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Home > Health Conditions > BPA

Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure

News & Research:

  • Reusable plastic bottles release hundreds of chemicals - Science Daily, 2/11/22 - "Professor Christensen and fellow researcher Selina Tisler detected more than 400 different substances from the bottle plastic and over 3,500 substances derived from dishwasher soap. A large portion of these are unknown substances that the researchers have yet to identify. But even of the identified chemicals, the toxicity of at least 70 % remains unknown ... The most toxic substances that we identified actually came after the bottle had been in the dishwasher -- presumably because washing wears down the plastic and thereby increases leaching"
  • Study links high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease to plastics - Science Daily, 12/1/21 - "We found dicyclohexyl phthalate, or DCHP, strongly binds to a receptor called pregnane X receptor, or PXR, ... DCHP 'turns on' PXR in the gut, inducing the expression of key proteins required for cholesterol absorption and transport. Our experiments show that DCHP elicits high cholesterol by targeting intestinal PXR signaling ... DCHP, a widely used phthalate plasticizer, has recently been proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a high-priority substance for risk evaluation. Not much is known yet about DCHP's adverse effects in humans ... mice exposed to DCHP had in their intestines higher circulating "ceramides" -- a class of waxy lipid molecules associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in humans -- in a way that was PXR-dependent"
  • Deaths linked to ‘hormone disruptor’ chemical costs billions in lost US productivity - Science Daily, 10/12/21 - "Daily exposure chemicals called phthalates, used in the manufacture of plastic food containers and many cosmetics, may lead to roughly 100,000 premature deaths among older Americans each year ... the new investigation of more than 5,000 adults between the ages of 55 and 64 showed that those with the highest concentrations of phthalate in their urine were more likely to die of heart disease than those with lesser exposure ... Similarly, Americans in this high-exposure group were more likely to die of any cause than those in low-exposure groups ... Our research suggests that the toll of this chemical on society is much greater than we first thought" - [Hill]
  • Biologists investigate effects of bisphenols on nerve cells - Science Daily, 4/21/12 - "even small amounts of the plasticisers bisphenol A and bisphenol S disrupt the transmission of signals between nerve cells in the brains of fish. The researchers consider it very likely that similar interference can also occur in the brains of adult humans. They therefore call for the rapid development of alternative plasticisers that do not pose a risk to the central nervous system ... Bisphenols are plasticisers that are found in a large number of plastic products worldwide -- for example, in food packaging, plastic tableware, drinking bottles, toys, tooth fillings, and babies' dummies ... The harmful effects on the brain mainly affect the delicate balance between different neuronal functions. While some brain cells transmit signals that trigger a state of excitation in downstream cells, other brain cells have the function of inhibiting downstream cells. However, the coordination of both excitation and inhibition is essential for an intact central nervous system. "It is well known that numerous disorders in the nervous system of vertebrates are triggered by the fact that excitatory signals and inhibitory signals are not or only inadequately coordinated. So, it is all the more alarming that the plasticisers BPA and BPS significantly impair precisely this coordination," explains Dr. Peter Machnik, lead author of the study"
  • Declining Sperm Count Tied to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the Environment - Medscape, 4/9/21 - "Chemicals that pervade our modern world — plastics, pesticides, stain repellents, components of personal hygiene products — are contributing to a decades-long decline in fertility and could pose health risks even into future generations ... endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) threaten human existence, a conclusion that stems in part from her 2017 meta-analysis that showed a 52% drop in sperm counts from 1973 to 2011 in men in North America, Europe, and Australia ... These EDCs, which mimic natural hormones, included pesticides, heavy metals, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, and solvents that can be found in agricultural work or hair and beauty salons ... These chemicals are not so-called "forever chemicals" that persist in the human body ... safer options include buying organic produce, microwaving food in glass rather than plastic containers and avoiding products that contain phthalate or BPA"
  • Antioxidant reverses BPD-induced fertility damage in worms - Science Daily, 2/6/20 - "A naturally occurring antioxidant known as Coenzyme Q10, or CoQ10, reversed most of the reproductive harms caused by exposure to the plasticizer BPA (bisphenol A) in Caenorhabditis elegans worms" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • BPA replacement, BPS, hinders heart function, study reveals - Science Daily, 1/9/20 - "BPA's counterpart replacement BPS can hinder heart function within minutes of a single exposure ... the study entailed treating mouse hearts with BPA and BPS at levels typically seen in people. Each chemical on its own was found to depress heart function by dampening heart contractions causing slower blood flow. However, BPS had a quicker impact -- within five minutes of exposure" - Sounds like they just replaced one bad substance with a less researched bad substance to fool the consumer.
  • BPA Levels in Humans Are Underestimated: Study - WebMD, 12/6/19 - "The new method developed by researchers and outlined in their study suggests that the measurements used by the FDA and other regulatory agencies underestimate BPA exposure by as much as 44 times"
  • BPA Replacement Chemical May Not Be Safer for Kids - WebMD, 7/25/19 - "the replacement chemicals are structurally similar to BPA -- as implied by names like bisphenol S and bisphenol F, two of the most common BPA substitutes ... People may assume that a "BPA-free" label means a product is safe, Sargis noted, when, in fact, it often contains less-studied bisphenols"
  • BPA replacements in plastics cause reproductive problems in lab mice - Science Daily, 9/13/18 - "Twenty years ago, researchers made the accidental discovery that the now infamous plastics ingredient known as bisphenol A or BPA had inadvertently leached out of plastic cages used to house female mice in the lab, causing a sudden increase in chromosomally abnormal eggs in the animals. Now, the same team is back to report in the journal Current Biology on September 13 that the array of alternative bisphenols now used to replace BPA in BPA-free bottles, cups, cages, and other items appear to come with similar problems for their mice ... Hunt's advice to consumers now is simple: BPA-free or not, "plastic products that show physical signs of damage or aging cannot be considered safe.""
  • Why 'BPA Free' May Not Mean a Plastic Product Is Safe - National Geographic, 9/13/18
  • Exposure to low levels of BPA during pregnancy can lead to altered brain development - Science Daily, 3/18/18 - "The researchers studied three groups of pregnant mice. One group ate food without BPA; a second group at food with high doses of BPA; and a third ate low-dose BPA food. They found an increase in the number of neurons created during early development in mouse pups exposed to high and low doses of BPA during pregnancy, compared with those not exposed to BPA ... This is important because specific neurons are known to be born at a very distinct time points, and if they are born early -- as is the case here -- then presumably these early neurons will migrate to the wrong place and form the wrong connections. These findings start to provide a rationale as to how BPA might affect developing brains"
  • Plastics compound, BPS, often substituted for BPA, alters mouse moms' behavior and brain regions - Science Daily, 12/22/16 - "BPS, found in baby bottles, personal care products and thermal receipts, is a replacement chemical for BPA and was introduced when concern was raised about possible health effects of that plastic compound ... The authors found a surprising increased incidence of infanticide among mouse mothers exposed to the lower dose in utero. Vandenberg and Catanese report that "although these same effects were not seen at the higher dose, more than 10 percent of females exposed to 2 microgram BPS/kg/day either killed their pups or provided such poor instrumental maternal care that one or more pups needed to be euthanized. While not statistically significant, the neglect and poor maternal care we observed were striking.""
  • Chemical in plastics linked to genital abnormalities in baby boys - Science Daily, 9/1/16 - "These chemicals, called phthalates, are most commonly found in plastics, personal care products like shampoos, makeup and perfumes, and in the U.S. food supply from things like jars, packaging, and other storage"
  • Chemical in plastics linked to genital abnormalities in baby boys - Science Daily, 9/1/16 - "These chemicals, called phthalates, are most commonly found in plastics, personal care products like shampoos, makeup and perfumes, and in the U.S. food supply from things like jars, packaging, and other storage"
  • Radical avoidance of plastics in the home: General environmental exposure limits beneficial effects - Science Daily, 7/13/16 - "The family's morning urine was measured at the start of the experiment and after a two-month period, during which they had avoided plastics at home -- this only being possible to a limited extent at work and in school -- to measure 14 phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A (BPA), which have a health impact. The outcome: even though they avoided every possible contact with plastics at home, they still had a certain bioburden, so that the health effects are minimal ... The experiment and study show: there is no way for us to avoid this exposure." Moreover, the family in question was already very aware of following a healthy lifestyle, so that their exposure to plastics was already below average. That meant that the plastic avoidance campaign had even less effect upon their bioburden. Hutter: "In their case, it was impossible to achieve any further lasting reduction in the concentration of these ever-present substances"
  • Canned foods linked to BPA risk in new study - CNN, 6/29/16 - "a study published in the journal Environmental Research on Wednesday not only reveals that consuming canned foods can expose our bodies to BPA, it pinpoints the worst offenders ... canned soups and pasta can expose consumers to higher concentrations of BPA than canned vegetables and fruit -- and although those foods are tied to BPA concentrations, canned beverages, meat and fish are not ... people who consumed one canned food item in the past day had about 24% higher concentrations of BPA in their urine compared with those who had not consumed canned food. The consumption of two or more canned food items resulted in about 54% higher concentrations of BPA ... eating canned soup resulted in a whopping 229% higher concentration of BPA compared with consuming no canned foods. Canned pasta resulted in 70% higher concentrations, and canned vegetables or fruit resulted in 41% higher concentrations ... BPA exposure is associated with many adverse health effects including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, reproductive development issues, amongst others"
  • Fast food may expose consumers to harmful chemicals called phthalates - Science Daily, 4/13/16 - "People who ate the most fast food had phthalate levels that were as much as 40 percent higher ... Phthalates belong to a class of industrial chemicals used to make food packaging materials, tubing for dairy products, and other items used in the production of fast food. Other research suggests these chemicals can leach out of plastic food packaging and can contaminate highly processed food ... grain and meat items were the most significant contributors to phthalate exposure ... the grain category contained a wide variety of items including bread, cake, pizza, burritos, rice dishes and noodles"
  • BPA Is Still Present in 60% of Cans in the U.S.: Study - Time, 3/30/16 - "all of the Campbell’s cans tested, 71% of those from Del Monte and 50% of sampled General Mills cans contained BPA. Amy’s Kitchen, Annie’s Homegrown, Hain Celestial Group and ConAgra have all transitioned away from BPA—and that was reflected in the test results in the report, as well; those tested in this study were free of BPA ... The question is ‘What did they replace it with?'"
  • BPA substitute can trigger fat cell formation: Chemical used in BPA-free products exhibits similar endocrine-disrupting effects - Science Daily, 3/22/16 - "Concerns about BPA's health effects have encouraged some consumers to purchase food containers labeled "BPA-free." BPA-free products often contain bisphenol S (BPS) or other substitutes, but researchers have raised concerns that these replacements also interfere with the body's hormones and may pose similar threats to public health ... Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism ... the cells exposed to the smallest amounts of BPS as well as the cells exposed to the highest concentrations exhibited the largest accumulation of lipids, while moderate amounts had a smaller effect ... BPS and BPA have similar effects on fat cell formation, lipid accumulation and expression of genes important for lipid metabolism"
  • Common chemicals linked to endometriosis, fibroids -- and healthcare costs - CNN, 3/22/16 - "phthalates and DDE, have been particularly strongly linked with common female reproductive conditions, such as fibroids ... The European Union and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have already banned the use of certain endocrine disruptors, such as BPA, in baby bottles, though research suggests alternatives to BPA might not be safe .. They can eat organic, reduce canned food consumption, which reduces exposure to BPA, and avoid packaged or highly processed food, which is a major route for phthalates to enter food. They can also open windows to allow chemical dust, which accumulates on the carpet and electronics, to circulate out of homes"
  • BPA-free plastic alternatives may not be safe as you think - CNN, 2/1/16- "The most common replacement is BPS (Bisphenol S) ... In a 2013 study, Texas researchers found that as little as one part per trillion of BPS could interfere with the normal functioning of a cell, in some cases leading to cell death. Another study of zebrafish, out of Canada, found BPA accelerated neural cell growth by 180% for fish exposed to extremely low levels; it was even worse for BPS -- neural growth exploded 240%. As adults, the fish exposed to both chemicals showed significant signs of hyperactivity ... This is a classic case of 'regrettable substitution' in which the replacement chemical is as toxic as the chemical it was replacing" - [Science Daily]
  • BPA in Cans and Plastic Bottles Linked to Quick Rise in Blood Pressure - NYTimes.com, 12/8/14 - "when people drank soy milk from a can, the levels of BPA in their urine rose dramatically within two hours – and so did their blood pressure. But on days when they drank the same beverage from glass bottles, which don’t use BPA linings, there was no significant change in their BPA levels or blood pressure ... for people who drink from multiple cans or plastic bottles every day, the repeated exposure over time could contribute to hypertension ... The chemical is an endocrine disrupter that can mimic estrogen ... “BPA free” do nothing to assuage her concerns ... It doesn’t have bisphenol A, but on the other hand I worry that the new chemical they put in there may also be a problem"
  • BPA exposure during fetal development raises risk of precancerous prostate lesions later in life - Science Daily, 6/23/14 - "researchers combined human embryonic stem cells and rat cells called mesenchyme. The researchers then grafted the combined tissue on to the kidneys of mice where it developed into human-like prostate tissue. The experiment modeled human BPA exposure feeding the mice low-dose BPA which led to the development of lesions in the human prostate tissue, including a precancerous lesion known as prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, or PIN ... Using human embryonic stem cells to generate prostate tissues, we were able to document the direct effect low-dose BPA exposure had in driving prostate pathology and disease"
  • Common BPA substitute, BPS, disrupts heart rhythms in females - Science Daily, 6/23/14 - "BPS is one of the substitutes used in BPA-free products. There is implied safety in BPA-free products. The thing is, the BPA analogs -- and BPS is one of them -- have not been tested for safety in humans ... he and his co-workers tested an environmentally relevant dose of BPS in the hearts of approximately 50 rats. The 1-nanomolar dose was in the range of BPS found in human urine samples in a study by other authors ... Exposure to BPS rapidly increased the heart rate of female rats and under the stress condition led to arrhythmias -- heart rhythm abnormalities -- far greater than in the control rats that did not receive BPS ... Electocardiograms demonstrated that BPS caused extra heartbeats and a racing heartbeat, also known as ventricular tachycardia. In male rats, BPS reportedly did not have this rapid impact on the heart ... BPS caused abnormal calcium handling, or cycling, which is a key cause of arrhythmias"
  • BPA Substitute as bad as BPA? Exposure to BPA substitute causes hyperactivity and brain changes in fish - Science Daily, 6/23/14 - "The study investigated the effects of BPA and BPS on brain development in zebrafish. This fish is developmentally similar to humans, but the embryo grows externally, enabling researchers to see development of the offspring ... At the peak time of neuronal birth, the number of neurons in BPA-exposed fish rose 170 percent compared with unexposed fish, Kurrasch stated. In similar experiments using BPS, the number of neurons in exposed fish increased 240 percent"
  • BPA and related chemicals: Human safety thresholds for endocrine disrupting chemicals may be inaccurate - Science Daily, 4/8/14 - "Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with animal hormone (or endocrine) systems in various ways. Sometimes, this can lead to developmental problems, including those of the reproductive system. Over the past four decades, human sperm counts have been markedly decreasing and the rate of testicular cancer rates has risen. Meanwhile, the occurance of undescended testicles and abnormally developed male urethras are also thought to be increasing. Evidence suggests that these male reproductive disorders are at least partially due to the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals which are becoming increasingly concentrated and prevalent in the environment and that these EDs act on the testis during fetal development" - Note how the media has been sensationalizing the endocrine disruption of BPA but doesn't seem to want to irritate their readers with the endocrine disruption caused my marijuana which is probably even worse.  I'm against both.
  • BPA linked to breast cancer tumor growth - Science Daily, 3/6/14 - "HOTAIR is an abbreviation for long, non-coding RNA, a part of DNA in humans and other vertebrates ... when breast cancer and mammary gland cells were exposed to BPA in lab tests, the BPA worked together with naturally present molecules, including estrogen, to create abnormal amounts of HOTAIR expression ... We can't immediately say BPA causes cancer growth, but it could well contribute because it is disrupting the genes that defend against that growth"
  • BPA linked to prostate cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 3/3/14 - "researchers assessed the PSA of 60 urology patients using urine samples. Higher levels of BPA were found in prostate cancer patients than in non-prostate cancer patients (5.74 μg/g creatine versus 1.43 μg/g creatine), and the difference was even more significant in patients less than 65 years of age ... Exposure to low doses of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold ... Several studies have shown that centrosome amplification is a major contributing factor to chromosomal mutation in human tumors"
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) at very low levels can adversely affect developing organs in primates - Science Daily, 2/27/14 - "Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that is used in a wide variety of consumer products, such as resins used to line metal food and beverage containers, thermal paper store receipts, and dental composites ... Researchers found evidence of significant adverse effects in mammary glands, ovaries, brain, uterus, lung and heart tissues in BPA exposed fetus when compared to fetuses not exposed to BPA ... The very low-level exposure to BPA we delivered once a day to the rhesus monkeys is far less than the BPA levels humans are exposed to each day"
  • Continuous handling of receipts linked to higher urine BPA levels - Science Daily, 2/25/14 - "The authors recruited 24 volunteers who provided urine samples before and after handling (with or without gloves) of receipts printed on thermal paper for a continuous two hours. BPA was detected in 83 percent (n = 20) of urine samples at the beginning of the study and in 100 percent of samples after handling receipts without gloves. The researchers observed an increase in urinary BPA concentrations after continuously handling receipts for 2 hours without gloves, but no significant increase when the participants used gloves"
  • BPA increases risk of cancer in human prostate tissue, study shows - Science Daily, 1/7/14 - "Previous studies have shown that people who avoided all contact with plastics or other BPA-containing objects for up to a month or more still had BPA in their urine, which means they must have come into contact with BPA in the last 24 to 48 hours, since it clears the body rather quickly ... Prins investigated the effect of BPA on human cells by implanting human prostate stem cells taken from deceased young-adult men into mice ... To mimic exposure to BPA during embryonic development, for two weeks following implantation the mice were fed BPA -- in amounts in line with those seen in pregnant American women -- as the cells produced humanized prostate tissue ... The amount of BPA we fed the mice was equivalent to levels ingested by the average person ... Prins found that a third of tissue samples taken from mice fed BPA had either pre-cancerous lesions or prostate cancer, compared to only 12 percent in a control group of mice fed oil. If the prostate stem cells were exposed to BPA before implantation and again as they produced prostate tissue in the mice, 45 percent of the tissue samples had pre-cancerous lesions or cancer"
  • BPA is still everywhere, and mounting evidence suggests harmful effects - The Washington Post, 12/6/13 - "the chemical is found in many other common items: medical devices, dental sealants and compact discs, to name a few. Even paper receipts from the grocery store and ATM machines often contain BPA. In short, it’s pretty hard to avoid the chemical ... When chemicals such as BPA mimic hormones, it leads to what’s called endocrine disruption ... BPA has also been linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes ... Researchers have also found that newborn rats that were exposed to low doses of BPA for a short period had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (an estrogen-induced cancer) later in life ... low-level exposure to BPA in pregnant mice suppresses gene expression of two proteins that are important in regulating social behavior — oxytocin and vasopressin — and alters social behaviors in the fourth generation ... We can reduce our BPA exposure by making choices such as opting for electronic receipts, using fresh and frozen vegetables rather than canned, choosing glass and stainless steel containers and not microwaving food in polycarbonate plastic containers"
  • Bisphenol A Is Affecting Us at Much Lower Doses Than Previously Thought - Science Daily, 11/7/13 - "The findings are striking. When looking at the "low dose" literature as a whole, reproducible effects were seen in animals after exposure to incredibly low doses of BPA. In fact, effective doses were ten to forty times lower than the doses identified in traditional toxicology studies. Several dozen "low dose" studies show effects of BPA at doses that humans are thought to encounter in their everyday lives ... it contributes to a large range of health problems in humans, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, immune response to allergens, behavioral problems and decreased fertility. The effects on wildlife are also widespread"
  • Plastics Chemicals May Boost Kids' Risk for Obesity, Diabetes - WebMD, 8/19/13 - "One study links phthalates to increased insulin resistance in children, while another associates bisphenol A (BPA) with high body-mass index (BMI) and expanding waistlines ... The study reviewed data on about 3,300 kids aged 6 to 18, and found that children with high BPA levels tend to have excessive amounts of body fat and unusually expanded waistlines ... Trasande recommends that parents avoid using plastic containers with the recycling numbers 3, 6 or 7, in which phthalates or BPA are used ... I also advise families not to microwave plastics, hand wash plastic containers, and throw away plastic containers where there is etching or other damage to them"
  • Early BPA Exposure Linked to Depression, Inattention in Kids - Medscape, 8/7/13 - "A study of almost 292 participants showed that prenatal exposure to BPA, as measured in maternal urine tests, was associated with internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and depression, in the boys at the age of 7 years — but not in the girls ... However, early childhood BPA concentrations were associated with increased externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, in the girls. Childhood urine measurements of BPA were also linked to the internalizing behaviors of inattention and hyperactivity in both sexes"
  • More Evidence Links BPA to Childhood Obesity - WebMD, 6/12/13 - "researchers measured BPA levels in the urine of more than 1,300 children in China and compared those levels to their body weights ... also asked the kids about other things that may influence body weight, such as how often they ate junk food, fruits and vegetables, how much exercise they got, whether their parents were overweight and how long they played video games, on average, each day ... After taking all those factors into account, the investigators found that girls aged 9 to 12 who had higher-than-average levels of BPA in their urine were about twice as likely to be obese as those with lower-than-average levels. The researchers didn't see the same association for boys or for older girls ... One explanation for the results may be that girls who are entering puberty are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of hormone-disrupting chemicals"
  • Early Exposure to Bisphenol A Might Damage the Enamel of Teeth - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "the teeth of rats treated with low daily doses of BPA could be damaged by this"
  • Female mice exposed to BPA by mothers show unexpected characteristics - Science Daily, 1/24/13 - "Female mice exposed to Bisphenol A through their mother's diet during gestation and lactation were found to be hyperactive, exhibit spontaneous activity and had leaner body mass than those not exposed to the chemical"
  • BPA Substitute Could Spell Trouble: Experiments Show Bisphenol S Also Disrupts Hormone Activity - Science Daily, 1/22/13 - "A few years ago, manufacturers of water bottles, food containers, and baby products had a big problem. A key ingredient of the plastics they used to make their merchandise, an organic compound called bisphenol A, had been linked by scientists to diabetes, asthma and cancer and altered prostate and neurological development ... The industry responded by creating "BPA-free" products, which were made from plastic containing a compound called bisphenol S ... BPS also resembles BPA in a more problematic way. Like BPA, the study found, BPS disrupts cellular responses to the hormone estrogen, changing patterns of cell growth and death and hormone release. Also like BPA, it does so at extremely low levels of exposure ... this study shows us that very low levels of BPS can disrupt natural estrogen hormone actions in ways similar to what we see with BPA. That's a real cause for concern" - Note:  So if the label says "BPA Free", that might just mean that the BPA has been replaced with something else just as bad.
  • Bisphenol A: BPA additive blocks cell function - Science Daily, 12/6/12
  • BPA's real threat may be after it has metabolized: Chemical found in many plastics linked to multiple health threats - Science Daily, 10/4/12
  • BPA linked to thyroid hormone changes in pregnant women, newborns - Science Daily, 10/3/12 - "The researchers found that for each doubling of BPA levels, there was an associated decrease of 0.13 micrograms per deciliter of total thyroxine (T4) in mothers during pregnancy, which suggests a hypothyroid effect. For newborn boys, each doubling of BPA levels linked to a 9.9 percent decrease in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), indicating a hyperthyroid effect ... studies suggest that small changes in thyroid level, even if they're within normal limits, may still have a cognitive effect"
  • Higher levels of BPA in children and teens significantly associated with obesity - Science Daily, 9/18/12 - "Using a sample of nearly 3,000 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 19 years, randomly selected for measurement of urinary BPA concentration in the 2003-2008 NHANES ... the researchers found children with the highest levels of urinary BPA had 2.6 times higher odds of being obese than those with the lowest measures of urinary BPA. Among the participants with the highest levels, 22.3 percent were obese compared with 10.3 percent of the participants with the lowest levels"
  • Higher BPA Levels, More Heart Disease? - WebMD, 8/15/12 - "People who have higher levels of the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) in their urine may be more likely to have narrowing of their coronary arteries, a new study shows" - Note:  The way they wrote it up in this article doesn't make the argument that clear.
  • Widespread exposure to BPA substitute is occurring from cash register receipts, other paper - Science Daily, 7/11/12 - "growing evidence of the potentially toxic effects of BPA has led some manufacturers to replace it with BPS in thermal paper and other products. BPS is closely related to BPA, with some of the same estrogen-mimicking effects, and unanswered questions exist about whether it is safer ... they analyzed 16 types of paper from the U.S., Japan, Korea and Vietnam ... The study detected BPS in all the receipt paper they tested, 87 percent of the samples of paper currency and 52 percent of recycled paper. The researchers estimate that people may be absorbing BPS through their skin in larger doses than they absorbed BPA when it was more widely used -- 19 times more BPS than BPA. People who handle thermal paper in their jobs may be absorbing much more BPS"
  • BPA exposure in pregnant mice changes gene expression of female offspring - Science Daily, 6/26/12 - "The study, led by Hugh Taylor, MD, professor and chief of the reproductive endocrinology section at Yale University School of Medicine, observed "major and permanent changes in gene expression" in female mice exposed to BPA as a fetus. Taylor said these differences were apparent only after estrogen exposure, either naturally at puberty or with estrogen treatment ... After estrogen exposure at puberty, the gene expression profile had changed greatly in BPA-exposed offspring, with 365 genes showing altered expression, according to the study abstract. Of these genes, 208 also showed aberrations in the usual pattern of DNA methylation, a biochemical process that regulates gene expression. At least 14 of the 208 genes have known estrogen response elements, areas that indicate that they are directly regulated by estrogen through its receptor"
  • BPA exposure effects may last for generations - Science Daily, 6/15/12 - "Since exposure to BPA changes social interactions in mice at a dose within the reported human levels, it is possible that this compound has trans-generational actions on human behavior. If we banned BPA tomorrow, pulled all products with BPA in them, and cleaned up all landfills tomorrow it is possible, if the mice data generalize to humans, that we will still have effects of this compound for many generations ... female mice received chow with or without BPA before mating and throughout gestation. Plasma levels of BPA in supplemented female mice were in a range similar to those measured in humans. Juveniles in the first generation exposed to BPA in utero displayed fewer social interactions as compared with control mice. The changes in genes were most dramatic in the first generation (the offspring of the mice that were exposed to BPA in utero), but some of these gene changes persisted into the fourth generation"
  • BPA effects seen in monkey mammary glands - Science Daily, 5/7/12 - "The Tufts researchers compared the structure of newborn mammary glands from BPA-exposed and unexposed female rhesus macaques. Pregnant monkeys were fed a piece of fruit containing a small amount of BPA each day during the gestational period corresponding to the human third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in blood levels of BPA comparable to those of many Americans today ... The researchers found that, at birth, the density of mammary buds was significantly increased in BPA-exposed monkeys, and the overall development of the mammary gland was more advanced compared to unexposed monkeys ... This study buttresses previous findings showing that fetal exposure to low xenoestrogen levels causes developmental alterations that in turn increase the risk of mammary cancer later in life ... the sum of all these findings strongly suggests that BPA is a breast carcinogen in humans and human exposure to BPA should be curtailed"
  • Early-life exposure to BPA affects adult learning, animal study suggests - Science Daily, 4/4/12 - "What was amazing is that exposure only happened at the embryonic stage ... but somehow the wiring in the brain had been permanently altered by it. It's an example of why children are not just little adults when it comes to gauging the effects of contaminants ... Results of this study, however, suggest that lower concentrations may be more potent during early-life exposures. This study tested three different small amounts considered environmentally relevant ... The compound, which mimics the hormone estrogen, was added to the aquatic environment of fish embryos in their first two days of life. Then they were returned to clean water for the ensuing 10 months while they grew into middle-age adulthood"
  • Packing on the Pounds - The Daily, 3/26/12 - "The claims by leading BPA critic Frederick vom Saal come as the Food and Drug Administration is expected to rule this week — after four years of study — on whether to ban the plastic additive from use in food packaging ... Vom Saal told The Daily he will soon release a new study showing that mothers who expose their fetuses to the bisphenol A run the risk of having obese children ... BPA turns out to be a major factor in the number of fat cells that a person will have later in life ... over the past few months, a slew of new research has focused on the BPA-obesity link. Vom Saal’s findings are just the latest new evidence that BPA may be playing a role in the global obesity epidemic. Another study released in February by a Spanish research team showed that even small amounts of BPA cause human adult islet cells to produce more fat in the body ... It takes 90 days under the Toxic Substances Control Act to get a chemical approved for sale on the market ... Getting a product off the market that has been shown to be unsafe, on the other hand, takes somewhere between 25 and 50 years, because industry says we need definitive science"
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) could affect reproductive capabilities, cause infection of the uterus - Science Daily, 3/20/12 - "in addition to affecting the heart, brain and nervous system, bisphenol A (BPA), could affect a mammal's ability to reproduce by altering the structure of the uterus in ways that can progress to a potentially fatal infection ... These results suggest that BPA enhances the immune responsiveness of the uterus and that the heightened responsiveness in the C57BL/6 strain of females is related to increased susceptibility to pyometra"
  • Bisphenol A exposure linked to increased risk of future onset of heart disease - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "The study compared urine BPA measures from 758 initially healthy EPIC study respondents who later developed cardiovascular disease, and 861 respondents who remained heart disease free. The findings of the study show that those who developed heart disease tended to have higher urinary BPA concentrations at the start of the 10-year period. The extent of the effect is very difficult to estimate given that just one urine specimen from each participant was available for testing at the beginning of the 10-year follow-up"
  • Can of Soup a Day Linked to High BPA Levels in Urine - WebMD, 11/22/11 - "Eating just one 12-ounce serving of canned soup a day for five days straight may lead to more than a 1,000% increase in the amount of the controversial chemical bisphenol A (BPA) in your urine ... the canned soup used in the study was a single brand, Progresso, "it is not about the brand of soup or canned soup, it is about the cans," ... She says the findings likely apply to other canned foods that use BPA in the liner"
  • Study: BPA Exposure in Womb Linked to Kids' Behavior Problems - WebMD, 10/24/11 - "The new study is published in Pediatrics. It is one of the first to show that BPA exposure in the womb may be linked to behavioral effects in young children ... The study released in Pediatrics has significant shortcomings in study design and the conclusions are of unknown relevance to public health ... While there was no association between the BPA in a child's urine and their behavior, the researchers found that moms who had higher levels of BPA in their urine during pregnancy also had 3-year-olds with more anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity"
  • BPA may be tied to diabetes, after all - MSNBC, 10/20/11 - "Two large studies have found a link between higher BPA levels and higher heart disease risk. And a 2008 study found that of Americans in a government health survey, those with higher BPA levels showed a higher diabetes risk ... None of that, however, proves cause-and-effect ... This latest study is based on data from a federal health study ... Of people with the highest levels (more than 4.2 nanograms per milliliter, ng/mL), almost 13 percent had diabetes, versus 8 percent of adults with the lowest BPA levels (less than 1.1 ng/mL)"
  • Is BPA linked to breast cancer? - Science Daily, 10/19/11 - "assessed the effect of chronic, oral exposure to the compound bisphenol A (BPA) in mice genetically modified to overproduce the protein HER2/erbB2, present in about 15-30 percent of women with breast cancer ... We found the lower doses of BPA to be capable of activating several growth-factor-receptor pathways that previously have been implicated in cancer. This was not observed with the higher BPA doses ... This is counterintuitive since BPA in low levels was presumed to be safe"
  • Chemical makers say BPA no longer used in bottles - USA Today, 10/7/11 - "Makers of the controversial chemical bisphenol-A have asked federal regulators to phase out rules that allow its use in baby bottles and sippy cups, saying those products haven't contained the plastic-hardening ingredient for two years" - Note:  I don't know why they don't just faze it out all together.  I bought some plastic disposable food containers for touch-up painting around the house and even those said "BPA free".
  • BPA exposure in utero may increase predisposition to breast cancer - Science Daily, 10/3/11 - "Researchers analyzed changes in the mammary gland of female offspring that were exposed to BPA through their mothers in utero and while being breast fed. The mammary glands of BPA exposed females showed an increased response to the hormone progesterone. Lifetime exposure to progesterone has been linked to increase breast cancer risk ... adult females who had been exposed to BPA in utero and while breast fed, showed a 1.5 fold increase in cell numbers in their milk ducts. This is comparable to what is seen upon similar exposure to another estrogenic compound, diethyllbestrol (DES). Uterine exposure to DES in the human population has been shown to increase the relative risk of getting breast cancer two-fold as women reach their fifties"
  • BPA alters development of in vitro ova and could increase risk of Down syndrome, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/21/11 - "The research, published in Human Reproduction, was carried out with a culture of 21,570 in vitro oocytes. Results demonstrated that exposure to Bisphenol A in concentration levels permitted by health authorities is harmful to the fetus. BPA reduces the number of oocytes (cells which develop into ova) and therefore can affect negatively a woman's fertility and double the risk of chromosome exchange during the cell division process. Specific observations of chromosome 21 in the development of 90 oocytes revealed that exposure to BPA could increase the risk of Down Syndrome in the future offspring of the fetus ... The research provides conclusive data for the debate on how BPA affects the health of individuals ... Concentration levels applied in the experiments were within the safety limits marked by European (EFSA) and US (EPA) authorities"
  • BPA in Canned Foods: Should You Worry? - ABC News, 9/21/11  - "Topping the list was Campbell's Disney Princess Cool Shapes with 148 parts per billion. The average level across all 12 cans was 49 parts per billion ... BPA, a key ingredient in hard plastics and resins used to coat metal cans, made headlines in 2008 when it was shown to leach out of plastic when heated. The Canadian government responded by banning the chemical from baby bottles. In the United States, the federal government has not followed suit, but several local governments have and leading U.S. baby bottle manufacturers went BPA-free voluntarily. But the chemical continues to line the country's cans ... Laboratory studies in cells and animals have linked the chemical to cancer, infertility, diabetes and obesity. But the consequences of chronic exposure in humans remain unclear. Nevertheless, many experts and parents err on the side of caution"
  • Some Aluminum Water Bottles Leach BPA - WebMD, 7/12/11 - "In a carefully controlled test, where researchers stored ultra-pure water in several different kinds of containers for five days, they found that some aluminum bottles released up to five times the amount of BPA that was shed by the older, polycarbonate bottles ... If you pick up an aluminum bottle from your super-cheap discount retailer, you can’t be so sure what’s in it ... Especially aluminum, because they do require a lining of some sort ... Sometimes, that sprayed-on liner is made with an epoxy resin that contains BPA"
  • BPA-exposed male deer mice are demasculinized and undesirable to females, new study finds - Science Daily, 6/27/11 - "The latest research from the University of Missouri shows that BPA causes male deer mice to become demasculinized and behave more like females in their spatial navigational abilities, leading scientists to conclude that exposure to BPA during human development could be damaging to behavioral and cognitive traits that are unique to each sex and important in reproduction ... In the study, female deer mice were fed BPA-supplemented diets two weeks prior to breeding and throughout lactation. The mothers were given a dosage equivalent to what the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers a non-toxic dose and safe for mothers to ingest"
  • Fetal exposure to BPA changes development of uterus in primates, study suggests - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "The new study used the rhesus monkey, a species that is very similar to humans in regard to pregnancy and fetal development, said Williams, a study co-author ... During a period that represented the third trimester of human pregnancy, the investigators gave BPA to 12 pregnant monkeys, each carrying a single female fetus ... In the first year of the experiment, six monkeys received BPA orally in a fruit treat, at a dose of 400 micrograms per kilogram of body weight daily, the researchers reported. During the second year, six additional pregnant monkeys received BPA through capsules implanted subcutaneously (below the skin), for a daily dose of 100 micrograms per kilogram. Both forms of BPA resulted in a BPA level in the blood that is close to levels normally found in adult women, according to the authors' abstract ... The investigators analyzed the uterus of each offspring for gene expression. Oral BPA altered expression of HOX and WNT genes that are critical for uterine development, they found. They are still analyzing the data for the animals that received subcutaneous BPA"
  • BPA lowers male fertility, mouse study finds - Science Daily, 6/4/11 - "Mice that received daily BPA injections for two months had lower sperm counts and testosterone levels than those of mice that received saline injections without BPA ... Compared with untreated controls, mice exposed to BPA produced litters that were 50 percent smaller ... We are being exposed to BPA in our daily lives at a level much higher than the safe recommended exposure ... this study, we are trying to explore what the outcome can be if we are continuously exposed to BPA in our routine life ... BPA-exposed mice received a dose that was twice the daily upper limit of safe exposure recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency ... At a BPA dosage of 100 micrograms per kilogram of body weight daily, the mice also had structural defects in their testicles and were considered subfertile. If the same dose had been given longer than two months, Singh speculated that it might lead to infertility"
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates more rapidly within the body than previously thought - Science Daily, 6/6/11 - "In previous studies examining the effects of BPA, mice were exposed to BPA only through a one-time administration. Following the exposure through the diet, a significantly greater increase in the active form of BPA, which is the greatest threat as it is the form that can bind to sex steroid receptors and exert adverse effects, was absorbed and accumulated in the animals ... People are primarily and unknowingly exposed to BPA through the diet because of the various plastic and paper containers used to store our food are formulated with BPA ... We know that the active form of BPA binds to our steroid receptors, meaning it can affect estrogen, thyroid and testosterone function. It might also cause genetic mutations. Thus, this chemical can hinder our ability to reproduce and possibly cause behavioral abnormalities that we are just beginning to understand ... We believe that these mouse model studies where the BPA exposure is through the diet is a more accurate representation of what happens to BPA as the human body attempts to processes this toxic substance"
  • Highest reported BPA level in pregnant woman and associated abnormalities in infant - Science Daily, 5/11/11 - "Pregnant women are often exposed to BPA in their daily lives ... At 27 weeks of pregnancy, the mother had the highest reported urinary BPA concentration of anyone in the general population. She reported consuming canned foods and beverages, and using and microwaving plastic food storage containers consistently during this pregnancy time period. All of these exposures could have led to her extremely high BPA concentration. Her infant had a normal newborn neurobehavioral exam but had many neurobehavioral abnormalities at the one-month study visit including: increased muscle tone, tremors, and abnormal movements. The child went on to have normal neurobehavioral assessments yearly from one to five years of age ... This case study confirms previous studies documenting multiple sources of BPA exposure in humans. Additionally, it highlights the need for medical providers to be aware of the harmful effects of BPA exposures so they may counsel families appropriately about prevention. The study also identifies potential sources of BPA exposure that can be targeted to reduce exposures in the future. "Families can decrease their exposure to BPA by eating fresh fruit and vegetables (as opposed to processed and canned foods) and by decreasing use of plastic food storage containers," said Sathyanarayana. "Check the recycling code of your plastics on the bottom. If it shows #7, then the plastic may contain BPA"
  • A Study Shows Connections Between Maternal Exposure to BPA and Childhood Asthma - Time Magazine, 5/2/11 - "At 6 months old, infants whose mothers had high levels of BPA were twice as likely to show wheezing as babies whose mothers who had low levels"
  • Bisphenol A exposures lower in Canadians compared to Americans - Science Daily, 2/27/11 - "Canada invoked the precautionary principle when it became the first country in the world to declare bisphenol A a health hazard in October 2010 ... The comparison between concentrations measured in Canada and US populations are particularly interesting because these two populations are often thought to be demographically similar ... Surprisingly, for each age group that was analysed, the concentrations found in Canadians were approximately half those found in Americans ... differences in sources such as food packaging and thermal receipt papers might be a factor" - Note:  This is probably the main reason:
  • Study finds toxic chemicals in pregnant womens' bodies - USATODAY.com, 1/13/11 - "BPA — an estrogen-like ingredient in plastic found in 96% of pregnant women — affects the development of the brain, prostate and behavior in children exposed both before and after birth. Lead and mercury are known to cause brain damage"
  • Bisphenol A may have role in ovarian dysfunction - Science Daily, 1/13/11 - "Our research shows that BPA may be more harmful to women with hormonal and fertility imbalances like those found in PCOS ... These women should be alert to the potential risks and take care of themselves by avoiding excessive every-day consumption of food or drink from plastic containers ... Blood levels of BPA were nearly 60 percent higher in lean women with PCOS and more than 30 percent higher in obese women with the syndrome when compared to controls. Additionally, as BPA levels increased, so did concentrations of the male sex hormone testosterone and androstenedione, a steroid hormone that converts to testosterone"
  • Increased BPA exposure linked to reduced egg quality in women - Science Daily, 12/15/10 - "As blood levels of BPA in the women studied doubled, the percentage of eggs that fertilized normally declined by 50 percent ... Given the widespread nature of BPA exposure in the U.S., even a modest effect on reproduction is of substantial concern"
  • Health Buzz: Paper Money Contaminated With BPA - US News and World Report, 12/10/10 - "Since BPA can easily rub off onto fingers and other items, researchers from the Washington Toxics Coalition and the advocacy group Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families collected store receipts from 20 states and Washington D.C, and detected "very large quantities" of BPA on more than half ... Even a well-informed consumer can't avoid exposure when contamination is so pervasive and constant" - [Consumer Reports]
  • Daily Bisphenol A Excretion and Associations With Sex Hormone Concentrations - Medscape, 12/3/10
  • Perinatal bisphenol-A exposure may affect fertility - Science Daily, 12/2/10 - "At the highest of three doses tested, only 60% of the BPA-exposed mice had four or more deliveries over a 32-week period, compared with 95% in the unexposed control group. Decline of the reproductive capacity of the female mice in this study was not obvious at first pregnancy, when the animals were very young, but manifested later in life with a decline in number of pups born per delivery ... BPA has been found in the urine of over 92% of Americans tested, with higher levels in children and adolescents relative to adults. It has also been detected in human maternal and fetal plasma ... The three doses of BPA tested are within the range of human exposure and below the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (i.e., the maximal acceptable daily dose)"
  • BPA levels in US foods 1,000 times less than limits, study finds - Science Daily, 11/2/10 - Note: Instead of wasting their time on this why didn't the measure the amount in the blood of the general population?  It would have been more meaningful.
  • Exposure to BPA associated with reduced semen quality - Science Daily, 10/28/10 - "this new study adds to emerging human evidence questioning the safety of BPA, a chemical created in the production of polycarbonated plastics and epoxy resins found in baby bottles, plastic containers, the linings of cans used for food and beverages, and in dental sealants ... Compared with men without detectable urine BPA, those with detectable urine BPA had more than three times the risk of lowered sperm concentration and lower sperm vitality, more than four times the risk of a lower sperm count, and more than twice the risk of lower sperm motility"
  • High BPA Levels May Hurt Sperm Quality - WebMD, 10/27/10 - "those with higher levels of BPA exposure had two to four times the risk of poor semen quality, including low sperm count and motility (the ability of the sperm to move toward the egg), compared to their counterparts who had lower levels of urinary BPA or no detectable BPA in their urine ... "In most cases, avoiding BPA doesn’t cost much." Simple ways to steer clear of BPA involve not eating canned foods ... adult men are sensitive to BPA, and even small amounts of the chemical can have pretty drastic effects"
  • Higher than predicted human exposure to the toxic chemical bisphenol A or BPA, new study indicates - Science Daily, 9/20/10 - "This study provides convincing evidence that BPA is dangerous to our health at current levels of human exposure ... BPA manufacturers have argued that BPA is safe and have denied the validity of more than 200 studies that showed adverse health effects in animals due to exposure to very low doses of BPA" - See Stainless Steel Bottle - 26 oz., Custom Printed Stainless Steel Bottle at Motivators.com.  I ordered 75 with my logo for local customers and friends.  I've got no affiliation with them.
    Researchers analyze impact of chemical BPA in dental sealants used in children - Science Daily, 9/10/10
  • Dental sealants temporarily raise BPA levels - USA Today, 9/6/10 - "BPA levels in saliva can spike to 88 times higher than normal immediately after a dental sealing"
  • In Feast of Data on BPA Plastic, No Final Answer - New York Times, 9/6/10 - "The mountains of data produced so far show conflicting results as to whether BPA is dangerous, in part because different laboratories have studied the chemical in different ways. Animal strains, doses, methods of exposure and the results being measured — as crude as body weight or as delicate as gene expression in the brain — have all varied, making it difficult or impossible to reconcile the findings. In science, no experiment is taken seriously unless other researchers can reproduce it, and difficulties in matching BPA studies have led to fireworks ... In people, the most notorious example of an endocrine disruptor is the drug diethylstilbestrol, or DES, which was given to pregnant women in the 1950s in the mistaken belief that it could prevent miscarriage. The drug turned out to be a disaster, causing vaginal cancers and reproductive problems in some of the women’s daughters, and abnormalities in the reproductive organs in some sons. But DES is a far stronger estrogen mimic than is BPA, and women were exposed to much higher levels of it ... “I could see there was some consistent data,” Dr. Prins said. “I started thinking, ‘Hmm, maybe there could be something there.’ It was still curious to me. This is not a regular toxicant. It’s acting like a hormone, and hormones can act at extremely low doses. If you think the dose makes the poison, it doesn’t make sense. But if you think about it as a hormone — and I’m an endocrinologist — it does make sense.""
  • Sperm may be harmed by exposure to BPA, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/3/10 - "We found that if we compare somebody in the top quartile of exposure with the lowest quartile of exposure, sperm concentration was on average about 23 percent lower in men with the highest BPA ... Results also suggested a 10 percent increase in sperm DNA damage"
  • Early-life exposure to BPA may affect testis function in adulthood - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Exposure to environmental levels of the industrial chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, in the womb and early life may cause long-lasting harm to testicular function"
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have higher BPA blood levels, study finds - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Excessive secretion of androgens -- masculinization-promoting hormones -- occurs in PCOS. The syndrome raises the risk of infertility, obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease ... Blood levels of BPA, compared with those of controls, were nearly 60 percent higher in lean women with PCOS and more than 30 percent higher in obese women with the syndrome ... Additionally, as the BPA blood level increased, so did the concentrations of the male sex hormone testosterone and androstenedione, a steroid hormone that converts to testosterone"
  • Early-life exposure to BPA may affect testis function in adulthood - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Exposure to environmental levels of the industrial chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, in the womb and early life may cause long-lasting harm to testicular function"
  • Most cans of food contain controversial BPA - MSNBC, 6/9/10 - "BPA, or bisphenol A, is ubiquitous. Simply put, just about anything you eat that comes out of a can — from Campbell's Chicken Soup and SpaghettiOs to Diet Coke and BumbleBee Tuna — contains the same exact chemical ... The exposure to BPA from canned food "is far more extensive" than from plastic bottles, said Shanna Swan, a professor and researcher at the University of Rochester in New York. "It's particularly concerning when it's lining infant formula cans.""
  • Increasing BPA levels in urine associated with worsening male sexual function, study finds - Science Daily, 5/26/10 - "Increasing urine BPA level is associated with decreased sexual desire, more difficulty having an erection, lower ejaculation strength and lower level of overall satisfaction with sex life" - See stainless steel water bottles at Amazon.com.
  • Bisphenol A and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals pose cancer risk, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/25/10 - "endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) .. ample evidence already supports changing public health and environmental policies to protect the public from exposure to EDCs ... The strength and breadth of existing research on the negative effects of EDCs, including bisphenol A, warrants immediate action to reduce EDC exposure, particularly among the developing fetus and women of reproductive age"
  • Canned Food May Expose People to BPA - WebMD, 5/18/10 - "A study conducted by a coalition of consumer and food safety groups found detectable levels of BPA in 46 of 50 grocery store cans tested. The results suggest BPA routinely leaches from can linings into food ... The highest BPA level detected was 1,140 parts per billion, found in a can of Del Monte French Style Green Beans"
  • Environmental Cancer Risk 'Grossly Underestimated'? - WebMD, 5/6/10 - "The Panel urges you most strongly to use the power of your office to remove the carcinogens and other toxins from our food, water, and air that needlessly increase health care costs, cripple our nation's productivity, and devastate American lives ... The presidential panel says this greatly underestimates the problem because it does not fully account for synergistic interactions between environmental contaminants, an increasing number and amount of pollutants, and the fact that all avoidable causes of cancer are not known ... Remove shoes before entering the house ... Filter home tap or well water. Prefer filtered water to commercially bottled water ... Store and carry water in stainless steel, glass, or BPA- and phthalate-free containers ..."
  • The Perils of Plastic - Environmental Toxins - Time Magazine, 4/1/10 - "The levels observed are considered well below the federal safety threshold of 50 micrograms per kg of body weight per day. But that recommendation was made 22 years ago, and in the time since, scientists have learned more about the effects of even a bit of BPA. In 1998, Patricia Hunt, a geneticist at Washington State University, found that female mice dosed with BPA had serious reproductive problems, including defective eggs. More recently, she published a study showing that the offspring of mice exposed to BPA while pregnant can end up with corrupted eggs, a situation that leads to trouble for their offspring ... As a synthetic estrogen, BPA can mimic hormones, those powerful chemicals, like testosterone and adrenaline, that run the body. Tiny amounts of hormones produce immense biological and behavioral changes" -See Stainless Steel Water Bottles at Amazon.com.
  • EPA: Bisphenol A Is a 'Chemical Concern' - WebMD, 3/31/10 - "Some experts are concerned that exposure to BPA and its weak estrogen-like effects during critical periods of human development may be associated with a wide range of health problems, including behavioral effects, reproductive problems, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes" -See Stainless Steel Water Bottles at Amazon.com.
  • Why BPA leached from 'safe' plastics may damage health of female offspring - Science Daily, 2/25/10 - "Here's more evidence that "safe" plastics are not as safe as once presumed: New research published online in The FASEB Journal suggests that exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy leads to epigenetic changes that may cause permanent reproduction problems for female offspring. BPA, a common component of plastics used to contain food, is a type of estrogen that is ubiquitous in the environment"
  • BPA Not Linked With Ill Effects in 2 Studies - WebMD, 2/19/10
  • FDA on BPA: 'Some Concern,' No Ban - WebMD, 1/15/10
  • BPA May Be Linked to Heart Disease Risk - WebMD, 1/12/10 - "Nearly everyone in the U.S. carries the plastics chemical BPA in their bodies ... high BPA levels were linked to a higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, and elevated liver enzymes"
  • Common plastics chemicals -- phthalates -- linked to ADHD symptoms - Science Daily, 11/19/09 - "Researchers found a significant positive association between phthalate exposure and ADHD, meaning that the higher the concentration of phthalate metabolites in the urine, the worse the ADHD symptoms and/or test scores"
  • Study: High Bisphenol A ( BPA) Linked to Sex Problems in Men - Science Daily, 11/11/09 - "Compared to the unexposed factory workers in the study, BPA-exposed workers were four times more likely to report erectile dysfunction, low sexual desire, and less than optimal satisfaction with their sex lives. They were seven times more likely to report problems with ejaculation ... BPA has been used for more than three decades to make plastic bottles and other products shatter resistant and clear. It is also used in the lining of many canned foods and a wide range of other commercial goods"
  • Prenatal Exposure To BPA Might Explain Aggressive Behavior In Some 2-Year-old Girls - Science Daily, 10/6/09
  • Reproductive Health Effects Found From Low Doses Of Bisphenol-A - Science Daily, 6/17/09
  • Bisphenol A Exposure In Pregnant Mice Permanently Changes DNA Of Offspring - Science Daily, 6/10/09
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) Found In Many Plastics May Cause Heart Disease In Women, Research Shows - Science Daily, 6/10/09
  • BPA, Chemical Used To Make Plastics, Found To Leach From Polycarbonate Drinking Bottles Into Humans - Science Daily, 5/21/09 - "The study is the first to show that drinking from polycarbonate bottles increased the level of urinary BPA, and thus suggests that drinking containers made with BPA release the chemical into the liquid that people drink in sufficient amounts to increase the level of BPA excreted in human urine"
  • Bisphenol A May Linger in Body - WebMD, 1/28/09 - "Now there's evidence that BPA might be in our water as well as in our food, and that it lingers in our fat tissues ... people with higher urinary BPA levels have more medical disorders. Another intriguing study from 2008 showed that BPA -- at normal levels of exposure -- disrupts a hormone involved in insulin sensitivity and diabetes. And a 2007 study showed that obese people are much more likely to suffer insulin resistance if they have high fat levels of organic pollutants ... Imagine if what we think is caused by obesity is actually caused by persistent organics in the fat of obese people ... If they don't have the organics, they don't have the diabetes. That would be huge"
  • New Questions Raised About Controversial Plastics Chemical Bisphenol A - Science Daily, 1/28/09
  • F.D.A. to Reconsider Plastic Bottle Risk - NYTimes.com, 12/23/08
  • Hairspray Is Linked To Common Genital Birth Defect, Says Study - Science Daily, 11/21/08
  • Higher Urinary Levels Of Commonly Used Plastic Compound, BPA, Linked To Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes - Science Daily, 9/16/08 - "Higher levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound commonly used in plastic packaging for food and beverages, is associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver-enzyme abnormalities ... Widespread and continuous exposure to BPA, primarily through food but also through drinking water, dental sealants, dermal exposure, and inhalation of household dusts, is evident from the presence of detectable levels of BPA in more than 90 percent of the U.S. population ... participants in the highest BPA concentration quartile had nearly three times the odds of cardiovascular disease compared with those in the lowest quartile. Similarly, those in the highest BPA concentration quartile had 2.4 times the odds of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quartile ... higher BPA concentrations were associated with clinically abnormal concentrations for three liver enzymes"


  • Studies on the phytomodulatory potential of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bisphenol-A induced testicular damage in mice - Andrologia. 2019 Dec 3:e13492 - "Bisphenol A (BPA), an organic synthetic compound and endocrine disruptor, which majorly cause deleterious effects on male reproductory system. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), associated with Leguminosae family is used as a herbal medicine with potent antioxidant properties. The present study was aimed to scrutinise the preventative role of fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSEt) on BPA-induced testicular damage in mice ... FSEt-administered mice showed improvement in the histoarchitecture compared with BPA-administered animals. In addition, fenugreek treatment showed reduced levels of malondialdehyde and elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes. Expression studies of apoptotic markers revealed a significant decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and significant increase in caspase-9 and caspase-3. However, FSEt restored the deleterious effects caused by BPA. The current findings plausibly might have promising protective role against BPA-induced testicular damage" - See fenugreek at Amazon.com.
  • Vitis vinifera (grape) seed extract and resveratrol alleviate bisphenol-A-induced metabolic syndrome: Biochemical and molecular evidences - Phytother Res. 2019 Jan 17 - "The mechanisms of bisphenol-A (BPA)-induced metabolic syndrome as well as the protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol were investigated. Rats were treated with BPA (0 and 35 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , gavage) plus resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , i.p.) or GSE (3, 6, 12 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , i.p.) or vitamin E (200 IU/kg/every other day, i.p.). After 2 months, mean systolic blood pressure, serum lipid profile, glycaemia, and fat index were examined ... BPA increased mean systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced paraoxonase1 and the hepatic expression of both ABCG5 and ABCG8. It increased the body fat index, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and glycaemia level and decreased the hepatic protein expression of p-Akt/Akt and p-PI3K/PI3k. GSE, resveratrol, or vitamin E coadministration along with BPA restored the detrimental effects of BPA in some levels. Herein, the predisposing effects of BPA-induced metabolic syndrome were restored by GSE and resveratrol, linked to the regulation of insulin signaling, ABCG8 expression, and their antioxidant properties" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Exposure to Bisphenol A From Drinking Canned Beverage Increases Blood Pressure: Randomized Crossover Trial - Hypertension. 2014 Dec 8 - "We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time ... The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant"
  • Oral Bisphenol A (BPA) given to rats at moderate doses is associated with erectile dysfunction, cavernosal lipofibrosis and alterations of global gene transcription - Int J Impot Res. 2013 Dec 5 - "In all, 2.5-month-old rats were given drinking water daily without and with BPA at 1 and 0.1 mg kg-1 per day ... Orally administered BPA did not affect body weight, but (1) decreased serum T and E2; (2) reduced the EFS response and increased the drop rate; (3) increased within the corporal tissue the presence of fat, myofibroblasts and apoptosis; (4) lowered the contents of SM and stem cells, but not nerve terminals; and (5) caused alterations in the transcriptional profiles for both mRNA and miRs within the penile shaft. Long-term exposure of rats to oral BPA caused a moderate corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), possibly due to alterations within the corporal tissue that pose gene transcriptional changes related to inflammation, fibrosis and epithelial/mesenchymal transition (EMT)"
  • Associations of Bisphenol A Exposure With Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pressure - Hypertension. 2012 Jul 30 - "Recent studies have suggested that cardiovascular diseases are associated with the BPA exposure. The aim of present study was to investigate the associations of urinary BPA with heart rate variability and blood pressure ... We observed that urinary BPA was associated negatively with the root mean square of successive differences for heart rate and positively with blood pressure. The odds ratio of showing hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) was 1.27 (95% CI, 0.85-1.88) in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile of urinary BPA concentration. When the analyses were restricted to participants who did not report previous history of hypertension (n=258), the odds ratio was increased to 2.35 (95% CI, 1.33-4.17)"
  • Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Concentration Associates with Obesity and Insulin Resistance - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov 16 - "Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the world's highest-volume chemicals in use today. Previous studies have suggested BPA disturbs body weight regulation and promotes obesity and insulin resistance. But epidemiological data in humans were limited ... The participants in the highest quartile of BPA had the highest prevalence of generalized obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.97], abdominal obesity (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60), and insulin resistance (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.06-1.77). In participants with BMI under 24 kg/m(2), compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of BPA increased the prevalence of insulin resistance by 94% (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.20-3.14), but this association was not observed in those with BMI of 24 kg/m(2) or higher"
  • Relationship between Urinary Bisphenol A Levels and Diabetes Mellitus - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep 28 - "Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes ... We examined the association between urinary BPA levels and diabetes mellitus in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2008. Urinary BPA levels were examined in quartiles. The main outcome of interest was diabetes mellitus defined according the latest American Diabetes Association guidelines.  Results:  Overall, we observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and diabetes mellitus, independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and serum cholesterol levels. Compared to quartile 1 (referent), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of diabetes associated with quartile 4 was 1.50 (1.05-2.14) (p-trend = 0.03). The association was present among normal-weight as well as overweight and obese subjects"
  • Concentration of Bisphenol A in Highly Consumed Canned Foods on the US market - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 May 20 - "Metal food and drink cans are commonly coated with epoxy films made from phenolic polymers produced from bisphenol A (BPA). It is well established that residual BPA monomer migrates into can contents during processing and storage ... This study quantified BPA concentrations in 78 canned and 2 frozen food products from the US market using an adaption of a previously reported liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The tested products represented 16 different food types which are from the can food classifications which constitute approximately 65% of US canned food sales and canned food consumption. BPA was detected in 71 of the 78 canned food samples, but was not detected in either of the 2 frozen food samples. Detectable BPA concentrations across all foods ranged from 2.6 to 730 ng g-1. Large variations in BPA concentrations were found between different products of the same food type and between different lots of the same product. Given the large concentration ranges the only distinguishable trend was that fruits and tuna showed the lowest BPA concentrations. Experiments with fortified frozen vegetables and brines as well as higher BPA concentrations in canned food solids over liquid portions clearly indicated that BPA partitions into the solid portion of foods"
  • Endocrine Disruptors and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Elevated Serum Levels of Bisphenol A in Women with PCOS - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 30 - "In experimental animals, neonatal exposure to BPA results in a polycystic ovary-like syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood. A bidirectional interaction between androgens and BPA levels has been disclosed ... BPA levels were significantly higher in the total PCOS group compared with the controls (1.05+/-0.56 vs. 0.72+/-0.37ng/ml, P < 0.001). PCOS women, lean (PCOS-L) and overweight (PCOS-OW), had higher BPA levels compared to the corresponding control group lean (C-L) and overweight (C-OW): (PCOS-L = 1.13+/-0.63 vs. C-L = 0.70+/-0.36, P < 0.001) (PCOS-OW = 0.96 +/- 0.46 vs. C-OW = 0.72 +/- 0.39, P < 0.05). A significant association of testosterone (r = 0.192, P < 0.05) and androstenedione (r = 0.257, P < 0.05) with BPA was observed. Multiple regression analysis for BPA showed significant correlation with the existence of PCOS (r = 0.497, P < 0.05). BPA was also positively correlated with insulin resistance (Matsuda index) in the PCOS group"
  • Bisphenol A impairs the double-strand break repair machinery in the germline and causes chromosome abnormalities - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 8 - "Bisphenol A (BPA) is a highly prevalent constituent of plastics that has been associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and an increased risk of miscarriages in humans ... BPA exposure results in impaired chromosome synapsis and disruption of meiotic double-strand break repair (DSBR) progression. BPA carries an anti-estrogenic activity in the germline and results in germline-specific down-regulation of DSBR genes, thereby impairing maintenance of genomic integrity during meiosis. C. elegans therefore constitutes a model of remarkable relevance to mammals with which to assess how our chemical landscape affects germ cells and meiosis"