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Home > Health Conditions > Colds/Flu

Colds/Flu

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  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Inversely Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People - J Nutr 2020 Nov 13 - "In the general linear model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and BMI, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower among COVID-19 patients than the 2018-2019 controls [ln transformed values of 3.32 ± 0.04 vs. 3.46 ± 0.022 ln (nmol/L), P = 0.014]. Multivariable logistic regression showed that male sex (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.82), advanced age (≥65 y) (OR: 4.93; 95% CI: 1.44, 16.9), and vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.23, 6.01) were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study - Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3377 - "Intervention groups were participants regularly supplemented with vitamin D over the preceding year (Group 1), and those supplemented with vitamin D after COVID-19 diagnosis (Group 2). The comparator group involved participants having received no vitamin D supplements (Group 3) ... In Group 1 (n = 29), 93.1% of COVID-19 participants survived at day 14, compared to 81.2% survivors in Group 2 (n = 16) (p = 0.33) and 68.7% survivors in Group 3 (n = 32) (p = 0.02). While considering Group 3 as reference (hazard ratio (HR) = 1), the fully-adjusted HR for 14-day mortality was HR = 0.07 (p = 0.017) for Group 1 and HR = 0.37 (p = 0.28) for Group 2. Group 1 had longer survival time than Group 3 (log-rank p = 0.015), although there was no difference between Groups 2 and 3 (log-rank p = 0.32). Group 1, but not Group 2 (p = 0.40), was associated with lower risk of OSCI score ≥5 compared to Group 3 (odds ratio = 0.08, p= 0.03). Conclusions. Regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID-19 and better survival in frail elderly" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Green tea consumption and influenza infection among Japanese employees - Eur J Clin Nutr 2020 Nov 2 - "case-control study in a cohort of 4302 workers. Consumption frequency of green tea in 2011 and physician-diagnosed influenza that occurred over the winter season from November 2011 through April 2012 were ascertained using a self-administered questionnaire ... the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for green tea consumption of ≥5 cups/week was 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.95) compared with <1 cup/week (P for trend = 0.028). When analysis was restricted to cases confirmed using a diagnostic kit, the corresponding value was 0.68" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and green tea extract at iHerb.
  • Over 80 percent of COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency, study finds - Science Daily, 10/27/20 - "The researchers found 80 percent of 216 COVID-19 patients at the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla had vitamin D deficiency, and men had lower vitamin D levels than women. COVID-19 patients with lower vitamin D levels also had raised serum levels of inflammatory markers such as ferritin and D-dimer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin K metabolism as the potential missing link between lung damage and thromboembolism in Covid-19 - Br J Nutr 2020 Oct 7;1-25 - "Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, exerts far-reaching effects on public health and socioeconomic welfare. The majority of infected individuals have mild to moderate symptoms but a significant proportion develops respiratory failure due to pneumonia. Thrombosis is another frequent manifestation of Covid-19 that contributes to poor outcomes. Vitamin K plays a crucial role in activation of both pro- and anticlotting factors in the liver, and the activation of extrahepatically synthesised protein S which seems to be important in local thrombosis prevention. However, the role of vitamin K extends beyond coagulation. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification and elastic fibre degradation. Severe extrahepatic vitamin K insufficiency was recently demonstrated in Covid-19 patients, with high inactive MGP levels correlating with elastic fibre degradation rates. This suggests that insufficient vitamin K-dependent MGP activation leaves elastic fibres unprotected against SARS-CoV-2 induced proteolysis. In contrast to MGP, Covid-19 patients have normal levels of activated factor II, in line with previous observations that vitamin K is preferentially transported to the liver for activation of procoagulant factors. We therefore expect that vitamin K-dependent endothelial protein S activation is also compromised, which would be compatible with enhanced thrombogenicity. Taking these data together, we propose a mechanism of pneumonia-induced vitamin K depletion, leading to a decrease in activated MGP and protein S, aggravating pulmonary damage and coagulopathy, respectively" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin k2 at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • 'Love Hormone' Could Hold Key to Treating COVID - WebMD, 10/9/20 - "All of these factors indicate that oxytocin may have potential as a targeted treatment for cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients" - See oxytocin at Amazon.com.
  • Lower Plasma Zinc Levels Associated With Increased Risk of Death in COVID-19 Patients - Medscape, 10/8/20 - "Mean baseline zinc levels among the study cohort of 249 patients was 61 mcg/dl. Among those who died (n=21, 8%), baseline zinc levels were significantly lower at 43mcg/dl vs 63.1mcg/dl in survivors ... Having a plasma zinc level lower than 50mcg/dl at admission was associated with a 2.3 times increased risk of in-hospital death (95% CI 1.06-5.01; P=0.034) compared with the patients with a plasma zinc level of 50mcg/dl or higher ... Higher zinc levels were associated with lower maximum levels of interleukin-6 during the period of active infection" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Tied to Odds for Severe COVID - WebMD, 9/25/20 - "The study was published Sept. 25 in the journal PLOS ONE" - Just one more study saying the same thing but I thought I'd throw it in. - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Could Zinc Help Fight COVID-19? - Science Daily, 9/23/20 - "All of the patients had their blood zinc levels tested upon arrival -- the average level was 61 micrograms per deciliter of blood (mcg/dL) ... However, among those who died of COVID-19, blood levels of zinc were much lower, averaging just 43 mcg/dL, the researchers reported. In contrast, blood levels among those who survived the illness averaged 63 mcg/dL ... Also, higher levels of zinc in the blood were tied to lower levels of pro-inflammatory proteins when patients were infected, the Spanish researchers said ... Overall, and after adjusting for factors such as age, gender, illness severity and treatments received, every unit increase of zinc in the blood was tied to a 7% lowering of the odds that a patient would die while in the hospital" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Obesity, vitamin D deficiency and old age a serious combination with respect to coronavirus disease-2019 severity and outcome - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Sep 15 - "There is a direct relationship between vitamin D, body fat and age in COVID-19 courses. With age, the ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D decreases, and leads to vitamin D-deficits. If the skin is insufficiently exposed to sunlight, severe deficits can develop. As vitamin D plays an important role not only in the immune system but also in the RAS, and thus at the point where the virus attacks, a good vitamin D supply is an important basis for reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 processes. Treatment with vitamin D supplements should be based on severity of the vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Why do older people fare worse against COVID-19? Fewer T-cells, according to new study - 10News, 9/16/20 - "The numbers are staggering: if you’re 65 or older, your risk of winding up in the hospital from COVID-19 is five to 11 times higher than someone under 30 ... they measured the three elements of the adaptive immune system in detail: antibodies, helper T-cells and killer T-cells ... people with all three branches of the adaptive immune system tended to fully recover. People with severe cases of the virus often lacked one or more of the immune branches, and it was particularly evident in older people ... Our data indicated that of the older individuals, it was particularly the ones that had fewer T-cells to start that look like they really struggled to control this virus ... Some vaccine approaches, such as inactivated virus vaccines, only elicit two of three branches, not killer T-cells ... Two strong branches produced by a vaccine could potentially cover for the lack of a third"
    • T cells take the lead in controlling SARS-CoV-2 and reducing COVID-19 disease severity - Science Daily, 9/16/20
    • Pfizer reports strong T-cell response to COVID-19 vaccine - fiercebiotech.com, 7/20/20 - "The results suggest Pfizer and BioNTech may have an edge over Moderna, which saw “low levels” of CD8 T-cell responses to the S-2P antigen in patients who received two 100-μg doses of mRNA-1273. Pfizer and BioNTech saw stronger CD8 responses in patients who received BNT162b1 ... In the view of the researchers, the effect on CD8 cells is part of a “coordinated immune response to counter a viral intrusion” seen in patients who received BNT162b1. Other aspects of the coordinated response include increases in neutralizing antibodies, CD4 T cells and immune-modulatory cytokines. Almost 95% of patients had CD4 T-cell responses"
    • Covid-19 vaccine contest turns to T-cell responses - evaluate.com, 7/20/20 - "In the race to develop a vaccine against Covid-19 Moderna and Biontech/Pfizer’s rival projects have shown an impressive ability to generate neutralising antibodies, but so far little had been said about their ability to stimulate T-cells. Today that changed ... Not only did Astrazeneca’s AZD1222 join the leaders with the first clinical data of its own published in the Lancet, these included findings on its ability to generate a T-cell response. But it was Biontech/Pfizer that, in a preprint of a separate trial of their BNT162b1 vaccine, detailed perhaps the most impressive T-cell responses so far."
  • Low Vitamin D in COVID-19 Predicts ICU Admission, Poor Survival - Medscape, 9/17/20 - "Patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to ICU, as opposed to a ward, were more likely to be male, have at least one comorbidity, have higher baseline IL-6 levels and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte and platelet counts ... They also had lower mean vitamin D levels (14.4 vs 22.4 ng/mL) and were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D < 20 ng/mL; 80% vs 45%) ... Patients admitted to ICU who died had lower baseline vitamin D levels than those who survived (13.2 vs 19.3 ng/mL) ... Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with respiratory distress requiring ICU admission [odds ratio, 1.06; P = .038] and with mortality (odds ratio, 1.18, P = 029), independent of IL-6 levels and other comorbidities" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Low Vitamin D Might Raise Odds of COVID Infection - WebMD, 9/4/20 - "While the study couldn't determine cause and effect, patients with an untreated vitamin D deficiency (blood levels of less than 20 ng/mL) were nearly two times more likely to test positive for the coronavirus than patients with sufficient vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results - JAMA Netw Open 2020 Sep 1 - "In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, likely deficient vitamin D status was associated with increased COVID-19 risk" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Face Shields and Valved Masks Offer More Comfort but Less Protection - NYT, 9/1/20 - "The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had already stated that clear plastic face shields and masks equipped with vents or valves are not recommended, because of concerns that they don’t adequately block viral particles. But the new research, which uses lasers to illuminate the path of coughs, offers a striking visual demonstration of how large plumes of particles can escape from behind a face shield or vented mask"
  • Six Potential Treatments for COVID-19 Identified - Medscape, 9/4/20 - "The AI platform has also identified two bioactive compounds — lycopene and vitamin D — as potentially useful in treating COVID-19, bringing the total to date to six" - See lycopene at Amazon.com and iHerb and vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D deficiency may raise risk of getting COVID-19, study finds - Science Daily, 9/3/20 - "Patients who had vitamin D deficiency (< 20ng/ml) that was not treated were almost twice as likely to test positive for the COVID-19 coronavirus compared to patients who had sufficient levels of the vitamin" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D can be effective on the prevention of COVID-19 complications: A narrative review on molecular aspects - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Aug 19 - "An arguable role in autophagy or apoptosis control has been suggested for VD through calcium signaling at the mitochondrial and ER levels. 1,25(OH)2D3 is also an immunomodulator that affects the development of B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells in both innate and acquired immunity. The production of some anti-microbial molecules such as defensins and cathelicidins is also stimulated by VD. The overexpression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and down-regulation of NADPH oxidase are induced by VD to reduce the oxidative stress. Moreover, the multi-organ failure due to a cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV2 in COVID-19 may be prevented by the immunomodulatory effects of VD. It can also downregulate the renin-angiotensin system which has a protective role against cardiovascular complications induced by COVID-19. Given the many experimental and molecular evidences due to the potential protective effects of VD on the prevention of the COVID-19-induced morbidities, a VD supplementation is suggested to prevent the lethal side-effects of the infection. It is particularly recommended in VD-deficient patients or those at greater risk of serious or critical effects of COVID-19, including the elderly, and patients with pre-existing chronic diseases, especially those in nursing homes, care facilities, and hospitals" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Does Metformin Reduce Risk for Death in COVID-19? - Medscape, 8/14/20 - "Scheen notes that several mechanisms have been proposed for the possible beneficial effect of metformin on COVID-19 outcomes, including direct improvements in glucose control, body weight, and insulin resistance; reduction in inflammation; inhibition of virus penetration via phosphorylation of ACE2; inhibition of an immune hyperactivation pathway; and neutrophil reduction ... Taken together, the four observational studies that Scheen reviews showed that metformin had a positive effect, with an overall 25% reduction in death (P < .00001), albeit with relatively high heterogeneity ... Because metformin is out of patent and very inexpensive, no pharmaceutical company is likely to be interested in planning a study to demonstrate the benefits of metformin on COVID-19-related clinical outcomes" - See metformin at ReliableRX.
  • Rationale for the use of N-acetylcysteine in both prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID-19 - FASEB J 2020 Aug 11 - "COVID-19 may cause pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiovascular alterations, and multiple organ failure, which have been ascribed to a cytokine storm, a systemic inflammatory response, and an attack by the immune system. Moreover, an oxidative stress imbalance has been demonstrated to occur in COVID-19 patients. N- Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH). Due to its tolerability, this pleiotropic drug has been proposed not only as a mucolytic agent, but also as a preventive/therapeutic agent in a variety of disorders involving GSH depletion and oxidative stress. At very high doses, NAC is also used as an antidote against paracetamol intoxication. Thiols block the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 thereby hampering penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Based on a broad range of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, which are herein reviewed, the oral administration of NAC is likely to attenuate the risk of developing COVID-19, as it was previously demonstrated for influenza and influenza-like illnesses. Moreover, high-dose intravenous NAC may be expected to play an adjuvant role in the treatment of severe COVID-19 cases and in the control of its lethal complications, also including pulmonary and cardiovascular adverse events." - See N-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • FDA lists hand sanitizers that don't have enough alcohol to kill germs - CNET, 8/10/20 - "The CDC recommends using hand sanitizers that have at least 60% ethanol or ethyl alcohol -- although the CDC maintains that "no drugs, including hand sanitizers, are approved to prevent the spread of COVID-19."" - Note:  So the 120 proof Everclear vodka I've been recommending should work.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Increased COVID-19 Risk - Medscape, 7/29/20 - "Participants positive for COVID-19 were 50% more likely to have low vs normal 25(OH)D levels in a multivariate analysis that controlled for other confounders ... The take home message for physicians is to "test patients' vitamin D levels and keep them optimal for the overall health — as well as for a better immuno-response to COVID-19" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Doctors Say Their COVID-19 Protocol Saves Lives. Others Want Proof - Medscape, 7/16/20 - "MATH+ stands for methylprednisolone, ascorbic acid, thiamine, and heparin. The "+" holds a place for additional therapies like vitamin D, zinc, and melatonin. The protocol originated as a variation of the "HAT therapy," a combination of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid, and thiamine, which critical care specialist Paul Marik, MD, created for treating critically ill patients with sepsis." - See Vitamin C products at Amazon.com and vitamin C at iHerb.com and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and iHerb and melatonin at Amazon.com and iHerb and vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Medical Societies Advise on Vitamin D in Midst of COVID-19 - Medscape, 7/10/20 - "Six medical societies from across the globe are emphasizing the importance of individuals obtaining the daily recommended dose of vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Dietary recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic - Nutr Rev 2020 Jul 12 - "The majority of documents encouraged the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods. Thirty-one percent of the guidelines highlighted the importance of minerals and vitamins such as zinc and vitamins C, A, and D to maintain a well-functioning immune system. Dietary supplementation has not been linked to COVID-19 prevention. However, supplementation with vitamins C and D, as well as with zinc and selenium, was highlighted as potentially beneficial for individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections or for those in whom nutrient deficiency is detected"
  • A Proposed Mechanism for the Possible Therapeutic Potential of Metformin in COVID-19 - Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Jun 24 - "The whole world is facing a tough time these days struggling against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is not any specific effective drug for this viral infection. Thus, we are trying to treat patients with non-specific drug cocktails. Metformin, as a strong base, a potential regulator of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and endosomal Na+/H+ exchangers (eNHEs), additionally a regenerative agent for lung fibrosis, seems to be beneficial for patients in acute, chronic and recovery phases of COVID-19" - ReliableRxPharmacy carries metformin.
  • Exploring the Links Between Coronavirus and Vitamin D - NYT, 6/10/20 - "In the meantime, Dr. Manson said people should take simple steps to avoid vitamin D deficiencies, such as being physically active outside while social distancing and eating foods like fortified cereals, fortified dairy, sun-dried mushrooms and fish. For people who cannot get outside or get enough vitamin D from their diets, supplementing with 1,000 to 2,000 IU a day is reasonable, she said. But she urged people not to take high doses" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • More Vitamin D, Lower Risk of Severe COVID-19?  - WebMD, 5/18/20 - "Researchers from the U.K. evaluated the average vitamin D levels and the number of COVID-19 cases, as well as the death rates, across 20 European countries. Countries with low average vitamin D blood levels in the population had higher numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths, says study leader Petre Cristian Ilie, MD, PhD, research and innovation director at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Foundation Trust in King's Lynn, U.K. ... At Northwestern University, researchers used modeling to estimate that 17% of those deficient in vitamin D would develop a severe COVID-19 infection, but only about 14% of those with healthy vitamin D levels. They estimated the association between vitamin D and severe COVID-19 based on a potential link between vitamin D deficiency and C-reactive proteins, or CRP, a surrogate marker for severe COVID-19 ... In a small study, Louisiana and Texas researchers evaluated 20 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, finding that 11 of the patients admitted to the ICU were vitamin D deficient, but only four of those not needing the ICU ... Indonesian researchers evaluated 780 documented cases of COVID-19 and found that most patients who died had vitamin D levels below normal ... Irish researchers analyzed European population studies and vitamin D levels, finding countries with high rates of vitamin D deficiency also had higher death rates from COVID-19. Those researchers asked the government to raise the vitamin D recommendations" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Vitamin D determines severity in COVID-19 so government advice needs to change, experts urge - Science Daily, 5/13/20 - "A new publication from Dr Eamon Laird and Professor Rose Anne Kenny, School of Medicine, and the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), in collaboration with Professor Jon Rhodes at University of Liverpool, highlights the association between vitamin D levels and mortality from COVID-19 ... The northern latitude countries of Norway, Finland and Sweden, have higher vitamin D levels despite less UVB sunlight exposure, because supplementation and fortification of foods is more common. These Nordic countries have lower COVID-19 infection and death rates. The correlation between low vitamin D levels and death from COVID-19 is statistically significant ... The authors propose that, whereas optimising vitamin D levels will certainly benefit bone and muscle health, the data suggests that it is also likely to reduce serious COVID-19 complications. This may be because vitamin D is important in regulation and suppression of the inflammatory cytokine response, which causes the severe consequences of COVID-19 and 'acute respiratory distress syndrome' associated with ventilation and death" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Does Vitamin D Protect Against COVID-19? - Medscape, 5/11/20 - "There are laboratory (cell-culture) studies of respiratory cells that document some of these effects of vitamin D. There's also evidence that patients with respiratory infections tend to have lower blood levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D ... There's now some evidence from COVID-19 patients as well. In an observational study from three South Asian hospitals, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was much higher among those with severe COVID illness compared with those with mild illness. In fact, there was about an eightfold higher risk of having severe illness among those who entered with vitamin D deficiency compared with those who had sufficient vitamin D levels ... There's also evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation looking at acute respiratory tract infections (upper and lower). This was published in the British Medical Journal 2 years ago, showing that vitamin D supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in these respiratory tract infections. Overall, it was only a 12% reduction, but among the participants who had profound vitamin D deficiency at baseline (such as a blood level of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D of less than 10 ng/mL), there was a 70% lower risk of respiratory infection with vitamin D supplementation." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Metformin in COVID-19: A Possible Role Beyond Diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Apr 29 - "The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of influenza, besides modulating antibody response for cross-protective immunity against infective influenza viruses. Metformin activates AMPK via liver kinase B1 (LKB1), inhibiting the mTOR pathway. It also indirectly attenuates AKT activation through phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) resulting in inhibition of the mTOR signalling cascade [11]. Other biguanide molecules, buformin and phenformin have been associated with better survival outcomes in animal models of influenza [12,13]. Further, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays major roles in MERS CoV infection [14]. Since metformin inhibits the same pathway, it would be interesting to decipher its role against SARS-CoV-2" - See metformin at ReliableRxPharmacy.
  • Vitamin D linked to low virus death rate, study finds - Science Daily, 5/7/20 - "Previous observational studies have reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D modulates the response of white blood cells, preventing them from releasing too many inflammatory cytokines. The COVID-19 virus is known to cause an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines ... We found a significant crude relationship between average vitamin D levels and the number COVID-19 cases, and particularly COVID-19 mortality rates, per head of population across the 20 European countries ... Vitamin D has been shown to protect against acute respiratory infections, and older adults, the group most deficient in vitamin D, are also the ones most seriously affected by COVID-19 ... A previous study found that 75% of people in institutions, such as hospitals and care homes, were severely deficient in vitamin D. We suggest it would be advisable to perform dedicated studies looking at vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • EVMS Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol - Eastern Virginia Medical School - "Suggested approach to prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 ... Prophylaxis ... Vitamin C 500 mg BID and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID ... Zinc 75-100 mg/day (acetate, gluconate or picolinate). Zinc lozenges are preferred. After 1-2 months, reduce the dose to 30-50 mg/day ... Melatonin (slow release): Begin with 0.3mg and increase as tolerated to 1-2 mg at night ... Vitamin D3 1000-4000 u/day (optimal dose unknown). Likely that those with baseline low 25-OH vitamin D levels and those > living at 40 degree latitude will benefit the most" - See American Health, Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, 500 mg, 120 Capsules at iHerb and American Health, Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, 500 mg, 120 Capsules at Amazon.com (everyone seems to be sold out of the 240 capsule size).
  • Reduced Vitamin K Status as A Potentially Modifiable Prognostic Risk Factor in COVID-19 - pharmacology & toxicology 24 Apr 2020 - "We hypothesized that vitamin K status is reduced in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: Vitamin K status was assessed by measuring desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP; inversely related to vitamin K status) and the rate of elastin degradation by measuring desmosine. We included 123 patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and 184 controls. Results: Dp-ucMGP levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients (1,673Å}1,584 pmol/L) compared to controls (536±291 pmol/L; p<0.0005). Dp-ucMGP levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with unfavorable outcome compared to those with less severe disease. Furthermore, dp-ucMGP and desmosine levels were significantly associated (r=0.65; p<0.0005). Conclusions: Vitamin K status was reduced in patients with COVID-19 and related to poor prognosis. Also, low vitamin K status seems to be associated with accelerated elastin degradation. An intervention trial is now needed to assess whether vitamin K administration improves outcome in patients with COVID-19" -  [Nutra USA] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at iHerb.com.
  • Coronavirus can be prevented -Vitamin D Solution - YouTube video - Note:  I wouldn't go as far as to say that it can be prevented but there is science suggesting that it may help prevent it.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Editorial: low population mortality from COVID‐19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity - Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20 Apr 2020 - "Evidence that vitamin D might protect against infection is modest but it is important to note that the hypothesis is not that vitamin D would protect against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection but that it could be very important in preventing the cytokine storm and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome that is commonly the cause of mortality ... Research is urgently needed to assess whether there may be a correlation between vitamin D status and severity of COVID‐19 disease. Meanwhile, the evidence supporting a protective effect of vitamin D against severe COVID‐19 disease is very suggestive, a substantial proportion of the population in the Northern Hemisphere will currently be vitamin D deficient, and supplements, for example, 1000 international units (25 micrograms) per day are very safe. It is time for governments to strengthen recommendations for vitamin D intake and supplementation, particularly when under lock‐down" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • COVID-19: Home Pulse Oximetry Could Be Game Changer, Says ER Doc - Medscape, 4/24/20 - "Everybody's coming in too late ... use of home finger pulse oximeters by patients with COVID-19 could preempt the precipitous oxygen desaturation that leads to a crisis that needs intensive care ... The mortality in the red zone is 70% ... I am seeing patients with oxygen saturations of 50% ― roughly equivalent to what you'd see at the top of Everest ... It is amazing ― shockingly amazing ― that these people are alive and talking on their cell phones" - See finger pulse oximeters at Amazon.com.
  • ACEI/ARBs Linked With Survival in Hypertensive, Chinese COVID-19 Patients - Medscape, 4/22/20 - "Among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19, inpatient treatment with ACEI [ACE inhibitor]/ARB [angiotensin receptor blocker] was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers, during 28 days of follow-up. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that inpatient ACEI/ARB would be associated with an increased risk of mortality"
  • If you want to protect yourself from the flu, you may want to try this natural remedy - 10News, 1/20/20 - "“No, you definitely want to have your flu shot, it’s just good to have as a backup,” Bradley said ... The doctor even takes it herself ... ”I have taken it and I have a bottle at home. And I recently had a friend who had influenza and the first thing I told her was, 'go to the doctor and take elderberry syrup,' ” she said" - Note:  It doesn't show any studies to back it up however, see elderberry syrup at Amazon.com and note all the 4.6 and 4.7 star ratings.
  • A high-fiber diet protects mice against the flu virus - Science Daily, 5/15/18 - "A high-fiber diet blunts harmful, excessive immune responses in the lungs while boosting antiviral immunity by activating T cells. These dual benefits were mediated by changes in the composition of gut bacteria, leading to an increase in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber ... Taken together with past studies, the new findings suggest that the modern Western diet consisting of food high in sugar and fat and low in fiber could increase susceptibility to inflammatory diseases while decreasing protection against infections"
  • Randomized, Double Blind and Placebo Controlled Study Using a Combination of Two Probiotic Lactobacilli to Alleviate Symptoms and Frequency of Common Cold - Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2013, 4, 13-20 - "Although the number of episodes was similar in both groups, cold episodes in the active group were significantly shorter than in the placebo group. The total sum scores of cold symptoms were significantly lower in the active group as compared with the placebo group, as well as in the intention-to-treat (ITT) as in the per-protocol (PP) collectives (ITT: 75.2 ± 40.3 vs. 113.4 ± 66.3" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc acetate lozenges may increase the recovery rate from the common cold by three-fold - Science Daily, 5/11/17 - "According to a meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials, zinc acetate lozenges may increase the rate of recovery from the common cold three fold. On the fifth day, 70 percent of the zinc lozenge patients had recovered compared with 27 percent of the placebo patients ... The dose of zinc in the three studies was between 80 to 92 mg/day ... Even though there is strong evidence that properly formulated zinc acetate lozenges can increase the rate of recovery from the common cold by 3 fold, many zinc lozenges on the market appear to have either too low doses of zinc or they contain substances that bind zinc ions, such as citric acid" - See zinc acetate lozenges at Amazon.com.
  • Common cold duration is shortened similarly by zinc acetate and zinc gluconate lozenges - Science Daily, 5/3/17 - "Three trials had used zinc acetate lozenges and found that colds were shortened on average by 40%. Four trials had used zinc gluconate lozenges and colds were shortened on average by 28%. The 12% difference between the average effects of the two kinds of lozenges was explained purely by random variation. Furthermore, one of the zinc gluconate lozenge trials was an outlier inconsistent with all the other six zinc lozenge trials. If that outlier trial was excluded, the difference between the three zinc acetate and the three zinc gluconate trials shrinked to just 2%, i.e., a 40% vs. 38% reduction in common cold duration. Thus, properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges"
  • Larger doses of vitamin C may lead to a greater reduction in common cold duration - Science Daily, 3/30/17 - "The dose-response relationship in these two trials was also quite linear up to the levels of 6-8 g/day, thus it is possible that even higher doses may lead to still greater reductions in the duration of common cold" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Tied to Lower Risk of Colds, Infections - WebMD, 2/16/17 - "The 12 percent reduction meant that 33 people would need to take vitamin D supplements to prevent one acute respiratory tract infection. The benefit of the supplements was greater among people who took daily or weekly vitamin D without additional large doses ... The protective effect of vitamin D supplements was strongest for those with severe vitamin D deficiency. In this group, only four people would need to take vitamin D supplements to prevent one acute respiratory infection" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc acetate lozenges may reduce the duration of the common cold by nearly 3 days, according to a recent analysis - Science Daily, 7/6/16 - "Zinc acetate lozenges may reduce the duration of the common cold by nearly 3 days ... Common cold patients should be encouraged to try zinc acetate lozenges not exceeding 100 mg of elemental zinc per day for treating their colds" - See zinc acetate lozenges at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Getting less than 6 hours of sleep makes you 4x more likely to get a cold - Washington Post, 8/31/15 - "lack of sleep was the most important factor in predicting the likelihood of someone catching a cold, more so than age, stress levels and whether someone was a smoker, factors that were previously associated with a cold risk ... Available data suggests insufficient sleep disrupts the immune system and makes it less able to fight off a virus"
  • Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication - Nutrients. 2015 Feb 4;7(2):1021-1036 - "Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models ... Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung" - See ginseng at Amazon.com and Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan 21:1-9 - "B. bifidum resulted in a greater proportion of healthy days than placebo (P≤ 0·05). The percentage of participants reporting ≥ 1 d of cold/flu during the 6-week intervention period was significantly lower with B. bifidum than with placebo (P< 0·05) ... The proportion of participants reporting a cold on any given day was lower at weeks 2 and 3 with B. bifidum and B. infantis than with placebo for the average level of stress and the most commonly reported number of hours of sleep. Daily intake of bifidobacteria provides benefit related to cold/flu outcomes during acute stress" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Improvement of common cold with Pycnogenol®: a Winter registry study - Panminerva Med. 2014 Dec;56(4):301-8 - "All subjects used the "best management" for colds and one group added Pycnogenol® capsules (50 mg, bid/die) from day zero. The resulting registry groups were comparable ... The number of days with a perceived cold affecting the patients was reduced in the supplement group (3.1;0.4 days) in comparison with controls (4.2;0.2). Lost working days were significantly decreased in the supplement group (0.55;0.3 versus 0.67;0.3 in controls). The need to use any other compound (on demand basis; OTC products) to manage symptoms and the occurrence of any clinically significant complications were significantly lower in the Pycnogenol® group ... Pycnogenol® supplementation appears to make regression faster for all symptoms in comparison with controls" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C supplementation slightly improves physical activity levels and reduces cold incidence in men with marginal vitamin C status: a randomized controlled trial - Nutrients. 2014 Jul 9;6(7):2572-83 - "The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity ... This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18-35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m2; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L) received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial ... In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [-4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10). The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04) and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (-3.2 days; 95% CI [-7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Tamiflu reduces risk of death by 25 percent in adults hospitalised with H1N1 pandemic influenza - Science Daily, 3/18/14 - "NAIs should be started within 2 days of symptoms developing. The risk of death was halved when starting treatment within 48 hours of symptom onset compared with later treatment, or no antiviral treatment. Each day that starting antiviral treatment was delayed after 2 days from illness onset was associated with about a 20% increase in the risk of death compared with treatment started within 2 days" - See Tamiflu at IAS.
  • Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):517-29 - "We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • A Combination of High-dose Vitamin C Plus Zinc for the Common Cold - J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):28-42 - "Vitamin C and zinc play important roles in nutrition, immune defence and maintenance of health. Intake of both is often inadequate, even in affluent populations ... After an overview of the literature on the effects of the separate administration of either vitamin C or zinc against the common cold, this article presents data from two preliminary, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, conducted with a combination of 1000 mg vitamin C plus 10 mg zinc in patients with the common cold. In both studies, a nonsignificant reduction of rhinorrhoea duration (range 9 - 27%) was seen. In pooled analyses of both studies (n = 94), vitamin C plus zinc was significantly more efficient than placebo at reducing rhinorrhoea over 5 days of treatment. Furthermore, symptom relief was quicker and the product was well tolerated"
  • Consumption of cranberry polyphenols enhances human gammadelta-T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study - Nutr J. 2013 Dec 13;12(1):161 - "Subjects drank a low calorie cranberry beverage (450 ml) made with a juice-derived, powdered cranberry fraction (n = 22) or a placebo beverage (n = 23), daily, for 10 wk ... The proliferation index of gammadelta-T cells in culture was almost five times higher after 10 wk of cranberry beverage consumption (p <0.001). In the cranberry beverage group, the incidence of illness was not reduced, however significantly fewer symptoms of illness were reported" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C is beneficial against the common cold, review suggests - Science Daily, 2/13/13 - "Regular doses of vitamin C of one gram per day or higher have reduced the average duration of colds in adults by 8% and in children by 18%" - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • Baker's Yeast Beta-Glucan Supplement Reduces Upper Respiratory Symptoms and Improves Mood State in Stressed Women - J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Aug;31(4):295-300 - "Several studies have shown a baker's yeast beta-1,3/1,6-d-glucan, extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is effective in reducing the incidence of cold and flu symptoms. This study evaluated the effect of a specific beta-glucan supplement (Wellmune) on upper respiratory tract symptoms and psychological well-being in women with moderate levels of psychological stress ... Healthy women (38 +/- 12 years old) prescreened for moderate levels of psychological stress, self-administered a placebo (n = 38) or 250 mg of Wellmune (n = 39) daily for 12 weeks ... Subjects in the Wellmune group reported fewer upper respiratory symptoms compared to placebo (10% vs 29%), better overall well-being (global mood state: 99 +/- 19 vs 108 +/- 23, p < 0.05), and superior mental/physical energy levels (vigor: 19.9 +/- 4.7 vs 15.8 +/- 6.3, p < 0.05)" - See beta-glucan products at iHerb.
  • Do herbal flu treatments work? - Fox News Video, 1/13/13 - "Herbal Treatments for flu: echinacea, elderberry, ginger, Andrographis, boneset. "The only one that comes close to Tamiflu is Andrographis, which shortens the period that people suffer from flu symptoms."" - See Andrographis products at iHerb.
  • Probiotics are secret weapon for fighting symptoms of the common cold in college students, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/22/12 - "randomized 198 college students aged 18 to 25 and living on-campus in residence halls at Framingham State University in Massachusetts. Groups received either a placebo (97 students) or a powder blend containing Chr. Hansen's probiotic strains BB-12® and LGG® (101 students) for 12 weeks. Each day, students completed a survey to assess the effect of the probiotic supplementation ... The study found that while all students caught colds at roughly the same rate, the students who took the probiotic supplementation experienced: ... A duration of colds that was two days shorter (four days vs. six days) ... Symptoms that were 34% less severe and ... A higher quality of life that resulted in fewer missed school days (15 vs. 34 missed by students taking the placebo) ... consumers need to read the label to be sure that the product contains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG] and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis BB12 [BB12]. There also are some yogurts that contain LGG and/or BB12 but check the labels, since companies change the probiotics strains often" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-9 - "College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI ... randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks ... The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34 % with probiotics v. placebo (P < 0.001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P = 0.429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0.2 d) compared to the placebo group (P = 0.002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Immunoprotective effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 in elderly adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 5:1-10 - "Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240) has been shown to enhance the secretion of salivary secretory IgA in elderly adults ... 300 eligible elderly adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups, namely a placebo, low-dose or high-dose b240 group. Participants in the low-dose and high-dose b240 groups were given tablets containing 2 × 109 or 2 × 1010 cells, respectively, of heat-killed b240, while those in the placebo group were given tablets without b240. Each group consumed their respective tablets once daily for 20 weeks ... The accumulated incidence rate of the common cold was 47.3, 34.8 and 29.0 % for the placebo, low-dose b240 and high-dose b240 groups, respectively (P for trend = 0.012). Lower incidence rates were consistently observed throughout the experimental period in the b240 groups (log-rank test, P = 0.034). General health perception, as determined by the SF-36®, dose-dependently increased in the b240 groups (P for trend = 0.016). In conclusion, oral intake of b240 significantly reduced the incidence rate of the common cold in elderly adults, indicating that b240 might be useful in improving resistance against infection through mucosal immunity" - Note:  I calculate that as a 39% reduction in colds [(47.3 - 29)/47.3] = .39 - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D may protect against viral infections during the winter - Science Daily, 4/30/12 - "insufficient levels of vitamin D are related to a deficiency in our innate immune defenses that protect us from infections, neoplasias or autoimmune diseases. Since vitamin D levels decrease during autumn and winter when days are shorter and sunlight is relatively weak, this may explain why people are more prone to viral infection during these times. It also suggests that increased vitamin D intake, especially in older populations, could strengthen people's innate immunity against viral infections ... the researchers compared the changes in the blood levels of vitamin D among three groups of healthy subjects: young (age range: 20-30), middle (age range: 31-59), and elderly (age range: 60-86). They found decreased levels of vitamin D with aging, prompting researchers to compare whether such changes kept any relationship with toll-like receptor (TLR) expression measured on lymphocytes and monocytes and function after in vitro stimulation with specific ligands for each of the nine human TLRs and measurement of effector molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Specifically, they found that the TRL most affected by a vitamin D insufficiency is TLR7, which regulates the immune response against viruses" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 24 - "After 45 d of consuming an encapsulated aged garlic extract, γδ-T cells (p = 0.039, n = 56) and NK cells (p = 0.043, n = 56) were shown to proliferate better compared to placebo. After 90 d of supplementation, illness diary entries showed that the incidence of colds and flu, a secondary outcome, were not statistically different; however, the group consuming the aged garlic extract appeared to have reduced severity as noted by a reduction in the number of symptoms reported (21% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test of proportions), a reduction in the number of days (61% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test) and incidences (58% fewer p < 0.001, z-test) where the subjects functioned sub-optimally and the number of work/school days missed due to illness (58% fewer, p = 0.035, z-test) ... These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Aged garlic reduces cold and flu severity: RCT data - Nutra USA, 1/26/12 - "Supplements of an aged garlic extract may reduce the number of days a person suffers from cold and ‘flu by 61% ... Ninety days of consuming the garlic supplement also produced a 21% reduction in the number of symptoms of colds or flu" - [Abstract] - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • 7 easy ways to boost your immune system - MSNBC, 11/12/11 - "Cook with olive and canola oils ... Research shows that people who consume disproportionately more 6s (found in the soybean oil used in most processed snack foods) than 3s are at higher risk for inflammation and immune system problems"
  • Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-9 - "The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33.2 (sd 13.1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 109 colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0.01 for IgG; P < 0.001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ≥ 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0.001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0.001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0.017; L. casei 431®, P = 0.035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc lozenges may shorten common cold duration, Finnish research suggests - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Dr. Harri Hemila of the University of Helsinki, Finland, carried out a meta-analysis of all the placebo-controlled trials that have examined the effect of zinc lozenges on natural common cold infections. Of the 13 trial comparisons identified, five used a total daily zinc dose of less than 75 mg and uniformly those five comparisons found no effect of zinc. Three trials used zinc acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 42% reduction in the duration of colds. Five trials used zinc salts other than acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 20% decrease in the duration of colds"
  • Zinc reduces the burden of the common cold - Science Daily, 2/15/11 - "In total, data from 15 trials, involving 1,360 people, were included. According to the results, zinc syrup, lozenges or tablets taken within a day of the onset of cold symptoms reduce the severity and length of illness. At seven days, more of the patients who took zinc had cleared their symptoms compared to those who took placebos. Children who took zinc syrup or lozenges for five months or longer caught fewer colds and took less time off school. Zinc also reduced antibiotic use in children, which is important because overuse has implications for antibiotic resistance" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (taking zinc alone may cause a copper deficiency).
  • Biothera's beta-glucan ingredient may reduce cold/flu incidence - Nutra USA, 10/8/10 - "Only 10 percent of women receiving supplements of Biothera’s Wellmune WGP branded ingredient reported upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, such as sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, and cough, compared with 29 percent of women in the control group" - See beta-glucan products at iHerb.
  • Probiotics show potential against common cold: Study - Nutra USA 9/21/10 - "daily consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 (DSM 15312) and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (DSM 13434) reduced the incidence of one or more episodes of the common cold from 67 percent in the placebo group to 55 percent, according to findings published in the European Journal of Nutrition ... Furthermore, the number of days of symptoms for the cold was significantly reduced in people taking the probiotic supplements, from an average of 8.6 to 6.2, compared with placebo ... the total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections - Eur J Nutr. 2010 Aug 28 - "The incidence of acquiring one or more common cold episode was reduced from 67% in the control group to 55% in the probiotic group (p < 0.05). Also, the number of days with common cold symptoms were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 8.6 days in the control group to 6.2 days, in the probiotic group, during the 12-week period. The total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group. The reduction in pharyngeal symptoms was significant (p < 0.05). In addition, the proliferation of B lymphocytes was significantly counteracted in the probiotic group (p < 0.05) in comparison with the control group" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Cut Risk of Flu - WebMD, 6/16/10 - "people who maintain vitamin D blood levels of 38 nanograms per milliliter or more are less likely to get viral infections such as flu than people with less in their blood ... Of 18 people who maintained that level during the study period, only three developed viral infect ... But of the 180 other participants with less vitamin D in their blood, 81(45%), did get sick with viral infections ... And those with higher levels of vitamin D also experienced a marked reduction in the number of days they were ill" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 - Br J Nutr. 2010 May 21:1-9 - "90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group" - See Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D shows promise against seasonal ‘flu: Study - Nutra USA, 4/1/10 - "daily supplements of vitamin D3 reduced the influence of seasonal ‘flu (influenza A) by over 40 per cent ... The benefits of vitamin D supplementation were even more noticeable in children who had low levels of vitamin D at the start of the study, with a 74 per cent reduction in the incidence of ‘flu observed" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar 10 - "Influenza A occurred in 18 of 167 (10.8%) children in the vitamin D(3) group compared with 31 of 167 (18.6%) children in the placebo group [relative risk (RR), 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.04]. The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.79; P = 0.006) and who started nursery school after age 3 y (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.78; P = 0.005). In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D(3) compared with 12 children receiving placebo (RR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.73; P = 0.006)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Are hand sanitizers better than handwashing against the common cold? - Science Daily, 3/24/10 - "Results showed that the ethanol hand sanitizer removed approximately 80% of detectable rhinovirus from hands and was much more effective than no treatment, water alone, or soap and water. Soap and water removed rhinovirus from 31% of hands"
  • Hand sanitizer: How it protects you - CNN, 11/27/09 - "up to 80 percent of all infections get spread by hands ... Hand sanitizers are effective against both bacteria and viruses ... The sanitizer works on contact, meaning it's only effective on the parts of your hands that it touches. That means if you miss a spot between your fingers, there could still be viruses or bacteria in that place" - Click here for Purell dispensers.
  • Previous seasonal flu infections may provide some level of H1N1 immunity - Science Daily, 11/16/09 - "What we have found is that the swine flu has similarities to the seasonal flu, which appear to provide some level of pre-existing immunity. This suggests that it could make the disease less severe in the general population than originally feared ... "We found that the immune system's T cells can recognize a significant percent of the markers in swine flu." T cells are infection-fighting white blood cells in the body's immune system. "Nobody knows what level of immunity is sufficient for protection. We do know that a T cell response is not enough to prevent being infected by the virus. But, if infected, our data suggests that T cells in those who have previously been exposed to influenza may make the infection less severe," ... In a normal flu season, influenza infects as much as 20 percent of the U.S. population, causes more than 200,000 hospitalizations and kills about 36,000 people"
  • Scientists Discover Influenza's Achilles Heel: Antioxidants - Science Daily, 10/29/09 - "antioxidants -- the same substances found in plant-based foods -- might hold the key in preventing the flu virus from wreaking havoc on our lungs"
  • Probiotics may reduce cold and 'flu symptoms for children - Nutra USA, 7/30/09 - "A daily supplement of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains may reduce the incidence of cold and 'flu-like symptoms in children by 50 per cent ... A combination of the two strains was linked to reductions in fever incidence by 73 per cent, a reduction in the occurrence of runny noses by 59 per cent, and drop in the incidence of coughing by 62 per cent" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic Effects on Cold and Influenza-Like Symptom Incidence and Duration in Children - PEDIATRICS Vol. 124 No. 2 August 2009, pp. e172-e179 - "Relative to the placebo group, single and combination probiotics reduced fever incidence by 53.0% (P = .0085) and 72.7% (P = .0009), coughing incidence by 41.4% (P = .027) and 62.1% (P = .005), and rhinorrhea incidence by 28.2% (P = .68) and 58.8% (P = .03), respectively. Fever, coughing, and rhinorrhea duration was decreased significantly, relative to placebo, by 32%" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Certain Zinc-based Cold Remedies Linked To Loss Of Sense Of Smell, FDA Says - Science Daily, 6/18/09 - "The FDA has received more than 130 reports of loss of sense of smell associated with the use of these three Zicam products" - Seems like Zicam has been around over ten years and at least 20 million people must have used it by now.  130/20,000,000 = 0.0000065 or one chance in 154,000.  Seems like it could have been due to chance.  People worried about those odds might not want to drive to work.  36,000 people in the U.S. die from the flu each year (360,000 in ten years).  Maybe the reduction in flu severity provided by the Zicam would have been enough to save 130 of them.  Sometimes I think the FDA gets carried away.  We've probably had more problems with peanut allergies so maybe peanuts should be outlawed.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Colds - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "those with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 10 nanograms per milliliter of blood) were 36% more likely to report having a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with higher levels (30 ng/mL or higher) ... people with asthma with the lowest vitamin D levels were five times more likely to have had a recent respiratory infection. Among those with COPD, recent respiratory infections were twice as common among those with lowest vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Good Night’s Sleep Puts Colds to Bed - WebMD, 1/12/09
  • Substance Found In Fruits And Vegetables Reduces Likelihood Of The Flu - Science Daily, 0/3/08 - "Mice that exercised and took quercetin had nearly the same rate of illness as those that did not exercise. In other words, quercetin canceled out the negative effect of stressful exercise ... Although this study was done with mice, a recent human study found that people who took quercetin suffered fewer illnesses following three days of exhaustive exercise compared to those who did not" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Does Honey Relieve Cough in Children? - Medscape, 5/8/08 - "On a 6-point scale, subjects who received honey reported an average improvement of 1.89 points in cough frequency, compared with 1.39 points for DM subjects and 0.92 points for "no treatment" subjects. Parental assessment of the child's sleep improved by 2.49 points for honey patients, by 1.79 points for DM patients, and by 1.57 points for no treatment patients"
  • Zinc Reduces Common Cold Symptoms - Medscape, 4/17/08 - "The participants took one zinc acetate lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc or placebo every 2-3 hours while awake ... The average duration of cold symptoms (including cough, nasal discharge, and muscle ache) was significantly shorter in the zinc group (4.0 days) than in the placebo group (7.1 days) ... By day 4, 56% of the zinc group had complete resolution of their colds, whereas none of the placebo group was free of cold symptoms on day 4"
  • Probiotic Cuts Respiratory Illness Rates In Endurance Athletes, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/18/08 - "The probiotic Lactobacillus substantially cuts the rate and length of respiratory illness in professional long distance runners ... athletes taking the probiotic had less than half the number of days of symptoms of their colleagues taking the placebo ... Respiratory symptoms while taking Lactobacillus lasted 30 days compared with 72 days while taking the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See my favorite Garden of Life Primal Defense HSO Probiotic Formula at Amazon.com.
  • Honey May Soothe Kids' Coughs - WebMD, 12/3/07 - "Honey ranked highest, followed by dextromethorphan, and the placebo was in last place in terms of cough relief ... honey's slim lead over dextromethorphan may have been due to chance"
  • Study: Echinacea Cuts Colds by Half - WebMD, 6/26/07
  • Lancet: Echinacea does fight colds - USA Today, 6/25/07 - "the popular herbal supplement echinacea cuts the chance of catching a cold by 58% and can reduce the duration of colds by about a day and a half" - See echinacea goldenseal at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Exercise May Lower Cold Risk - WebMD, 10/26/06
  • The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children - Acta Paediatr. 2006 Oct;95(10):1175-81 - "Compared to the placebo group, the zinc group had shorter mean duration of cold symptoms and decreased total severity scores for cold symptoms"
  • Working out may help prevent colds, flu - MSNBC, 1/17/06 - "moderate amounts of aerobic exercise such as jogging, brisk walking and cycling during the cold and flu season boost the body’s defenses against viruses and bacteria"
  • Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical Conditions - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2006;50:85-94 - "These trials document that adequate intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold"
  • 'Good' Bacteria: Good for Colds? - WebMD, 11/7/05
  • Workers On Daily Probiotics Less Likely To Take Time Off Sick - Science Daily, 11/7/05 - "workers who took a daily dose of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri were 2.5 times less likely to take sick leave than workers who took a placebo"
  • Anti-cold, Anti-flu Product Cuts Recurrent Colds By More Than Half, Study Shows - Science Daily, 10/25/05
  • Ginseng for Gesundheit? Latest Study on Colds - WebMD, 10/24/05 - "one in 10 people in the ginseng group reported having two or more colds that winter, compared with about 23% of those taking the placebo ... Colds lasted about 11 days for the ginseng group and 16.5 days for the placebo group"
  • Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters - Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jul;43(7):318-26 - "These data indicate that the intake of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals during a period of at least three months in winter/spring may reduce the incidence and the severity of symptoms in common cold infections in otherwise healthy adults. This may be due to stimulated cellular immunity"
  • Vitamin C May Not Fight the Common Cold - WebMD, 6/28/05
  • Resveratrol could prevent ‘flu epidemics - Nutra USA, 5/24/05
  • Boost In Immune Response Fights Common Cold - Science Daily, 4/24/05 - "Nursing facility residents who consumed 200 International Units (IUs) of vitamin E daily for one year were less likely to get the sniffles than those who took a placebo ... those who took the moderate supplements were 20 percent less likely to contract upper respiratory infections, such as colds"
  • Efficacy of Zinc Against the Common Cold Virus - Medscape, 11/23/04 - "Clinical trial data support the value of zinc in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms of the common cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of common cold symptoms"
  • Vitamin E May Prevent Common Cold - WebMD, 8/17/04 - "Participants in the vitamin E group who completed the study had significantly fewer common colds and a 20% lower risk of acquiring a cold than those in the placebo group"
  • Bugged by a Bad Cold? - Dr. Weil, 5/24/04
  • The Herbal Way To Keep Flu at Bay - WebMD, 12/12/03 - ""Astragalus is an immune-enhancing herb to ward off flu," Weil says ... I also use a mushroom product called Host Defense, an extract of seven mushrooms ... I think it is useful to be on a good multivitamin, multimineral supplement" - See iHerb Host Defense products.
  • Positive Attitude Fights the Common Cold - WebMD, 7/22/03
  • New Weapon Against Colds? - Dr. Weil, 7/8/03
  • Vitamin C May Fight Colds After All - WebMD, 3/12/03 - "12 healthy subjects who took one gram of vitamin C a day for two weeks showed a boosted immune system response during that time ... in two of them, the response to vitamin C took place within five hours ... this might mean that taking a vitamin C tablet at the first sign of a cold could achieve an effect quickly enough to ward off that cold"
  • Zinc Spray Shortens Colds - Physician's Weekly, 1/27/03 - "Zicam, an over-the-counter nasal spray, cuts the length of a cold by anywhere between 1.5 to 3 days, according to a new study from The Cleveland Clinic Foundation" - See See drugstore.com Zicam productsicon.
  • Zinc Spray Shortens Colds - WebMD, 1/7/03 - "patients using Zicam, an over-the-counter nasal spray, cut the length of their colds an average of 1.5 days compared with those treated with a placebo. However, some patients slashed their cold duration in half -- from six days to only three" - See Zicam at drugstore.com icon.
  • Soothing Sore Throat? - Dr. Weil, 12/6/02
  • Zinc Gluconate Reduces Cold Duration And Frequency In Children - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/02 - "Subjects taking the zinc gluconate glycine lozenges [Cold-Eeze] showed shorter cold duration than non-users: 7.5 and 9.0 days respectively. Further, 4.1 percent of those taking the lozenge needed concomitant antibiotics compared to 36.2 percent of non-users. Prophylaxis with the lozenge reduced the median annual number of colds from 1.3 in non-users to 0.0 among the lozenge users" - I've got that via my drugstore.com affiliate.  See Cold-Eezeicon.  Now might be a good time to stock up on Zicamicon so that you can use it at the first symptoms of a cold.
  • Exercise, Supplements Boost Flu Shots - WebMD, 10/3/02
  • Exercise May Reduce Risk Of Colds - Intelihealth, 8/26/02
  • Alternative Remedies for Fighting a Cold - WebMD, 2/27/02 - "chicken soup not only helps break up nasal congestion, but many recipes include garlic, which has antibiotic properties ... Drink plenty of water ... help to clear the sinuses ... most cough syrup was extracted from the bark of the wild cherry tree ... garlic, ginger, and goldenseal. These herbs and spices have antiviral, antiseptic, or antibiotic properties ..."
  • Natural cures for the common cold? - CNN, 2/13/01 - "a zinc nasal spray called Zicam, showed very promising results in a study of 213 patients published in ENT, the Ear, Nose and Throat journal. Symptoms were reduced by as much as 75 percent." - see Zicam

Other News:

  • COVID-19 Reinfection Unlikely for at Least 6 Months, Study Finds - Medscape, 11/20/20 - "People who've had COVID-19 are highly unlikely to contract it again for at least six months after their first infection"
  • The End of the Pandemic Is Now in Sight - Atlantic, 11/18/20 - "mRNA vaccines offer a clever shortcut. We humans don’t need to intellectually work out how to make viruses; our bodies are already very, very good at incubating them. When the coronavirus infects us, it hijacks our cellular machinery, turning our cells into miniature factories that churn out infectious viruses. The mRNA vaccine makes this vulnerability into a strength. What if we can trick our own cells into making just one individually harmless, though very recognizable, viral protein? The coronavirus’s spike protein fits this description, and the instructions for making it can be encoded into genetic material called mRNA ... Both vaccines, from Moderna and from Pfizer’s collaboration with the smaller German company BioNTech, package slightly modified spike-protein mRNA inside a tiny protective bubble of fat. Human cells take up this bubble and simply follow the directions to make spike protein. The cells then display these spike proteins, presenting them as strange baubles to the immune system. Recognizing these viral proteins as foreign, the immune system begins building an arsenal to prepare for the moment a virus bearing this spike protein appears."
  • Early Data Suggests Moderna's COVID-19 Vaccine Is Nearly 95% Effective—And You Can Keep It in the Fridge - Time, 11/16/20 - "On Sunday, an independent monitoring board broke the code to examine 95 infections that were recorded starting two weeks after volunteers’ second dose — and discovered all but five illnesses occurred in participants who got the placebo. ... All 11 severe COVID-19 cases were among placebo recipients, and there were no significant safety concerns ... The main side effects were fatigue, muscle aches and injection-site pain after the vaccine’s second dose, at rates that Hoge characterized as more common than with flu shots but on par with others such as shingles vaccine ... Another steep challenge: distributing doses that must be kept very cold. Both the Moderna and Pfizer shots are frozen but at different temperatures. Moderna announced Monday that once thawed, its doses can last longer in a refrigerator than initially thought, up to 30 days. Pfizer’s shots require long-term storage at ultra-cold temperatures."
  • Hydroxychloroquine does not help patients hospitalized with COVID-19, study finds - Science Daily, 11/16/20 - "The study showed no evidence that hydroxychloroquine prevented death or helped patients recover from COVID-19 more quickly. One month after starting the study, 10.4% of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and 10.6% of patients treated with placebo had died"
  • Flu Shot May Shield You From Severe COVID - WebMD, 11/2/20 - "COVID patients who had not received a flu vaccine within the last year had 2.4 times greater odds of being hospitalized and 3.3 times greater chance of being transferred to the ICU ... Unfortunately, we do not know why the flu vaccine would have this beneficial side effect," he said. "Our study did not look at this specifically. [But] if one looks at the available scientific studies, we can guess that the flu vaccine might increase natural killer cell activity, a type of immune cell that has been shown to target cancer and cells infected by viruses ... The flu vaccine may also stimulate a patient's immune system to step up and fight off COVID-19 more quickly and rigorously than otherwise"
  • A New, Large Study Finds Plasma Does Not Lower Risk of Dying from COVID-19 - Time, 10/23/20 - "when plasma is infused in patients who have moderate COVID-19 (similar to severe in other countries), it did not reduce mortality or progression to more critical COVID-19"
  • WH Update: ‘Fatigued’ Trump Took Regeneron’s Coronavirus Antibody Cocktail, Which Is Still in Testing Phase - CNS, 10/2/20 - "According to the “update from President @RealDonaldTrump’s physician,” Trump “received a single 8 gram dose of Regeneron's polyclonal antibody cocktail.” The president has also been taking zinc, vitamin D, famotidine, melatonin and a daily aspirin" - Hmm!  No hydroxychloroquine?  I'm shocked.  Yes, I'm being factitious.  Famotidine is the generic name for Pepcid, an antacid.
  • A New Study Confirms Remdesivir's Effectiveness as a Coronavirus Treatment - Time, 10/8/20 - "In the final analysis, which included 1,062 people who were randomly assigned to receive IV remdesivir or a placebo for up to 10 days while in the hospital, the researchers provide more detailed data on how the drug affected metrics including how long people needed to be given supplemental oxygen or put on ventilators. All of the participants showed evidence of respiratory infection, mostly pneumonia, and 85% were considered to have severe disease, which meant that they had at least one of three symptoms: their blood oxygen levels were below 94% while breathing room air; they required supplemental oxygen; or they needed a ventilator to breathe. Among all the participants—both with severe COVID-19 and with more mild symptoms—those given remdesivir were able to be discharged from the hospital on average five days sooner than those receiving placebo."
  • The ‘Evidence Is Clear': Hydroxychloroquine Doesn't Help COVID-19 Patients - NBC, 10/9/20 - "The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, examined the outcomes of 1,561 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who received hydroxychloroquine and compared them to 3,155 patients who served as a control group ... Within a month, about a quarter of the patients in each group had died ... "The scientific evidence is clear," said Dr. Caleb Alexander, a professor of epidemiology and medicine at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "There is no convincing evidence of its effectiveness for treating COVID.""
  • Benefit of the Common Cold? It May Prevent COVID - WebMD, 10/5/20 - "The study authors compared blood samples from 26 people who were recovering from mild to moderate COVID-19 and 21 healthy people whose samples were collected six to 10 years ago, long before they could have been exposed to COVID-19. ... They found that B cells that attacked previous cold-causing coronaviruses appeared to also recognize the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 ... This could mean that anyone who's ever been infected by a common cold coronavirus -- nearly everyone -- may have some amount of immunity to COVID-19 ... Because memory B cells can survive for decades, they could protect COVID-19 survivors from subsequent infections for a long time"
  • Can the common cold help protect you from COVID-19? - Science Daily, 9/29/20 - "The study, published in mBio, is the first to show that the COVID-19-causing virus, SARS-CoV-2, induces memory B cells, long-lived immune cells that detect pathogens, create antibodies to destroy them and remember them for the future. The next time that pathogen tries to enter the body, those memory B cells can hop into action even faster to clear the infection before it starts ... Because memory B cells can survive for decades, they could protect COVID-19 survivors from subsequent infections for a long time ... The study is also the first to report cross-reactivity of memory B cells -- meaning B cells that once attacked cold-causing coronaviruses appeared to also recognize SARS-CoV-2. Study authors believe this could mean that anyone who has been infected by a common coronavirus -- which is nearly everyone -- may have some degree of pre-existing immunity to COVID-19"
  • Statins reduce COVID-19 severity, likely by removing cholesterol that virus uses to infect - Science Daily, 9/23/20 - "In short, removing cholesterol from cell membranes prevents the coronavirus from getting in ... statin use prior to hospital admission for COVID-19 was associated with a more than 50 percent reduction in risk of developing severe COVID-19, compared to those with COVID-19 but not taking statins. Patients with COVID-19 who were taking statins prior to hospitalization also recovered faster than those not taking the cholesterol-lowering medication ... statins are likely beneficial in preventing or reducing the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection because, while intended to remove cholesterol from blood vessels, they are also removing cholesterol from cell membranes. As a result, the coronavirus can't get in"
  • EMA Backs Dexamethasone for Severe COVID-19 After Data Review - Medscape, 9/18/20 - "Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) who received dexamethasone and 1110 patients (25.7%) who received usual care died within 28 days after randomization ... Preliminary results indicate that, compared with usual care, dexamethasone reduced mortality by about 35% in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation and by about 20% in patients receiving oxygen without invasive ventilation ... No reduction in the risk for death was seen in patients who were not receiving oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation"
  • Observational Study Again Suggests Lasting COVID-19 Impact on Heart - Medscape, 9/18/20 - "A new study using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to examine the effects of novel coronavirus infection on the heart showed signs suggestive of myocarditis in 4 out of 26 competitive athletes who recovered from asymptomatic or mild cases of COVID-19 ... Two of the 4 patients showing signs of myocarditis in this series had no symptoms of COVID-19 but tested positive on routine testing. An additional 12 student athletes (46%) showed late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), of whom 8 (30.8%) had LGE without T2 elevation, suggestive of prior myocardial injury"
  • Note:  I saw these two videos on YouTube.  The YouTube channel that produced them doesn't have one on Moderna yet but from what they claim about Novavax and Pfizer, it sounds like Moderna blows a hole through both.  If you look at the Moderna data, by my calculations, it produces 5.5, 9.8, 2.1 and 4.1 respectively times the antibodies as someone who has recovered from COVID.  Pfizer and Moderna are the same type vaccine but Pfizer uses a 30 microgram dose vs. a100 microgram dose for Moderna.
  • Affordable Steroids Could Reduce Some COVID-19 Deaths by One-Third, Says World Health Organization - Time, 9/2/20 - "The new conclusions were reached through a meta-analysis of seven different studies, each exploring the efficacy of corticosteroids in the most serious cases of COVID-19. The combined sample group from all seven studies included 1,703 severely ill patients, 678 of whom were administered steroids and 1,025 who received ordinary care (which did not include steroids) or a placebo. All of the patients were hospitalized and most were on ventilators. Over the course of 28 days, the death rate was 34% lower among the steroid-treated patients than among those in the control group ... The consistent findings of benefit in these studies provide definitive data that corticosteroids should be first-line treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19"
    • Multiple Studies Find Steroids Fight Severe COVID - WebMD, 9/2/20 - "A slew of "gold standard" clinical trials offer new hope for patients battling severe COVID-19: cheap, common drugs known as corticosteroids appear to cut the death rate by a third"
  • Dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are in development. Here are the ones to follow - National Geographic, 8/21/20 - "Moderna Therapeutics ... Name: mRNA-1273 ... Who: A Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health ... What: This vaccine candidate relies on injecting snippets of a virus’s genetic material, in this case mRNA, into human cells. They create viral proteins that mimic the coronavirus, training the immune system to recognize its presence. This technology has never been licensed for any disease. If successful, it would be the first mRNA vaccine approved for human use. (Here’s how mRNA vaccines work.) ... Status: On July 27, Moderna announced it had started the third phase of its clinical trials, even as it continues to monitor phase two results. Preliminary findings from phase one have shown that healthy subjects produced coronavirus antibodies and a reaction from T-cells, another arm of the human immune response. Phase three will test the vaccine in 30,000 U.S. participants. Moderna says it is on track to deliver at least 500 million doses per year beginning in 2021, thanks in part to the deal it has struck with Swiss manufacturer Lonza that will allow it to manufacture up to one billion doses a year."
  • Gut microbes could unlock the secret to healthy aging - Science Daily, 8/27/20 - "Bacteria and other microorganisms in the digestive tract are linked with dozens of health conditions including high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and body mass index (BMI) according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2020 ... The researchers found that higher levels of eleven bacteria (estimated from genetic data) were associated with a total of 28 health and disease outcomes. These included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atopy (a genetic tendency to develop allergic diseases like asthma and eczema), frequency of alcohol intake, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and BMI ... To take one example, higher levels of the genus Ruminococcus were linked with increased risk of high blood pressure ... Regarding alcohol consumption, Dr. Groot said: "What we eat and drink is connected to microbiome content, so we studied the links with meat, caffeine, and alcohol. We observed a relationship between raised levels of Methanobacterium and drinking alcohol more often. It is important to stress that this is an association, not a causal relation, and more research is needed.""
  • COVID-19 Is Transmitted Through Aerosols. We Have Enough Evidence, Now It Is Time to Act - Time, 8/25/20 - "The evidence in favor of aerosols is stronger than that for any other pathway, and officials need to be more aggressive in expressing this reality if we want to get the pandemic under control ... There are three possible ways the virus is transmitted, of which two have been emphasized by the WHO and the CDC. The first is through “fomites,” objects that are contaminated with the virus (which could include someone else’s skin). Early in the pandemic, concern over fomite transmission drove some people to bleach groceries and packages. The CDC now says fomites are a possible means of transmission, but likely not one that is major. For example, an intensive handwashing program in the UK led to only a 16% reduction in transmission. Significantly, other viruses that, like SARS-CoV-2 (the one that causes COVID-19), have a lipid envelope, do not survive long on human hands. That means someone would need to touch their eyes, nostrils, or mouth a short time after touching a contaminated surface in order to contract the novel coronavirus ... The second possibility for how COVID-19 spreads is through droplets, small bits of saliva or respiratory fluid that infected individuals expel when they cough, sneeze, or talk. Droplets—which the WHO and CDC maintain is the primary means of transmission of COVID-19—are propelled through the air, but fall to the ground after traveling 3-6 feet. However, published research, which has been replicated, shows that droplets are only important when coughing and sneezing. But when it comes to talking in close proximity, which appears to play a major role in COVID-19 transmission, droplets are less important than the third potential pathway: aerosols. Many diseases, including COVID-19, infect most effectively at close proximity. Since droplets are visible and fall to the ground between 3-6 feet, we can readily see and understand this route of infection. In fact, it was thought for decades that tuberculosis was transmitted by droplets and fomites, based on ease of infection at close proximity, but research eventually proved that tuberculosis can only be transmitted through aerosols. I believe that we have been making a similar mistake for COVID-19 ... “Aerosol” (sometimes referred to as “airborne”) transmission is similar to droplet transmission, except that the bits of fluid are so small that they can linger in the air for minutes to hours"
  • Statins Linked to Reduced Mortality in COVID-19 - Medscape, 8/28/20 - "The four studies — one of "moderate" quality and three of "good" quality — included a total of 8990 COVID-19 patients ... In the pooled analysis, there was a significantly reduced risk for fatal or severe COVID-19 with use of statins compared to non-use of statins (pooled HR, 0.70"
  • Blood pressure medication improves COVID-19 survival rates, research finds - Science Daily, 8/24/20 - "Covid-19 patients with high blood pressure who were taking ACEi/ARB medications were 0.67 times less likely to have a critical or fatal outcome than those not taking these medications"
  • Stop the PPI to Lower COVID-19 Risk? - Medscape, 8/19/20 - "The odds ratios for COVID-19 associated with daily or twice-daily PPI use vs no use were 2.15 and 3.67, respectively"
  • Hydroxychloroquine ineffective as a preventive antiviral against COVID-19, study finds - Science Daily, 8/17/20 - "Researchers have added to the growing body of understanding about how hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is not a possible defense against COVID-19"
  • Dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are in development. Here are the ones to follow - National Geographic, 8/21/20 - "Moderna Therapeutics ... Name: mRNA-1273 ... Who: A Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health ... What: This vaccine candidate relies on injecting snippets of a virus’s genetic material, in this case mRNA, into human cells. They create viral proteins that mimic the coronavirus, training the immune system to recognize its presence. This technology has never been licensed for any disease. If successful, it would be the first mRNA vaccine approved for human use. (Here’s how mRNA vaccines work.) ... Status: On July 27, Moderna announced it had started the third phase of its clinical trials, even as it continues to monitor phase two results. Preliminary findings from phase one have shown that healthy subjects produced coronavirus antibodies and a reaction from T-cells, another arm of the human immune response. Phase three will test the vaccine in 30,000 U.S. participants. Moderna says it is on track to deliver at least 500 million doses per year beginning in 2021, thanks in part to the deal it has struck with Swiss manufacturer Lonza that will allow it to manufacture up to one billion doses a year."
  • Sweden's COVID Policy Didn't Create Herd Immunity - WebMD, 8/13/20 - "Diverging from much of the world, Sweden let COVID-19 spread in hopes the population would develop "herd immunity." But the risky strategy failed ... Authorities predicted that 40% of the people in Stockholm would get the disease and develop protective antibodies by May. The actual prevalence, however, was around 15% ... It is clear that not only are the rates of viral infection, hospitalization and mortality [per million population] much higher than those seen in neighboring Scandinavian countries, but also that the time-course of the epidemic in Sweden is different, with continued persistence of higher infection and mortality well beyond the few critical weeks period seen in Denmark, Finland and Norway ... antibodies are much less common in only mildly ill or asymptomatic patients. This means they are likely not immune, and can't prevent the spread of the virus, the study noted. This is central to the concept of herd immunity"
  • These are the top coronavirus vaccines to watch - Washington Post, 8/13/20 - "RNA vaccines contain a strip of genetic material within a fat bubble. Once inside the cell, the RNA generates a protein found on the surface of the virus. The immune system, presented with the protein, learns to recognize the virus ... These vaccines have the advantage of speed — they can be quickly designed and manufactured. But they have never been approved for use outside of medical research and will likely require two doses ... Viral-vectored vaccines can be designed quickly. One concern is that people can develop immunity to the viral vector, making this approach potentially less useful if booster shots need to be given ... In a more old-fashioned approach, the virus is weakened so that it does not cause disease, but still triggers the immune system’s defenses. The vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella uses this approach ... Inactivated virus vaccines contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system how to mount a defensive reaction against an infection. The polio vaccine invented by Jonas Salk used this approach, and flu vaccines use this technology ... These vaccines typically take longer to manufacture."
  • Face masks with valves or vents do not prevent spread of the coronavirus, CDC says - Washington Post, 8/13/20 - "The purpose of masks is to keep respiratory droplets from reaching others to aid with source control,” the agency’s guidance reads. “However, masks with one-way valves or vents allow air to be exhaled through a hole in the material, which can result in expelled respiratory droplets that can reach others. This type of mask does not prevent the person wearing the mask from transmitting COVID-19 to others."
  • Can Moderna's COVID 19 Vaccine Generate Lasting Immunity? - YouTube - This showed up on a search of Moderna vaccine.  The doctor claims covid is too smart to be stopped by antibodies alone and they have to go at it three different ways, one being to go after T-cells. I think he's saying that the Moderna bypasses that (the virus generates T-cells which generate B-cells which generate the antibodies.  The T-cells last for years whereas antibodies only last months).
  • COVID-19 Pandemic Update 101: T Cell Immunity vs. Antibodies & Prior Exposure to Other Coronaviruses - YouTube - Note: I've set it at 7:30 which supports what I've been saying, i.e., covid patients who have mild or no symptoms have probably been exposed to a similar virus in the past.  Recommend viewing the whole video.   He claims that another reason some are asymptomatic is the amount of the virus, i.e., people who are exposed to just a small amount of the virus may be asymptomatic because their immune system is able to keep up with the replication of the virus within their body.
  • Moderna Coronavirus Vaccine [Medical Doctor Breaks Down the COMPLETE Vaccine Details] - YouTube - Note: This is the Moderna study I’m in. In the Phase II study, they used 45 volunteers and gave 15 volunteers 25 mcgs, 15 got 100 mcgs and 15 got 250 mcgs twice. The second dose was at day 28. From that they decided to go with 100 mcg for phase III. From phase II, the data shows the side effects for the first dose of 100 mcg were very mild but for the second dose, it was significant. But see the table at 27 minutes. Someone who has had covid has about 142,000 units of antibodies. Those who got the vaccine had 86,000 units of antibodies at day 15, 109,000 at day 29, 781,000 at day 36, 811,000 at day 43 and 783,000 at day 57. If you look at the other parameters such as ELISA anti–receptor-binding domain, it seems like you'd be immune around day 20. The side effects are shown 30 minutes into the video. Here’s the NEJM report: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2022483
  • Moderna Prices COVID Vaccine Higher than Others - WebMD, 8/6/20 - "Moderna executives said they have been charging between $32 and $37 for doses of the company's vaccine. That is nearly 90% more than Pfizer is charging, and triple the cost of Sanofi-GSK's vaccine" - Note: This is the trial I'm in. Sounds like Moderna thinks their vaccine is better if they can charge four times as much as the competition. Then again, it might be due to the fact that the delivery system that they use is patented by Arbutus Biopharma but that shouldn't matter to the buyer unless they think it's a better vaccine  . Right now they don't have to pay the other company because they're not making money off of it but before they can sell the vaccine, they have to make a deal with that company. I don't understand this statement where it says: "have been charging between $32 and $37 for doses of the company's vaccine". They can't sell it. It hasn't been FDA approved yet plus they haven't made a deal the company that's patented the delivery technology yet.
  • The Vaccine to End the Pandemic? - YouTube
  • Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Price Revealed - YouTube
  • Wearing a neck gaiter may be worse than no mask at all, researchers find - Washington Post, 8/10/20 - "A fitted N95 mask, which is used most commonly by hospital workers, was the most effective, Warren said, noting that the mask allowed “no droplets at all” to come out. Meanwhile, a breathable neck gaiter, well-liked by runners for its lightweight fabric, ranked worse than the no-mask control group. The gaiter tested by the researchers was described in the study as a “neck fleece” made out of a polyester spandex material, Warren said ... “These neck gaiters are extremely common in a lot of places because they’re very convenient to wear,” he said. “But the exact reason why they’re so convenient, which is that they don’t restrict air, is the reason why they’re not doing much of a job helping people.”"
  • Chloroquine Linked to Serious Psychiatric Side Effects - Medscape, 8/10/20 - "In addition to previously reported side effects, chloroquine could also induce psychiatric side effects which are polymorphic and can persist even after stopping the drug ... In COVID-19 patients who may still be [undergoing treatment] with chloroquine, close psychiatric assessment and monitoring should be performed ... According to the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System database, 12% of reported adverse events (520 of 4336) following the use of chloroquine that occurred between the fourth quarter of 2012 and the fourth quarter of 2019 were neuropsychiatric. These events included amnesia, delirium, hallucinations, depression, and loss of consciousness ... some case series or case reports describe symptoms such as depression, anxiety, agitation, violent outburst, suicidal ideation, and psychosis in patients who have been treated with chloroquine for malaria, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis"
  • Nearly 40% of those who've died from COVID-19 had diabetes, ADA says - ABC, 8/10/20 - "nearly 40% of COVID-19 deaths have been from those with the disease, while 90% of the hospitalizations have been people with diabetes or other underlying conditions"
  • Chronic Fatigue May Be Long-term Effect of COVID-19 - Medscape, 8/10/20 - "This could result in a longstanding public health disaster leaving in its wake untold numbers of new sufferers of a condition that feels like a 'living death' for those of us afflicted,"
  • Test Sites Quickly Attract Thousands for COVID-19 Vaccine Study - Medscape, 8/10/20 - "There's a lot less risk to getting the vaccine than contracting the virus," said Coe, 74, a retired cardiologist. "The worst thing that can happen is if I get the placebo." - Note: Exactly, that's why I'm in the Moderna clinical trial.
  • 'Doubling Down' on Hydroxychloroquine QT Prolongation in COVID-19 - Medscape, 8/7/20 - "Still, hydroxychloroquine continues to be dragged into the spotlight in recent days as an effective treatment for COVID-19, despite discredited research and the US Food and Drug Administration's June 15 revocation of its emergency-use authorization to allow use of HCQ and chloroquine to treat certain hospitalized COVID-19 patients ... "The unfortunate politicization of this issue has really muddied the waters because the general public doesn't know what to believe or who to believe. The fact that treatment for a disease as serious as COVID should be modulated by political affiliation is just crazy to me," said Haines. "We should be using the best science and taking careful observations, and whatever the recommendations derived from that should be uniformly adopted by everybody, irrespective of your political affiliation."" - Note:  I'm one of those that think to fight any disease, you have to keep your body as healthy as possible.  I still believe that's what got me through stage III neck cancer in 2004.  That's counterintuitive to taking hydroxychloroquine.  I stopped taking hydroxychloroquine for prevention of malaria three months into Vietnam because of the reported problems with it way back 50 years ago.
  • Strong link found between abnormal liver tests and poor COVID-19 outcomes - Science Daily, 8/7/20 - "higher levels of liver enzymes -- proteins released when the liver is damaged -- were associated with poorer outcomes for these patients, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death"
  • Can Moderna's COVID 19 Vaccine Generate Lasting Immunity? - YouTube - This showed up on a search of Moderna vaccine.  The doctor claims covid is too smart to be stopped by antibodies alone and they have to go at it three different ways, one being to go after T-cells (which antibodies generate so I don't understand his argument).
  • Moderna Coronavirus Vaccine [Medical Doctor Breaks Down the COMPLETE Vaccine Details] - YouTube - Note: This is the Moderna study I’m in. In the Phase II study, they used 45 volunteers and gave 15 volunteers 25 mcgs, 15 got 100 mcgs and 15 got 250 mcgs twice. The second dose was at day 28. From that they decided to go with 100 mcg for phase III. From phase II, the data shows the side effects for the first dose of 100 mcg were very mild but for the second dose, it was significant. But see the table at 27 minutes. Someone who has had covid has about 142,000 units of antibodies. Those who got the vaccine had 86,000 units of antibodies at day 15, 109,000 at day 29, 781,000 at day 36, 811,000 at day 43 and 783,000 at day 57. If you look at the other parameters such as ELISA anti–receptor-binding domain, it seems like you'd be immune around day 20. The side effects are shown 30 minutes into the video. Here’s the NEJM report: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2022483
  • Moderna Prices COVID Vaccine Higher than Others - WebMD, 8/6/20 - "Moderna executives said they have been charging between $32 and $37 for doses of the company's vaccine. That is nearly 90% more than Pfizer is charging, and triple the cost of Sanofi-GSK's vaccine" - Note: This is the trial I'm in. Sounds like Moderna thinks their vaccine is better if they can charge four times as much as the competition. Then again, it might be due to the fact that the delivery system that they use is patented by another company but that shouldn't matter to the buyer unless they think it's a better vaccine  . Right now they don't have to pay the other company because they're not making money off of it but before they can sell the vaccine, they have to make a deal with that company. I don't understand this statement where it says: "have been charging between $32 and $37 for doses of the company's vaccine". They can't sell it. It hasn't been FDA approved yet plus they haven't made a deal the company that's patented the delivery technology yet.
  • The Vaccine to End the Pandemic? - YouTube
  • Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Price Revealed - YouTube
  • Oxford Vaccine. Moderna Vaccines Shows Good Results - YouTube - Doctor claims the Oxford vaccine doesn't work and that the delivery technology used by Moderna stays in the system and could cause liver damage.  This was posted on May 18th and I haven't seen anything to support it.
  • Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2 - Science Daily, 8/4/20 - "We have now proven that, in some people, pre-existing T cell memory against common cold coronaviruses can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2, down to the exact molecular structures ... This could help explain why some people show milder symptoms of disease while others get severely sick ... 40 to 60 percent of people never exposed to SARS-CoV-2 had T cells that reacted to the virus. Their immune systems recognized fragments of the virus it had never seen before ... fighting off a common cold coronavirus can indeed teach the T cell compartment to recognize some parts of SARS-CoV-2 and provides evidence for the hypothesis that common cold viruses can, in fact, induce cross-reactive T cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 ... this study provides very strong direct molecular evidence that memory T cells can 'see' sequences that are very similar between common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2" - Note:  I've been saying this for years and as recent as my last newsletter, getting the flu vaccine every year likely makes you particularly immune from similar viruses in the future.
  • Why Are We Still Talking About Hydroxychloroquine? - Medscape, 8/3/20 - "This is getting pretty ridiculous. The number of well-done, evidence-based trials of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 showing minimal-to-no benefit is increasing. There are still studies that show benefit in certain cases, but many of them are small-scale or even anecdotal ... How long is this going to go on? If the evidence supporting its use were to be put through the standard Food and Drug Administration approval panels it wouldn't have a chance ... Yet, because it's become a political football (like masks), science and rational research are tossed out the window. At the end of July we were all treated to videos of Dr. Stella Immanuel claiming the drug is a cure. Dr. Immanuel may have medical credentials, but she also supports beliefs that space aliens and the Illuminati are involved in running governments, and that multiple gynecologic disorders are caused by sexual relations with demons and witches during dreams."
  • Old Vaccines May Stop the Coronavirus, Study Hints. Scientists Are Skeptical - NYT, 7/29/20 - "Now a study suggests that people who have received certain routine vaccines in the recent past — including childhood vaccinations like measles-mumps-rubella and polio, as well as adult flu vaccines — have lower coronavirus infection rates than those not recently vaccinated"
  • Another Effect of COVID: Lasting Hearing Problems? - WebMD, 7/31/20 - "120 U.K. patients who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 took part in a phone survey ... When the patients were asked if they had any changes in their hearing, 13% said it was worse. Eight patients said their hearing had deteriorated and eight said they had tinnitus (ringing in the ears)"
  • Hydroxychloroquine No COVID Cure, Experts Warn - WebMD, 7/29/20 - "Former FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, said the verdict on hydroxychloroquine is not in doubt ... "We all hoped it was going to work. ... All of the studies that were rigorously done have pointed in the same direction, which is that the drug doesn't work," Gottlieb told MSNBC. "I think at this point, we can definitively say hydroxychloroquine doesn't work. I'm not sure what more we need to do.""
  • Flu Drug Blocks Household Spread by 86% - Medscape, 7/9/20 - "Among placebo recipients, 13.6% developed the flu themselves. But among those who took a baloxavir pill instead, only 1.9% fell ill"
  • Study: Sterilize N95 Masks With a Microwave - WebMD, 7/9/20 - "The materials include water, a glass container, mesh, a rubber band, and a 1,100- or 1,150-watt microwave. The researchers filled the container with 60 milliliters of water, then secured the mesh material over the top of it with a rubber band. They then placed the N95 mask on the mesh and microwaved it for 3 minutes. This effectively killed all viruses, including coronavirus, they say"
  • Expert: Face Masks Reduce Wearer's COVID Infection Risk by 65% - Medscape, 7/10/20 - "a "standard rectangular surgical mask ... will decrease the risk of infection to the person wearing the mask by about 65%" and that homemade masks also "should work quite well." - Note:  I've found the following to be the most comfortable plus they don't make your face itch.  I bought two 5-packs and keep them in the center console of the car.  Each day, I put the used one on the washing machine for the next wash.  My Maytag washer has a two hour allergen setting which I used for everything.
  • Popular Heartburn Drugs Linked to Heightened COVID-19 Risk - Time, 7/7/20 - "respondents who said they used proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medications to treat their heartburn had anywhere from two to nearly four times the risk of testing positive for COVID-19, compared to people not using such medications. PPI drugs, which are available by prescription and over the counter, work by turning off the pumps in cells that release acid into the stomach. They can be taken once or twice a day; people taking PPI medications twice a day had a higher risk of infection compared to those taking them once a day."
  • Study finds COVID-19 convalescent plasma therapy safe, with 76 percent patients improving - Science Daily, 6/2/20
  • Here’s my pitch for getting the flu shot every year:

    • Does the Flu Provide Better Immunity Than a Flu Shot? - NYT, 10/28/16 - "just over half of patients infected with the 2009 H1N1 flu still had an antibody response after six months, while only about a third of vaccinated subjects did ... a 2008 study published in Nature found that survivors of the 1918 Spanish flu got lifelong immunity to that flu virus and, as it turned out, protection against the pandemic H1N1 flu in 2009"
    • There was a similar virus to covid-19 in 2003.  Click here for the video. I don���t know if the flu shot covered it but people obviously contracted it. I believe that’s why we're seeing some people contract covid-19 and experience almost no symptoms and other suffering an agonizing death. Maybe the ones with the lesser symptoms either got partial immunity from the 2003 flu shot or the actual disease itself.  True, the vaccine isn’t as effective as the disease itself but it does provide some protection which should cause the symptoms to be less severe.
  • Coronavirus vs. Every 2000s Epidemic (March 19 update) Fatality comparison - YouTube video that graphs the coronavirus vs. previous pandemics starting from day 1, then ranks them on the right of the screen.  See how fast Covid-19 moves up to the top on the ranking.
  • Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: What's the Evidence? - Medscape, 3/25/20 - "Three patients were transferred to the ICU, one died, and the other two stopped their treatment. By the way, none of the patients in the control group died or went to the ICU. Had these six patients not been dropped, the story we might have is that hydroxychloroquine increases the rate of death and ICU transfer in COVID-19 .... Before reading this study, I was 50/50 on hydroxychloroquine. After? ... Yeah, I'm right where I started. Because of the problems with the study design—not just its observational nature but that differential loss to follow-up—the data from the French study don't move the needle for me at all"
  • FDA Approved Drugs Show Promise Against COVID-19 - WebMD, 3/24/20 - "The results showed that the most promising drugs included several antiviral drugs -- including Darunavir, Nelfinavir, and Saquinavir -- and several other types of drugs, including: the ACE inhibitor Moexipril; the chemotherapy drugs Daunorubicin and Mitoxantrone; the painkiller Metamizole; the antihistamine Bepotastine; and the antimalarial drug Atovaquone ... Another promising candidate is the cholesterol-lowering statin rosuvastatin, which is sold under the brand name Crestor ... Also on the list were certain antibiotics; metformin, the go-to drug for type 2 diabetes; the schizophrenia drug haloperidol; and the malaria drug chloroquine"
  • COVID-19: Could Hydroxychloroquine Really Be the Answer? - WebMD, 3/18/20 - "Chloroquine was ruled out due to the risk of interactions with other medications for common comorbidities in infected patients, and because of possible adverse effects in patients undergoing resuscitation"
  • Blood Type May Affect COVID-19 Risk: Study - WebMD, 3/20/20 - "those with A blood types had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 while those with O blood types had a significantly lower risk"
  • San Diego flu cases up, but severity and deaths are down - CBS8, 1/13/20 - "See the video.  This doc sees Tamiflu the same as I do. You have to start Tamiflu as early as possible and it stops the flu in its tracks. The studies claim that the average flu is only 5 days and Tamiflu only cuts it down by a day. That doesn't sound accurate. When I get the flu, it's more like three weeks and Tamiflu cuts it down to three days and those three days aren't as severe. You can get the generic in Tijuana for about $16.  Also inhousepharmacy.vu.
  • Why do healthy children die from the flu? Study offers new insights - Science Daily, 2/15/18 - "We found that in young healthy mice the immune system overreacted to the influenza virus, which led to more inflammation, greater lung damage and increased mortality compared to healthy adults exposed to the virus"
  • Repeated influenza vaccination helps prevent severe flu in older adults - Science Daily, 1/8/18 - "Repeated vaccination for influenza was highly effective in preventing severe and fatal infection caused by influenza in older adult ... The prevention of severe and fatal infection caused by influenza was observed mainly in patients who were vaccinated in both the current and previous seasons, which reinforces the recommendation of annual vaccination for influenza in older adults"
  • Does the Flu Provide Better Immunity Than a Flu Shot? - NYT, 10/28/16 - "When a flu virus enters your body, the immune system fights the infection by producing a robust antibody response that can spring into action if the same strain of the virus returns. That protection can in some cases last a lifetime. “The evidence we have is that people who were infected back in the ‘30s still have immunity to those viruses,” says Dr. Alicia Fry, a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Studies also show that even when the antibody response wanes, immunity from a natural infection tends to last longer than that from a vaccine ... For perspective, a 2008 study published in Nature found that survivors of the 1918 Spanish flu got lifelong immunity to that flu virus and, as it turned out, protection against the pandemic H1N1 flu in 2009"
  • Totality of trials data confirm Tamiflu reduces length of symptoms, complications, and hospital admissions from influenza - Science Daily, 1/30/15 - "oseltamivir significantly reduces the risk of influenza complications requiring antibiotics (such as pneumonia) and hospitalisations in adults infected with influenza ... treating adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza with oseltamivir reduced the duration of symptoms by 21% compared with placebo (from 123 hours to 98 hours) ... oseltamivir reduced the risk of lower respiratory tract infections requiring antibiotics more than 48 hours after study entry by 44% compared with placebo (4.9% vs 8.7%), and hospital admission for any cause by 63% (0.6% vs 1.7%) in adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza"
  • Are you crazy for working out while sick? - CNN.com, 12/22/14 - "If you don't have a fever, a runny nose is no reason to skip a workout ... If you are mildly sick, [staying] active will promote your immune function, and help you sleep better ... When you have a cold, you're typically contagious for about five full days, and your germs spread most easily during your two to three most symptomatic days ... Working out with a fever can make your health way worse ... Angarone recommends resting until your fever has been gone for a full 24 hours, without the help of any fever-reducing medications like ibuprofen"
  • Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccinations in Singapore - Medscape, 11/5/14 - "vaccine effectiveness (VE) ... The crude estimates for the VE of the triavalent vaccine against both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B were 84% (95% CI 78–88%, 79–86%, respectively). Vaccine efficacy against influenza A(H3N2) was markedly lower (VE 33%, 95% CI −4% to 57%). An estimated 70% (RR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.11–0.84), 39% (RR = 0.61;0.25–1.43) and 75% (RR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.11–0.50) reduction in the risk of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B infections, respectively, in the recruit camp during the post-vaccination period compared with during the pre-vaccination period was observed"
  • High-Dose Flu Vaccine in Older Adults: Worth It? - Medscape, 10/7/14 - "Those receiving high-dose vaccine had significantly higher antibody response to the vaccine. They also looked at who got sick. Overall, 228 persons receiving the high-dose vaccine and 301 receiving standard-dose trivalent vaccine had laboratory-confirmed flu, which translates into a relative efficacy of 24.2% ... The conclusions? In seniors 65 years or older, those receiving high-dose trivalent flu vaccine had better antibody response and better protection against getting sick with flu as compared to those receiving standard trivalent vaccine"
  • Flu Hits Unvaccinated Hardest, Study Finds - WebMD, 2/14/14 - "even if the flu vaccine doesn't completely prevent you from getting the flu, it does offer "a protective effect against severe disease." ... Flu kills around 35,000 people a year, and about 200,000 a year end up in the hospital"
  • High-Dose Flu Vaccine: The Evidence Is In - Medscape, 1/3/14 - "The results: case closed. The high-dose shot was more effective in seniors. It was 24% better at preventing flu than the standard flu shot"
  • Ibuprofen no good in treating colds or sore throats - Science Daily, 11/4/13 - "compared with paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both ibuprofen and paracetamol provide no advantage for patients overall with respiratory tract infections (otherwise known as colds or sore throats) ... steam inhalation, another common treatment method, has no clear benefit and around 2 per cent of people get mild scalding but not bad enough to see a doctor ... The research also showed that patients were more likely to come back within a month with worsening symptoms or new symptoms if they were prescribed with ibuprofen or ibuprofen with paracetamol"
  • Flu shot may cut risk of heart problems, analysis finds - NBC News.com, 10/22/13 - "of the 6,700 patients, half got the flu vaccine and half the placebo or standard care, only a third of patients had a history of heart disease. But among those who got the flu shot, we saw a 36 percent lower risk of a major cardiac event"
  • Higher Indoor Humidity Levels Might Slow Flu's Spread - WebMD, 2/28/13 - "the team found that when humidity levels were set to 43 percent, only 14 percent of the virus particles that were released were able to transmit the influenza virus, compared with a transmission rate of 70 percent to 77 percent in a relatively low-humidity environment (23 percent)" - Note:  That might be true but most of what I've read indicates that the virus is usually spread by surface to surface contact.  People touch something that has the virus then they touch their mouth, eyes or nose.
  • At what point after a cold are you no longer contagious? - askville.amazon.com - "Cold symptoms settle in between one and four days after you are infected by a cold virus and typically last for about three days. At that point the worst is over, but you may feel congested for a week or more. During the first three days that you have symptoms, you are contagious"
  • Cold or Flu: How to Tell - ABC News, 12/5/12 - See the table.
  • Why is the flu more common during the winter season? - Science Daily, 12/4/12 - "The researchers found humidity could explain the seasonality of influenza by controlling the ability of viruses to remain infectious while they are in droplets or aerosols. The viruses survived best at low humidity, such as those found indoors in the winter, and at extremely high humidity. Humidity affects the composition of the fluid, namely the concentrations of salts and proteins in respiratory droplets, and this affects the survival rates of the flu virus" - Note:  If that's true a humidifier might help solve the problem but I believe the cause is cold weather decreasing your immunity.  See humidifiers at Amazon.com.
  • Flu may boost Alzheimer's risk, research suggests - MSNBC, 2/16/12 - "Viruses such as influenza and herpes may leave brain cells vulnerable to degeneration later in life, and increase the risk of developing diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, research suggests. That's because these the viruses can enter the brain and trigger an immune response — inflammation — which can damage brain cells"
  • Giving flu shots to tots cuts ER visits by a third - MSNBC, 9/19/11 - "Recommending that all U.S. preschoolers get a flu shot cut visits to the emergency department for flu-like illness by more than a third, U.S. and Canadian researchers said on Monday in a study that showed the direct impact of vaccination policy changes on flu transmission"
  • Antibiotics May Make Fighting Flu Harder - Science News, 3/14/11 - "Iwasaki and her colleagues treated mice for a month with four antibiotics commonly given to people with bacterial infections, then infected the rodents with the flu. Antibiotic treatment impaired the mice’s ability to make an important flu-fighting molecule called interleukin-1 beta or IL-1 beta, the researchers found. IL-1 beta is necessary to combat influenza and other viruses ... Gut bacteria are constantly priming the immune system to make IL-1 beta, keeping the immune system vigilant against the flu and other viruses ... Some Lactobacillus bacteria, on the other hand, are known as “friendly��� gut bacteria and may play a role in virus defense. Mice treated with an antibiotic called neomycin, which wipes out most types of Lactobacillus bacteria while leaving Sphingomonas bacteria alone, have a hard time fighting the flu" - Note:  It seems to be a common misconception of nearly everyone I know that if you've got a bad case of the flu you need to go to a doctor and get antibiotics when in reality, it probably slows recovery.
  • H1N1 Swine Flu Deadly to the Young - WebMD, 10/20/09 - "In a normal flu season, 90% of deaths are in elderly people. Since September, 90% of deaths have been in people under age 65 -- with almost a quarter of the deaths in young people under age 25"
  • Live Attenuated Flu Vaccine May Be Less Effective Than Inactivated Flu Vaccine - Medscape, 9/24/09 - "the inactivated influenza vaccine (injection) was more effective than the live attenuated vaccine (intranasal spray) in preventing laboratory-confirmed symptomatic influenza A (mostly H3N2) in healthy adults"
  • Shots beat back the flu much better than spray - msnbc.com, 9/23/09 - "In a study of nearly 2,000 healthy adults during a recent flu season, standard shots were twice as effective against regular winter flu as the newer nasal spray" - Note:  For what it's worth, I read or viewed somewhere that the shot contains dead viruses and the spray contains weakened viruses.
  • 2 Easiest Ways to Catch Swine Flu - WebMD, 9/18/09 - "Having a sick person cough directly into your face ... That gives you more than a 50% chance of getting sick ... Touching something contaminated with flu virus and then touching your nose, mouth, or eyes with your unwashed hand gives you a 31% chance at getting sick"
  • Seniors may have immunity to swine flu - msnbc.com, 9/17/09 - "Researchers believe seniors have a partial immunity to swine flu because of exposure to similar viruses in their lifetimes. It is a rare bit of good news before the start of the regular flu season, which generally kills 36,000 people a year, most of them elderly"
  • Swine Flu: How Long Are You Infectious? - WebMD, 9/15/09 - "On the eighth day after symptoms struck, 8% to 19% were still shedding live H1N1 virus ... The second study ... showed that 80% were still shedding virus after five days of illness, 40% at seven days, and 10% at 10 days"
  • Vaccination Of 70 Percent Of US Population Could Control Swine Flu Pandemic - Science Daily, 9/10/09 - "An aggressive vaccination program that first targets children and ultimately reaches 70 percent of the U.S. population would mitigate pandemic influenza H1N1 that is expected this fall"
  • Effect of Influenza Vaccination of Nursing Home Staff on Mortality of Residents: A Cluster-Randomized Trial - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Aug 4 - "Influenza vaccine was administered to volunteer staff after a face-to-face interview ... Staff influenza vaccination rates were 69.9% in the vaccination arm versus 31.8% in the control arm. Primary unadjusted analysis did not show significantly lower mortality in residents in the vaccination arm (odds ratio=0.86, P=.08), although multivariate-adjusted analysis showed 20% lower mortality (P=.02), and a strong correlation was observed between staff vaccination coverage and all-cause mortality in residents (correlation coefficient=-0.42, P=.007). In the vaccination arm, significantly lower resident hospitalization rates were not observed, but ILI in residents was 31% lower (P=.007), and sick leave from work in staff was 42% lower" - Note:  I keep hearing people say it's not worth it to get the flu shot.  The way I look at it, the most likely cause of dying from the flu would be being exposed to a virus that is very different than what you've been exposed to in the past.  I feel that the more flu shots you've had in the past, the lower the chances of that happening.  I mentioned before about a virus that I got in Australia that I though would kill me but it's a good  example.  It's got nothing to do with flu shots but it was probably a virus that nearly killed me from neck cancer that may have been prevented by the HPV vaccine.  Something to think about for people foreign things like the flu shot.
  • Breakthrough Flu Drug Stops Pandemic, Seasonal Flu - WebMD, 2/23/09
  • Mask-wearing Significantly Boosts Flu Protection - Science Daily, 1/26/09
  • Doorknobs and TV Remotes Are Germ Hotbeds - InteliHealth, 10/28/08 - "Someone in your house have the sniffles? Watch out for the refrigerator door handle. The TV remote, too. A new study finds that cold sufferers often leave their germs there, where they can live for two days or longer"
  • Flu Vaccines Can Reduce Respiratory Problems By Up To 3/4 - Science Daily, 4/15/08
  • Why The Flu Virus Is More Infectious In Cold Winter Temperatures - Science Daily, 3/30/08 - "At winter temperatures, the virus’s outer covering, or envelope, hardens to a rubbery gel that could shield the virus as it passes from person to person ... At warmer temperatures, however, the protective gel melts to a liquid phase. But this liquid phase apparently isn’t tough enough to protect the virus against the elements, and so the virus loses its ability to spread from person to person"
  • Antibiotics No Help for Sinus Cold - WebMD, 3/13/08
  • Learn self-care home remedies to ease your cold symptoms - WebMD, 12/20/07
  • FDA Panel Says Cold Drug Is Effective - WebMD, 12/14/07
  • Why Flu Spreads in Winter - WebMD, 10/19/07
  • FDA Approves a Second Drug for the Prevention of Influenza A and B in Adults and Children - Doctor's Guide, 3/29/06
  • How do you fight off colds? - USA Today, 1/22/06
  • Doctors discourage use of cough medicine - MSNBC, 1/9/06 - "Over-the-counter cough syrups generally contain drugs in too low a dose to be effective, or contain combinations of drugs that have never been proven to treat coughs"
  • Health Tip: Preventing The Flu - CBS Chicago, 12/9/04
  • Flu Vaccine Helps Despite Mismatched Strains - WebMD, 8/12/04
  • Do Cough Medicines Work in Kids? - WebMD, 7/6/04
  • Cough Medicines Appear No Better than Non-Medicated Placebo Syrup for Children's Coughs - Doctor's Guide, 7/6/04
  • Beating the flu: A spray or a shot? - MSNBC, 9/23/03
  • Flu Vaccination Cuts Coronary Deaths - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/03
  • FluMist (Influenza Virus Vaccine Live, Intranasal) Now Available in US - Doctor's Guide, 9/2/03
  • FDA Approves FluMist Nasal Mist Influenza Vaccine - Doctor's Guide, 6/18/03
  • New Drug [pleconaril] May Prevent the Common Cold - WebMD, 5/1/03
  • Study: Flu Shots Prevent Heart Disease - Intelihealth, 4/3/03
  • Flu Shots Cut Hospitalization in Elderly - WebMD, 4/2/03
  • FDA Approves Avelox (Moxifloxacin HCl) For Community Acquired Pneumonia Due To Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae - Doctor's Guide, 3/4/03
  • Amoxicillin/Sulbactam Effective, Well Tolerated In Treatment Of Community Acquired Pneumonia - WebMD, 3/3/03
  • Many Parents Don't Know Cold Facts - WebMD, 2/3/03
  • Death by Flu Too Common Among Elderly - WebMD, 1/7/03
  • Carpets and Sleeping Arrangements Affect Flu Incidence in Dorms - Doctor's Guide, 10/22/02
  • Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) Effective for Pain Associated with Common Cold - Doctor's Guide, 8/21/02
  • Flu Vaccine Good For All Adults, Not Just Elderly Or Ill - Intelihealth, 8/20/02
  • Air Pollution Adds To Illness - Intelihealth, 7/24/02
  • Prophylaxis with Oseltamivir Helps Stop Home Outbreaks of Influenza - Doctor's Guide, 3/6/02
  • Good News in Flu Fight [Relenza, Tamiflu] - WebMD, 2/27/02
  • Flu Shots May Be Healthy for the Economy, Too - WebMD, 2/27/02
  • Cough Medicine Effective - WebMD, 2/8/02
  • New Intranasal Flu Vaccine, Nasalflu, Safe and Effective in Children - Doctor's Guide, 12/18/01
  • Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) Prophylaxis Reduces The Transmission Of Influenza In Families - Doctor's Guide, 12/18/01
  • New Drug [pleconaril] Shortens Cold Symptoms - WebMD, 12/18/01
  • Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces Carriage Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Is Well Tolerated by Young Children - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01
  • Pneumococcal Vaccine Together With Haemophilus Influenzae Vaccine Safe and Effective in Infants - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01
  • Picovir (Pleconaril) Relieves Symptoms of Viral Colds up to One Day Faster than Placebo - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01
  • Inflexal Vaccine Appears to Reduce Transmission of Influenza in Families - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01
  • Influenza Antiviral Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) Reduces Spread of Flu in Families - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01
  • Remedy for common cold [pleconaril] could arrive next fall - USA Today, 12/17/01
  • FDA Approves Biaxin XL (Clarithromycin) For Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Doctor's Guide, 8/6/01
  • Telithromycin Effective For Treating Atypical Community Acquired Pneumonia - Doctor's Guide, 7/3/01
  • Telithromycin Effective For Treating Pneumococcal Pneumonia - Doctor's Guide, 7/3/01
  • Sitafloxacin Well Tolerated In Treatment For Pneumonia, May Show Similar Efficacy To Imipenem - Doctor's Guide, 4/10/01
  • One Shot Keeps Bacterial Pneumonia at Bay, Ask Your Doctor About the Pneumococcal Vaccine - WebMD, 4/3/01 - "We know pneumonia is the No. 1 cause of death from infectious disease in the U.S. ... The vaccine isn't perfect; it can't prevent every single case. However, right now it is being grossly underutilized"
  • Study Suggests Antibiotics Little Help For Children's Sinus Infections - Intelihealth, 4/2/01
  • New Flu Drug Warning -- Watch Out for Breathing Problems, Relenza Linked to Patient Deaths in Some Cases, Says Maker - WebMD, 7/10/00
  • Study Shows Tamiflu (Oseltamvir) Helps Children Get Better Faster - Doctor's Guide, 2/19/01
  • FDA Approves Antiviral Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) For Children - Doctor's Guide, 12/15/00
  • The Flu: Is It More Dangerous Than We Thought? - WebMD, 11/22/00
  • FDA: Daily pill can prevent, not just treat, flu - CNN, 11/21/00
  • FDA OKs Daily Pill for Prevention of the Flu - WebMD, 11/20/00
  • FDA Approves Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) To Help Prevent Influenza - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/00
  • Flu Treatment Also May Prevent the Illness - WebMD, 11/1/00
  • 'Ouchless' Flu Prevention? Drugs Already on Shelves May Work - WebMD, 10/18/00
  • Cold or Flu? New Test Helps Doctors Make the Call - WebMD, 10/18/00
  • Early Treatment With Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) Reduces Total Duration Of The Flu - Doctor's Guide, 9/18/00
  • Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) Successfully Fights Respiratory Infection in Immunocompromised Patients - Doctor's Guide, 5/9/00
  • Oseltamivir Reduces Flu Severity and Duration In Adults - Doctor's Guide, 2/22/00
  • Expert Evaluates New Drugs - Doctor's Guide, 2/21/00
  • FDA Tells Physicians: Remember Therapeutic Considerations Before Prescribing New Flu Drugs - Doctor's Guide, 1/13/00
  • Steering clear of air cabin cold viruses - CNN, 12/16/99
  • Tamiflu Reduces Duration Of Flu By One-Third - Doctor's Guide, 11/9/99
  • Tamiflu Safe, Effective In Preventing Flu In Elderly, High-Risk Patients - Doctor's Guide, 9/27/99
  • Common Cold Caused By Multiple Viruses - Doctor's Guide, 2/2/98
  • Evidence Shows That Social Relationships Build Resistance To Colds - Doctor's Guide, 6/25/97