not associated with cancer mortality or noncancer/non-CVD mortality. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the encouragement of adherence to the AHEI dietary recommendations constitutes a valid and clear public health recommendation that would decrease the risk of premature death from CVD"
  • Effect of soya protein on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb 23:1-10 - "Meta-analyses of twenty-seven RCT showed a mean decrease of 2.21 mmHg (95 % CI - 4.10, - 0.33; P = 0.021) for systolic BP (SBP) and 1.44 mmHg (95 % CI - 2.56, - 0.31; P = 0.012) for diastolic BP (DBP), comparing the participants in the soya protein group with those in the control group. Soya protein consumption significantly reduced SBP and DBP in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects, and the reductions were markedly greater in hypertensive subjects. Significant and greater BP reductions were also observed in trials using carbohydrate, but not milk products, as the control diet. Meta-regression analyses further revealed a significantly inverse association between pre-treatment BP and the level of BP reductions. In conclusion, soya protein intake, compared with a control diet, significantly reduces both SBP and DBP, but the BP reductions are related to pre-treatment BP levels of subjects and the type of control diet used as comparison"
  • Soy food and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 24 - "Energy-adjusted intakes of soy foods (dry weight) and isoflavones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men and postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03, p for trend = 0.03) for soy foods and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.10, p for trend = 0.051) for isoflavones in men. The corresponding values for postmenopausal women were 0.60 (95% CI 0.29-1.25, p for trend = 0.053) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.33-1.40, p for trend = 0.049)"
  • Soy isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):996-1000 - "Soy isoflavones sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting cell survival pathways activated by radiation. At the same time, soy isoflavones have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which may help prevent the side effects of radiation ... Adverse effects of radiation therapy on bladder, bowel, and sexual function were assessed by a self-administered quality of life questionnaire at 3 and 6 mo. Only 26 and 27 patients returned completed questionnaires at 3 and 6 mo, respectively. At each time point, urinary, bowel, and sexual adverse symptoms induced by radiation therapy were decreased in the soy isoflavone group compared to placebo group. At 3 mo, soy-treated patients had less urinary incontinence, less urgency, and better erectile function as compared to the placebo group. At 6 mo, the symptoms in soy-treated patients were further improved as compared to the placebo group. These patients had less dripping/leakage of urine (7.7% in Group 1 vs. 28.4% in Group 2), less rectal cramping/diarrhea (7.7% vs. 21.4%), and less pain with bowel movements (0% vs. 14.8%) than placebo-treated patients. There was also a higher overall ability to have erections (77% vs. 57.1%). The results suggest that soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate cancer" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Soy food intake and breast cancer survival - JAMA. 2009 Dec 9;302(22):2437-43 - "Soy food intake, as measured by either soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The hazard ratio associated with the highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.92) for total mortality and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.87) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The multivariate-adjusted 4-year mortality rates were 10.3% and 7.4%, and the 4-year recurrence rates were 11.2% and 8.0%, respectively, for women in the lowest and highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident among women with either estrogen receptor-positive or -negative breast cancer and was present in both users and nonusers of tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence"
  • Soya isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun 1:1-7 - "Compared with placebo supplementation, there were 18 % fewer attempts (P = 0.01), 23 % fewer errors (P = 0.02) and 17 % less time (P = 0.03) required to correctly identify the requisite information" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis - Fertil Steril. 2009 Jun 11 - "No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model"
  • Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1920-6 - "Adult soy food consumption, measured either by soy protein or isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and the association was highly statistically significant (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for isoflavone intake. High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.97). Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer. No significant association with soy food consumption was found for postmenopausal breast cancer"
  • Early soy intake may slash breast cancer risk later in life - Nutra USA, 3/30/09 - "By comparing the highest and lowest soy intake values for soy-based foods such as tofu, miso and natto, Korde and co-workers calculated that women with the highest soy intake during childhood (ages 5 to 11) had a 58 per cent lower risk of breast cancer as adults as the women with the lowest soy intake as children" - [Abstract]
  • Childhood Soy Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Asian American Women - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 24 - "Comparing highest with lowest tertiles, the multivariate relative risks (95% confidence interval) for childhood, adolescent, and adult soy intake were 0.40 (0.18-0.83; Ptrend = 0.03), 0.80 (0.59-1.08; Ptrend = 0.12), and 0.76 (0.56-1.02; Ptrend = 0.04), respectively"
  • Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb 11 - "Our analysis of studies on soy intake yielded a combined RR/OR of 0.74"
  • Soy phytochemicals decrease nonsmall cell lung cancer growth in female athymic mice - J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1360-4 - "soy phytochemicals slow the in vivo growth of NSCLC xenografts; the modulation of the Akt-signaling pathway observed in tumors of SSE-treated mice may have a role in the activity observed. Our research provides further support for the concept that consumption of phytoestrogens may be effective in delaying lung cancer progression"
  • Breast development in the first 2 years of life: an association with soy-based infant formulas - J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Feb;46(2):191-5 - "We suggest that phytoestrogens impose a preserving effect on breast tissue that is evolved in early infancy, leading eventually to a slower waning of infantile breast tissue"
  • Effect of a daily supplement of soy protein on body composition and insulin secretion in postmenopausal women - Fertil Steril. 2007 Dec;88(6):1609-17 - "A daily supplement of soy protein prevents the increase in subcutaneous and total abdominal fat observed with an isocaloric casein placebo in postmenopausal women"
  • Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):162-7 - "The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of type 2 DM for the upper quintile compared with the lower quintile was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.74) for total legumes and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.62) for soybeans"
  • Soy Consumption, Markers of Inflammation, and Endothelial Function: A cross-over study in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome - Diabetes Care. 2007 Apr;30(4):967-73 - "Short-term soy nut consumption reduced some markers of inflammation and increased plasma nitric oxide levels in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome"
  • Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):735-41 - "Short-term soy-nut consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome"
  • Dose effect of soy supplementation in prostate cancer: A pilot study - Oncol Rep. 2006 Dec;16(6):1221-4 - "With soy supplementation, serum testosterone levels decreased in 9 of 11 patients and estrogen levels decreased in 8 of 10 patients in a dose-dependent manner"
  • Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study in Men with Prostate Cancer and Rising PSA: Effectiveness of a Dietary Supplement - Eur Urol. 2005 Oct 17 - "The supplement consisted of soy, isoflavones, lycopene, silymarin and antioxidants as main ingredients ... The soy-based dietary supplement utilised in this study was shown to delay PSA progression after potentially curative treatment in a significant fashion"
  • Lipid-lowering effect of 2 dosages of a soy protein supplement in hypercholesterolemia - Adv Ther. 2005 Mar-Apr;22(2):175-86 - "either 15 or 25 g/d ... In the active treatment groups low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly"
  • Effects of a diet rich in phytoestrogens on prostate-specific antigen and sex hormones in men diagnosed with prostate cancer - Urology. 2004 Sep;64(3):510-5 - "Statistically significant differences were detected between the HT [heat-treated] soy grits group and the control wheat group for the percentage of change in total PSA (-12.7% versus 40% ... The data from this study indicate that a daily diet containing four slices of a bread rich in HT soy grits favorably influences the PSA level and the free/total PSA ratio in patients with prostate cancer"
  • Isolated soy protein consumption reduces urinary albumin excretion and improves the serum lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy - J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):1874-80 - "isolated soy protein ... consumption led to changes of -9.5% in urinary albumin excretion (P < 0.0001), -0.45 in the total-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05), -0.20 in the LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05), and +4.3% in HDL cholesterol"
  • Soy protein reduces triglyceride levels and triglyceride fatty acid fractional synthesis rate in hypercholesterolemic subjects - Atherosclerosis. 2004 Apr;173(2):269-75 - "Soy protein reduced TG by 12.4% ( [Formula: see text] ), total cholesterol by 4.4% ( [Formula: see text] ), and LDL cholesterol by 5.7% ( [Formula: see text] ) compared to animal protein"
  • Inverse association of soy product intake with serum androgen and estrogen concentrations in Japanese men - Nutr Cancer 2000;36(1):14-8