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  • Lactobacillus acidophilus LA85 ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression by modulating Notch and TLR4/NF-κB signal pathways and remodeling the gut microbiota - Food Funct 2022 Jul 6 - "LA85 can be used as a dietary supplement to potentially enhance the immune capacity of patients" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E can boost immunotherapy responses by reinvigorating dendritic cells - Science Daily, 4/14/22 - "Patients with melanoma who took vitamin E while on anti-PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors had significantly improved survival compared to patients who didn't take vitamin E or multivitamins. This finding was replicated in an independent mixed cohort of patients with breast, colon and kidney cancers. However, patients taking vitamin E while being treated with chemotherapy did not experience the same benefits, suggesting the effects were unique to chemotherapy" - See vitamin E at Amazon.com.
  • Immunomodulatory Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Extract—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial with an Open Label Extension on Healthy Participants - J Clin Med 2021 Aug 18 - "subjects were allocated either 60 mg WS extract or placebo. It consists of a blinded 30-day period and an open-label extension study of another 30 days with crossover of only placebo to test. After the 30-day blinded study period, the WS test group reported significant increase (p < 0.05) in Ig's (IgA, IgM, IgG, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4), Cytokines (IFN-γ, IL4), TBNK (CD45+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, NK cells) whereas in the placebo group TBNK cells showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) and Ig's and cytokines showed no change (p > 0.05). In the extension period on day 60, the subjects on placebo who were crossed over to the WS test group showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in Ig's, cytokines and TBNK cells and the subjects who continued on the WS group showed a further significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Ig's, cytokines and TBNK cells. There were no adverse events reported in the study. WS extract significantly improved the immune profile of healthy subjects by modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Boosting the immune system of people at risk of infection and during widespread infections can be targeted with WS extract" - [Nutra USA] - See See ashwagandha at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Immunomodulatory Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Extract—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial with an Open Label Extension on Healthy Participants - J Clin Med 2021 Aug 18 - "randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded study, subjects were allocated either 60 mg WS extract or placebo. It consists of a blinded 30-day period and an open-label extension study of another 30 days with crossover of only placebo to test. After the 30-day blinded study period, the WS test group reported significant increase (p < 0.05) in Ig's (IgA, IgM, IgG, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4), Cytokines (IFN-γ, IL4), TBNK (CD45+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, NK cells) whereas in the placebo group TBNK cells showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) and Ig's and cytokines showed no change (p > 0.05). In the extension period on day 60, the subjects on placebo who were crossed over to the WS test group showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in Ig's, cytokines and TBNK cells and the subjects who continued on the WS group showed a further significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Ig's, cytokines and TBNK cells. There were no adverse events reported in the study. WS extract significantly improved the immune profile of healthy subjects by modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Boosting the immune system of people at risk of infection and during widespread infections can be targeted with WS extract" - [Nutra USA] - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • C is for Vitamin C -- a key ingredient for immune cell function - Science Daily, 7/21/21 - "Regulatory T cells (Tregs) help control inflammation and autoimmunity in the body. Tregs are so important, in fact, that scientists are working to generate stable induced Tregs (iTregs) in vitro for use as treatments for autoimmune diseases as well as rejection to transplanted organs ... Now scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology and Emory University School of Medicine report that Vitamin C and TET proteins can work together to give Tregs their life-saving power" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and iHerb.com.
  • Effect of six weeks 1000 mg/day vitamin C supplementation and healthy training in elderly women on genes expression associated with the immune response - a randomized controlled trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Mar 2 - "we investigated the effects of supplementation and exercise on the expression of genes associated with inflammation like CCL2, CRP, IL1, IL6, IL10 mRNA in elderly women ... Twenty four participants divided randomly into two groups were subjected to 6 weeks of the same health training program (three times per week). SUP group (supplemented, n = 12, mean age 72.8 ± 5.26 years and mean body mass 68.1 ± 8.3 kg) received 1000 mg of Vitamin C/day during the training period, while CON group (control, n = 12, mean age 72.4 ± 5.5 years and body mass 67.7 ± 7.5 kg) received placebo ... It can be concluded, that 6 weeks of supplementation and exercise was too short to obtain significant changes in gene expression in leukocytes, but supplementation of 1000 mg vitamin C positively affected IL-6 and IL-10 expression - which are key changes in the adaptation to training. However, changes in body mass, IL1 and CCL2 were positive in CON group. It is possible that Vitamin C during 6 weeks of supplementation could have different effects on the expression of individual genes involved in the immune response" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain JDFM216 improves cognitive behavior and modulates immune response with gut microbiota - Sci Rep 2020 Dec 10 - "Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in gut microbiota are associated with mammalian development and physiology. The gut microbiota has been proposed as an essential player in metabolic diseases including brain health ... Assessment of various behavioral and physiological functions was performed using Y-maze tests, wheel running tests, accelerated rotarod tests, balance beam tests, and forced swimming tests (FSTs), using adult mice after 50 weeks of administering living probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum strain JDFM216 or a vehicle. Immunomodulatory function was investigated using immune organs, immune cells and immune molecules in the mice, and gut microbiota was also evaluated in their feces. Notably, the L. fermentum JDFM216-treated group showed significantly better performance in the behavior tests (P < 0.05) as well as improved phagocytic activity of macrophages, enhanced sIgA production, and stimulated immune cells (P < 0.05). In aged mice, we observed decreases in species belonging to the Porphyromonadaceae family and the Lactobacillus genus when compared to young mice. While administering the supplementation of L. fermentum JDFM216 to aged mice did not shift the whole gut microbiota, the abundance of Lactobacillus species was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Our findings suggested that L. fermentum JDFM216 also provided beneficial effects on the regulation of immune responses, which has promising implications for functional foods. Taken together, L. fermentum JDFM216 could confer the benefit of improving health with enhanced cognition, physiological behavior, and immunity by modulating the gut microbiota" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc Supplementation Modulates NETs Release and Neutrophils' Degranulation - Nutrients 2020 Dec 26 - "Zinc plays an important physiological role in the entire body, especially in the immune system. It is one of the most abundant microelements in our organism and an essential component of enzymes and antibacterial proteins. Zinc levels were reported to be correlated with the intensity of innate immunity responses, especially those triggered by neutrophils ... Proper zinc level is necessary to maintain efficient functioning of the innate immune response" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of Hesperidin on Systemic Immunity of Rats Following an Intensive Training and Exhausting Exercise Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Intensive training and exhausting exercise can disrupt innate and acquired immunity. The flavanone hesperidin has shown immunomodulatory properties in physiological and some pathological conditions, and positive effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress ... female Wistar rats were randomized into an intensive training group or a sedentary group. Intensive training was induced by running in a treadmill 5 days per week (including two exhausting tests) for five weeks. Throughout the training period, 200 mg/kg of hesperidin or vehicle was administered by oral gavage three times per week. At the end, blood, thymus, spleen and macrophages were collected before, immediately after and 24 h after an additional final exhaustion test. Hesperidin supplementation enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the proportion of phagocytic monocytes, attenuated the secretion of cytokines by stimulated macrophages, prevented the leukocytosis induced by exhaustion and increased the proportion of T helper cells in the thymus, blood and spleen. These results suggest that hesperidin can prevent exhausting exercise-induced immune alterations" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D linked to low virus death rate, study finds - Science Daily, 5/7/20 - "Previous observational studies have reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D modulates the response of white blood cells, preventing them from releasing too many inflammatory cytokines. The COVID-19 virus is known to cause an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines ... We found a significant crude relationship between average vitamin D levels and the number COVID-19 cases, and particularly COVID-19 mortality rates, per head of population across the 20 European countries ... Vitamin D has been shown to protect against acute respiratory infections, and older adults, the group most deficient in vitamin D, are also the ones most seriously affected by COVID-19 ... A previous study found that 75% of people in institutions, such as hospitals and care homes, were severely deficient in vitamin D. We suggest it would be advisable to perform dedicated studies looking at vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D’s Effect on Immune Function - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 28 - "In vitro, the overwhelming effect of supra-physiological doses of vitamin D on the individual components of the immune system is very clear. Despite these promising pre-clinical results, the translation of the in vitro observations to solid clinical effects has mostly failed. Nevertheless, the evidence of a link between vitamin D deficiency and adverse outcomes is overwhelming and clearly points towards avoidance of vitamin D deficiency especially in early life" - [Nutra USA} - vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Key Vitamin D Target Genes with Functions in the Immune System - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 19 - "The biologically active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), modulates innate and adaptive immunity via genes regulated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR)" - [Nutra USA}
  • Synergistic immuno-modulatory activity in human macrophages of a medicinal mushroom formulation consisting of Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake - PLoS One. 2019 Nov 7 - "A response additivity graph and curve-shift analysis illustrated that indeed the mushroom formula exhibited an immuno-stimulatory synergistic effect on the expression of the majority of cytokines evaluated in both LPS stimulated and non-stimulated human macrophages, with IL-10 having an antagonistic response" - [Nutra USA] - See Reishi at Amazon.com, Shiitake mushroom supplements at Amazon.com and Maitake at Amazon.com.
  • Echinacea purpurea Protects Against Restraint Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in BALB/c Mice - J Med Food. 2018 Mar;21(3):261-268 - "Echinacea significantly normalized the restraint stress-induced reduction in splenocyte proliferation and splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity (P < .05). Echinacea treatment significantly increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the blood (P < .05). In addition, Echinacea restored serum cytokine levels, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-17 (IL-17), as well as the mRNA expressions of these cytokines in spleen (P < .05). Our findings suggest that Echinacea might have beneficial effects on restraint stress-induced immunosuppression by increasing splenocyte proliferation and NK cell activity, while modulating T lymphocyte subsets and cytokine levels in the blood" - [Nutra USA] - See Echinacea suoolements at Amazon.com.
  • Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity - Nutrients. 2017 May 31;9(6) - "Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Immune-Enhancing Enteral Nutrition Enriched with or without Beta-Glucan on Immunomodulation in Critically Ill Patients - Nutrients. 2016 Jun 2;8(6). pii: E336 - "immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) ... 30 patients consumed one of three types of enteral nutrition: a control or IMHP with and without β-glucan. The IMHP with β-glucan group showed increases in natural killer (NK) cell activities relative to the baseline, and greater increases were observed in NK cell activities relative to the control group after adjusting for age and gender" - See beta glucan at Amazon.com.
  • L-Theanine Improves Immunity by Altering TH2/TH1 Cytokine Balance, Brain Neurotransmitters, and Expression of Phospholipase C in Rat Hearts - Med Sci Monit. 2016 Feb 28;22:662-669 - "Administration of 400 mg/kg BWL-theanine improved immune function of the rats by increasing the splenic weight, altering the Th2/Th1 cytokine balance, decreasing the corticosterone level in the serum, elevating dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and regulating the mRNA expression of PLC isomers in the heart" - See theanine at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1 patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, multicenter trial - Nutr J. 2015 Jul 21 - "The significant increase of CD4 count cells (596.32-614.92 cells count) and significant decrease of viral load levels (74.7 × 103-30.87 × 103 copies/mL) of the patients who received a supplementation of S. platensis was found after 6 months of treatment. Haemoglobin level was also significantly higher in the same group while the fasting blood glucose concentration decreased after 12 months compared to control" - See spirulina at Amazon.com.
  • Serum Selenium Is Low in Newly Diagnosed Graves' Disease - Medscape, 11/5/13 - "Patients with newly diagnosed GD and AIH had significantly lower s-Se compared with random controls. Our observation supports the postulated link between inadequate selenium supply and overt autoimmune thyroid disease, especially GD" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Potential immune benefits of strong vitamin D status in healthy individuals - Science Daily, 3/20/13 - "improvement in the vitamin D status of healthy adults significantly impacts genes involved with a number of biologic pathways associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. While previous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for the aforementioned diseases, these results go a step further and provide direct evidence that improvement in vitamin D status plays a large role in improving immunity and lowering the risk for many diseases" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Vitamin D on Immune Disorders - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "For a long time, VD was regarded as an essential factor only in generation (in infancy) and maintenance (primarily in postmenopausal women) of bone mineralization but hardly anything more. However, during the last 10–15 years, so many new studies have been published on the extraskeletal effects of VD. They encompass three fields: a basically inhibitory effect on deleterious immune reactions, which facilitate the production of certain endogenous antimicrobial agents such as cathelicidin and defensins, which allegedly provide protection against a wide range of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and common influenza, and inhibit of carcinogenesis, primarily in the colon, breast, prostate gland and so on. In view of the large amount of new data only the first topic has been reviewed in this paper. As discussed above, VD has been shown to be involved in the prevention of certain pathological immune reactions leading to various autoimmune disorders (Type 1 diabetes, colitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and graft rejection) and asthma (and other atopic diseases), and even in COPD, which is not regarded as an autoimmune disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Neoplasm Prevention and Immuno-Enhancement Mediated by Daily Consumption of a Proprietary Extract from North American Ginseng by Elderly Mice of a Cancer-Prone Strain - Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 7 - "We have previously shown in a leukemia-induced tumor model (mouse) that a proprietary extract (CVT-E002), of North American ginseng, administered in the diet, significantly increased the absolute numbers of NK cells, significantly decreased leukemia cells and significantly increased the life span of CVT-E002-fed leukemic mice. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the spontaneous development of tumors in elderly mice of the cancer-prone C3H strain. Dietary CVT-E002 was fed for approximately a year beginning when mice were almost 2 years of age. Control mice, consuming the same chow without CVT-E002, all developed assorted, palpable tumors between 22 and 33 months, while all mice consuming CVT-E002 remained alive and tumor-free until they were purposely euthanized as healthy animals. The absolute numbers of NK cells at euthanasia, in CVT-E002-consuming mice, were significantly elevated in both the spleen and bone marrow. Given these profoundly positive results and the fact that CVT-E002 already exists in the marketplace under the label Cold-fX®, the potential for cancer prevention in humans becomes apparent" - See Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules.
  • Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response - Nutr J. 2012 Jul 31;11(1):53 - "These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1beta, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people" - [Nutra USA] - See chlorophyll products at iHerb.
  • Natural intestinal flora strengthen immune system - Science Daily, 7/2/12 - "The research team infected two groups of mice with various viral germs. One group had a normal intestinal flora and the other consisted of so-called axenic mice, which do not have any intestinal flora due to having been treated with antibiotics or bred under particularly clean conditions. The immune response in the axenic mice was greatly reduced and led the disease to take a more severe course than in the healthy mice. When the scientists artificially provided the axenic mice with a healthy intestinal flora, their immune response improved ... The team succeeded in demonstrating that signals from the intestinal bacteria lead to a conditioning of the dendritic cells. This conditioning takes place on the level of the DNA in the nucleus and enables genes that encode these soluble mediators to be read better. The scientists speak of epigenetic changes. "This is the first time anyone has shown that changes in the natural intestinal flora resulting from antibiotics, hygiene, or lifestyle can have substantial consequences for the entire immune system," says Diefenbach" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D may protect against viral infections during the winter - Science Daily, 4/30/12 - "insufficient levels of vitamin D are related to a deficiency in our innate immune defenses that protect us from infections, neoplasias or autoimmune diseases. Since vitamin D levels decrease during autumn and winter when days are shorter and sunlight is relatively weak, this may explain why people are more prone to viral infection during these times. It also suggests that increased vitamin D intake, especially in older populations, could strengthen people's innate immunity against viral infections ... the researchers compared the changes in the blood levels of vitamin D among three groups of healthy subjects: young (age range: 20-30), middle (age range: 31-59), and elderly (age range: 60-86). They found decreased levels of vitamin D with aging, prompting researchers to compare whether such changes kept any relationship with toll-like receptor (TLR) expression measured on lymphocytes and monocytes and function after in vitro stimulation with specific ligands for each of the nine human TLRs and measurement of effector molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Specifically, they found that the TRL most affected by a vitamin D insufficiency is TLR7, which regulates the immune response against viruses" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • 7 easy ways to boost your immune system - MSNBC, 11/12/11 - "Cook with olive and canola oils ... Research shows that people who consume disproportionately more 6s (found in the soybean oil used in most processed snack foods) than 3s are at higher risk for inflammation and immune system problems"
  • Comparative effects of six probiotic strains on immune function in vitro - Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 7:1-12 - "The present study compared the immunomodulatory properties of six probiotic strains of different species and two genera in a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model in vitro. Live cells of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei Shirota, L. rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum NCIMB 8826 and L. reuteri NCIMB 11951) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3 and B. bifidum MF 20/5) were individually incubated with PBMC from seven healthy subjects for 24 h. Probiotic strains increased the proportion of CD69+ on lymphocytes, T cells, T cell subsets and natural killer (NK) cells, and increased the proportion of CD25+, mainly on lymphocytes and NK cells. The effects on activation marker expression did not appear to be strain specific. NK cell activity was significantly increased by all six strains, without any significant difference between strains. Probiotic strains increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α to different extents, but had no effect on the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 or TNF-β. The cytokines that showed strain-specific modulation included IL-10, interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The Lactobacillus strains tended to promote T helper 1 cytokines, whereas bifidobacterial strains tended to produce a more anti-inflammatory profile. The results suggest that there was limited evidence of strain-specific effects of probiotics with respect to T cell and NK cell activation or NK cell activity, whereas production of some cytokines was differentially influenced by probiotic strains" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Eating green veggies improves immune defenses - Science Daily, 10/13/11 - "green vegetables -- from bok choy to broccoli -- are the source of a chemical signal that is important to a fully functioning immune system. They do this by ensuring that immune cells in the gut and the skin known as intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) function properly ... After feeding otherwise healthy mice a vegetable-poor diet for two to three weeks, I was amazed to see 70 to 80 percent of these protective cells disappeared"
  • Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-9 - "The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33.2 (sd 13.1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 109 colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0.01 for IgG; P < 0.001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ≥ 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0.001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0.001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0.017; L. casei 431®, P = 0.035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • More evidence vitamin D boosts immune response - Science Daily, 6/17/11 - "Laboratory-grown gingival cells treated with vitamin D boosted their production of an endogenous antibiotic, and killed more bacteria than untreated cells, according to a paper in the June 2011 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity. The research suggests that vitamin D can help protect the gums from bacterial infections that lead to gingivitis and periodontitis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Spirulina shows immune boosting power for seniors - Nutra USA, 2/17/11 - "Twelve weeks of spirulina supplementation were associated with increased counts of white blood cells, foot soldiers of the immune system ... Immune function was measured using complete blood cell (CBC) counts and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, and results showed that over half of all participants receiving spirulina had higher IDO activity after 6 and 12 weeks, while this proportion was “striking in men with over 75 percent of subjects manifesting such phenomenon” ... In terms of cell counts, spirulina was associated with a steady increase in corpuscular hemoglobin, thereby ameliorating anemia" - [Abstract] - See spirulina at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens - Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 Jan 31 - "Participants took a Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks and were administered comprehensive dietary questionnaires to determine their nutritional regimen during the study. Complete cell count (CCC) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, as a sign of immune function, were determined at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation. Thirty study participants completed the entire study and the data obtained were analyzed. Over the 12-week study period, there was a steady increase in average values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin in subjects of both sexes. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration also increased in male participants. Older women appeared to benefit more rapidly from Spirulina supplements. Similarly, the majority of subjects manifested increased IDO activity and white blood cell count at 6 and 12 weeks of Spirulina supplementation. Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in older subjects" - See spirulina products at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D deficiencies may impact onset of autoimmune lung disease - Science Daily, 1/4/11- "A new study shows that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to the development and severity of certain autoimmune lung diseases ... vitamin D deficiencies have been found to affect the development of other autoimmune diseases, like lupus and type 1 diabetes ... those with connective tissue disease-related ILD were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency -- 52 percent versus 20 percent -- and insufficiency -- 79 percent versus 31 percent -- than other forms of ILD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols show immune boosting potential - Nutra USA, 10/27/10 - "TocominSupraBio ... there are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... Results showed significant increases in levels of the anti-TT antibody, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 in the tocotrienol group, compared with placebo" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction on immune response to tetanus toxoid immunization in normal healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 22 - "Volunteers supplemented with TRF showed a significantly (P<0.05) enhanced production of interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 by the mitogen or TT-stimulated leukocytes compared with the control group. Volunteers from the TRF group produced significantly (P<0.05) lower amounts of IL-6 compared with the placebo group. Anti-TT IgG production was also significantly (P<0.05) augmented in the TRF-supplemented group compared with the placebo group" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 - Br J Nutr. 2010 May 21:1-9 - "90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group" - See Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker at Amazon.com.
  • Yogurt-like drink DanActive reduced rate of common infections in daycare children - Science Daily, 5/19/10 - "Researchers found a 19 percent decrease of common infections among the children who drank the yogurt-like drink with L. casei DN-114 001 compared to those whose drink did not have the probiotic. More specifically, those who drank DanActive had 24 percent fewer gastrointestinal infections (such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting), and 18 percent fewer upper respiratory tract infections (such as ear infections, sinusitis and strep). However, the reduction in infections did not result in fewer missed school days or activities -- also a primary outcome of the study" - [Abstract] - Note:  For what it's worth, I tried Activa in my yogurt maker and it worked fine however Activa has fruit mixed with it but most of it flouted to the top and I was able to skim it off.
  • Vitamin E may boost immune function: Mouse study - Science Daily, 5/20/10 - "The animals were fed 0.1 per cent Tocomin 50 per cent (Carotech), which is a mixture of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherols, or a control diet containing only tocopherol, for six weeks ... Older mice fed the tocotrienol supplement displayed a greater level of lymphocyte proliferation, a marker of how quickly white blood cells can reproduce in response to infection, than old mice fed the control ... mice of both ages fed the tocotrienol supplement had higher levels of the interleukin-1beta, a cytokine released by immune cells (macrophages). ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D crucial to activating immune defenses - Science Daily, 3/7/10 - "Vitamin D is crucial to activating our immune defenses and that without sufficient intake of the vitamin, the killer cells of the immune system -- T cells -- will not be able to react to and fight off serious infections in the body" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Apple fibres may boost immune health: Study - Nutra USA, 3/3/10 - "fed low-fat diets supplemented with either soluble (pectin, 10 per cent of the diet) or insoluble fibre (cellulose, 5 or 10 per cent of the diet) for six weeks. At the end of this period the mice were challenged with an endotoxin to induce sickness ... Two hours after [entotoxin] injection, the mice fed soluble fibre were only half as sick as the other group, and they recovered 50 per cent sooner. And the differences between the groups continued to be pronounced all the way out to 24 hours" - [Abstract] [Science Daily] - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Sickness behavior induced by endotoxin can be mitigated by the dietary soluble fiber, pectin, through up-regulation of IL-4 and Th2 polarization - Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Feb 6 - "We show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects mice from endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 when compared to a diet containing only insoluble fiber. Mice fed soluble fiber became less sick and recovered faster from endotoxin-induced sickness behaviors than mice fed insoluble fiber ... These data show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects against endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 and promoting alternative activation of macrophages" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • An apple a day? Study shows soluble fiber boosts immune system - Science Daily, 3/2/10
  • 'Good' bacteria keep immune system primed to fight future infections - Science Daily, 1/27/10 - "The investigators show that "good" bacteria in the gut keep the immune system primed to more effectively fight infection from invading pathogenic bacteria. Altering the intricate dynamic between resident and foreign bacteria -- via antibiotics, for example -- compromises an animal's immune response, specifically, the function of white blood cells called neutrophils" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Diet And Intestinal Bacteria Linked To Healthier Immune Systems - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "Insoluble dietary fibre, or roughage, not only keeps you regular, say Australian scientists, it also plays a vital role in the immune system, keeping certain diseases at bay ... Similarly, probiotics and prebiotics, food supplements that affect the balance of gut bacteria, reduce the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, also inflammatory diseases"
  • Got Zinc? New Zinc Research Suggests Novel Therapeutic Targets - Science Daily, 7/30/09 - "zinc not only supports healthy immune function, but increases activation of the cells (T cells) responsible for destroying viruses and bacteria ... It has been shown that zinc supplementation significantly reduces the duration and severity of childhood diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and incidence of malaria in zinc-deficient children ... Age-related declines in immune function have also been related to zinc deficiency in the elderly ... T cells taken from the zinc-supplemented group had higher activation than those from the placebo group. Specifically, cell activation stimulated the zinc transporter in T cells called "ZIP8," which transports stored zinc into the cell cytoplasm where it then alters the expression of a T cell protein in a way needed to fight infections" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (too much zinc can cause a copper deficiency.
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity - Acta Cardiol. 2009 Jun;64(3):321-7 - "were given 1 gram of fish oil as a single capsule, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid daily for 6 months. Control subjects did not receive any supplementation over the same period. RESULTS: The study was completed by 47 subjects in the intervention group and 42 subjects in the control group. Treatment with omega 3 supplements was associated with a significant fall in body weight (P < 0.05), systolic blood pressures (P < 0.05), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05), and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglycerides (P < 0.05), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P < 0.01), and Hsp27 antibody titres (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: It appears that omega 3 improves the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, having effects on weight, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and markers of inflammation and autoimmunity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Immune Enhancement - Life Extension Foundation - "Zinc is a specific activator of T-cells, T-cell division, and other immune cells ... DHEA administration resulted in ... A 40% increase in T-cell activity even though the total numbers of T-cells were not affected ... The most effective hormone therapy to protect and improve immune function is melatonin which enhances the production of T-helper cells ... Melatonin, the pineal hormone, improves immune function by enhancing the production of T-cells"
  • SuperGerms and Other Infections - thenutritionreporter.com
  • Omega Fatty Acid Balance Can Alter Immunity And Gene Expression - Science Daily, 5/29/09 - "Anthropological evidence suggests that human ancestors maintained a 2:1 w6/w3 ratio for much of history, but in Western countries today the ratio has spiked to as high as 10:1. Since these omega fatty acids can be converted into inflammatory molecules, this dietary change is believed to also disrupt the proper balance of pro- and anti- inflammatory agents, resulting in increased systemic inflammation and a higher incidence of problems including asthma, allergies, diabetes, and arthritis ... many key signaling genes that promote inflammation were markedly reduced compared to a normal diet, including a signaling gene for a protein called PI3K, a critical early step in autoimmune and allergic inflammation responses" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Supplement Use in Cancer Care: Help or Harm (.pdf) - Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008 Aug 1;22(4):581-617 - "Immune Modulation ..."
  • Shiitake Mushrooms May Improve Human Immune Function, Especially If Grown On Old Oak Logs - Science Daily, 6/29/08 - "These mushrooms contain high-molecular-weight polysaccharides (HMWP), which some studies suggest may improve human immune function. Other research indicates that the shiitake compound eritadenine may help lower cholesterol levels" - See shiitake mushroom supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli May Help Boost Aging Immune System - Science Daily, 3/6/08 - "As we age, the ability of the immune system to fight disease and infections and protect against cancer wears down as a result of the impact of oxygen radicals on the immune system ... our study shows that a chemical present in broccoli is capable of stimulating a wide range of antioxidant defense pathways and may be able to interfere with the age-related decline in immune function ... The UCLA team not only found that the direct administration of sulforaphane in broccoli reversed the decline in cellular immune function in old mice, but they witnessed similar results when they took individual immune cells from old mice, treated those cells with the chemical outside the body and then placed the treated cells back into a recipient animal"
  • Fish oil in critical illness - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Mar;11(2):121-7 - "Inclusion of fish oil in nutrition may influence the immune response and clinical outcomes by balancing the negative effects of n-6 fatty acids. Application as a part of enteral immunonutrition in surgical or acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and in lipid emulsions in surgical patients has beneficial effects" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence - Br J Nutr. 2008 Jan 17;:1-9 - "These results indicate that n-3 LCPUFA may have immuno-stimulating effects"
  • Compound In Broccoli Could Boost Immune System, Says Study - Science Daily, 8/20/07 - "This study shows that there is a whole new universe of cancer regulation related to DIM ... There are virtually no other agents known that can both directly shut down the growth of cancer cells and enhance the function of the immune system at the same time" - See diindolylmethane at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea And EGCG May Help Prevent Autoimmune Diseases - Science Daily, 4/19/07 - "The group treated with green tea had significantly fewer lymphocytes, Dr. Hsu says. Their blood also showed lower levels of autoantibodies, protein weapons produced when the immune system attacks itself, he says" - See Jarrow green tea at iHerb.
  • Vitamin B6 supplementation increases immune responses in critically ill patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;60(10):1207-13 - "T-lymphocyte and T-helper cell numbers and the percentage of T-suppressor cell significantly increased on day 14 in the B6 -50 group. Total lymphocyte count, T-helper and T-suppressor cell numbers, the percentage of T-lymphocyte cells and T-suppressors significantly increased in the B6 -100 group at the 14th day"
  • Fish oil in the critically ill: from experimental to clinical data - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Mar;9(2):140-8 - "N-3 lipids exhibit strong immunologic properties"
  • Exercise Increases Immunity in Older Men - Physician's Weekly, 11/8/04 - "older active seniors had significantly higher immune system responses than sedentary seniors, and that the immune response matched that of the younger men"
  • Unrecognized Iron Deficiency Can Impair Immunity in Older Women - Doctor's Guide, 9/29/04
  • Probiotics and prebiotics in the elderly - Postgrad Med J. 2004 Aug;80(946):447-51 - "Probiotics have been shown clearly to boost immunity in the elderly"
  • A Cup of Tea Helps Boost T Cells - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 6/03 - "In initial in vitro tests, researchers mixed gamma delta T cells, a main weapon for the immune system, with ethylamine, which is produced when the liver breaks down the amino acid L-theanine ... The mixture resulted in a tenfold increase in gamma delta T cells, producing high levels of disease-fighting chemicals and a stronger immune response ... After four weeks, blood samples from the tea drinkers showed five times more disease-fighting chemicals than samples from the coffee drinkers" - See iHerb L-theanine products.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases - Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Mar;116(3):453-8 - "omega-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain omega-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. omega-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases" - See Mega Twin EPA at iHerb.
  • Steeped In Health - Time, 5/5/03 - "The researchers found that drinking 20 oz. of tea every day for at least two weeks doubled or tripled the immune system's output of an infection-fighting substance called interferon gamma. The coffee drinkers, by contrast, registered no difference in interferon-gamma production. Apparently the body metabolizes the tea into molecules that mimic the surface proteins of bacteria, jump-starting the immune system so that when real bugs show up, they can more easily be dispatched ... Green tea has more of the chemically simpler antioxidants called catechins, whereas black tea contains more complex antioxidants called theaflavins and thearubigins"
  • Selenium in the Immune System - J. Nutr. 133:1457S-1459S, May 2003 - "Selenium as an essential component of selenocysteine-containing protein is involved in most aspects of cell biochemistry and function. As such, there is much potential for selenium to influence the immune system"
  • Zinc-Altered Immune Function - J. Nutr. 133:1452S-1456S, May 2003 - "All kinds of immune cells show decreased function after zinc depletion ... Impaired immune functions due to zinc deficiency are shown to be reversed by an adequate zinc supplementation, which must be adapted to the actual requirements of the patient. High dosages of zinc evoke negative effects on immune cells and show alterations that are similar to those observed with zinc deficiency"
  • Enhance Your Immunity - Dr. Janson's Newsletter, 5/03 - "Common dietary supplements that enhance immunity include vitamins C (2000 to 10,000 mg) and E (400 to 800 IU), coenzyme Q10 (100 to 200 mg), proanthocyanidins (50 to 150 mg), gammalinolenic acid (GLA, 240 mg), and zinc (30 mg) ... Standardized herbs that help include astragalus (1000 mg), echinacea (500 mg), and mushroom extracts such as maitake (1000 to 2000 mg), or beta 1,3 glucan (100 to 200 mg)"
  • Health Benefit of Tea: Add Immune Boost That Helps Fight Germs - WebMD, 4/21/03
  • Soy Formulas May Weaken Immune System - WebMD, 5/20/02 - "the researchers examined immune system effects in mice fed diets high in the isoflavone. At levels similar to those found in soy-fed infants, genistein appeared to produce a large decrease in thymus size and immune cell function ... The study appears to contradict recently published research, sponsored by a soy formula manufacturer, suggesting that infants fed soy-based diets have normal immune development as measured by response to routine childhood immunizations. Infants fed soy-based formulas also demonstrated immune status similar to infants who were breastfed ... But a Danish study assessing soy supplementation in postmenopausal women did find evidence of immune suppression"
  • Concepts and Controversies in Nutrition, Immune-Enhancing Formulas - Medscape, 3/21/02 - "Immune-enhancing formulas (IEFs), also known as immune-modulating formulas, include arginine, glutamine, nucleic acids, and omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Nutritional Supplement Boosts Immune Function In Surgery Patients - Intelihealth, 9/13/01 - "A new study published in the journal Lancet suggests that people who are at high risk of infection after heart surgery may benefit from taking a nutritional supplement containing L-arginine and omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Nutrition Is A Key To Better Health For Elderly - Intelihealth, 8/20/01 - "Too many older people may be accepting a cognitive and immunological decline as a normal part of aging, when it may reflect a deficiency in essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals ... a nutrient supplement with modest amounts of 18 vitamins, minerals and trace elements could improve cognitive function in apparently healthy people over 65 ... How might nutrients improve brain function? One possibility is that taking a modest nutrient supplement daily can improve immune function"
  • Autoimmune Diseases Among Top Killers of Younger Women - WebMD, 9/1/00
  • Ginseng May Enhance Immune Function - WebMD, 6/5/00
  • Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice - Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "lipoic acid is the only antioxidant that can boost the level of intracellular glutathione, a cellular antioxidant of tremendous importance. Besides being the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant and a major detoxification agent, glutathione is absolutely essential for the functioning of the immune system"

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