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Home > Health Conditions > Respiratory Tract Infection

Respiratory Tract Infections

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  • Chlorogenic acid reduces inflammation by inhibiting the elevated expression of KAT2A to ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury - Br J Pharmacol 2023 Mar 13 - "Respiratory diseases have become a global health problem and may lead to acute lung injury (ALI) in severe cases. ALI progression is associated with complex pathological changes; however, there are currently no effective therapeutic drugs. Excessive activation and recruitment of immunocytes in the lungs and the release of large amounts of cytokines are considered the primary causes of ALI, but the cellular mechanisms involved remain unknown ... Targeted inhibition of KAT2A suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines and improved respiratory function in this murine model of ALI. Chlorogenic acid, a specific KAT2A-targeting inhibitor, was effective in treating ALI. In conclusion, our results provide a reference for the clinical treatment of ALI and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic drugs for lung injury" - See chlorogenic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effectiveness of supplementation with quercetin-type flavonols for treatment of viral lower respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies - Phytother Res 2021 Apr 17 - "Viral infections of the lower respiratory tract are considered a public health problem. They affect millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of deaths, and are treated with expensive medicines, such as antivirals or palliative measures. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to describe the use of quercetin-type flavonols against lower respiratory tract viruses and discussed the preclinical impact of this approach on different signs and clinical mechanisms of infection ... The analysis of these studies showed evidence of antiviral activity of quercetin-type flavonols with significantly reduced mortality rate (M-H = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.65, p-value = 0.008) of infected animals and a reduction in the average viral load (IV = -1.93, 95% CI: -3.54 to -0.31, p-value = 0.02). Additionally, quercetin and its derivatives reduced the amount of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, mucus production, and airway resistance in animals infected with a respiratory virus. Overall, supplementation with quercetin-type flavonols is a promising strategy for treating viral-induced lower respiratory tract infections" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 3 May Reduce the Severity of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: Post hoc Analysis of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Comparison Study - Nutrients 2020 Dec 8 - "the physical symptom scores for "Runny nose," "Sneezing," and "Head congestion" were significantly lower in the 25OHD group than in the placebo group; for all items except "Breathe easily, "the quality of life" scores were significantly improved in the 25OHD group. There was no significant difference in the number of URTI events or the proportion of medication use between the groups. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that a sufficient 25OHD intake can reduce physical symptoms at the onset of upper respiratory tract infection, particularly nasal symptoms, and may improve the quality of life at the time of onset" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Probiotics Reduce Health Care Cost and Societal Impact of Flu-Like Respiratory Tract Infections in the USA: An Economic Modeling Study - Front. Pharmacol., 28 August 2019 - "The analysis showed that generalized probiotic intake in the US population for 2017–2018 would have allowed cost savings for the health care payer of 4.6 million USD based on the YHEC scenario and 373 million USD for the Cochrane scenario, by averting 19 million and 54.5 million RTI sick days, respectively, compared to no probiotics" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D reduces respiratory infections - Science Daily, 11/16/16 - "could help reduce one of the leading causes of serious illness, debilitation and death among patients in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities ... Vitamin D can improve the immune system's ability to fight infections because it bolsters the first line of defense of the immune system ... 55 received high doses of vitamin D or 100,000 units monthly (averaging 3,300-4,300 units daily). And 52 received lower doses averaging between 400-1,000 units daily. Those with higher doses saw ARIs cut nearly in half. They also had over double the incidence of falls ... This is a potentially life-saving discovery ... here is very little in a doctor's arsenal to battle ARI, especially since most are viral infections where antibiotics don't work. But vitamin D seems able to potentially prevent these infections" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review - J Nutr. 2016 Jan 13 - "Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep 10 - "children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34 (NCIMB 30172) plus 50 mg vitamin C or a placebo daily for 6 months.Results:Significant reductions in the incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 33%, P=0.002), the number of days with URTI symptoms (mean difference: -21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):-35.9, -6.0, P=0.006) and the incidence rate of absence from preschool (30%, P=0.007) were observed in the active group compared with the placebo. The number of days of use of antibiotics, painkillers, cough medicine or nasal sprays was lower in the active group and reached significance for use of cough medicine (mean difference: -6.6, 95% CI: -12.9, -0.3, P=0.040)" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Associations Between Vitamin D and Self-Reported Respiratory Disease in Older People from a Nationally Representative Population Survey - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 May 6 - "Health Survey for England 2005 ... Low serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with respiratory disease. Ensuring adequate 25(OH)D levels is of public health importance for older populations living in northern latitudes and may be an effective way to prevent concurrent respiratory infections and related complications in older people" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D can help infection-prone patients avoid respiratory tract infection - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "researchers examined whether treatment with vitamin D can prevent and relieve respiratory tract infections in particularly infection-prone patients. All the 140 participants from the Immunodeficiency Unit had symptoms of disease in their respiratory tracts for at least 42 days prior to the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which received vitamin D in relatively high doses, the other a placebo. They were also asked to keep a diary recording their state of health every day during the year-long study period ... The results show that symptoms of respiratory tract infection declined by almost a quarter and the use of antibiotics by almost half. Vitamin D treatment was also tolerated well by all patients and gave no serious side-effects" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-9 - "College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI ... randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks ... The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34 % with probiotics v. placebo (P < 0.001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P = 0.429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0.2 d) compared to the placebo group (P = 0.002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin d, respiratory infections, and asthma - Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009 Jan;9(1):81-7 - "Emerging evidence indicates that vitamin D-mediated innate immunity, particularly through enhanced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP-18), is important in host defenses against respiratory tract pathogens. Observational studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of respiratory infections. This increased risk may contribute to incident wheezing illness in children and adults and cause asthma exacerbations. Although unproven, the increased risk of specific respiratory infections in susceptible hosts may contribute to some cases of incident asthma. Vitamin D also modulates regulatory T-cell function and interleukin-10 production, which may increase the therapeutic response to glucocorticoids in steroid-resistant asthma" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.