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Home > Anti-aging Research > Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum)

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News & Research:

  • Garlic Supplements, H Pylori Treatment Tied to Lower Gastric Cancer Mortality - Medscape, 7/17/20 - "Participants were randomly assigned to vitamin and garlic supplementation, H. pylori treatment, or a placebo and followed for up to 22.3 years starting at a mean age of 47.1 years ... Garlic supplements were associated with lower gastric cancer mortality risk (0.31) among participants with H. pylori who never drank alcohol" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com.
  • Could eating garlic reduce aging-related memory problems? - Science Daily, 4/8/19 - "Consuming garlic helps counteract age-related changes in gut bacteria associated with memory problems, according to a new study conducted with mice. The benefit comes from allyl sulfide, a compound in garlic known for its health benefits ... the researchers gave oral allyl sulfide to mice that were 24 months old, which correlates to people between 56 and 69 years of age. They compared these mice with 4- and 24-month-old mice not receiving the dietary allyl sulfide supplement ... The researchers observed that the older mice receiving the garlic compound showed better long- and short-term memory and healthier gut bacteria than the older mice that didn't receive the treatment. Spatial memory was also impaired in the 24-month-old mice not receiving allyl sulfide ... The researchers also found that oral allyl sulfide administration produces hydrogen sulfide gas -- a messenger molecule that prevents intestinal inflammation -- in the gut lumen" - See aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Consuming garlic and onions may lower colorectal cancer risk - Science Daily, 2/21/19 - "The odds of having colorectal cancer was 79 percent lower in adults who consumed high amounts of allium vegetable compared with those who consumed low amounts"
  • Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats - Nutrients. 2017 Jul 1;9(7)- "AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity ... We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats"
  • Drinking milk can prevent garlic breath, study finds - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "drinking milk while eating garlic-heavy food can reduce the malodorous breath associated with garlic consumption"
  • Aged garlic reduces cold and flu severity: RCT data - Nutra USA, 1/26/12 - "Supplements of an aged garlic extract may reduce the number of days a person suffers from cold and ‘flu by 61% ... Ninety days of consuming the garlic supplement also produced a 21% reduction in the number of symptoms of colds or flu" - [Abstract]
  • Garlic doesn't just repel vampires - Science Daily, 8/15/11
  • Garlic could protect against hip osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 12/16/10 - "women who consume a diet high in allium vegetables, such as garlic, onions and leeks, have lower levels of hip osteoarthritis ... a compound called diallyl disulphide limits the amount of cartilage-damaging enzymes when introduced to a human cartilage cell-line in the laboratory ... While we don't yet know if eating garlic will lead to high levels of this component in the joint, these findings may point the way towards future treatments and prevention of hip osteoarthritis"
  • Aged garlic shows blood pressure improvement benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 11/17/10 - "an aged garlic extract may reduce systolic blood pressure by 10.2 mmHg ... the benefits were only observed in people with initial systolic pressure (SBP) of 140 mmHg or over, and that no effects were observed in people with lower SBP ... aged garlic extract of 3.84 grams (Kyolic, Garlic High Potency Everyday Formula 112, Wakunga/Wagner) or placebo for 12 weeks ... Results showed a “marked difference” between the garlic and control groups in subjects with ‘uncontrolled hypertension’" - [Abstract]
  • Garlic oil may reverse diabetes linked heart disease - Nutra USA, 9/30/10 - "garlic oil supplementation for diabetic rats leads to several alterations at multiple levels in hearts including cardiac contractile functions and structures, myosin chain gene expressions, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and related signaling activities" - [Abstract]
  • Garlic oil shows protective effect against heart disease in diabetes - Science Daily, 9/29/10 - "Garlic has "significant" potential for preventing cardiomyopathy, a form of heart disease that is a leading cause of death in people with diabetes ... people with diabetes have at least twice the risk of death from heart disease as others ... The scientists fed either garlic oil or corn oil to laboratory rats with diabetes. Animals given garlic oil experienced beneficial changes associated with protection against heart damage"
  • Chemists Shed Light On Health Benefits Of Garlic - Science Daily, 1/30/09 - "Along with onions, leeks and shallots, garlic is a species in the family Alliaceae. All of these other plants contain a compound that is very similar to allicin, but they do not have the same medicinal properties. Dr. Pratt and his colleagues believe that this is due to a slower rate of decomposition of the allicin analogs in the onions, leaks and shallots, which leads to a lower level of sulfenic acid available to react as antioxidants with radicals"
  • Garlic and onions may reduce cholesterol gallstones: Study - Nutra USA, 11/27/08 - "Mice were divided into groups – one group was fed the lithogenic diet, and the others fed the lithogenic diet supplemented with 0.6 and 2.0 per cent garlic and onion, respectively ... The incidence of gallstones in the latter group was found to be reduced by 15 to 30 per cent" - [Abstract] - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic Chemical Tablet Treats Diabetes I And II, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 11/19/08 - "A drug based on a chemical found in garlic can treat diabetes types I and II when taken as a tablet"
  • Unpopular veggies vital for cancer protection: Study - Nutra USA, 10/7/08 - "Significant inhibition of all the cancer cell lines tested – stomach, lung, breast, kidney, skin, pancreas, prostate, and brain – was observed for all the extracts from cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and curly cabbage, and vegetables of the genus Allium, such as garlic ... These chemopreventive effects are likely related to the formation of organosulfur compounds following mechanical disruption of these vegetables, namely isothiocyanates from cruciferous and a series of allyl sulfur molecules from Allium vegetables"
  • Why Garlic Is Good for You - WebMD, 10/15/07 - "red blood cells process compounds from digested garlic and turn them into the cell messenger hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which relaxes blood vessels and increases blood flow. Therefore, eating garlic may increase our natural supply of this vital chemical and play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease"
  • Garlic's Goodness Best Released With A Crush - Science Daily, 10/6/07
  • Garlic May Not Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 2/26/07 - "The numbers just didn't move. There was no effect with any of these three products, even though fairly high doses were used"
  • Cooking Garlic? Crush It First - WebMD, 2/16/07 - "most garlic studies have tested raw garlic, and cooking can damage those anticlotting compounds ... Crushing garlic may help prevent that damage"
  • Onions and Garlic May Prevent Cancers - WebMD, 11/21/06 - "people whose diets are rich in onions, garlic, and other alliums have a much lower risk of several types of cancer than those who avoid the pungent herbs"
  • Garlic compounds may stop liver cancer growth - Nutra USA, 5/4/06 - "A one per cent solution of each garlic extracts appeared to inhibit the growth of the tumour completely"
  • Can 2 Garlic Cloves a Day Keep the Doc Away? - WebMD, 4/4/05 - "Ku's team recently found that allicin -- a compound found in garlic -- prevents a mild form of pulmonary hypertension in rats. Now they find that the garlic compound prevents a much more severe form of pulmonary hypertension in rats"
  • The high five for hypertension - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 12/04 - "Co-enzyme Q10 ... Omega-3 fatty acids ... Garlic ... L-arginine ... Calcium"
  • Garlic Consumption Appears to Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 10/18/04 - "those patients with the highest consumption of garlic were more likely to have systolic blood pressures under 100 mm Hg than individuals with lower garlic consumption. While the group that had eaten more garlic also had lower diastolic blood-pressure readings, the difference were not as robust"
  • Garlic may reduce risk of prostate cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03 - "The study indicated that eating just a tenth of an ounce of scallions daily lowers prostate cancer risk by about 70%; that same amount of garlic reduces the risk by about 53%. The study authors suggest that one clove of garlic daily can achieve desired preventive effects"
  • Bad Breath, Healthy Prostate - New Hope Natural Media, 12/20/02 - "Men who consumed more than 10 grams per day of Allium vegetables had almost a 50% reduction in risk of developing prostate cancer, compared with those who consumed less than 2.2 grams per day. Garlic was the most commonly consumed Allium vegetable, followed by scallions and chives"
  • Garlic May Prevent Cancer - Intelihealth, 11/6/02
  • Garlic, Chives Reduce Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 11/5/02 - "filling your diet with garlic and scallions can help reduce the chance of this potentially deadly cancer ... Garlic and scallions, along with onions, leeks, chives, and shallots, are rich in flavonols, substances in plants that have been shown to have antitumor effects. All of these vegetables have previously been linked to lower risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, esophagus, and perhaps breast ... although fruits and vegetables slightly reduced prostate cancer, the lower risk associated with allium vegetables was much more pronounced"


  • Allicin attenuated hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice by regulating PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signal pathway - Food Funct 2022 Jun 22 - "Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the liver is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following liver surgery, trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. It was reported that allicin, a type of garlic compound, had a protective effect against other hepatic diseases ... Conclusion: Allicin protects against hepatic I/R injury via dose-dependent regulation of the PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signaling pathway, and it may be a potential drug in future clinical treatment" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Biological properties and therapeutic applications of garlic and its components - Food Funct 2022 Mar 7 - "It has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory capacities. Garlic, in particular its organosulfur compounds, can maintain immune system homeostasis through positive effects on immune cells, especially by regulating cytokine proliferation and expression. This may underlie their usefulness in the treatment of infectious and tumor processes. These compounds can also offer vascular benefits by regulating lipid metabolism or by exerting antihypertensive and antiaggregant effects"
  • Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds regulate metabolic and immune pathways in macrophages and attenuate intestinal inflammation in mice - Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Feb 2 - "Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and IEC, and regulate gene expression during intestinal infection. These compounds and related organic molecules may thus hold potential as functional food components to improve gut health in humans and animals"
  • Effect of Garlic ( Allium sativum) Supplementation on Premenstrual Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Nov 1 - "After identification of participants with moderate-to-severe PMS through the premenstrual symptoms screening tools questionnaire (PSST), they were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 64) or garlic (n = 65) groups. Each participant received one tablet daily for three consecutive cycles and logged the severity of their symptoms in the PSST questionnaire during the intervention period ... After treatment with garlic for three consecutive cycles, the total score of the severity of premenstrual symptoms significantly (P < 0.001) reduced from 34.09 ± 7.31 to 11.21 ± 7.17. In the placebo group, this score changed from 33.35 ± 7.96 to 24.28 ± 7.22. The difference between mean changes in the two groups was 13.78, with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 11.23-16.33." - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Potential Interaction of Fresh Garlic with Metformin during Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Cardiac Injury in Diabetic Rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Sep 4 - "The combined therapy of MET and garlic provided synergistic cardioprotection, implying that garlic seems to possess promise in lowering toxic parameters by protecting diabetic induced myocardial injury" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com and metformin at ReliableRX.
  • Quercetin and Allicin Can Alleviate the Hepatotoxicity of Lead (Pb) through the PI3K Signaling Pathway - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 9 - "Lead (Pb) is a common toxic heavy metal pollutant in the environment that seriously endangers the health of animals. The liver is a key target organ affected by Pb toxicity. Plant extracts allicin and quercetin have a strong antioxidant capacity that can promote the excretion of heavy metals by improving the body's antioxidant defense and chelating heavy metal ions ... In summary, allicin and quercetin could alleviate oxidative damage and apoptosis in the Pb-poisoned chicken liver through the PI3K signaling pathway, with stronger effects achieved by their combination" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb and aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Attenuation of chronic tension headache frequency and severity with daily L-arginine and aged garlic extract dietary supplementation - Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 23 - "A 74-year-old female subject with suboptimal management of episodic tension headache was treated with a daily dose of 1.5 g L-arginine and 1.2 g aged garlic extract (AGE) ... Within 6 weeks of commencing treatment, her self-reported symptoms improved markedly and were sustained at 2 years following commencement. We propose that the putative beneficial effect of L-arginine and AGE in this patient is because of the well-established systemic vasodilatory effects of L-arginine and aged garlic extract. On the hypothesis that migraine is precipitated by cerebral microvascular constriction, we recommend a double-blind randomised controlled trial to clinically test this hypothesis in migraine patients" - See l-arginine products at Amazon.com and l-arginine at iHerb and garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com.
  • Effects of garlic powder supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, insulin resistance, fatty liver index, and appetite in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial - Phytother Res 2021 May 11 - "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing. It is closely linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Garlic consumption as a strategy for the management of MetS has been suggested ... Ninety subjects were assigned to receive 1,600 mg/d garlic powder or placebo for 3 months ... Garlic supplementation compared with the placebo led to a significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.5 vs. -1.8, p < .001) and a significant reduction in waist circumference (-1.3 vs. 0.0, p = .001), diastolic blood pressure (-6.7 vs. 0.0, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (-7.7 vs. 0.5, p < .001), triglyceride (-40.0 vs. 0.1, p < .001), γ-glutamyl transferase (-3.2 vs. 0.6, p = .01), FLI (-5.5 vs. 0.1, p < .001), insulin (-2.9 vs. -1.1, p < .001), homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (-0.5 vs. -0.3, p < .001) and appetite (hunger: -11.7 vs. 1.7, p < .001; fullness: 10.0 vs. 0.3, p = .001; desire to eat: -6.7 vs. 2.1, p < .001; and ability to eat: -11.5 vs. -1.0, p < .001). Garlic improves MetS components, insulin resistance, FLI, and appetite"
  • Aged Garlic Extract Reduces IL-6: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Females with a Low Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Mar 3 - "Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease ... The present study concludes that AGE lowers IL-6 in females with a risk profile of cardiovascular disease" - See aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of garlic supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Phytother Res 2021 Jan 23 - "Evidence suggests that garlic supplementation may have an effect on oxidative stress by augmenting the rate of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and diminishing pro-oxidant enzymes ... Twelve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Garlic doses ranged from 80 to 4,000 mg/day, and intervention duration varied between 2 and 24 weeks. Garlic supplementation increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Hedges' g: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.17, p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Hedges' g: 13.76, 95% CI: 4.24 to 23.29, p = 0.004), while it reduced the malondialdehyde serum level (MDA) (Hedges' g: -1.94, 95% CI: -3.17 to -0.70, p = 0.002). Due to limited data available, glutathione (GSH) was not considered for the current meta-analysis. The nonlinear dose-response effect of garlic supplementation was not observed with regard to serum TAC and MDA levels (TAC: p-nonlinearity = 0.398; MDA: p-nonlinearity = 0.488). Garlic supplementation appears to improve serum levels of TAC, MDA, and SOD. Garlic supplementation may be useful to reduce oxidative stress and related diseases" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Selected root plant supplementation reduces indices of exercise-induced muscle damage: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Nov 16 - "This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of selected root plants (curcumin, ginseng, ginger and garlic) on markers of muscle damage and muscular performance measures following muscle-damaging protocols. We included 25 studies (parallel and crossover design) with 353 participants and used the PEDro scale to appraise each study ... The meta-analysis showed that the supplemental (SUPP) condition showed significantly lower levels of indirect muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) and muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours (p < 0.01) than the placebo (PLA) condition. The inflammatory markers were significantly lower for the SUPP condition than the PLA condition at 24 hours (p = 0.02), although no differences were identified at 48 hours (p = 0.40). There were no significant differences in muscular performance measures between the SUPP and PLA conditions at 24 hours and 48 hours (p > 0.05) post-exercise. According to our qualitative data, a number of studies reported a reduction in oxidative stress (e.g., malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase) with a concomitant upregulation of anti-oxidant status, although other studies showed no effects. Accordingly, selected root plants minimised the level of several biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation and muscle soreness during periods of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the benefits of these supplements in ameliorating oxidative stress, increasing anti-oxidant status and accelerating recovery of muscular performance appears equivocal, warranting further research in these outcome measures" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb, ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb and garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com.
  • Effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial - Br J Nutr. 2020 Apr 21:1-18 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There is no proven drug treatment for NAFLD and diet modification is considered part of the main line of treatment for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of garlic supplementation in NAFLD patients. The effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile was investigated in NAFLD patients. Ninety NAFLD patients were randomly assigned to take either a garlic powder supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The treatment group received four tablets of garlic daily (each tablet contained 400 mg garlic powder). The control group received four tablets of placebo (each placebo contained 400 mg starch). At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (P = 0.001). In addition, a significant decrease was seen in the treatment group compared to the control group in the serum concentration of alanine transaminase (P < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (P = 0.002), gamma-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.003), as well as total cholesterol (P = 0.009), triglyceride (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the two groups in serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase. Overall, garlic powder supplementation improved hepatic features and lipid profile among NAFLD patients"
  • Antiatherosclerosis Properties of Total Saponins of Garlic in Rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Feb 27 - "atherosclerosis (AS) ... total saponins of garlic (TSG) ... Administration of TSG markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of atherosclerotic rats. TSG restored the serum lipid profile by significantly decreasing the lipid levels and had effective antioxidation by inhibiting the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and restoring the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Additionally, the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α ) could be maintained in a relatively stable dynamic balance after administration of TSG to maintain the vascular homeostasis. In summary, TSG had therapeutic effects on AS, which are promising as functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of AS." - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, evaluating the garlic supplement effects on some serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, and quality of life in women with rheumatoid arthritis - Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Mar 11 - "Seventy women with RA participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, receiving two tablets of either 500 mg garlic or placebo daily for eight weeks ... total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) ... health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) ... At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in serum levels of TAC in the garlic group as compared to the placebo group (26.58±77.30 nmol of Trolox equivalent/ml vs. 16.11±0.92 nmol of Trolox equivalent/ml; P=0.026). In addition, MDA levels were significantly decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (-0.82±1.99 nmol/ml vs. 0.36±2.57 nmol/ml; P=0.032). Pain after activity and HAQ scores decreased in the garlic group compared to the placebo (-11.96±13.43 mm vs. -0.06±13.41 mm; P<0.001, 0.17±20 vs. 0.05±0.15; P<0.001, respectively)" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of garlic supplementation on weight loss: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Jul 30:1-13 - "Pooled analysis showed that garlic administration might significantly decrease WC (Weighed Mean Difference (WMD): -1.10 cm, 95% CI: -2.13, -0.07, P = 0.03, I2 = 0%). However, garlic intervention had no significant effect on body weight (WMD): -0.17 kg, 95% CI: -0.75 to 0.39, P = 0.54, I2 = 0%) and BMI (WMD: -0.17 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.52, 0.16, P = 0.30, I2 = 44.5%) as compared to controls. From Subgroup analysis, it was ascertained that the effect of garlic supplementation on BMI was significant in trials with duration < 12 weeks (WMD: -0.58 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.08, -0.08, I2 = 19.8%, P = 0.02) compared to those with higher duration (>12 weeks). The current meta-analysis results suggest that garlic supplementation seems to reduce waist circumference unlike body weight and BMI."
  • Garlic extract favorably modifies markers of endothelial function in obese patients -randomized double blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention - Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun;102:792-797 - "At the end of study SI (p = 0.01), hsCRP (p < 0.001, PAI-1 (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001), and TAS (p < 0.01) were reduced in the GE-supplemented group, but not in the placebo group" - [Nutra USA]
  • Aged garlic extract supplementation modifies inflammation and immunity of adults with obesity: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Apr;24:148-155 - "At the end of study, serum IL-6 (p = 0.04) and TNF-α (p = 0.05) of participants consuming AGE were significantly lower than those consuming the placebo capsules. PBMC flow cytometry results showed that participants from the AGE group had a higher proportion of γδ-T cells (p = 0.03) and a lower proportion of NKT cells (p = 0.02) in the total population of lymphocytes. There was no difference in percentage of NK cells between the two groups. A significant difference in blood LDL concentration was also observed" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome - J Diet Suppl. 2017 Sep 28:1-8 - "Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p < .05), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001), triglycerides (p < .01), fasting blood glucose (p < .0001) and significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol"
  • Aged garlic extract suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 20 - "The anti-atherosclerotic effect of AGE involves the suppression of inflammation by reducing the serum level of CRP and TXB2 , and the protein level of TNF-α and IRAK4, and increasing AMPK activity in liver" - See aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats - Nutrients. 2017 Jul 1;9(7)- "AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity ... We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats - Nutrients. 2017 Jan 3;9(1) - "Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain ... Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects ... Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats" - See Now Foods Garlic 5000 Tablets, 90 Count at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:8142394 - "These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM"
  • Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Phytother Res. 2016 May 18 - "Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH"
  • The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial - Integr Blood Press Control. 2016 Jan 27;9:9-21 - "a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure ... Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo ... Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable with a high safety profile as a stand-alone or adjunctive antihypertensive treatment" - [Nutra USA]
  • Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections"
  • Garlic and Heart Disease - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses)" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of aged garlic extract and its constituent, s-allyl cysteine, in rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:328545 - "Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats ... Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress"
  • Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Phytomedicine. 2015 Mar 15 - "A total of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified. Compared with the placebo, this meta-analysis revealed a significant lowering effect of garlic on both systolic BP (WMD: -6.71 mmHg; 95% CI: -12.44 to -0.99; P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (WMD: -4.79 mmHg; 95% CI: -6.60 to -2.99; P < 0.00001). No serious adverse events were reported in any of the trials" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Garlic on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015 Jan 5 - "Pooled analysis showed that garlic intake caused a 3.75-mm Hg reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.04 to -2.45, I2 =30.7%; P<.001) in systolic BP and a 3.39-mm Hg reduction (95% CI, -4.14 to -2.65, I2 =67%; P<.001) in diastolic BP compared with controls. Meta-analysis of subgroups showed a significant reduction in systolic BP in hypertensive (-4.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, -7.37 to -1.42, I2 =0.0%; P=.004) but not normotensive patients"
  • Meta-Analysis: Does Garlic Intake Reduce Risk of Gastric Cancer? - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Nov 20:1-11 - "Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer ... High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively)" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 May 23 - "investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of NAFLD ... These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress"
  • Garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ischemic stroke - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(7):600-4 - "ischemic stroke (ISS) ... 125 Chinese patients with prior ISS due to athero-thrombotic disease were recruited from the outpatient clinics during July 2005 to December 2006 ... validated food frequency questionnaire ... Daily garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ISS and may play a role in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Jul;6(7):711-8 - "Epidemiologic data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standard questionnaire among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls ... raw garlic consumption of 2 times or more per week is inversely associated with lung cancer (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44-0.72) with a monotonic dose-response relationship"
  • Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 21 - "A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo ... Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8+/-5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (-7.4+/-4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily"
  • Garlic extract attenuating rat liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1 - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 24 - "These findings concurrently suggested that GE elicited therapeutic effect against liver fibrosis. Regression of liver fibrosis occurred by reducing myofibroblasts (through modulation of HSCs activation mechanisms), remodelling extracellular matrix (through increase of its degradation) and regenerating liver tissue and functions: three processes regulated by fine mechanisms where active TGF-β1 and tTG play a central role".
  • Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 24 - "After 45 d of consuming an encapsulated aged garlic extract, γδ-T cells (p = 0.039, n = 56) and NK cells (p = 0.043, n = 56) were shown to proliferate better compared to placebo. After 90 d of supplementation, illness diary entries showed that the incidence of colds and flu, a secondary outcome, were not statistically different; however, the group consuming the aged garlic extract appeared to have reduced severity as noted by a reduction in the number of symptoms reported (21% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test of proportions), a reduction in the number of days (61% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test) and incidences (58% fewer p < 0.001, z-test) where the subjects functioned sub-optimally and the number of work/school days missed due to illness (58% fewer, p = 0.035, z-test) ... These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu"
  • Vitamin, mineral, and specialty supplements and risk of hematologic malignancies in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jul 29 - "After adjustment, high use of garlic supplements (≥4 days/week for ≥3 years; HR=0.55 [95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.87]; p=0.028 for trend) and ever use of grape seed supplements (HR=0.57 [0.37-0.88]) were inversely associated with hematologic malignancies in our models. In addition, high use (8-10 pill-years) of multivitamins was suggestive of an inverse association (HR)=0.80 [0.64-1.01]). In contrast, no associations were observed for the remaining supplements ... These data indicate that use of garlic and grape seed may be associated with reduced risk of hematologic malignancies.Impact: This is the first cohort study to suggest a possible role of these supplements in the chemoprevention of hematologic malignancies"
    • Hematological malignancy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes"
  • S-allylmercaptocysteine effectively inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions - Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 30 - "S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has been demonstrated as a suppressive agent against some tumors. The effects of SAMC on the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated here. The viabilities and migrations of CRC cells SW480, SW620, Caco-2 treated with SAMC were measured by MTT, scratch-wound, and transwell assays. The in vivo anticancer effect of SAMC against luciferase-expressing SW620 xenografts in mice was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology observation. The apoptosis of SAMC-treated CRC cells was examined by Western blotting. The results demonstrate that SAMC could effectively suppress the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. The anticancer effect of SAMC was related to the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis as well as necrosis of cancer cells. Oral administration of SAMC in the quantity/concentration used had no apparent toxic side effect on the vital organs of the experimental mice. Taken together, the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells can be significantly suppressed by SAMC treatment under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. SAMC may thus be a promising candidate for CRC chemotherapy"
  • Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial - Maturitas. 2010 Oct;67(2):144-50 - "In patients with uncontrolled hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg at baseline), systolic blood pressure was on average 10.2 +/- 4.3 mmHg (p=0.03) lower in the garlic group compared with controls over the 12-week treatment period. Changes in blood pressure between the groups were not significant in patients with SBP<140 mmHg at baseline. Aged garlic extract was generally well tolerated and acceptability of trial treatment was high (92%)"
  • Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via nrf2 - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):947-57 - "Treatment with allicin resulted in HCT-116 apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, decreased levels of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), increased levels of bax and increased capability of releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Allicin also induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to the nuclei of HCT-116 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells"
  • Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Are Ameliorated by Garlic Oil Supplementation - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Sep 13 - "these diabetes-related cardiac dysfunctions were almost dose-dependently ameliorated by garlic oil administration. In conclusion, garlic oil possesses significant potential for protecting hearts from diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy"
  • Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: A randomised controlled trial - Maturitas. 2010 Jun 29 - "In patients with uncontrolled hypertension (SBP>/=140mmHg at baseline), systolic blood pressure was on average 10.2+/-4.3mmHg (p=0.03) lower in the garlic group compared with controls over the 12-week treatment period. Changes in blood pressure between the groups were not significant in patients with SBP<140mmHg at baseline. Aged garlic extract was generally well tolerated and acceptability of trial treatment was high (92%). CONCLUSION: Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension"
  • Time-released garlic powder tablets lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men with mild and moderate arterial hypertension - Hypertens Res. 2009 Apr 24 - "hypotensive action of time-released garlic powder tablets (Allicor) was compared with that of regular garlic pills (Kwai) in 84 men with mild or moderate arterial hypertension ... Allicor treatment (600 mg daily) resulted in a reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures by 7.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 5.3-8.7) and 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.7-4.8), respectively. Increasing the Allicor dosage to 2400 mg daily did not provide any additional benefit. Treatment with Kwai resulted in the same decrease in systolic blood pressure (5.4 mm Hg, 95% CI: 1.9-8.8) as that seen with Allicor, but no decrease in diastolic blood pressure was observed with Kwai ... The results of this study show that time-released garlic powder tablets are more effective for the treatment of mild and moderate arterial hypertension than are regular garlic supplements"
  • Dietary garlic and onion reduce the incidence of atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice - Br J Nutr. 2008 Nov 5:1-9 - "Dietary garlic and onion markedly reduced biliary cholesterol ... Serum and liver cholesterol were decreased by feeding garlic or onion compared to the LG diet. Thus, dietary Allium spices exerted antilithogenic influence by decreasing the cholesterol hyper-secretion into bile and increasing the bile acid output thus decreasing the formation of lithogenic bile in experimental mice"
  • Effects of Garlic on Blood Pressure in Patients With and Without Systolic Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis (December) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Nov 18 - "Garlic reduced SBP by 16.3 mm Hg (95% CI 6.2 to 26.5) and DBP by 9.3 mmHg (95% CI 5.3 to 13.3) compared with placebo in patients with elevated SBP"
  • Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia - Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):672-6 - "Compared with nonusers, the multivariate ORs for the highest category of onion and garlic intake were 0.41 ... This uniquely large data set from European populations showed an inverse association between allium vegetable consumption and BPH"
  • Onion and garlic use and human cancer - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1027-32 - "The multivariate ORs for the highest category of onion and garlic intake were, respectively, 0.16 and 0.61 for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, 0.12 and 0.43 for esophageal cancer, 0.44 and 0.74 for colorectal cancer, 0.17 and 0.56 for laryngeal cancer, 0.75 and 0.90 for breast cancer, 0.27 and 0.78 for ovarian cancer, 0.29 and 0.81 for prostate cancer, and 0.62 and 0.69 for renal cell cancer"
  • Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk - J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3):810S-2S - "compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE in helping prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and lowering the risk of dementia and AD"
  • Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications - J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3):796S-9S - "S-Allylcysteine, a key component of aged garlic, is a potent antioxidant and can inhibit AGEP formation"
  • Aged garlic extract improves homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in macro- and microcirculation - J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3):750S-4S - "AGE may at least partly prevent a decrease in bioavailable NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor during acute hyperhomocysteinemia"
  • Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):701-6 - "garlic powder tablets have no clinically relevant lipid-lowering and blood pressure-lowering effects in middle-aged, normo-lipidaemic individuals. The putative anti-atherosclerotic effect of garlic may be linked to risk markers other than blood lipids"
  • Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture - Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Aug;66(2):398-405 - "These data provide further evidence that nonessential nutrients derived from garlic may modulate tumor growth."