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Home > Anti-aging Research > NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)

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  • What’s the Difference Between NAD+ and NADH? - Elysiumhealth.com - "When NAD+ is converted to NADH, it gains two things: First, a charged hydrogen molecule (H+) and next, two electrons. As electrons are negatively charged, the combination of the positively charged NAD+ and H+, coupled with two electrons, effectively cancel each other out and neutralize the resulting NADH molecule. This is why NADH does not have a "+" sign next to it. The charge of a molecule informs how it interacts with other molecules. For example, NADH can’t do what NAD+ does, and vice versa."
  • NMN and NR: How These NAD+ Precursors Measure Up - elysiumhealth.com - "NMN is a precursor to NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, meaning it becomes NAD+ through a series of chemical transformations ... However, NMN is like a large bed that movers are trying to get through a door: It doesn’t enter the cell easily. One way for NMN to enter the cell is for it to chemically transform into another molecule (called nicotinamide riboside, or NR) before it can enter the cell. NR has earned a name for itself as a highly efficient precursor to NAD+ and can enter the cell as is. NMN, meanwhile, sometimes becomes NR before entering the cell, where it chemically transforms back to NMN and then ultimately becomes NAD+"
  • Vitamin supplement successfully prevents noise-induced hearing loss - Science Daily, 12/2/14 - "the researchers used the chemical nicotinamide riboside (NR) to protect the nerves that innervate the cochlea ... NR was successful at preventing damage to the synaptic connections, avoiding both short-term and long-term hearing loss. What's more, NR was equally effective regardless of whether it was given before or after the noise exposure ... The researchers chose NR because it is a precursor to the chemical compound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which had previously been shown by Dr. Brown and co-senior author Samie Jaffrey, MD, PhD, to protect cochlea nerve cells from injury. However, NAD+ is an unstable compound, calling into question whether it could be used out of the petri dish and in a live animal ... Beyond just preventing hearing loss, the researchers think the results may have broader applications because of the underlying way NR protects nerve cells ... The success of this study suggests that targeting SIRT3 using NR could be a viable target for treating all sorts of aging-related disorders--not only hearing loss but also metabolic syndromes like obesity, pulmonary hypertension, and even diabetes" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com and nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.
  • Derivative of vitamin B3 prevents liver cancer in mice - Science Daily, 11/20/14 - "nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) ... When the scientists supplemented the diet in genetically modified mice with nicotinamide riboside, a derivative of vitamin B3 that increases intracellular levels of NAD+, they did not observe tumour development. Surprisingly, when they gave this diet to mice that had already developed the disease, the size of the tumours was reduced and they eventually disappeared" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com and nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Vitamin Discovery Offers Clues For Cancer Chemotherapy And Lipid Disorders - Science Daily, 5/14/04
  • Energy to Burn - Men's Health/WebMD, 9/1/03
  • Nodding Off? 'Wake-Up Pills' Available - WebMD, 1/16/02 - "Despite feeling sleepy, those taking ENADAlert still performed better than those who took the placebo. "They performed better in terms of performance efficiency -- they had higher numbers of correct answers per minute,""
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Parkinson's Defense - Nutrition Science News, 5/01
  • NADH, the supervitamin body and mind energizer - by James South MA - "The Birkmayers also found increased urinary excretion of dopamine metabolites in the patients, indicating there was an actual NADH induced increase in dopamine production"
  • Enada Reduces Chronic Fatigue Symptoms - Nutrition Science News, 8/99


  • CD38 inhibitor 78c increases mice lifespan and healthspan in a model of chronological aging - Aging Cell 2022 Mar 8 - "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decline during aging, contributing to physical and metabolic dysfunction. The NADase CD38 plays a key role in age-related NAD decline. Whether the inhibition of CD38 increases lifespan is not known. Here, we show that the CD38 inhibitor 78c increases lifespan and healthspan of naturally aged mice. In addition to a 10% increase in median survival, 78c improved exercise performance, endurance, and metabolic function in mice. The effects of 78c were different between sexes. Our study is the first to investigate the effect of CD38 inhibition in naturally aged animals" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • NAD + Metabolism in Cardiac Health, Aging, and Disease - Circulation 2021 Nov 30 - "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a central metabolite involved in energy and redox homeostasis as well as in DNA repair and protein deacetylation reactions. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of NAD+-degrading enzymes, external supplementation of NAD+ precursors, and transgenic overexpression of NAD+-generating enzymes have wide positive effects on metabolic health and age-associated diseases. NAD+ pools tend to decline with normal aging, obesity, and hypertension, which are all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and NAD+ replenishment extends healthspan, avoids metabolic syndrome, and reduces blood pressure in preclinical models. In addition, experimental elevation of NAD+ improves atherosclerosis, ischemic, diabetic, arrhythmogenic, hypertrophic, or dilated cardiomyopathies, as well as different modalities of heart failure. Here, we critically discuss cardiomyocyte-specific circuitries of NAD+ metabolism, comparatively evaluate distinct NAD+ precursors for their preclinical efficacy, and raise outstanding questions on the optimal design of clinical trials in which NAD+ replenishment or supraphysiological NAD+ elevations are assessed for the prevention or treatment of major cardiac diseases. We surmise that patients with hitherto intractable cardiac diseases such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction may profit from the administration of NAD+ precursors"
  • Preclinical and clinical evidence of NAD + precursors in health, disease, and ageing - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Sep 10 - "NAD+ is a fundamental molecule in human life and health as it participates in energy metabolism, cell signalling, mitochondrial homeostasis, and in dictating cell survival or death. Emerging evidence from preclinical and human studies indicates an age-dependent reduction of cellular NAD+, possibly due to reduced synthesis and increased consumption. In preclinical models, NAD+ repletion extends healthspan and / or lifespan and mitigates several conditions, such as premature ageing diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. These findings suggest that NAD+ replenishment through NAD+ precursors has great potential as a therapeutic target for ageing and age-predisposed diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we provide an updated review on the biological activity, safety, and possible side effects of NAD+ precursors in preclinical and clinical studies. Major NAD+ precursors focused on by this review are nicotinamide riboside (NR), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and the new discovered dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH)" - See nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com and nicotinamide mononucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • The balance between NAD + biosynthesis and consumption in ageing - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Sep 9 - "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a vital coenzyme in redox reactions. NAD+ is also important in cellular signalling as it is consumed by PARPs, SARM1, sirtuins and CD38. Cellular NAD+ levels regulate several essential processes including DNA repair, immune cell function, senescence, and chromatin remodelling. Maintenance of these cellular processes is important for healthy ageing and lifespan. Interestingly, the levels of NAD+ decline during ageing in several organisms, including humans. Declining NAD+ levels have been linked to several age-related diseases including various metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. Decreasing tissue NAD+ concentrations have been ascribed to an imbalance between biosynthesis and consumption of the dinucleotide, resulting from, for instance, reduced levels of the rate limiting enzyme NAMPT along with an increased activation state of the NAD+-consuming enzymes PARPs and CD38. The progression of some age-related diseases can be halted or reversed by therapeutic augmentation of NAD+ levels. NAD+ metabolism has therefore emerged as a potential target to ameliorate age-related diseases. The present review explores how ageing affects NAD+ metabolism and current approaches to reverse the age-dependent decline of NAD+"
  • NAD + improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation by ameliorating mitochondrial damage and decreasing ROS production in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion models through Sirt1/PGC-1α pathway - J Neuroinflammation 2021 Sep 16 - "Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in vascular dementia, and modulating neuroinflammation has emerged as a promising treatment target. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in many neurodegenerative disease models, but its role in the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is still unclear ... NAD+ ameliorated cognitive impairment and dampened neuroinflammation in CCH models in vivo and in vitro, and these beneficial effects were associated with mitochondrial protection and ROS inhibition via activating Sirt1/PGC-1α pathway"
  • Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation enhances aerobic capacity in amateur runners: a randomized, double-blind study - See nicotinamide mononucleotide at Amazon.com - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jul 8 - "Recent studies in rodents indicate that a combination of exercise training and supplementation with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has synergistic effects. However, there are currently no human clinical trials analyzing this ... This study investigates the effects of a combination of exercise training and supplementation with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the immediate precursor of NAD+, on cardiovascular fitness in healthy amateur runners ... The participants were randomized into four groups: the low dosage group (300 mg/day NMN), the medium dosage group (600 mg/day NMN), the high dosage group (1200 mg/day NMN), and the control group (placebo) ... NMN increases the aerobic capacity of humans during exercise training, and the improvement is likely the result of enhanced O2 utilization of the skeletal muscle" - See nicotinamide mononucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • Progresses in both basic research and clinical trials of NAD+ in Parkinson's disease - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 11 - "The decline of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels is a hallmark of aging in multiple organisms and tissues, including the human brain. Hence, agents that increase intracellular NAD + could have beneficial effects in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbances in NAD + metabolism have also been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), supporting a link between neuronal bioenergetics failure and disease pathogenesis" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • NAD + and NAFLD - Caution, Causality, and Careful Optimism - J Physiol 2021 May 1 - "The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide, and new treatments are direly needed. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) has been proposed as a potential target to prevent and reverse NAFLD. NAD+ is an important redox factor for energy metabolism and is used as a substrate by a range of enzymes, including sirtuins (SIRT), which regulates histone acetylation, transcription factor activity and mitochondrial function. NAD+ is also a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is an important component of the antioxidant defense system. NAD+ precursors such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) are available as over-the-counter dietary supplements, and oral supplementation with these precursors increases hepatic NAD+ levels and prevent hepatic lipid accumulation in pre-clinical models of NAFLD. Moreover, NAD+ precursors were found to improve hepatic mitochondrial function and decrease oxidative stress in pre-clinical NAFLD models. NAD+ repletion also prevents NAFLD progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as NAD+ precursor supplementation is associated with decreased hepatic stellate cell activation, and decreased fibrosis. However, initial clinical trials have only shown modest effects when NAD+ precursors were administrated to people with obesity. We review the available pre-clinical investigations of NAD+ supplementation for targeting NAFLD, and discuss how data from the first clinical trials can be reconciled with observations from preclinical research" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of coenzyme Q10 plus nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplementation on maximum heart rate after exercise testing in chronic fatigue syndrome - A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial - Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;35(4):826-34 - "80 CFS patients assigned to receive either CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation or matching placebo twice daily ... The CoQ10 plus NADH group showed a significant reduction in max HR during a cycle ergometer test at week 8 versus baseline (P = 0.022). Perception of fatigue also showed a decrease through all follow-up visits in active group versus placebo (P = 0.03). However, pain and sleep did not improve in the active group. Coenzyme Q10 plus NADH was generally safe and well tolerated" - [Nutra USA] - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • Is NADH effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease? - Drugs Aging. 1998 Oct;13(4):263-8
  • NADH stimulates endogenous dopamine biosynthesis by enhancing the recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin in rat phaeochromocytoma cells - Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Jul 10;1361(1):59-65
  • Current therapy of idiopathic Parkinson disease. 2: Recent and alternative therapies - Fortschr Med. 1997 May 10;115(13):37-41
  • Parenteral application of NADH in Parkinson's disease: clinical improvement partially due to stimulation of endogenous levodopa biosynthesis - J Neural Transm. 1996;103(10):1187-93 - "In conclusion NADH in used galenic form may be a potent stimulator of endogenous levodopa biosynthesis with clinical benefit for Parkinsonian patients."
  • Stimulation of dopamine biosynthesis in cultured PC 12 phaeochromocytoma cells by the coenzyme nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide (NADH) - J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1993;5(2):147-56
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)--a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease. Comparison of oral and parenteral application - Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1993;146:32-5
  • Kynurenine pathway abnormalities in Parkinson's disease - Neurology. 1992 Sep;42(9):1702-6