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Home > Anti-aging Research > Blueberry Extract

Blueberry Extract

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  • Flavonoids Dietary 'Powerhouses' for Cognitive Decline Prevention - Medscape, 8/9/21 - "Among the different types of flavonoids, flavones (found in some spices and yellow or orange fruits and vegetables) and anthocyanins (found in blueberries, blackberries, and cherries) seem to have most protective effect ... Those in the highest quintile of flavonoid consumption consumed about 600 mg daily on average while those in the lowest quintile only got about 150 mg daily ... Individuals in the highest quintile of daily consumption had about a 20% lower risk of SCD relative to peers in the lowest quintile (pooled multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76 - 0.89) ... The strongest protective associations were found for flavones (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.57 - 0.68), flavanones (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58 - 0.68), and anthocyanins (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72 - 0.84" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb and anthocyanins at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Milk protein could help boost blueberries' healthfulness - Science Daily, 6/23/21 - "In studies, anthocyanins have been shown to have antioxidant properties, lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of developing some cancers. However, only small amounts of these nutrients are absorbed from blueberries during digestion, despite their abundance in the fruit. Previous researchers have reported that consuming foods with ingredients such as citrus pectin, capcasin, capsicate and some proteins improve the uptake of anthocyanins. For instance, Bin Li and colleagues found that α-casein and β-casein proteins from cow's milk protected blueberry anthocyanins in simulated digestion experiments ... The researchers fed rats purified blueberry anthocyanin extracts, adding α-casein to the solution given to one group of rats. During the next 24 hours, anthocyanin and metabolite concentrations were 1.5 to 10.1 times higher in the α-casein group than in the control rats"
  • If you want to protect yourself from the flu, you may want to try this natural remedy - 10News, 1/20/20 - "“No, you definitely want to have your flu shot, it’s just good to have as a backup,” Bradley said ... The doctor even takes it herself ... ”I have taken it and I have a bottle at home. And I recently had a friend who had influenza and the first thing I told her was, 'go to the doctor and take elderberry syrup,' ” she said" - Note:  It doesn't show any studies to back it up however, see elderberry syrup at Amazon.com and note all the 4.6 and 4.7 star ratings.
  • Eating blueberries every day improves heart health - Science Daily, 5/30/19 - "They looked at the benefits of eating 150 gram portions (one cup) compared to 75 gram portions (half a cup). The participants consumed the blueberries in freeze-dried form and a placebo group was given a purple-coloured alternative made of artificial colours and flavourings ... We found that eating one cup of blueberries per day resulted in sustained improvements in vascular function and arterial stiffness -- making enough of a difference to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by between 12 and 15 per cent ... Unexpectedly, we found no benefit of a smaller 75 gram (half cup) daily intake of blueberries in this at-risk group. It is possible that higher daily intakes may be needed for heart health benefits in obese, at-risk populations, compared with the general population"
  • 'Blue' in Blueberries Tied to BP Lowering that Rivals Medication - Medscape, 3/1/19 - "Eating the equivalent of 100 grams of blueberries for 4 weeks, twice a day is associated with systolic blood pressure lowering that is equivalent to the effect of BP-lowering medications ... Five New Studies" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • The 'blue' in blueberries can help lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 2/20/19 - "Effects on blood vessel function were seen two hours after consumption of the blueberry drinks and were sustained for one month even after an overnight fast ... Over the course of the month, blood pressure was reduced by 5mmHg. This is similar to what is commonly seen in studies using blood pressure lowering medication ... The drinks containing purified anthocyanins led to improvements in endothelial function. Endothelial cells act as a barrier between the blood or lymph and the surrounding body tissue, as well as playing key roles in blood clotting and regulating blood pressure ... Neither the control drink, the control with fibre or the control with minerals and vitamins had a significant effect on FMD at two and six hours after consumption ... Although it is best to eat the whole blueberry to get the full benefit, our study finds that the majority of the effects can be explained by anthocyanins"
  • Berry gives boost to cervical cancer therapy - Science Daily, 12/29/17 - "Radiation decreased cancer cells by approximately 20 percent. Interestingly, the cell group that received only blueberry extract had a 25 percent decrease in cancer. However, the biggest decline in cancer cells occurred in the radiation and extract group, with a decrease of about 70 percent ... Fang explained that the mechanism that makes blueberry extract a radiosensitizer also reduces the abnormal explosion of cell growth which is what cancer is"
  • The top ingredients for cognition, focus and mood - Nutra USA, 7/14/17 - "omega-3 ... Phosphatidylserine (PS) ... B-vitamins ... Vitamin E ... Lutein ... Citicoline ... Magnesium ... L-theanine ... Curcumin ... Resveratrol ... Blueberry anthocyanins ... Inositol-stabilized arginine silicate ... Spearmint extract ... Ashwaganda ... Bacopa ... Teacrine"
  • Blueberries, the well-known 'super fruit,' could help fight Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 3/14/16 - "One study involved 47 adults aged 68 and older, who had mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for Alzheimer's disease. The researchers gave them either freeze-dried blueberry powder, which is equivalent to a cup of berries, or a placebo powder once a day for 16 weeks ... The blueberry group demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts ... The team also conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which showed increased brain activity in those who ingested the blueberry powder" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries, citrus fruits, red wine associated with reduced erectile dysfunction - Science Daily, 1/13/16 - "Of all the different flavonoids, Anthocyanins (found in blueberries, cherries, blackberries, radishes and blackcurrant), flavanones and flavones (found in citrus fruits) were found to offer the greatest benefits in preventing the condition ... It is already known that increased exercise can improve erectile function, but this research shows that eating a flavonoid-rich diet is as good for erectile function as briskly walking for up to five hours a week"
  • Blueberry extract could help fight gum disease and reduce antibiotic use - Science Daily, 9/2/15 - "In the lab, the researchers tested extracts from the wild lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Ait., against F. nucleatum. The polyphenol-rich extracts successfully inhibited the growth of F. nucleatum, as well as its ability to form biofilms. It also blocked a molecular pathway involved in inflammation, a key part of gum disease"
  • Eight nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 - "Blueberries are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity because they boast a high concentration of anthocyanins, a flavonoid that enhances the health-promoting quality of foods. Moderate blueberry consumption could offer neurocognitive benefits such as increased neural signaling in the brain centers"
  • Blueberries show promise as treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder - Science Daily, 3/31/15 - "Ebenezer et al. have previously demonstrated that SSRIs increase levels of serotonin (5-HT) and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and that the increased NE may reduce the effectiveness of SSRI therapy. In the new study, the research team looked at the ability of blueberries to modulate neurotransmitter levels in a rat model of PTSD ... PTSD rats who did not receive blueberries demonstrated a predictable increase in NE and 5-HT when compared with the control group. However, the PTSD rats that received blueberries showed a beneficial increase in 5-HT with no effect on NE levels, suggesting that blueberries can effectively modulate neurotransmitters in PTSD" - Note:  That's probably another one that's a better alternative to pot for people who claim pot helps their PTSD when there's no evidence to support it and it's probably just a con-game to get high.  See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • New MIND diet may significantly protect against Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 3/23/15 - "With the MIND diet, a person who eats at least three servings of whole grains, a salad and one other vegetable every day -- along with a glass of wine -- snacks most days on nuts, has beans every other day or so, eats poultry and berries at least twice a week and fish at least once a week and benefits. However, he or she must limits intake of the designated unhealthy foods, especially butter (less than 1 tablespoon a day), cheese, and fried or fast food (less than a serving a week for any of the three), to have a real shot at avoiding the devastating effects of AD ... Blueberries are one of the more potent foods in terms of protecting the brain ... strawberries have also performed well in past studies of the effect of food on cognitive function"
  • Blueberries may help reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness - Science Daily, 1/8/15 - "Over an eight-week period, 48 postmenopausal women with pre- and stage-1 hypertension were randomly assigned to receive either 22 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder -- the equivalent to one cup of fresh blueberries -- or 22 grams of a placebo powder ... At the end of the eight weeks, participants receiving the blueberry powder on average had a 7 mmHg (5.1 percent) decrease in systolic blood pressure, which is the top number in the blood pressure reading that measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats. They also saw a 5 mmHg (6.3 percent) reduction in diastolic blood pressure, or the bottom number measuring the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats ... Additionally, participants in the blueberry-treated group had an average reduction of 97 cm/second (6.5 percent) in arterial stiffness"
  • Nutritional supplement improves cognitive performance in older adults, study finds - Science Daily, 2/6/14 - "The USF-developed nutritional supplement, containing extracts from blueberries and green tea combined with vitamin D3 and amino acids, including carnosine, was tested by the USF researchers in a clinical trial enrolling 105 healthy adults, ages 65 to 85 ... called NT-020 ... Those randomized to the group of 52 volunteers receiving NT-020 demonstrated improvements in cognitive processing speed, while the 53 volunteers randomized to receive a placebo did not ... Blueberries, a major ingredient in the NT-020 formula, are rich in polyphenols ... NT-020 is 95 percent polyphenols"
  • Health Benefits of Wild Blueberries Abound - Science Daily, 11/6/13 - "regular long-term wild blueberry diets may help improve or prevent pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes ... According to the study, wild blueberry consumption (2 cups per day, human equivalent) for 8 weeks was shown to regulate and improve the balance between relaxing and constricting factors in the vascular wall, improving blood flow and blood pressure regulation of obese Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome ... Our recent findings reported elsewhere, documented that wild blueberries reduce chronic inflammation and improve the abnormal lipid profile and gene expression associated with the MetS" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.  Also Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com contains blueberry extract
  • Consumption of Certain Fruits Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 8/29/13 - "Eating certain whole fruits may reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes ... However, juice consumption may up the risk for diabetes ... combined data from 3 studies: the Nurses' Health Study (n = 66,105), Nurses' Health Study II (n = 85,104), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 36,173) ... blueberries: HR, 0.74 ... grapes and raisins: HR, 0.88 ... apples and pears: HR, 0.93 ... bananas: HR, 0.95 ... grapefruit: HR, 0.95"
  • Strawberries, blueberries may cut heart attack risk in women - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "Blueberries and strawberries contain high levels of naturally occurring compounds called dietary flavonoids, also found in grapes and wine, blackberries, eggplant, and other fruits and vegetables. A specific sub-class of flavonoids, called anthocyanins, may help dilate arteries, counter the buildup of plaque and provide other cardiovascular benefits ... Nurses' Health Study II ... women completed questionnaires about their diet every four years for 18 years ... Women who ate the most blueberries and strawberries had a 32-percent reduction in their risk of heart attack compared to women who ate the berries once a month or less"
  • Eating more berries may reduce cognitive decline in the elderly - Science Daily, 4/26/12 - "The research team used data from the Nurses' Health Study -- a cohort of 121,700 female, registered nurses between the ages of 30 and 55 who completed health and lifestyle questionnaires beginning in 1976 ... increased consumption of blueberries and strawberries appear to slow cognitive decline in older women. A greater intake of anthocyanidins and total flavonoids was also associated with reduce cognitive degeneration. Researchers observed that women who had higher berry intake delayed cognitive aging by up to 2.5 years ... while they did control for other health factors in the modeling, they cannot rule out the possibility that the preserved cognition in those who eat more berries may be also influenced by other lifestyle choices, such as exercising more"
  • Eating flavonoids protects men against Parkinson's disease, study finds - Science Daily, 4/4/12 - "This latest study is the first study in humans to show that flavonoids can protect neurons against diseases of the brain such as Parkinson's ... male participants who ate the most flavonoids were shown to be 40 per cent less likely to develop the disease than those who ate the least. No similar link was found for total flavonoid intake in women ... a sub-class of flavonoids called anthocyanins may have neuroprotective effects ... In this study the main protective effect was from higher intake of anthocyanins, which are present in berries and other fruits and vegetables including aubergines, blackcurrants and blackberries. Those who consumed the most anthocyanins had a 24 per cent reduction in risk of developing Parkinson's disease and strawberries and blueberries were the top two sources in the US diet"
  • Eating berries benefits the brain - Science Daily, 3/7/12 - "blueberries, blackberries, strawberries and other berry fruits ... berry fruits help the brain stay healthy in several ways. Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidants, compounds that protect cells from damage by harmful free radicals ... berry fruits change the way neurons in the brain communicate. These changes in signaling can prevent inflammation in the brain that contribute to neuronal damage and improve both motor control and cognition"
  • Blueberry powder may slow breast tumor growth: Mouse data - Nutra USA, 9/20/11 - "The California-based researchers performed two separate experiments. The first put mice in one of three diet groups: A control diet or the diet supplemented with 5% or 10% blueberry powder ... After two weeks of feeding the mice received injections containing aggressive breast cancer cells. After a further six weeks of observation the researchers reported that the 5 and 10% blueberry groups displayed a 75 and 60% reduction in tumor size, compared to the control group ... In addition, results from molecular analysis revealed that blueberry consumption was associated with an alteration in the expression of genes related to inflammation, cancer, and metastasis in such a way that cancer risk would most likely decline ... This suggests that there may be an optimal level of blueberry intake" - [Abstract]
  • Blueberries help lab rats build strong bones - Science Daily, 6/21/11 - "animals fed rations that contained 10 percent freeze-dried blueberry powder had significantly more bone mass than their counterparts whose rations were blueberry-free ... When the researchers exposed laboratory cultures of bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) to blood (serum) from the animals, the scientists found that serum from the blueberry-fed rats was associated with an increase in development of osteoblasts into mature, functional bone cells"
  • Breast cancer research: Mammary gland development of blueberry-fed lab animals studied - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "several indicators of rat mammary gland health were improved in the offspring (pups) of mothers (dams) that had been fed 5 percent blueberry powder in their rations during pregnancy and during the weeks that they nursed their pups ... In their analysis of several biochemical indicators, the team found, for instance, that the level of the tumor-suppressing protein PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10) was significantly higher in mammary tissues of offspring of dams on the 5 percent regimen. That's a plus, because PTEN is thought to help protect against cancer"
  • Blueberry's effects on cholesterol examined in lab animal study - Science Daily, 6/1/11 - "all the hamsters that were fed blueberry-enhanced rations had from 22 to 27 percent lower total plasma cholesterol than hamsters fed rations that didn't contain blueberry juice byproducts ... Levels of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein-a form of "bad" cholesterol) were about 44 percent lower in the blueberry-fed hamsters"
  • Blueberries may inhibit development of fat cells - Science Daily, 4/10/11 - "The benefits of blueberry consumption have been demonstrated in several nutrition studies, more specifically the cardio-protective benefits derived from their high polyphenol content. Blueberries have shown potential to have a positive effect on everything from aging to metabolic syndrome ... The study was performed in tissue cultures taken from mice. The polyphenols showed a dose-dependent suppression of adipocyte differentiation. The lipid content in the control group was significantly higher than the content of the tissue given three doses of blueberry polyphenols. The highest dose of blueberry polyphenols yielded a 73% decrease in lipids; the lowest dose showed a 27% decrease"
  • Eating berries may lower risk of Parkinson's - Science Daily - Science Daily, 2/13/11 - "Flavonoids are found in plants and fruits and are also known collectively as vitamin P and citrin. They can also be found in berry fruits, chocolate, and citrus fruits such as grapefruit ... participants were followed for 20 to 22 years ... the top 20 percent who consumed the most flavonoids were about 40 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than the bottom 20 percent of male participants who consumed the least amount of flavonoids. In women, there was no relationship between overall flavonoid consumption and developing Parkinson's disease. However, when sub-classes of flavonoids were examined, regular consumption of anthocyanins, which are mainly obtained from berries, were found to be associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in both men and women"
  • Strawberries, Blueberries May Ward Off High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 1/21/11
  • Bioactive compounds in berries can reduce high blood pressure - Science Daily, 1/14/11 - "bioactive compounds in blueberries called anthocyanins offer protection against hypertension. Compared with those who do not eat blueberries, those eating at least one serving a week reduce their risk of developing the condition by 10 per cent"
  • Blueberries and other purple fruits to ward off Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's - Science Daily, 12/7/10 - "Eating purple fruits such as blueberries and drinking green tea can help ward off diseases including Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's ... the majority of debilitating illnesses are in part caused by poorly-bound iron which causes the production of dangerous toxins that can react with the components of living systems ... These toxins, called hydroxyl radicals, cause degenerative diseases of many kinds in different parts of the body ... In order to protect the body from these dangerous varieties of poorly-bound iron, it is vital to take on nutrients, known as iron chelators, which can bind the iron tightly"
  • Blueberries linked to improved blood vessel health: Rat study - Nutra USA, 11/18/10 - "Our data provide clear evidence that the 8 week dietary treatment with 8 percent wild blueberry in the adult SHR with established endothelial dysfunction results in a significant moderation of the increased aortic vascular tone ... The berries were proposed to act via the NO pathway – nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator, or compound that promotes the dilation or relaxation of blood vessels, thereby easing blood pressure" - [Abstract]
  • Blueberries help fight artery hardening, lab animal study indicates - Science Daily, 9/29/10 - "Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of two forms of cardiovascular disease--heart attacks and strokes. Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of Americans ... Lesion size, measured at two sites on aorta (arteries leading from the heart), was 39 and 58 percent less than that of lesions in mice whose diet did not contain blueberry powder ... The blueberry-spiked diet contained 1 percent blueberry powder, the equivalent of about a half-cup of fresh blueberries"
  • Blueberries show anti-diabetic potential: Study - Science Daily, 9/13/10 - "Obese, non-diabetic, and insulin-resistant participants who consumed a blueberry smoothie daily for six weeks experienced a 22 percent change in insulin sensitivity, compared to only 4.9 percent in the placebo group ... The United States Highbush Blueberry Council (USHBC) prepared the freeze-dried whole blueberry powder used in this study" - [Abstract]
  • Nutrient blend improves function of aging brain: rat study - Nutra USA, 7/21/10 - "NT-020 is a combination of blueberry, green tea extract, carnosine and vitamin D3 ... The NT-020 group demonstrated increased adult neural stem cell proliferation in the two main stem cell niches in the brains and improvement in learning and memory"
  • Natural substance NT-020 aids aging brains in rats, study finds - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "Aging has been linked to oxidative stress, and we have previously shown that natural compounds made from blueberries, green tea, and amino acids, such as carnosine, are high in antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity .... The combination of these nutrients, called NT-020, creates a synergistic effect that promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the aged animals ... NT-020 may have not only a positive effect on the stem cell niche ... NT-020 may have far-reaching effects on organ function beyond the replacement of injured cells, as demonstrated by cognitive improvement in the NT-020 group"
  • Blueberry ameliorates hepatic fibrosis, study finds - Science Daily, 6/17/10 - "An increasing number of natural substances have been studied to explore if they have protective effects on the liver. Blueberries have unique effects on human retinal, brain and tumor cells, but reports about the effects of blueberries on liver diseases are lacking ... The authors suggest that blueberry consumption is beneficial for hepatic diseases (including fibrosis)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries may protect muscles from exercise damage - Nutra USA, 4/2/10 - "Although it is difficult to deduce the biological significance of the data presented here from in vitro studies, one may speculate that consumption of blueberry fruit polyphenolics and particularly malvidin glycosides may be beneficial in alleviating the damaging consequences of oxidative stress in muscle tissue" - [Abstract]
  • Blueberries counteract intestinal diseases - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "blueberry fibre are important and can alleviate and protect against intestinal inflammations, such as ulcerative colitis. The protective effect is even better if the blueberries are eaten together with probiotics ... probiotics proved to have a protective effect on the liver, an organ that is often negatively impacted by intestinal inflammations"
  • Blueberry juice improves memory in older adults - Science Daily, 1/20/10 - "In the study, one group of volunteers in their 70s with early memory decline drank the equivalent of 2-2 l/2 cups of a commercially available blueberry juice every day for two months. A control group drank a beverage without blueberry juice. The blueberry juice group showed significant improvement on learning and memory tests"
  • Blueberries May Help Reduce Belly Fat, Diabetes Risk - Science Daily, 4/19/09
  • Blueberries May Banish Belly Fat - WebMD, 4/19/08 - "enriched with whole blueberry powder or carbohydrates as 2% of their total diet ... After 90 days, the rats fed blueberries had less abdominal fat, lower cholesterol, and improved glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The latter two factors are markers of how well the body processes sugar for energy and are related to diabetes risk"
  • Blueberries May Shrink Tumors in Babies - WebMD, 1/21/09 - "Mice with blood vessel tumors that were fed the blueberry extract lived twice as long as mice that did not get the substance and had tumors 60% smaller than mice that did not receive blueberry extract treatment ... Oral administration of blueberry extract represents a potential therapeutic strategy for treating endothelial cell tumors in children" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.


  • Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a lower risk of diabetic nephropathy in US adults: data from NHANES 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2017-2018 - Food Funct 2023 Apr 17 - "Weighted logistic regression models demonstrated that the total flavonoid intake in the second (OR: 0.642; 95% CI: 0.456-0.906), third (OR: 0.665; 95% CI: 0.447-0.988), and the highest (OR: 0.551; 95% CI: 0.382-0.796) quantiles (versus the lowest) were associated with the decreased risk of DN. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) analyses showed that the total flavonoid intake had a negative linear association with DN (p-value for non-linearity was 0.003). Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression analyses revealed that flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanidins were the main contributors for the combined effects of six flavonoid subclasses. Our findings suggested that higher dietary flavonoid intake was associated with a decreased risk of DN, with the greatest influence coming from flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanidins" - See anthocyanins at Amazon.com and blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Daily blueberry consumption for 12 weeks improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with above-normal blood pressure through reductions in oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial - Food Funct 2023 Feb 27 - "Estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women have oxidative stress-mediated suppression of endothelial function that is exacerbated by high blood pressure. Previous research suggests blueberries may improve endothelial function through reductions in oxidative stress, while also exerting other cardiovascular benefits ... These findings suggest daily consumption of freeze-dried blueberry powder for 12 weeks improves endothelial function through reduced oxidative stress in postmenopausal women with above-normal blood pressure" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry treatment administered before and/or after lipopolysaccharide stimulation attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in rat microglial cells - Nutr Neurosci 2023 Feb - "Microglia are key regulators of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in the CNS. Microglia activation can lead to chronic inflammation, OS, and neurodegeneration. Blueberries (BB) reduce inflammation and OS when administered to microglia before stressors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but the therapeutic value of BBs administered after activation by stressors has not been examined ... Results suggest that BBs can target the downstream events of LPS-induced microglial activation and prevent stressor-induced neuroinflammation and OS. Furthermore, BBs may not need to be present prior to microglial activation for beneficial effects, suggesting that dietary interventions may be effective even after initiation of disease processes.Graphical Abstract. Cascade of inflammatory and OS-inducing events associated with self-propelling microglial activation by LPS and the effects of blueberry (0.5 mg/mL) administered before and/or after LPS on these processes (blue arrows). BB, blueberry; COX2, cyclooxygenase-2; IκB-ɑ, inhibitor kappa-B-ɑ; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-B; NO, nitric oxide; NOX2, NADPH oxidase; OS, oxidative stress; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNFɑ, tumor necrosis factor-ɑ"
  • Six-month intervention with wild blueberries improved speed of processing in mild cognitive decline: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial - Nutr Neurosci 2022 Sep 6 - "were randomized to consume either wild blueberry (n = 44) or placebo (n = 42) powder daily for 6 months ... Tests of specific cognitive abilities using the CANTAB showed speed of processing not only improved in the blueberry intervention group relative to the placebo group across the 6-month intervention, but blueberries also restored speed of processing to the level of the reference group. The ERP results also showed that, relative to those consuming placebo, speed of processing improved for those in the blueberry group; this improvement was most prominent in those 75-80y"
  • Highly polymerized proanthocyanidins (PAC) components from blueberry leaf and stem significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection via inhibition of ACE2 and viral 3CLpro enzymes - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Apr 20 - "With the current worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatment and prevention methods against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have previously reported that the proanthocyanidin (PAC) fraction in blueberry (BB) leaves has strong antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphocytic leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In this study, we used Kunisato 35 Gou (K35) derived from the rabbit eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton), which has a high PAC content in the leaves and stems ... These results indicate that BB-PAC has at least two different inhibitory effects, and that it is effective in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of the time of infection" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary blueberry ameliorates vascular complications in diabetic mice possibly through NOX4 and modulates composition and functional diversity of gut microbes - Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Feb 4 - "Dietary blueberry suppresses vascular inflammation, attenuates arterial endothelial dysfunction and supports the growth of commensal microbes in diabetic mice. The endothelial specific vascular benefits of blueberries are mediated through NOX4 signaling" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Synergistic Effects of Combined Anthocyanin and Metformin Treatment for Hyperglycemia In Vitro and In Vivo - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 19 - "These results suggest that the use of anthocyanins can enhance the efficacy of metformin treatment for hyperglycemia and provide a reference for further clinical research regarding nutrition and supplementary treatment" -  See metformin at ReliableRX and anthocyanins at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry anthocyanin intake attenuates the postprandial cardiometabolic effect of an energy-dense food challenge: Results from a double blind, randomized controlled trial in metabolic syndrome participants - Clin Nutr 2021 Nov 27 - "For the first time, in an at-risk population, we show that single-exposure to the equivalent of 1 cup blueberries (provided as freeze-dried powder) attenuates the deleterious postprandial effects of consuming an energy-dense high-fat/high-sugar meal over 24 h; reducing insulinaemia and glucose levels, lowering cholesterol, and improving HDL-C, fractions of HDL-P and Apo-A1. Consequently, intake of anthocyanin-rich blueberries may reduce the acute cardiometabolic burden of energy-dense meals" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Neuroprotective effect of wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: Downregulation of iNOS/TNF-α and upregulation of miR-146a/miR-21 expression - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 27 - "Overall, the results revealed that BBE had potent neuroprotective efficacy against CIRI via the effective modulation of neuroinflammatory cascades and protected neurons against ischemic death"
  • Potential benefits of Berry Anthocyanins on Vascular function - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 3 - "Cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of global death. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a strong predictor for most CVD making it a therapeutic target for both drug and nutrition interventions. It has been previously shown that polyphenols from wine and grape extracts possess vasodilator activities, due to the increased expression and phosphorylation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and consequent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) production. This is vital in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction, as NO production contributes to the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, polyphenols have the ability to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative stress, as well as suppress the upregulation of inflammatory markers within the endothelium. However, while the majority of the research has focused on red wine, this has overshadowed the potential of other nutritional components for targeting ED, such as the use of berries. Berries are high in anthocyanin flavonoids a subtype of polyphenols with studies suggesting improved vascular function as a result of inducing NO production and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts on Peripheral and Hippocampal Antioxidant Defensiveness: The Analysis of the Serum Fatty Acid Species and Gut Microbiota Profile - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 12 - "The current study investigated the positive effects of blueberry anthocyanin-rich extracts (BAE) on either peripheral or hippocampal antioxidant defensiveness and established the connection of the improved antioxidant status with the altered fatty acid species and gut microbiota profile. High-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6 mice was attenuated by BAE administration, which was reflected by strengthened antioxidant enzymes, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and improved hippocampal neuronal status. Serum lipidomics analysis indicated that the fatty acid species were altered toward the elevated unsaturated/saturated ratio, along with phospholipid species toward enriched n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions. The modulated antioxidant pattern could be attributed to the increased bacteria diversity, stimulated probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers (Roseburia, Faecalibaculum, and Parabacteroides) improved by anthocyanins and their metabolites, which improved the colon environment, characterized by promoted SCFAs, restored colonic mucosa, and reorganized microbial structure. Thus, anthocyanin-rich dietary intervention is a promising approach for the defensiveness in human oxidative damage and neurodegeneration"
  • Blueberry extract as a potential pharmacological tool for preventing depressive-like behavior and neurochemical dysfunctions in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide - Nutr Neurosci 2020 Sep 21 - "Mice were pretreated with vehicle, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) or blueberry extract (100 or 200 mg/kg) intragastrically for seven days before intraperitoneal LPS (0.83 mg/kg) injection. Twenty-four hours after LPS administration, mice were submitted to behavioral tests ... blueberry extract or fluoxetine treatment protected against LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in tail suspension and splash tests (P < 0.05), without changes in locomotor activity (P > 0.05). LPS induced an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (P < 0.001), nitrite (P < 0.05) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.01), as well as a reduction in total sulfhydryl content (P < 0.05) and catalase activity (P < 0.05) in brain structures; blueberry extract restored these alterations (P < 0.05). In addition, blueberry extract attenuated the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels induced by LPS administration"
  • Improved metabolic function and cognitive performance in middle-aged adults following a single dose of wild blueberry - Eur J Nutr 2020 Aug 3 - "Research has demonstrated cognitive benefits following acute polyphenol-rich berry consumption in children and young adults. Berry intake also has been associated with metabolic benefits. No study has yet examined cognitive performance in middle-aged adults ... wild blueberry (WBB) ... Participants consumed a breakfast meal and 1-cup equivalent WBB drink or matched placebo beverage on two occasions ... Analysis of the memory-related Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT) word recognition measure revealed a decrease in performance over the test day after placebo intake, whereas performance after WBB was maintained. For the AVLT word rejection measure, participants identified more foils following WBB in comparison to placebo. Benefits were also observed for EF on the Go/No-Go task with fewer errors following WBB intake on cognitively demanding invalid No-Go trials in comparison to placebo. Furthermore, in comparison to placebo, response times were faster for the Go/No-Go task, specifically at 4 h and 8 h following WBB treatment. We also observed reduced post-meal glucose and insulin, but not triglyceride, concentrations in comparison to placebo over the first 2 h following ingestion" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Blueberry Prevents the Bladder Dysfunction in Bladder Outlet Obstruction Rats by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Suppressing Bladder Remodeling - Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Various berries demonstrate antioxidant activity, and this effect is expected to prevent chronic diseases. We examined whether a diet containing blueberry powder could prevent the development of bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Eighteen 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham (sham operated + normal diet), N-BOO (BOO operated + normal diet) and B-BOO (BOO operated + blueberry diet). Four weeks after BOO surgery, the N-BOO group developed bladder dysfunction with detrusor overactivity. The B-BOO group showed significantly improved micturition volume and micturition interval. The urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative stress markers. In the N-BOO group, 8-OHdG increased 1.6-fold and MDA increased 1.3-fold at 4 weeks after surgery, whereas the increase in 8-OHdG was significantly reduced by 1.1-fold, despite a similar increase in MDA, in the B-BOO group. Bladder remodeling was confirmed due to bladder hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased connexin43 expression in the N-BOO group, but these histological changes were reduced in the B-BOO group. The intake of blueberries prevented the development of bladder dysfunction secondary to BOO. This effect seems to be related to antioxidation and the inhibition of bladder remodeling" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and blueberry extract at iHerb.
  • Effect of 4 weeks daily wild blueberry supplementation on symptoms of depression in adolescents - Br J Nutr. 2020 Mar 10:1-22 - "we investigated the effects of four weeks, daily wild blueberry supplementation (containing ~253mg anthocyanins) on transient and chronic mood in adolescents. Healthy 12-17-year old (N = 64, 35 females) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a wild blueberry or matched placebo supplementation. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention period using the Mood and Feeling Questionnaire and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Transient affect was assessed before, two weeks, and at four weeks using Positive and Negative Affects. Following the intervention period there were significantly fewer self-reported depression symptoms in participants who were supplemented with the wild blueberry intervention compared to those who received the matched placebo (p=0.02, 95% CI -6.71 to -5.35). There was no between group effect on anxiety symptoms or on transient affect"
  • Polyphenols From Grape and Blueberry Improve Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly with Lower Level of Memory Performance: A Bicentric Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Jun 18 - "This study evaluated the effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB) on memory of healthy elderly subjects (60-70 years-old). A bicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 215 volunteers receiving 600 mg/day of PEGB (containing 258 mg flavonoids) or a placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was the CANTAB Paired Associate Learning (PAL), a visuospatial learning and episodic memory test. Secondary outcomes included verbal episodic and recognition memory (VRM) and working memory (SSP). There was no significant effect of PEGB on the PAL on the whole cohort. Yet, PEGB supplementation improved VRM-free recall. Stratifying the cohort in quartiles based on PAL at baseline revealed a subgroup with advanced cognitive decline (decliners) who responded positively to the PEGB. In this group, PEGB consumption was also associated with a better VRM-delayed recognition ... Our study demonstrates that PEGB improves age-related episodic memory decline in individuals with the highest cognitive impairments" - [Nutra USA]
  • Acute Intake of a Grape and Blueberry Polyphenol-Rich Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults During a Sustained Cognitive Effort - Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Dec 17 - "This study investigated the acute and sustained action of a polyphenols-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), on working memory and attention in healthy students during a prolonged and intensive cognitive effort. In this randomised, cross-over, double blind study, 30 healthy students consumed 600 mg of PEGB or a placebo. Ninety minutes after product intake, cognitive functions were assessed for one hour using a cognitive demand battery including serial subtraction tasks, a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task and a visual analogical scale ... A 2.5-fold increase in serial three subtraction variation net scores was observed following PEGB consumption versus placebo (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance was also observed with RVIP percentage of correct answers ... Our findings suggest that consumption of PEGB coupled with a healthy lifestyle may be a safe alternative to acutely improve working memory and attention during a sustained cognitive effort" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry Supplementation Mitigates Altered Brain Plasticity and Behaviour After Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 May 21 - "Our data indicate that BB supplementation has a beneficial value for mitigating the acute aspects of the TBI pathology"
  • Circulating anthocyanin metabolites mediate vascular benefits of blueberries: insights from randomized controlled trials, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics - The Journals of Gerontology, 16 February 2019 - "Our results identify anthocyanin metabolites as major mediators of vascular bioactivities of blueberries and changes of cellular gene program" - [Nutra USA]
  • Blueberry Polyphenols Ameliorate Visible Light and Lipid-induced Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Nov 9 - "the visual benefits of various blueberry polyphenols were evaluated using an in vitro model of visible light-lipid-induced injury of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Results showed that, at 10.0 μg/mL, the phenolic acid-rich fraction was superior in inhibiting cell death (93.6% ± 2.8% of cell viability). Anthocyanin- and flavonoid-rich fractions shared similar advantages in preventing the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (34.8% ± 11.1% and 32.2% ± 9.7% of aged cells, respectively) and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (51.8 ± 3.5 and 54.1 ± 6.5 pg/mL, respectively). Flavonoid-rich fraction also showed high activity in ameliorating phagocytosis (70.3% ± 12.6%) and cellular oxidative stress. These results were further confirmed by using the corresponding polyphenol standards. Improved inhibitory effects of polyphenol mixture on cell death and senescence-associated β-galactosidase expression were also observed. Therefore, various polyphenols play diverse roles and exert synergistic effects in nourishing the retina"
  • Polyphenols from grape and blueberry improve episodic memory in healthy elderly with lower level of memory performance: a bicentric double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Jul 19 - "The present study evaluated the effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB) on memory of healthy elderly subjects (60-70 years-old). A bicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 215 volunteers receiving 600 mg/day of PEGB (containing 258 mg flavonoids) or a placebo for 6 months ... Paired Associate Learning (PAL), a visuospatial learning and episodic memory test. Secondary outcomes included verbal episodic and recognition memory (VRM) and working memory (SSP) ... There was no significant effect of PEGB on the PAL on the whole cohort. Yet, PEGB supplementation improved VRM free recall. Stratifying the cohort in quartiles based on PAL at baseline revealed a subgroup with advanced cognitive decline (decliners) who responded positively to the PEGB. In this group, PEGB consumption was also associated with a better VRM delayed recognition. In addition to a lower polyphenol consumption, the urine metabolomic profile of decliners revealed that they excreted more metabolites. Urinary concentrations of specific flavan-3-ols metabolites were associated, at the end of the intervention, with the memory improvements. Our study demonstrates that PEGB improves age-related episodic memory decline in individuals with the highest cognitive impairments" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of anthocyanin supplementation on cardio-metabolic biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr, Jun 18 - "anthocyanin supplementation had significant effect on HOMA-IR (MD: -0.21 ... Anthocyanin supplementation had significant effects on total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) for more than 300 mg/day intervention for more than 12 weeks. The dose and duration of supplementation were the potential sources of heterogeneity among most of the trials" - [Nutra USA] - See anthocyanins at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry Supplementation Influences the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats - J Nutr. 2018 Feb 1;148(2):209-219 - "In HF-diet-fed male rats, blueberry supplementation led to compositional changes in the gut microbiota associated with improvements in systemic inflammation and insulin signaling"
  • Protective Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injury in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 2 - "These combined results supported the hypothesis that blueberry anthocyanins could inhibit the induction and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through antioxidant mechanisms" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry supplementation attenuates microglia activation and increases neuroplasticity in mice consuming a high-fat diet - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Sep 21:1-11 - "supplementation of a HFD with blueberry reduced indices of microglia activation and increased neuroplasticity, and these changes may underlie the protection against memory deficits in HFD-fed mice supplemented with blueberry"
  • The effect of anthocyanin supplementation in modulating platelet function in sedentary population: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial - Br J Nutr. 2017 Sep;118(5):368-374 - "The anti-thrombotic properties of anthocyanin (ACN) supplementation was evaluated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo (PBO) controlled, cross-over design, dietary intervention trial in sedentary population. In all, sixteen participants (three males and thirteen females) consumed ACN (320 mg/d) or PBO capsules for 28 d followed by a 2-week wash-out period ... The findings suggest that dietary ACN supplementation has the potential to alleviate biomarkers of thrombogenesis, platelet hyperactivation and hyper-aggregation in sedentary population" - See anthocyanin at Amazon.com.
  • Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Mar 1 - "Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Mar 1 - "Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline ... Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5±3.0 y; BMI, 25.9±3.3 kg.m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ±3.3 y; BMI, 27.1±.4.0 kg.m-2) ... Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults" - [Nutra USA] - Don't like blueberries but strawberries are in season at Costco.  I've been making juice out of them.  Also, see blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice - Front Behav Neurosci. 2016 Feb 9 - "In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and OPCs+95 at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin in high-fat diet-treated mice - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Feb 22:1-8 - "This study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin (BA) in high-fat diet-induced obese male C57BL/6 mice. BA at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg was supplemented in the daily food of obese C57BL/6 mice during an 8-week experiment. Our findings indicate that consumption of BA at high doses reduced body weight by 19.4%, whereas both low and middle doses did not affect the body weight. Furthermore, BA supplementation at high dose could effectively decrease serum glucose, attenuate epididymal adipocytes, improve lipid profiles, and significantly down-regulate expression levels of TNFα, IL-6 PPARγ, and FAS genes"
  • Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jan 20 - "Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline"
  • Nutraceutical intervention reverses the negative effects of blood from aged rats on stem cells - Age (Dordr). 2015 Oct - "Aging is associated with a decline in function in many of the stem cell niches of the body. An emerging body of literature suggests that one of the reasons for this decline in function is due to cell non-autonomous influences on the niche from the body ... We examined if we could reverse this effect of aged serum on stem cell proliferation by treating aged rats with NT-020, a dietary supplement containing blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3, and carnosine that has been shown to increase neurogenesis in aged rats. Young and aged rats were administered either control NIH-31 diet or one supplemented with NT-020 for 28 days, and serum was collected upon euthanasia ... Serum from aged rats significantly reduced cell proliferation as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays in both NPCs and MSCs. Serum from aged rats treated with NT-020 was not different from serum from young rats. Therefore, NT-020 rescued the effect of serum from aged rats to reduce stem cell proliferation"
  • The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 22:1-8 - "Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance ... rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy" - [Nutra USA] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Middle-Aged Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jan 21 - "To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, nine month old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder ... Blueberry-supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets ... After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days two and three of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets"
  • Whole Blueberry Powder Inhibits Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in a Xenograft Mouse Model Through Modulation of Inflammatory Cytokines - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 23 - "Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises approximately 15% of breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis ... we induced a proinflammatory microenvironment by feeding female MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice a high fat western diet (W) with 5% whole blueberry powder (BB) and studied the effect on tumor formation and metastasis. We showed that mice fed a BB diet had significantly smaller tumors, less ulceration, and significantly less metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes than mice fed a W diet. In BB-fed mice, serum levels of specific antiinflammatory cytokines were increased and specific cytokine expression was also altered. Together, these results suggest that blueberries may inhibit TNBC and TNBC-related metastasis by reducing inflammation via specific cytokine-driven pathways and thus reduce tumor growth and metastasis" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "Blueberry intake acutely improves vascular function in healthy men in a time- and intake-dependent manner. These benefits may be mechanistically linked to the actions of circulating phenolic metabolites on neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity"
  • Blueberries prevent the effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rat epididymis - Andrologia. 2013 Aug 19 - "Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) induced a decrease in sperm count and oxidative damage in epididymis. We have previously demonstrated that a blueberry-enriched polyphenol extract (BB-4) reduced the adverse effects of oxidative stress in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BB-4 could reverse oxidative stress in epididymis ... Our results showed a reduction in LPO and a decrease in GR activity in rat epididymis exposed to IHH. These results suggest that BB-4 can prevent the effects of IHH in rat epididymis"
  • High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women - Circulation. 2013 Jan 15 - "We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment ... Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk"
  • Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 9:1-9 - "Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0.5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107.5 (sem 4.7) v. 122.2 (sem 2.1) mmHg, P = 0.018; week 10 SBP: 115.0 (sem 3.1) v. 132.7 (sem 1.5) mmHg, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118.2 (sem 3.6) v. 139.5 (sem 4.5) mmHg, P < 0.0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to l-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet"
  • Whole Blueberry Powder Modulates the Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Tumors in Nude Mice - J Nutr. 2011 Aug 31 - "In this study, tumor volume was 75% lower in mice fed the 5% BB diet and 60% lower in mice fed the 10% BB diet than in control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) was lower in the 5 and 10% BB-fed mice and cell death (Caspase 3) was greater in the 10% BB-fed mice compared to control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Gene analysis of tumor tissues from the 5% BB-fed mice revealed significantly altered expression of genes important to inflammation, cancer, and metastasis, specifically, Wnt signaling, thrombospondin-2, IL-13, and IFNγ. To confirm effects on Wnt signaling, analysis of tumor tissues from 5% BB-fed mice revealed lower β-catenin expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation with greater expression of the β-catenin inhibitory protein adenomatous polyposis coli compared to controls. A second study tested the ability of the 5% BB diet to inhibit MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN metastasis in vivo. In this study, 5% BB-fed mice developed 70% fewer liver metastases (P = 0.04) and 25% fewer lymph node metastases (P = 0.09) compared to control mice. This study demonstrates the oral antitumor and metastasis activity of whole BB powder against TNBC in mice"
  • A Wild Blueberry-Enriched Diet ( Vaccinium angustifolium ) Improves Vascular Tone in the Adult Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 24 - "The vasoconstriction elicited by Phe was reduced in the WB group, attributed to the NO pathway, favoring a lower vascular tone under basal conditions. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the WB group was possibly mediated through the COX, but not the NO pathway. These findings document the potential of wild blueberries to modify major pathways of vasomotor control and improve the vascular tone in the adult SHR with endothelial dysfunction"
  • Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 19 - "Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 +/- 0.5 mg.kg FFM(-1).min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 +/- 0.4 mg.kg FFM(-1).min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants"
  • Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome - J Nutr. 2010 Jul 21 - "Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2); age: 50.0 +/- 3.0 y (mean +/- SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, approximately 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (-6 and -4%, respectively) than in controls (-1.5 and -1.2%) (P < 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (-28 and -17%, respectively) than in the control group (-9 and -9%) (P < 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses"
  • Blueberry fruit polyphenolics suppress oxidative stress-induced skeletal muscle cell damage in vitro - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Mar;54(3):353-63 - "These in vitro data support the concept that blueberry fruits or derived foods rich in malvidin glycosides may be beneficial in alleviating muscle damage caused by oxidative stress" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic Mice - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Blueberries or bilberries contain large amounts of anthocyanins, making them one of the richest sources of dietary anthocyanin ... bilberry extract (BBE) ... Dietary BBE significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity ... These findings provide a biochemical basis for the use of bilberry fruits and have important implications for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via activation of AMPK" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults (dagger) - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 4 - "Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers, mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration ... At 12 weeks, improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04) were observed. In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms"
  • Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 - "Anthocyanin consumption increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.7% and 2.8% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and decreased LDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.6% and -0.6% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001). The cellular cholesterol efflux to serum increased more in the anthocyanin group than in the placebo group (20.0% and 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). Anthocyanin supplementation decreased the mass and activity of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (10.4% and 6.3% in the anthocyanin group and -3.5% and 1.1% in the placebo group, respectively; P < 0.001)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and bilberry at Amazon.com.