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Home > Anti-aging Research > Exercise

Exercise/Athletic Performance

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• Selected root plant supplementation reduces indices of exercise-induced muscle damage: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Nov 16 - "This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of selected root plants (curcumin, ginseng, ginger and garlic) on markers of muscle damage and muscular performance measures following muscle-damaging protocols. We included 25 studies (parallel and crossover design) with 353 participants and used the PEDro scale to appraise each study ... The meta-analysis showed that the supplemental (SUPP) condition showed significantly lower levels of indirect muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) and muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours (p < 0.01) than the placebo (PLA) condition. The inflammatory markers were significantly lower for the SUPP condition than the PLA condition at 24 hours (p = 0.02), although no differences were identified at 48 hours (p = 0.40). There were no significant differences in muscular performance measures between the SUPP and PLA conditions at 24 hours and 48 hours (p > 0.05) post-exercise. According to our qualitative data, a number of studies reported a reduction in oxidative stress (e.g., malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase) with a concomitant upregulation of anti-oxidant status, although other studies showed no effects. Accordingly, selected root plants minimised the level of several biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation and muscle soreness during periods of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the benefits of these supplements in ameliorating oxidative stress, increasing anti-oxidant status and accelerating recovery of muscular performance appears equivocal, warranting further research in these outcome measures" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb, ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb and garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com.
• Re-esterified DHA improves ventilatory threshold 2 in competitive amateur cyclists - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Oct 21 - "Our aim was to test a supplement highly concentrated in DHA (DHA:EPA ratio equal to approximately 8:1) on a maximal cycling test to elucidate performance improvements mainly due to DHA ... After 30 days of supplementation with 975 mg of re-esterified DHA, the thirty-eight cyclist who completed the study were finally included for statistical analysis ... Mean power output at ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2) improved after DHA supplementation both as absolute (^DHA versus ^PLA: 6.33-26.54 Watts; CI 95%) and relative (p=0.006) values, paralleled with higher oxygen consumption at VT2 both for absolute (DHA 2729.4 +/-304.5, 3045.9 +/-335.0; PLA 2792.3 +/-339.5, 2845.5 +/-357.1; ml.min−1 baseline versus post p=0.025) and relative values (DHA 36.6 +/-5.0, 41.2 +/-5.4; PLA 37.2 +/-5.7, 38.1 +/-5.2; ml.kg−1.min−1 baseline versus post p=0.024). Heart rate recovery rate improved during the recovery phase in the DHA group compared to PLA" - [Nutra USA] - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and and iHerb.
• Enhanced physical and cognitive performance in active duty Airmen: evidence from a randomized multimodal physical fitness and nutritional intervention - Sci Rep 2020 Oct 19 - "Achieving military mission objectives requires high levels of performance from Airmen who operate under extreme physical and cognitive demands. Thus, there is a critical need to establish scientific interventions to enhance physical fitness and cognitive performance-promoting the resilience of Airmen and aiding in mission success. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, 12-week randomized controlled trial in active-duty Air Force Airmen (n = 148) to compare the efficacy of a multimodal intervention comprised of high-intensity interval aerobic fitness and strength training paired with a novel nutritional supplement [comprised of β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), lutein, phospholipids, DHA and selected micronutrients including B12 and folic acid] to high-intensity interval aerobic fitness and strength training paired with a standard of care placebo beverage. The exercise intervention alone improved several dimensions of physical fitness [strength and endurance (+ 8.3%), power (+ 0.85%), mobility and stability (+ 22%), heart rate (- 1.1%) and lean muscle mass (+ 1.4%)] and cognitive function [(episodic memory (+ 9.5%), processing efficiency (+ 7.5%), executive function reaction time (- 4.8%) and fluid intelligence accuracy (+ 19.5%)]. Relative to exercise training alone, the multimodal fitness and nutritional intervention further improved working memory (+ 9.0%), fluid intelligence reaction time (- 7.7%), processing efficiency (+ 1.8%), heart rate (- 2.4%) and lean muscle mass (+ 1.5%)" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• The effects of varying doses of caffeine on cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following an acute bout of anaerobic exercise in recreational athletes - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Aug 20 - "Caffeine ingestion increases resting cardiac autonomic modulation and accelerates post-exercise autonomic recovery after a bout of anaerobic exercise in recreationally active young men. However, no differences between caffeine doses on cardiac autonomic reactivity were observed." - [Nutra USA]
• The Effect of Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acid Supplementation on Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle after Acute Resistance Exercise: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Comparison Trial - Nutrients 2020 Aug 12 - "These data indicated that LEAA supplementation augments the effect of resistance exercise by enhancing mTORC1 signal activation after exercise" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Effect of D-ribose supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness induced by plyometric exercise in college students - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Aug 10 - "D-ribose supplementation reduces muscle soreness, improves recovery of muscle damage, and inhibits the formation of lipid peroxides. Young adult males performing plyometric exercise are likely to realize a DOMS reduction through consumption of D-ribose in 15 g/doses both before (1-h) and after (1-h, 12-h, 24-h, 36-h) exercise. These results suggest that appropriately timed consumption of D-ribose may induce a similar alleviation of exercise-induced DOMS in the general public" - See
• Avenanthramide supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced inflammation in young men and women - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Jul 25 - "Avenanthramides (AVA) are a group of di-phenolic acids found only in oats and have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo ... downhill running (DR) ... After an 8-week washout period, participants received two cookies daily containing either 206 mg/kg (AVA) or 0 mg/kg (C) AVA for 8 weeks ... Oat AVA supplementation reduced circulatory inflammatory cytokines and inhibited expression of chemokines and cell adhesion molecules induced by DR" -  [Nutra USA] - See avenanthramides at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Physiological Adaptation and Performance in Triathletes through Gut Microbiota Modulation - Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2315 - "Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been reported to have health-promoting activities (e.g., immunoregulation and cancer prevention) ... In our previous study, we found that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, with improved exercise performance ... The triathletes were assigned to two groups: an L. plantarum 128 supplement group (LG, 3 × 1010 colony-forming units (CFU)/day) and a placebo group (PG). Both groups continued with their regular exercise training for the next 4 weeks. The endurance performance, body composition, biochemistries, blood cells, microbiota, and associated metabolites were further investigated. PS128 significantly increased the athletes’ endurance, by about 130% as compared to the PG group, but there was no significant difference in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and composition between groups" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotics at Amazon.com and iHerb, prebiotics at Amazon.com and iHerb,  and synbiotics at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• The influence of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) dietary nitrates on the aerobic capacity of physically active young persons - "J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Jul 13 - "Recent evidence indicates that elevating plasma nitrites through dietary nitrates (NO3-) supplementation is associated with enhanced muscle efficiency, fatigue resistance and performance. Beetroot (in various forms) is the dominant source of dietary NO3- primarily due to its vast availability and the simple form of preparation suitable for final consumption. After a few years of research and experimentation, our scientific team identified alternative source rich with dietary NO3- as possible nitric oxide precursor, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) with a standardized concentration 9-11% of NO3-. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of single-dose (±400 mg of dietary NO3-) and long-term (6 days) supplementation of amaranth concentrate derived dietary NO3- on aerobic capacity in physically active young people ... The peak power of the ICE, the maximum oxygen consumption and the first ventilatory threshold were significantly increased after long-term consumption of dietary amaranth (from 4.44 ± 0.50 to 4.55 ± 0.43 W/kg; from 37.7 ± 2.7 to 41.2 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min and from 178.6 ± 30.3 to 188.6 ± 35.2 W, p < 0.05; respectively) in experimental group" - See beet root capsules at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Alterations in Systemic Inflammatory Response Following a Half-Marathon Race with a Combined Curcumin and Pomegranate Supplement: A Feasibility Study - J Diet Suppl 2020 Jul 13 - "Endurance running training can lead to gradual accumulation of inflammation and soreness ultimately resulting in overuse injuries. Management of soreness and inflammation with pharmaceuticals (i.e. non-prescription pain relievers) during long-term training is not a suitable solution due to known side effects (e.g. gastrointestinal complications, etc.). Dietary polyphenols (i.e. curcumin, pomegranate, etc.) have been purported to reduce inflammation and muscle soreness, without these negative side effects making them ideal for use in an exercise model ... Pathway classification of these biomarkers indicated supplementation may be associated with a more favorable muscle recovery profile. Our findings support the notion that combined curcumin and pomegranate supplementation may represent a useful addition to a comprehensive exercise training plan" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb and pomegranate extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Acute Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplements on Resistance Training: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover - Nutrients 2020 Jun 28;12(7):E1912 - "A higher number of repetitions were recorded with BJ compared to those with PLA (13.8 ± 14.4; p < 0.01; effect size (ES) = 0.6). Differences were found at 60% 1-RM (9 ± 10; p < 0.05; ES = 0.61) and 70% 1-RM (3.1 ± 4.8; p < 0.05; ES = 0.49), however, no differences were found at 80% 1-RM (1.7 ± 1; p = 0.12; ES = 0.41). A greater number of repetitions was performed in back squat (13.4 ± 13; p < 0.01; ES = 0.77), but no differences were observed in bench press (0.4 ± 5.1; p = 0.785; ES = 0.03). No differences were found for the rest of the variables (p > 0.05). Acute supplementation of BJ improved muscular endurance performance in RT" - [Nutra USA] - See beet root capsules at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Creatine Supplementation Improves Performance, but Is It Safe? Double-blind Placebo-Controlled Study - J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jul - "Eighteen males performing resistance training three times per week were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg per day creatine monohydrate for 7 days and compared with matched controls supplemented with dextrosol ... Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not cause adverse events and, as expected, promoted an increase of the performance and body weight. No modification of red blood cells parameters, white blood cells profile, blood lipid profile, metabolic and urine markers, hepatic and renal function were observed in the supplemented group ... Despite the expected weight increase, the creatine monohydrate supplementation is safe for health and no detrimental effects on different organs and physiological systems were observed in our cohort of volunteers" - See creatine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Supplementation with SEPIFIT TM Protect, a complex of a natural red wine extract, vitamin E and zinc, improves exercise recovery in healthy men - Nutrafoods (2020) 1:149-158 - "Muscle fatigue can be largely reversible in minutes or hours. It is generally viewed to be the result of insufficient energy and a lack of availability of key metabolites that enable contracting muscles to meet increased energy demand. However, muscle recovery can fail to take effect quickly, and this can be associated with structural changes and damage within the muscle, inducing a cascade of events leading to immediate or delayed soreness. In previous research, SEPIFIT TM Protect, a combination of natural red wine polyphenols, zinc and vitamin E, showed in vitro efficacy with respect to lactate, interleukin-6 and creatine kinase, which are markers of muscle damage and fatigue. We have therefore conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the effects of this active complex in healthy men undertaking regular and stable physical activity and who were subjected to a pain induction protocol. The results showed that the consumption of 135 mg of the complex per day for 12 days was effective in reducing creatine kinase release and maintaining muscular power capacity after the pain induction protocol. It also induced a better perception of performance, physical condition and muscle soreness. SEPIFIT TM Protect can thus be considered an interesting complex to contribute to muscle recovery during physical exertion" - [Nutra USA] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb, vitamin E at Amazon.com and iHerb and zinc supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• The Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on the Promotion and Preservation of Lean Body Mass, Strength, and Recovery From Physiological Stress in Young, Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review - Nutr Rev 2020 Jun 1 - "Military personnel are subjected to physiologically stressful environments during combat and its associated training. Evidence suggests that fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FO n-3 PUFAs) may affect military personnel's performance by promoting or preserving lean body mass, strength, and power, while enhancing recovery from training-associated muscle damage ... Overall, FO n-3 PUFA supplementation likely preserves strength and very likely enhances recovery from physiological stress in young, healthy adults. However, FO n-3 PUFAs' role in promoting or preserving lean body mass or promoting strength is unclear and warrants additional investigation" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
• Supplementation of L-Arginine, L-Glutamine, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Folic Acid, and Green Tea Extract Enhances Serum Nitric Oxide Content and Antifatigue Activity in Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Apr 11 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a combined extract comprising L-arginine, L-glutamine, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, and green tea extract (LVFG) on nitric oxide content to decrease exercise fatigue. Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and orally administered LVFG for 4 weeks. The 4-week LVFG supplementation significantly increased serum nitric oxide content in the LVFG-1X and LVFG-2X groups. Antifatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming test, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute swimming exercise. LVFG supplementation dose-dependently improved exercise performance and nitric oxide content, and it dose-dependently decreased serum ammonia and CK activity after exhaustive swimming test. LVFG's antifatigue properties appear to manifest by preserving energy storage (as blood glucose) and increasing nitric oxide content. Taken together, our results show that LVFG could have the potential for alleviating physical fatigue due to its pharmacological effect of increasing serum nitric oxide content"
• Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Athletic Performance Based on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2020 May 2 - "Results revealed that Arg supplementation could improve aerobic (SMD, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.56; magnitude of SMD (MSMD), large; I2, 89%; p = 0.02) and anaerobic (SMD, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.43; MSMD, small; I2, 0%; p = 0.01) performance tests. In conclusion, acute Arg supplementation protocols to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance should be adjusted to 0.15 g/kg of body weight ingested between 60-90 min before. Moreover, chronic Arg supplementation should include 1.5-2 g/day for 4-7 weeks in order to improve aerobic performance, and 10-12 g/day for 8 weeks to enhance anaerobic performance" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com and L-arginine at iHerb.
• Influence of Hesperidin on Systemic Immunity of Rats Following an Intensive Training and Exhausting Exercise Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Intensive training and exhausting exercise can disrupt innate and acquired immunity. The flavanone hesperidin has shown immunomodulatory properties in physiological and some pathological conditions, and positive effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress ... female Wistar rats were randomized into an intensive training group or a sedentary group. Intensive training was induced by running in a treadmill 5 days per week (including two exhausting tests) for five weeks. Throughout the training period, 200 mg/kg of hesperidin or vehicle was administered by oral gavage three times per week. At the end, blood, thymus, spleen and macrophages were collected before, immediately after and 24 h after an additional final exhaustion test. Hesperidin supplementation enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the proportion of phagocytic monocytes, attenuated the secretion of cytokines by stimulated macrophages, prevented the leukocytosis induced by exhaustion and increased the proportion of T helper cells in the thymus, blood and spleen. These results suggest that hesperidin can prevent exhausting exercise-induced immune alterations" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com and hesperidin at iHerb.
• Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 17 - "The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of supplementation with Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), as well as to provide directions for clinical practice ... Results showed a significant enhancement in VO2max in healthy adults and athletes (p = 0.04). The mean difference was 3.00 (95% CI from 0.18 to 5.82) with high heterogeneity. In conclusion, Ashwagandha supplementation might improve the VO2max in athlete and non-athlete people. However, further research is need to confirm this hypothesis since the number of studies is limited and the heterogeneity was high" - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com and Ashwagandha at iHerb.com.
• Testofen® (Fenugreek extract) increases strength and muscle mass compared to placebo in response to calisthenics. A randomized control trial - Trans Spt Medicine, 10 Mar 20 - "A total of 138 male participants (25‐47yrs) were enrolled and randomized to three equal groups: 600 mg Testofen®/day, 300 mg Testofen®/day or placebo ... All groups improved their maximal leg press from baseline to 8 weeks, however, both Testofen® treated groups improved more than placebo (P < .05). The 600 mg group showed decreases in body mass of 1.2 kg, −1.4% body fat and an increase in lean mass (1.8%) at 8 weeks. The 600 mg group also demonstrated an increase in testosterone concentration from baseline to 8 weeks. This study indicates that Testofen® may be an effective ergogenic aid for individuals wanting to rapidly improve their exercise performance capabilities and body composition above and beyond that of calisthenic exercise alone" - [Nutra USA] - See fenugreek at Amazon.com and fenugreek at iHerb.
• Lactobacillus salivarius Subspecies salicinius SA-03 is a New Probiotic Capable of Enhancing Exercise Performance and Decreasing Fatigue? - Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 545 - "Probiotics are increasingly being used as a nutritional supplement by athletes to improve exercise performance and reduce post-exercise fatigue. Lactobacillus salivarius is a natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Lactobacillus salivarius subspecies salicinius (SA-03) is an isolate from the 2008 Olympic women’s 48 kg weightlifting gold medalist’s gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated its beneficial effects on physical fitness. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) and orally administered with SA-03 for 4 weeks at 0, 2.05 × 109, 4.10 × 109, or 1.03 × 1010 CFU/kg/day. Results showed that 4 weeks of SA-03 supplementation significantly improved muscle strength and endurance performance, increased hepatic and muscular glycogen storage, and decreased lactate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), ammonia, and creatine kinase (CK) levels after exercise. These observations suggest that SA-03 could be used as a nutritional supplement to enhance exercise performance and reduce" - [Nutra USA] - See Lactobacillus salivarius at Amazon.com.
• Combined protein and calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induced gains in leg fat free mass: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Mar 12;17(1):16 - "All participants received 60 g of whey protein on training days and 30 g of whey protein (WP) on non-training days. Participants were randomly assigned to additionally receive 3 g of calcium HMB (WP + HMB) or a placebo (WP + PLA) ... Combined protein and HMB supplementation resulted in segmental, but not whole-body increases in FFM compared to protein supplementation alone. These findings could explain some of the controversial effects of HMB reported in previous studies and have practical implications for maximizing training-induced gains in FFM and clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning such as aging, sedentary lifestyles, bed rest and spaceflight" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and whey protein at Amazon.com.
• The Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials - J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Mar 10:1-12 - "Accumulating evidence of previous experimental studies indicated that L-Carnitine positively ameliorates muscle damage ... Pooled data from seven studies showed that L-Carnitine resulted in significant improvements in muscle soreness (MS) at the five follow-up time points (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours (h)) compared to placebo. Also, pooled data indicated that L-Carnitine significantly reduced creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at one follow-up period (24 h). However, no effects have been observed beyond this period. Our outcomes indicate that L-Carnitine supplementation improves delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and markers of muscle damage" - See L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Tart Cherry Concentrate on Endurance Exercise Performance: A Meta-analysis - J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Jan 27:1-8 - "Tart cherry concentrate has been shown to improve muscle function, and reduce muscle damage, oxidative stress/inflammation, and muscle soreness in athletes ... Interventions included tart cherry supplementation and placebo ingested before, and/or on the day of exercise. Ten studies were included (totaling 127 males and 20 females) ... Tart cherry concentrate in juice or powdered form, ingested for 7 days to 1.5 hours before exercise performance testing significantly improved endurance exercise performance (SMD: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.64; p = 0.01; I2 = 0%) upon pooling of the ten studies ... Tart cherry concentrate has a significant benefit for endurance exercise performance. Key teaching pointsTart cherry concentrate has a significant benefit for endurance exercise performance.Tart cherry concentrate may enhance endurance exercise performance via its low glycemic index, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity, and blood flow enhancing effects" - [Nutra USA] - See tart cherry concentrate at Amazon.com.
• Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and citrulline maleate on vasodilation - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Feb 24 - "Sports supplements such as pre-workouts tout this benefit; however, many have not been tested under laboratory conditions to examine the effects of commonly used supplements on vasodilation. Two popular supplements are Nitrosigine® and citrulline malate (CM) ... Baseline FMD measurement was obtained for each visit, followed by consumption of one clinical dose CM (8 g), Nitrosigine (1.5 g), or dextrose placebo (8 g). Following a 60-min digestion period, FMD was repeated. Supplementation order was randomized controlling for potential order effects ... Nitrosigine and CM increased FMD by 31 and 34%, respectively, compared to a decrease of 2% during the placebo trial ... Both Nitrisigine and CM increased endothelial-dependent vasodilation as measured by a change in FMD. Increased vasodilation leads to an increase in skeletal muscle blood flow resulting in potential improvements in exercise performance" - See Nitrosigine at Amazon.com.
• Anabolic response to essential amino acid plus whey protein composition is greater than whey protein alone in young healthy adults - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Feb 10;17(1):9 - "essential amino acids ... We conclude that a composition of a balanced EAA formulation combined with whey protein is highly anabolic as compared to a whey protein-based recovery product, and that the response is dose-dependent"
• Long-Term Effect of Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Anabolic/Catabolic Hormones in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Biomolecules. 2020 Jan 15;10(1) - "randomized into four different groups: placebo group (PLG; n = 7), CrM group (CrMG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM; n = 7), HMB group (HMBG; 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7), and CrM-HMB group (CrM-HMBG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7) ... we observed significant differences in CrM-HMBG with respect to PLG, CrMG, and HMBG on testosterone (p = 0.006; η2p = 0.454) and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C; p = 0.032; η2p = 0.349). Moreover, we found a synergistic effect of combined supplementation on testosterone (CrM-HMBG = -63.85% vs. CrMG + HMBG = -37.89%) and T/C (CrM-HMBG = 680% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 57.68%) and an antagonistic effect on cortisol (CrM-HMBG = 131.55% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 389.99%). In summary, the combination of CrM plus HMB showed an increase in testosterone and T/C compared with the other groups after 10 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, this combination presented a synergistic effect on testosterone and T/C and an antagonistic effect on cortisol compared with the sum of individual or isolated supplementation" - [Nutra USA] - See creatine at Amazon.com and  HMB at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - [Nutra USA] - See creatine at Amazon.com and  HMB at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - See creatine at Amazon.com and HMB at Amazon.com.
• International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Probiotics - J Inter Society of Sports Nutri, 19 Dec 2019 - "Given all the known benefits and favorable safety profile of probiotic supplementation reported in the scientific and medical literature, probiotics are commonly used to optimize the health of athletes. Regular consumption of specific probiotic strains may assist with immune function and may reduce the number of sick days an athlete experiences when training or during competition. Certain probiotic strains may reduce the severity of respiratory infection and GI disturbance when they occur. Probiotic benefits are strain specific and dose dependent, and include improved gut-barrier function, nutrient absorption, recovery and performance in athletes. When choosing a probiotic product, athletes are encouraged to use clinically researched strains with validated benefits, matching the athletes desired health benefit. Studies investigating the effects of probiotics in athletic populations and on sports performance are limited and warrant further investigation" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
• Anti-Aging Effects of Schisandrae chinensis Fructus Extract: Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Function in Aged Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Nov 3;2019 - "Schisandrae chinensis Fructus has a long history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, and an antitussive drug ... Insulin sensitivity was lower at 20 months of age than at 16 months of age; however, the decrease in insulin sensitivity was less in SFe-fed mice. SFe supplementation also appeared to improve glucose tolerance. Body weight gain was lower in SFe-fed mice than in mice fed the control diet. Body fat mass was lower and the lean mass was higher in SFe-fed mice. In addition, the grip strength was enhanced in SFe-fed mice. Histological analysis of the tibialis anterior muscle showed that the size of myofiber and slow-twitch red muscle was increased by SFe supplementation. The expression of proteins related to muscle protein synthesis such as phospho-Erk1 and phospho-S6K1 was increased by SFe supplementation. The mRNA expression of genes related to myogenesis and their encoded proteins such as MyoD, Myf5, MRF4, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, was increased, whereas that of genes related to muscle degradation, such as atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin, were decreased relative to control mice. These results suggest that SFe supplementation might have beneficial effects for the improvement of insulin sensitivity and inhibition of muscle loss that occur with aging" - See schizandra at Amazon.com.
• 25 Again? How Exercise May Fight Aging - NYT, 12/4/19 - "A lot of studies, probably thousands, show that higher circulating inflammatory factors in people are associated with greater loss of muscle mass ... physically fit people tend to have lower levels of inflammation in their bodies than inactive people"
• Eating After You Exercise May Provide Added Fat-Burning Benefits - NYT, 11/27/19 - "The riders who had pedaled on an empty stomach, however, had incinerated about twice as much fat during each ride as the men who consumed the shake first. The riders all had burned about the same number of calories while pedaling, but more of those calories came from fat when the men did not eat first ... Those riders also showed greater improvements in insulin sensitivity at the end of the study and had developed higher levels of certain proteins in their muscles that influence how well muscle cells respond to insulin and use blood sugar ... On the whole, these findings suggest that “you can probably get more out of your workout without increasing its intensity or duration by exercising before breakfast"
• Why You Should Add Rest to Your Workout Routine - Time, 11/27/19 - "Studies back that up. One published in 2018 argues that there’s a “Goldilocks Zone” for exercise—that is, a sweet spot between getting too little physical activity (which is linked to a higher risk of heart disease and cancer, among other chronic illnesses) and too much (which, especially for middle-aged and older adults, can increase the risk for heart issues and premature death by placing too much strain on the body). The paper advises against doing more than four or five hours of vigorous exercise per week, and recommends at least one rest day ... Other research from 2017 suggests taking days off can protect against bone loss—which is of particular concern for women—and excess inflammation, a risk factor for many chronic diseases. Working out too much could even make you sick, one 2016 study suggests. In the small study, athletes who did intense workouts on back-to-back days saw a drop in proteins that help the immune system fight disease. Over-training also robs your muscles of the time they need to recover"
• Effect of Bang® Pre-Workout Master Blaster® combined with four weeks of resistance training on lean body mass, maximal strength, mircoRNA expression, and serum IGF-1 in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 Nov 19 - "A greater increase in total body mass (3.19 kg, 95% CI, 1.98 kg, 4.40 kg vs. 0.44 kg, 95% CI, - 0.50 kg, 1.39 kg) and lean body mass (3.15 kg, 95% CI, 1.80 kg, 4.49 kg vs. 0.89 kg, 95% CI, - 0.14 kg, 1.93 kg) was observed for the BMB group compared with PLA (p <  0.01). A significant increase over time was observed for miR-23a (p = 0.02) and miR-23b (p = 0.05) expression. A greater increase in squat 1-RM was observed for the BMB group (23.86 kg, 95% CI, 16.75 kg, 30.97 kg) compared with the PLA group (14.20 kg, 95% CI, 7.04 kg, 21.37 kg, p = 0.04) ... BMB supplementation combined with resistance exercise training for 4 weeks resulted in superior adaptations in maximal strength and LBM compared with resistance training with a placebo" - See Vpx Bang Pre-Workout Master Blaster, Power Punch at Amazon.com.
• Potato as effective as carbohydrate gels for boosting athletic performance, study finds - Science Daily, 10/18/19 - "Research has shown that ingesting concentrated carbohydrate gels during prolonged exercise promotes carbohydrate availability during exercise and improves exercise performance ... Potatoes are a promising alternative for athletes because they represent a cost-effective, nutrient-dense and whole-food source of carbohydrates ... We found no differences between the performance of cyclists who got their carbohydrates by ingesting potatoes or gels at recommended amounts of about 60 grams per hour during the experiments ... Both groups saw a significant boost in performance that those consuming only water did not achieve" - Note:  I found that out on my own.  I noticed that when I spray french-fries with avocado oil and fry them in the air fryer for 13 minutes, my swim time is significantly faster the next day.
• A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study to Examine the Effects of Maritime Pine Extract on Exercise Performance and Postexercise Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Muscle Soreness, and Damage - J Diet Suppl. 2019 Mar 19:1-12 - "The purpose of the present study was to examine whether 14 days of supplementation with maritime pine extract leading up to and following an exercise test would increase performance and reduce biomarkers associated with muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress ... Analysis via ordinal regression demonstrated a significant difference in oxidative stress in the maritime pine extract group compared to placebo (ChiSq = 2.63; p = 0.045). Maritime pine extract was effective at affording protection from oxidative stress postexercise" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
• Effects of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin in supplementary protein powder on athlete body composition: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 Sep 10;16(1):39 - "Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a water-soluble quercetin, has been shown to intensify muscle hypertrophy in mice ... Participants received either EMIQ in whey protein (EW, n = 19) or contrast whey protein (W, n = 20) 6 days per week over 4 months ... After 4 months, changes in lower limb fat-free mass and muscle mass were significantly greater in the EW group than in the W group (mean change ±95% CI; W: 324.1 ± 284.3, EW: 950.3 ± 473.2, p = 0.031, W: 255.7 ± 288.6, EW: 930.9 ± 471.5, p = 0.021, respectively). Moreover, the EW group exhibited a significantly higher BAP/d-ROMs ratio, antioxidation index, than the W group after 4 months (mean change ± SD; W: 8.8 ± 1.1, EW: 10.3 ± 2.8; p = 0.028)" - [Nutra USA] - See enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) at Amazon.com.
• Effect of pomegranate fruit supplementation on performance and various markers in athletes and active subjects: a systematic review - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Sep 12:1-15 - "POM supplementation varied in terms of form (pills/juice), dosage (50 ml-500 ml) and time of intervention (7 days-2 months) between studies. Among the reviewed articles, POM supplementation had an effect on the improvement of the following: whole body strength; feeling of vitality; acute and delayed muscle fatigue and soreness; increase in vessel diameter; blood flow and serum level of TAC; reduction in the rate of increase for HR, SBP, CK and LDH; support in the recovery of post-training CK, LDH, CRP and ASAT to their baseline levels; reduction of MMP2, MMP9, hsCRP and MDA; and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). In the majority of reviewed articles POM supplementation had a positive effect on a variety of parameters studied and the authors recommended it as a supplement for athletes and physically active bodies" - See pomegranate extract at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Muscle Damage, and Muscle Soreness - J Diet Suppl. 2019 Apr 26:1-14 - "Curcumin has been shown to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation ... Nineteen males participated in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of curcumin supplementation (1.5 g/day) compared to a placebo (PLA) following a muscle-damaging protocol (MDP) on OS, inflammation, muscle damage, and soreness ... After supplementation, curcumin significantly blunted CK levels (199.62 U/L) compared to the placebo (287.03 U/L), overall (p < 0.0001). In addition, curcumin resulted in decreased muscle soreness, overall (VAS scale 2.88), when compared to the placebo (VAS scale 3.36) (p = 0.0120). There were no differences found in TAC, TNF-α, or MDA. Curcumin may reduce muscle damage and perceived muscle soreness without negatively impacting a natural inflammatory response following exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• Oral Supplementation Using Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Whey Protein Improves Whole Body Fat-Free Mass in Men After Resistance Training - J Clin Med Res. 2019 Jun;11(6):428-434 - "Oral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation increases growth hormone (GH) serum levels and protein synthesis. Therefore, post-exercise supplementation using GABA and protein may help enhance training-induced muscle hypertrophy ... Twenty-one healthy men (26 - 48 years) were randomized to receive whey protein (WP; 10 g) or whey protein + GABA (WP + GABA; 10 g + 100 mg) daily for 12 weeks ... After 12 weeks, the WP + GABA group exhibited significantly greater increase in whole body fat-free mass than the WP group" - [Nutra USA] - See GABA at Amazon.com.
• Acute Effects of Hesperidin in Oxidant/Antioxidant State Markers and Performance in Amateur Cyclists - Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1898 - "significant differences in average power (+2.27%, p = 0.023), maximum speed (+3.23%, p = 0.043) and total energy (∑ 4 sprint test) (+2.64%, p = 0.028) between Cardiose® and placebo were found in the best data of the repeated sprint test ... Our findings showed improvements in anaerobic performance after Cardiose® intake, but not in placebo, suggesting the potential benefits of using Cardiose® in sports with a high anaerobic component" - [Nutra USA] - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
• Eight Weeks of a High Dose of Curcumin Supplementation May Attenuate Performance Decrements Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise - Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1692 - "Sixty-three physically active men and women (21 ± 2 y; 70.0 ± 13.7 kg; 169.3 ± 15.2 cm; 25.6 ± 14.3 body mass index (BMI), 32 women, 31 men) were randomly assigned to ingest 250 mg of CurcuWIN® (50 mg of curcuminoids), 1000 mg of CurcuWIN® (200 mg of curcuminoids), or a corn starch placebo (PLA) for eight weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design ... When compared to changes observed against PLA, a 200-mg dose of curcumin attenuated reductions in some but not all observed changes in performance and soreness after completion of a downhill running bout. Additionally, a 50-mg dose appears to offer no advantage to changes observed in the PLA and 200-mg groups" - [Nutra USA] - See CurcuWIN® at Amazon.com.
• Improvement of Functional Ankle Properties Following Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides in Athletes with Chronic Ankle Instability - J Sports Sci Med. 2018 May 14;17(2):298-304 - "chronic ankle instability (CAI) ... collagen peptide supplementation (SCP) ... 50 male and female athletes with CAI completed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled study with a daily oral administration of either 5 g SCP or 5 g placebo (Maltodextrin) over a period of six months ... the subjective ankle stability was improved in both the CAIT (p < 0.001) and the FAAM-G (p < 0.001) following SCP supplementation compared with placebo. No significant changes between the groups were detected in the results of the ankle arthrometer. After six month the subjective report of the ankle stability function significantly improved and the three month follow-up revealed a significant decline in the number of ankle joint injuries (p < 0.05). These data support the concept that specific collagen peptide supplementation in athletes with chronic ankle instability results in significant improvements in subjective perceived ankle stability. The reduction in the re-injury rate of ankle sprains in the follow-up period suggests that these findings have clinical relevance" - [Nutra USA] - See collagen supplements at Amazon.com.
• Could a Gut Bacteria Supplement Make Us Run Faster? - NYT, 6/26/19 - "Given these findings, the researchers “are optimistic” that athletes and inactive people might likewise benefit from popping a little supplemental Veillonella, says Aleksandar Kostic, an assistant professor of microbiology at Harvard Medical School and the Joslin Diabetes Center and the study’s senior author. He, like several of his co-authors, has equity in a new company that plans to offer such supplements. (The current study was funded by the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard and the National Institutes of Health, with no contributions from the new company.) ... “What excites me is the idea that this might help people who find exercise difficult to increase their exercise capacity,” Dr. Kostic says, while also potentially improving the performance of already-fit athletes"
• Bacteria from your gut may be the key to running farther - engadget, 6/25/19 - "The researchers found the bacteria after examining the poop of 10 Boston Marathon runners. To generate energy for itself, Veillonella breaks down lactic acid, which is produced at a higher level when athletes perform particularly strenuous activities. To determine if the bacteria was making a difference, the researchers isolated a strain of it and inserted it into 16 mice, then placed them on a treadmill. The mice with the bacteria in their stomachs were able to run for 13 percent longer than mice who didn't get the benefit of Veillonella -- a small difference, but one that could make a huge difference in an athletic competition in which every little advantage counts" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
• Creatine electrolyte supplement improves anaerobic power and strength: a randomized double-blind control study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 May 24 - "Creatine supplementation aids the Phosphagen system by increasing the amount of free creatine and phosphocreatine available to replenish adenosine triphosphate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creatine and electrolyte formulated multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on strength and power performance compared to a placeb ... The MIPS was found to be beneficial to recreationally trained individuals compared to a placebo. The greatest benefits are seen in bench press and back squat maximal strength as well as multiple repetition tests to fatigue during the bench press exercise" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
• Effects of 12 Weeks of Hypertrophy Resistance Exercise Training Combined with Collagen Peptide Supplementation on the Skeletal Muscle Proteome in Recreationally Active Men - Nutrients. 2019 May 14;11(5) - "Evidence has shown that protein supplementation following resistance exercise training (RET) helps to further enhance muscle mass and strength. Studies have demonstrated that collagen peptides containing mostly non-essential amino acids increase fat-free mass (FFM) and strength in sarcopenic men ... In conclusion, the use of RET in combination with collagen peptide supplementation results in a more pronounced increase in BM, FFM, and muscle strength than RET alone. More proteins were upregulated in the COL intervention most of which were associated with contractile fibers" - [Nutra USA] -See collagen supplements at Amazon.com.
• Fitness Linked to Lower Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk Later - Medscape, 4/26/19 - "That better aerobic fitness apparently protects against potentially fatal arrhythmias in the future, and that it can be easily assessed clinically during an exercise test, supports respiratory gas exchange measurement of CRF as a routine part of patient assessments"
• Supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid-rich fish oil attenuates muscle stiffness after eccentric contractions of human elbow flexors - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 Apr 15;16(1):19 - "eccentric contractions (ECCs) ... They consumed either EPA 600 mg and DHA 260 mg per day or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise ... maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) ... range of motion (ROM) ... MVC torque and ROM were significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group after ECCs (p < 0.05). Muscle soreness, upper arm circumference, and muscle echo intensity were significantly higher in the PL group than in the EPA group after ECCs (p < 0.05). In addition, muscle stiffness at 150° was significantly higher in the PL group than in the EPA group immediately after ECCs" - [Nutra USA] - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
• Bedtime protein for bigger gains? Here's the scoop - Science Dail;y, 3/6/19 - "His team put 44 healthy young men on a 12-week lifting program. Half were given a nightly pre-sleep protein shake with about 30g of casein and 15 grams of carbs, while the other half got an energy-free drink ... The training was effective -- both groups ended with a bigger squat (one rep max) and bigger quads -- but the protein-before-bed group gained significantly more muscle strength and size ... But are muscle gains boosted by pre-sleep protein per se, or just higher total intake of protein and calories? ... Just one study has attempted -- unsuccessfully -- to test this question. It showed that fat-free mass gains over 8 weeks of unaltered training in regular lifters were greater (+1.2 kg vs +0.4 kg) with a nightly casein supplement, compared to the same supplement taken in the morning. The difference was not statistically significant however, perhaps because there were only 26 participants ... In the 8-week morning vs evening casein study, the additional consumption of protein calories did not result in any increase in fat mass despite the fact that exercise volume did not change ... Supporting this, another group found in 11 young active men that a pre-sleep casein shake actually increased the rate of fat burning the following day. This might be because casein ingestion reduces the insulin response to subsequent meals, which pushes your body to use more fat ... Based on the results of these studies at least, pre-bed protein consumption, especially casein, doesn't appear to 'make you fat.' Indeed, it appears to actually increase fat metabolism" - See casein at Amazon.com.
• Mediterranean diet boosts endurance exercise within days, study finds - Science Daily, 3/6/19 - "participants ran a 5K six percent faster after eating a Mediterranean diet than after eating a Western diet. Researchers found no difference between the two diets in performance in anaerobic exercise tests ... The Mediterranean diet includes whole fruits and vegetables, nuts, olive oil and whole grains, and avoids red and processed meats, dairy, trans and saturated fats and refined sugars"
• Effect of Iron Supplementation on the Modulation of Iron Metabolism, Muscle Damage Biomarkers and Cortisol in Professional Cyclists - Nutrients. 2019 Feb 27;11(3) - "Eighteen elite male cyclists from two teams were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) control group (CG, n = 9; age: 26.1 ± 4.6 years; maximum oxygen uptake per kg: 78.0 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min) or (2) group treated with 80 mg/day iron (800 mg of iron protein succinylate ... Significant differences were observed between groups throughout the study in the group-by-time interaction and changes in serum iron (GC: -8.93 ± 10.35% vs. ITG: 0.60 ± 8.64%; p = 0.018), ferritin (GC: -13.88 ± 23.53% vs. ITG: 91.08 ± 118.30%; p = 0.004), haemoglobin (GC: 10.00 ± 3.32% vs. ITG: 13.04 ± 5.64%; p < 0.001), haematocrit (GC: -1.17 ± 3.78% vs. ITG: 7.32 ± 3.92%; p < 0.001) and cortisol (GC: 24.74 ± 25.84% vs. ITG: ⁻13.54 ... Oral iron supplementation with 80 mg/day iron (800 mg of iron protein succinylate) effectively prevented a decline in haematological parameters (serum iron, ferritin, haemoglobin and haematocrit) and maintained optimal levels of recovery in elite cyclists during the Vuelta a España. Moreover, the hematological values were shown to have relationship with muscular recovery parameters" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
• Increasing Iron Status through Dietary Supplementation in Iron-Depleted, Sedentary Women Increases Endurance Performance at Both Near-Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Intensities - J Nutr. 2019 Jan 10 - "Iron deficiency persists as the most common micronutrient deficiency globally, despite having known detrimental effects on physical performance ... ron-depleted, nonanemic (IDNA) women ... Seventy-three sedentary, previously untrained IDNA (serum ferritin <25 µg/L and hemoglobin >110 g/L) women aged 18-26 y with a body mass index (kg/m2) of 17-25 participated in a double-blind, 8-wk, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplementation (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic exercise training (5 d/wk for 25 min at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate) or no training ... Iron supplementation increases endurance performance at submaximal and maximal (VO2peak) exercise intensities in IDNA women. However, increasing iron status does not increase eVO2max" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
• Quercetin phytosome® in triathlon athletes: a pilot registry study - Minerva Med. 2018 Aug;109(4):285-289 - "In total, 23 subjects used the supplement and 25 did not. No side effects were reported. The improvement of time to complete the run was greater in subjects on quercetin supplementation compared with the control group (-11.3% vs. -3.9%; P<0.05). Training was considered more valuable in the quercetin group compared with controls (P<0.05). Similarly, post-run muscular pain, cramps, localized pain and the post-exercise recovery time were all considered better with the supplementation (P<0.05). Oxidative stress was also reduced (P<0.05)" - [Nutra USA] - See Quercetin Phytosome® at Amazon.com.
• Oral Supplementation of Specific Collagen Peptides Combined with Calf-Strengthening Exercises Enhances Function and Reduces Pain in Achilles Tendinopathy Patients - Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 76 - "We conclude that oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides may accelerate the clinical benefits of a well-structured calf-strengthening and return-to-running program in Achilles tendinopathy patients" - [Nutra USA] - See collagen supplements at Amazon.com.
• Two and Four Weeks of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementations Reduce Muscle Damage Following Eccentric Contractions - J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Dec 27:1-7 - "This study investigated the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation for either 2 or 4 weeks on the muscle damage after elbow flexors after eccentric contractions (ECCs) ... We concluded that more than 2 weeks of HMB supplementation has a positive role for untrained subjects to prevent the muscle damage after ECCs." - See HMB at Amazon.com.
• Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Withania somnifera on Strength Training Adaptations and Recovery: The STAR Trial - Nutrients. 2018 Nov 20 - "Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an Ayurvedic herb categorized as having "rasayana" (rejuvenator), longevity, and revitalizing properties. Sensoril® is a standardized aqueous extract of the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera ... Gains in 1-RM squat (S500: +19.1 ± 13.0 kg vs. PLA +10.0 ± 6.2 kg, p = 0.009) and bench press (S500: +12.8 ± 8.2 kg vs. PLA: +8.0 ± 6.0 kg, p = 0.048) were significantly greater in S500 ... only the S500 group experienced statistically significant improvements in average squat power, peak bench press power, 7.5 km time trial performance, and perceived recovery scores ... A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period" - [Nutra USA] - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
• Metabolic impact of protein feeding prior to moderate-intensity treadmill exercise in a fasted state: a pilot study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Nov 29 - "Eleven healthy, college-aged males (23.5 ± 2.1 years, 86.0 ± 15.6 kg, 184 ± 10.3 cm, 19.7 ± 4.4%fat) completed four testing sessions in a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover fashion after observing an 8-10 h fast. During each visit, baseline substrate oxidation and resting energy expenditure (REE) were assessed via indirect calorimetry. Participants ingested isovolumetric, solutions containing 25 g of whey protein isolate (WPI), 25 g of casein protein (CAS), 25 g of maltodextrin (MAL), or non-caloric control (CON). After 30 min, participants performed 30 min of treadmill exercise at 55-60% heart rate reserve. Substrate oxidation and energy expenditure were re-assessed during exercise and 15 min after exercise ... Protein consumption before fasted moderate-intensity treadmill exercise significantly increased post-exercise energy expenditure compared to maltodextrin ingestion and tended to be greater than control. Post-exercise fat oxidation was improved following protein ingestion. Throughout exercise, fasting (control) did not yield more fat oxidation versus carbohydrate or protein, while casein protein allowed for more fat oxidation than whey. These results indicate rates of energy expenditure and fat oxidation can be modulated after CAS protein consumption prior to moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise and that fasting did not lead to more fat oxidation during or after exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See casein at Amazon.com.
• Curry spice boosts exercise performance in mice with heart failure - Science Daily, 11/29/18 - "curcumin, a main ingredient in curry, may improve exercise intolerance related to heart failure ... the compound may prevent or limit muscle wasting associated with a number of health conditions, including heart failure ... One group of mice with heart failure received daily doses of curcumin for 12 weeks, and another group did not receive treatment ... expression of Nrf2 increased and levels of antioxidant enzymes improved in the animals with heart failure that were given curcumin. In addition, both groups that received curcumin -- even the animals without heart failure -- had improved exercise capacity when compared with the untreated groups"- See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• Association between serum vitamin D levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in the adult population of the USA - Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Oct 30 - "In unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, each 10 nmol/L increase in vitamin D level was associated with a significant increase in VO2 max" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Supplementation with Beef Extract Improves Exercise Performance and Reduces Post-Exercise Fatigue Independent of Gut Microbiota - Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1740 - "BE supplementation improved endurance and reduced fatigue, which might be related to BE composition, but had no correlation with the gut microbiota" - [Nutra USA] - See beet root powder at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin D levels in the blood linked to cardiorespiratory fitness - Science Daily, 10/30/18 - "Cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable surrogate for physical fitness, is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the muscles during exercise. It is best measured as the maximal oxygen consumption during exercise, referred to as VO2 max. People with higher cardiorespiratory fitness are healthier and live longer. ... Participants in the top quartile of vitamin D had a 4.3-fold higher cardiorespiratory fitness than those in the bottom quartile" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Effects of pomegranate supplementation on exercise performance and post-exercise recovery in healthy adults: a systematic review - Br J Nutr. 2018 Oct 23:1-16 - "pomegranate (POM) supplementation ... The review indicates that POM has the potential to enhance exercise performance and to expedite recovery from intensive exercise" - See
• Combined extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala leaf supplementation enhances muscle strength and endurance in resistance trained males - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Oct 22;15(1):50 - "A proprietary composition GMCT contains extracts of two popular Asian herbs viz., Garcinia mangostana (GM) fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaf. We systematically evaluated physical performance and muscle strength enhancing ability of GMCT in a preclinical mouse model followed by a 42-days double-blind placebo controlled human trial in resistance trained adult males ... GMCT supplementation is effective in increasing muscle strength, muscle size and, total lean mass, as well as endurance performance" - See Garcinia mangostana at Amazon.com and Cinnamomum tamala leaf at Amazon.com.
• Taurine: A Regulator of Cellular Redox-Homeostasis and Skeletal Muscle Function - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Sep 13 - "Taurine affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and taurine deficient mice exhibit an impaired exercise performance. Moreover, some studies demonstrate that taurine enhances the glycogen repletion in the post-exercise recovery phase. In the case of taurine deficiency, many studies observed a phenotype known in muscle senescence and skeletal muscle disorders. Overall, taurine plays an important role in cellular redox homeostasis and skeletal muscle function" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
• Dietary supplement increases muscle force by 50% percent in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse model - Science Daily, 6/28/18 - "After ten days of treatment, researchers found that mice given N-acetylglucosamine had 50% increased muscular strength compared to mice from the control group" - See n-acetylglucosamine at Amazon.com.
• l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise - Nutrients. 2018 Mar 13;10(3) - "Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested" - [Nutra USA] - See L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA) in Muscle Damage and Function - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 29;10(5) - "It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
• Robuvit®: improvement of fatigue in medical convalescence - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May;58(5):678-683 - "Weakness and heart rate were significantly reduced with Robuvit® in comparison with the controls (P<0.05) at 10 days and at 3 weeks; Attention and sleep patterns improved significantly at 3 weeks with Robuvit® (P<0.05) in comparison to controls. Recovery after efforts was normalized at 10 days in the supplement group, significantly better versus controls (P<0.05). O2 saturation increased significantly with Robuvit® at 10 days in comparison to controls (P<0.05). The alterations in working/concentration capacity were better improved with the supplement (P<0.05). Oxidative stress was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in comparison to controls. The improvement of health according to the Karrnofsky Scale was significantly more pronounced in the Robuvit® group (P<0.05). The supplement was well tolerated" - See Robuvit® at Amazon.com.
• Creatine monohydrate supplementation during eight weeks of progressive resistance training increases strength in as little as two weeks without reducing markers of muscle damage - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May 2 - "Cr increased muscular strength in as little as two weeks during a resistance training program; however, this was not accompanied by decreased muscle damage. Greater muscle damage with Cr may be due to a greater training intensity enabled by Cr supplementation. This might lead to greater protein turnover and enhanced muscle adaptation" -See creatine at Amazon.com.
• Myoprotective Potential of Creatine Is Greater than Whey Protein after Chemically-Induced Damage in Rat Skeletal Muscle - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 30 - "Creatine supplementation appears to offer an element of myoprotection which was not observed following whey protein supplementation" - [Nutra USA] -See creatine at Amazon.com.
• Effects of β-alanine supplementation during a 5-week strength training program: a randomized, controlled study - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 25 April 2018 - "β-Alanine supplementation was effective at increasing power output when lifting loads equivalent to the individual’s maximal strength or when working at maximum power output" - [Nutra USA] - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
• The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Apr 20:1-10 - "The current evidence revealed a time-dependent effect of HMB in reducing LDH and CK serum levels among adults. HMB, therefore, may be seen as a priority muscle damage recovery agent in interventions" - See beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate at Amazon.com.
• Protein supplementation enhances cerebral oxygenation during exercise in elite basketball players - Nutrition. 2018 Feb 5;53:34-37 - "supplements with different whey protein contents ... resulted in a 16% longer cycling time (from 474 ± 49 s to 553 ± 78 s, P < 0.05), compared with the low-protein trial" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
• Women run faster after taking newly developed supplement, study finds - Science Daily, 1/18/18 - "women who took a specially prepared blend of minerals and nutrients for a month saw their 3-mile run times drop by almost a minute ... DiSilvestro is working toward developing and selling a supplement, based on this and previous research. It's expected to cost between $35 and$40 for a month's supply. The study was supported by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, but the company is not involved in the commercialization efforts ... The minerals in the study included forms of iron, copper and zinc along with two other nutrients -- carnitine (derived from an amino acid) and phosphatidylserine (made up of fatty acids and amino acids.)"
• Chronic consumption of quercetin reduces erythrocytes oxidative damage: evaluation at resting and after eccentric exercise in humans - Nutr Research, 14 Dec 17 - "In conclusion, our study provides evidences that chronic quercetin supplementation has antioxidant potential prior to and after a strenuous eccentric exercise thus making the erythrocytes capable to better cope with an oxidative insult" - [Nutra USA] - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
• Whole eggs better for muscle building and repair than egg whites - Science Daily, 12/20/17 - "the post-workout muscle-building response in those eating whole eggs is 40 percent greater than in those consuming an equivalent amount of protein from egg whites ... The yolks also contain protein, along with key nutrients and other food components that are not present in egg whites ... And something in the yolks is boosting the body's ability to utilize that protein in the muscles ... research is showing that we need more protein in the diet than we once thought to maintain health"
• Enhanced aerobic exercise performance in women by a combination of three mineral Chelates plus two conditionally essential nutrients - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Nov 13 - "For 1 mo, aerobically fit, young adult women took either a combination of 3 mineral glycinate complexes (daily dose: 36 mg iron, 15 mg zinc, and 2 mg copper) + 2 CENs (daily dose: 2 g carnitine and 400 mg phosphatidylserine), or the same combination with generic mineral complexes, or placebo (n = 14/group) ... In Trial 1, the mineral glycinates + CENs decreased 3 mile run time (25.6 ± 2.4 vs 26.5 ± 2.3 min, p < 0.05, paired t-test) increased stationary bike distance after 25 min (6.5 ± 0.6 vs 6.0 ± 0.8 miles, p < 0.05, paired t-test), and increased steps in the step test (43.8 ± 4.8 vs 40.3 ± 6.4 steps, p < 0.05, paired t-test). The placebo significantly affected only the biking distance, but it was less than for the glycinates-CENs treatment (0.2 ± 0.4. vs 0.5 ± 0.1 miles, p < 0.05, ANOVA + Tukey). The generic minerals + CENs only significantly affected the step test (44.1 ± 5.2 vs 41.0 ± 5.9 steps, p < 0.05, paired t-test) In Trial 2, 3 mile run time was decreased for the mineral glycinates + CENs (23.9 ± 3.1 vs 24.7 ± 2.5, p < 0.005, paired t-test), but not by the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Zinc Balance, Bulksupplements Pure L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Powder (500 grams), iron supplements and Extra Strength Phosphatidyl Serine 300 mg Now Foods 50 Softgel at Amazon.com.
• The short-term effect of high versus moderate protein intake on recovery after strength training in resistance-trained individuals - J Int Socty of Sports Nutr Nov 21 2017 - "Fourteen resistance-trained individuals underwent two 10-day isocaloric dietary regimes with a protein content of 1.8 g.kg−1.d−1 (PROMOD) or 2.9 g.kg−1.d−1 (PROHIGH) ... No significant differences were reported between conditions for any of the performance repetition count variables (p > 0.05). However, within PROMOD only, squat performance total repetition count was significantly lower at T3 (19.7 ± 6.8) compared to T1 (23.0 ± 7.5; p = 0.006)" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  Strange that it only improved squat performance.  That said, I have my own protein cocktail consisting of leucine, arginine, creatine, hydrolyzed protein and beta-arginine and it makes a big difference in my swim times.  See Athletic Elite 10, GoPro 100% Hi-Protein Whey Protein Powder, Dietary Supplement (Milk Chocolate, 5LB) at Amazon.com.
• Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Optimal Individual Post-Activation Potentiation Time of the Upper Body in Canoeists - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 27;9(11) - "Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group, and later consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After supplementation, the maximal strength in the creatine group significantly increased" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
• A Single Dose Of Oral Atp Supplementation Improves Performance And Physiological Response During Lower Body Resistance Exercise In Recreational Resistance Trained Males - J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Oct 16 - "ATP supplement condition (ATP=400mg) or a placebo condition ... The total weight lifted were higher for the ATP condition compared to placebo (Placebo= 3995.7+/-1137.8, ATP= 4967.4+/-1497.9 Kg; p= 0.005)" - [Nutra USA] - See ATP supplements at Amazon.com.
• The effects of phenylalanine on exercise-induced fat oxidation: a preliminary, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Sep 12;14:34 - "Oral intake of phenylalanine caused a significant increase in the concentrations of plasma glycerol and glucagon during exercise. The respiratory exchange ratio was also decreased significantly following ingestion of phenylalanine ... These results suggested that pre-exercise supplementation of phenylalanine may stimulate whole body fat oxidation. No serious or study-related adverse events were observed" - [Nutra USA] - See phenylalanine at Amazon.com.
• Effects of Supplementation with Beef or Whey Protein Versus Carbohydrate in Master Triathletes - J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Sep 14:1-9 - "After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups-beef, whey, or carbohydrate-24 master-age (35-60 years old) male triathletes (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement mixed with plain water once a day (immediately after training or before breakfast) ... Only beef significantly reduced body mass (p = 0.021) along with a trend to preserve or increase thigh muscle mass (34.1 ± 6.1 vs 35.5 ± 7.4 mm). Both whey (38.4 ± 3.8 vs 36.9 ± 2.8 mm) and carbohydrate (36.0 ± 4.8 vs 34.1 ± 4.4 mm) interventions demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased vastus medialis thickness Additionally, the beef condition produced a significant (p < 0.05) increase in ferritin concentrations (117 ± 78.3 vs 150.5 ± 82.8 ng/mL) ... Ingesting a hydrolyzed beef protein beverage after workout or before breakfast (nontraining days) can be effective in preserving thigh muscle mass and in improving iron status in male master-age triathletes" - See hydrolyzed beef protein powder at Amazon.com.
• Oral Consumption of Vitamin K2 for 8 Weeks Associated With Increased Maximal Cardiac Output During Exercise - Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Jul;23(4):26-32 - "Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle) ... Vitamin K2 supplementation was associated with a 12% increase in maximal cardiac output, with P = .031, with a trend toward an increase in heart-rate AUC, with P = .070" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
• Effects of an amylopectin and chromium complex on the anabolic response to a suboptimal dose of whey protein - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Feb 8 - "muscle protein synthesis (FSR) ... amylopectin/chromium (ACr) complex ... consumed 6 g whey protein + 2 g of the amylopectin-chromium complex (WPACr) or 6 g whey protein (WP) after an overnight fast ... These data indicate that the addition of ACr to a 6 g dose of whey protein (WPACr) increases the FSR response beyond what is seen with a suboptimal dose of whey protein alone" - [Nutra USA] - See NOW Sports Waxy Maize Powder, 5.5-Pound at Amazon.com and chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
• International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Jun 3, 2017 - "muscle protein synthesis (MPS) ... Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700–3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs) ... Rapidly digested proteins that contain high proportions of essential amino acids (EAAs) and adequate leucine, are most effective in stimulating MPS" - [Nutra USA] - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
• Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Function in Runners - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, May 2017 - "Astaxanthin (AX) is a naturally occurring carotenoid ... supplemented for 8 wks w/12mg/day of AX ... There was no improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (running VO2max) or maximal power output (cycling watts) with AX supplementation. Interestingly, subjects in the AX group showed a significant ~10% lower average heart rate at submaximal running intensities (aerobic threshold, AeT; AX 130+17 v. PL 145+14; and anaerobic threshold, AT; AX 139+20 v. PL 154+11, p<0.05) compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See BioAstin at Amazon.com.
• Anti-Fatigue Effect of Green Tea Polyphenols (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) - Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Apr-Jun;13(50):326-331 - "The data showed that EGCG prolonged exhaustive swimming time, decreasing the levels of blood lactic acid, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatine kinase and malondialdehyde, which were accompanied by corresponding increase in liver and muscle glycogen contents, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities" - [Nutra USA] - See
• Curcumin Reduces Muscle Damage and Soreness Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise - FASEB Journal, Apr 2017 - "The antioxidant curcumin is able to counteract the two leading causes of muscle damage, oxidative stress and inflammation, as it interacts with multiple inflammatory pathways ... randomly assigned to ingest 50 mg Curcuminoids (in the form of 250 mg CurcuWIN®), 200 mg Curcuminoids (in the form of 1,000 mg CurcuWIN®), or placebo (PLA) for eight weeks ... These data demonstrate curcuminoids reduce muscle damage and improve muscle soreness in healthy young subjects following a bout of muscle damaging exercise. Faster recovery allows for consistent training at competition intensity and might lead to enhanced adaptation rate and performance" - [Nutra USA] - See CurcuWIN® at Amazon.com.
• More than half of college football athletes have inadequate levels of vitamin D - Science Daily, 3/17/17 - "Vitamin D has been shown to play a role in muscle function and strength ... The average age of the athletes was 22. Their vitamin D levels were determined with a blood test. Levels were defined as normal (? 32 ng/mL), insufficient (20 -- 31 ng/mL), and deficient (< 20 ng/mL) ... A total of 126 players (59%) were found to have an abnormal serum vitamin D level, including 22 athletes (10%) with a severe deficiency. Researchers found a significantly higher prevalence of lower extremity muscle strain and core muscle injury in those who had low vitamin D levels. Fourteen study participants reported missing at least one game due to a strain injury, and 86% of those players were found to have inadequate vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Oral Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Repeated Sprint Bout - J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jan 12:1-7 - "In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design, 42 healthy male individuals were given either 400 mg of ATP as disodium salt or placebo for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout ... ATP significantly increased Wingate peak power in later bouts compared to baseline" - [Nutra USA] - See ATP supplements at Amazon.com.
• The effect of l-arginine supplementation on body composition and performance in male athletes: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 25 - "Athletes received daily either 2 g per day l-arginine supplement or the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin) for 45 days ... Sport performance (VO2 max) significantly increased in l-arginine supplementation group (4.12±6.07) compared with placebo group (1.23±3.36) (P=0.03). This increase remained significant even after adjustment of baseline values, physical activity and usual dietary intake of subjects throughout the study. No significant effect of l-arginine supplementation was found on weight, BMI, BFM and LBM" - Related study:
• There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close - NYT, 11/17/16 - "Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
• The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass - Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Sep 29;13:64 - "Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS. As such, ingested proteins with a high leucine content would be advantageous in triggering a rise in MPS. Thus, protein quality (reflected in IAA content and protein digestibility) has an impact on changes in MPS and could ultimately affect skeletal muscle mass. Protein quality has been measured by the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS); however, the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has been recommended as a better method for protein quality scoring. Under DIAAS there is the recognition that amino acids are individual nutrients and that protein quality is contingent on IAA content and ileal (as opposed to fecal) digestibility. Differences in protein quality may have important ramifications for exercise-induced changes in muscle mass gains made with resistance exercise as well as muscle remodelling" - [Nutra USA] - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
• Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise - Nutrients. 2016 Oct 14;8(10) - "Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See Garden of Life Primal Defense ULTRA 180 Capsules at Amazon.com.
• Robuvit® and endurance in triathlon: improvements in training performance, recovery and oxidative stress - Minerva Cardioangiol. 2015 Oct;63(5):403-9 - "The improvement was greater with Robuvit® (P<0.05) for the swim and biking (P<0.05); the running time decreased by 12.32% in subjects using Robuvit® (3.6% in controls; P<0.05). The improvement the total triathlon time was -10.56% with Robuvit® in comparison to -3.41% in controls ... no side effects or tolerance problems were reported" - [Nutra USA] - See Robuvit® at Amazon.com.
• Cordyceps militaris Improves Tolerance to High-Intensity Exercise After Acute and Chronic Supplementation - J Diet Suppl. 2016 Jul 13 - "time to exhaustion (TTE) ... ventilatory threshold (VT) ... Relative peak power output (RPP) ... average power output (AvgP) ... Subjects consumed 4 g·d-1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks ... One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p = 0.364), VT (p = 0.514), TTE (p = 0.540), RPP (p = 0.134), AvgP (p = 0.398), or %drop (p = 0.823). After 3 weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p = 0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg-1·min-1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3 weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) and VT (+0.7 l·min-1) after 3 weeks" - [Nutra USA] - See cordyceps at Amazon.com.
• Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats - PLoS One. 2016 Apr 8;11(4):e0152562 - "whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) ... Ten weeks of both TCTs and WPIs increased exercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats" - [Nutra USA] - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
• Resveratrol primes the effects of physical activity in old mice - Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug 4:1-10 - "Decrease in muscle mass and performance with ageing is one of the main factors of frailty in the elderly. Maintenance of muscle performance by involving in physical activities is essential to increase independence and quality of life among elderly ... RSV improves muscle performance in mature and old animals but not in young animals. Without showing significant effect by itself, RSV primed the effect of exercise by increasing endurance, coordination and strength in old animals. This effect was accompanied by a higher protection against oxidative damage and an increase in mitochondrial mass. RSV increased catalase and superoxide dismutase protein levels in muscle and primed exercise to reverse the decrease in their activities during ageing. Furthermore, RSV increased the level of mitochondrial mass markers such as cytochrome C, mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor-1 in muscle in exercised animals" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
• Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery - PeerJ Jul 21, 2016 - "The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%) ... The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery, and maintains physical performance subsequent to damaging exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
• Combined Oral Intake of GABA with Whey Protein Improves Lean Mass in Resistance-trained Men - Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):54 - "After 12 wk, change in whole body lean mass was significantly higher in the WP+G group compared to the WP group (1340 +/- 465 vs. 146 +/- 218 g." - [Nutra USA] - See GABA at Amazon.com.  GABA is part of my sleep cocktail.  I'm sticking with leucine for the protein part.
• The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jun 2;13:24 - "Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3 ... participants were tested on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press strength (LP), 1RM bench press strength (BP), push-ups to failure (PU), vertical jump (VJ), pro-agility shuttle time (AG), peak power output (P), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and thigh muscle mass (TMM) ... There was a significant main effect (F(1,16) = 33.30, p < 0.001) for LBM where MT significantly increased LBM when compared to the PLA group (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant main effect for LP (F(1,16) = 666.74, p < 0.001) and BP (F(1,16) = 126.36, p < 0.001) where both increased significantly more in MT than PLA group (p < 0.001). No significant differences between MT and PLA were noted for FM, TMM, VJ, AG, P, or PU" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  Seems like you might have gotten the same results with l-leucine (one of the ingredients in MaxxTOR®) alone.  See phosphatidic acid at Amazon.com, HMB at Amazon.com and leucine products at Amazon.com.
• The effects of beef protein isolate and whey protein isolate supplementation on lean mass and strength in resistance trained individuals - a double blind, placebo controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015; 12 - "Thirty college-aged, resistance-trained males and females were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Subjects consumed two servings (46g) of Beef Protein Isolate (BeefISO™), Whey Protein isolate or maltodextrin. Subjects trained 5 days per week (3 resistance training, 2 cardio) for 8 weeks as a part of a daily undulating periodized resistance-training program. Two servings of protein were consumed immediately following exercise or at a similar time of day on off days ... Both beef protein isolate (↑5.7%) and whey protein isolate (↑4.7%) each lead to a significant increase in lean body mass compared with baseline (p < 0.0001). Fat loss was also significantly decreased at 8 weeks compared to baseline for beef protein isolate and whey, 10.8% and 8.3% respectively" - [Nutra USA]
• Enriching a protein drink with leucine augments muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young and older men - Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 30 - "Maximizing anabolic responses to feeding and exercise is crucial for muscle maintenance and adaptation to exercise training. We hypothesized that enriching a protein drink with leucine would improve anabolic responses to resistance exercise ... We conclude that addition of Leucine to a sub-maximal PRO bolus improves anabolic responses to RE in young and older men" - See See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
• Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults - Ayu. 2015 Jan-Mar;36(1):63-8 - "There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
• Eating dark chocolate as a daily snack could help boost athletic performance - Science Daily, 4/19/16 - "dark chocolate provides similar benefits to beetroot juice, now taken regularly by elite athletes after studies showed it can improve performance. "Beetroot juice is rich in nitrates, which are converted to nitric oxide in the body. This dilates blood vessels and reduces oxygen consumption -- allowing athletes to go further for longer," ... after eating dark chocolate, the riders used less oxygen when cycling at a moderate pace and also covered more distance in a two-minute flat-out time trial" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com.
• Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice - Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 205 - "Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotic ... few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile ... LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects" - [Nutra USA] -Note:  Lactobacillus plantarum is the top probiotic in the Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra that I take.
• β-Alanine Supplementation Improved Workload Capacity and Cognitive Function of Middle Age Individuals - FASEB Journal, Mar 2016 - "Sarcopenia, the age induced wasting of skeletal muscle, has been seen to be tightly associated with significantly decreased systemic carnosine stores. β-alanine supplementation has previously been shown to increase systemic carnosine concentrations in young adults. Increasing systemic carnosine may result in enhanced antioxidant and pH buffering capabilities within its main storage sites of skeletal muscle and brain tissue. This enhancement may result in improved submaximal endurance exercise capacity and in the prevention of exercise associated cognitive decline ... Before supplementation, average time-to-exhaustion (TTE) for the β-alanine group and Placebo group was 17.3±10.2 and 22.9±10.2 minutes, respectively. After supplementation, all subjects increased their TTE; with β-alanine supplemented subjects cycling significantly longer than those on Placebo (7.9±1.4 vs 0.9±2.5 minutes, respectively, P<0.01). Placebo subjects were 8.9±2.0 seconds slower in completing the Stroop Test at T4 compared to T3 (P=0.04), while the β-alanine group (1.9±2.0 seconds, P=0.8) was not slower at this time point" - [Nutra USA] - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
• Chocolate Can Boost Your Workout - New York Times, 3/23/16 - "the scientists provided half of the cyclists with 40 grams (1.4 ounces, or about one and a half squares) per day of Dove brand dark chocolate, which has been found in past tests to contain an above-average amount of epicatechin ... The results were beguiling. Each of the cyclists performed better in most of the physical tests after two weeks of supplementing with dark chocolate, compared to baseline results and after they had eaten white chocolate. The riders utilized less oxygen to ride at a moderate pace, a change that would generally allow them to ride longer or harder before tiring; and they covered more distance during a two-minute, all-out time trial, meaning that their anaerobic, sprinting ability had been enhanced ... more than 40 grams is unlikely to be helpful" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com.  Each individually wrapped square is 10 grams.  Also see Dove Dark Chocolate Candy Bar, Singles (18 Count) which are 40 gram bars which may have been the ones in this study but it doesn't tell you the percentage of cacao.  Some websites show the old packaging and it says 71% cacao.  I doubt if you find anything with a higher percentage of cacao than the Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie  (86%) so my theory is that you're getting the most cacao for the least calories.
• Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin - BBA Clinical Jun 16 - "The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise) ... Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (− 48%), TNF-α (− 25%), and IL-8 (− 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo ... The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions" - [NutraUSA] - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Explosive Performance and Optimal Individual Postactivation Potentiation Time - Nutrients. 2016 Mar 4;8(3) - "repetition maximum (1RM) strength ... After the supplementation, the 1RM strength in the creatine group significantly increased" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
• Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 201613:6 - "L-Citrulline supplementation significantly increased plasma L-arginine levels and reduced completion time by 1.5 % (p < 0.05) compared with placebo. Moreover, L-citrulline significantly improved subjective feelings of muscle fatigue and concentration immediately after exercise" - [Nutra USA] - See l-citrulline at Amazon.com.
• Influence of exercise training with resveratrol supplementation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jan;41(1):26-32 - "Physical inactivity reduces, and exercise training increases, mitochondrial capacity ... Sixteen healthy young adults were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume either placebo or 500 mg of resveratrol plus 10 mg of piperine, a bioenhancer to increase bioavailibilty and bioefficacy of resveratrol ... Changes in mitochondrial capacity from baseline to post-testing indicated significant differences between the resveratrol+piperine-trained arm and the placebo-trained arm (p = 0.02), with the resveratrol+piperine group increasing about 40% from baseline (Δk = 0.58), while the placebo group increased about 10% from baseline (Δk = 0.13). Neither the placebo group nor the resveratrol+piperine group exhibited changes in mitochondrial capacity in the untrained arm" - [Nutra USA] - See ReserveAge Resveratrol Vegetarian Capsules, 500 Mg, 60-Count at Amazon.com and
• Intensive training affects the sleep, performance and mood of athletes, but more carbs may help - Science Daily, 12/11/15 - "the extra time under the covers didn't result in any more actual sleep. "Sleep efficiency was significantly reduced during the intensified training period," the researchers observed, with the number of times the athletes woke throughout the night significantly increased. In addition, the cyclists reported changes in their moods as the study went on, including higher tension, anger, fatigue, confusion, depression and increased feelings and symptoms of stress ... he team concluded that a high carbohydrate regime reduced some, but not all, of the effects of hard training. The moderate-carb athletes recorded more sleep time, but this may demonstrate higher levels of fatigue and a greater need for recovery when following that diet"
• Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults - Br J Nutr. 2015 Dec 1:1-9 - "25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25 % higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Nov 25 - "Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) ... Subjects in the treatment group consumed 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract twice daily, while the control group consumed starch placebos ... Compared to the placebo subjects, the group treated with ashwagandha had significantly greater increases in muscle strength on the bench-press exercise (Placebo: 26.4 kg, 95 % CI, 19.5, 33.3 vs. Ashwagandha: 46.0 kg, 95 % CI 36.6, 55.5; p = 0.001) and the leg-extension exercise (Placebo: 9.8 kg, 95 % CI, 7.2,12.3 vs. Ashwagandha: 14.5 kg, 95 % CI, 10.8,18.2; p = 0.04), and significantly greater muscle size increase at the arms (Placebo: 5.3 cm2, 95 % CI, 3.3,7.2 vs. Ashwagandha: 8.6 cm2, 95 % CI, 6.9,10.8; p = 0.01) and chest (Placebo: 1.4 cm, 95 % CI, 0.8, 2.0 vs. Ashwagandha: 3.3 cm, 95 % CI, 2.6, 4.1; p < 0.001). Compared to the placebo subjects, the subjects receiving ashwagandha also had significantly greater reduction of exercise-induced muscle damage as indicated by the stabilization of serum creatine kinase (Placebo: 1307.5 U/L, 95 % CI, 1202.8, 1412.1, vs. Ashwagandha: 1462.6 U/L, 95 % CI, 1366.2, 1559.1; p = 0.03), significantly greater increase in testosterone level (Placebo: 18.0 ng/dL, 95 % CI, -15.8, 51.8 vs. Ashwagandha: 96.2 ng/dL, 95 % CI, 54.7, 137.5; p = 0.004), and a significantly greater decrease in body fat percentage (Placebo: 1.5 %, 95 % CI, 0.4 %, 2.6 % vs. Ashwagandha: 3.5 %, 95 % CI, 2.0 %, 4.9 %; p = 0.03)" - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin D pill a day may improve exercise performance and lower risk of heart disease - Science Daily, 11/1/15 - "Previous studies suggest that vitamin D can block the action of enzyme 11-βHSD1, which is needed to make the "stress hormone" cortisol. High levels of cortisol may raise blood pressure by restricting arteries, narrowing blood vessels and stimulating the kidneys to retain water. As Vitamin D may reduce circulating levels of cortisol, it could theoretically improve exercise performance and lower cardiovascular risk factors ... gave 13 healthy adults matched by age and weight 50μg of vitamin D per day or a placebo over a period of two weeks ... Adults supplementing with vitamin D had lower blood pressure compared to those given a placebo, as well as having lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol in their urine. A fitness test found that the group taking vitamin D could cycle 6.5km in 20 minutes, compared to just 5km at the start of the experiment. Despite cycling 30% further in the same time, the group taking vitamin D supplements also showed lower signs of physical exertion" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Curcumin Modulates Muscle Damage but not Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Following Eccentric Exercise in Rats - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2014;84(3-4) - "The results of this study suggest that curcumin has a protective effect on eccentric exercise induced muscle damage, and that this effect might be independent of oxidative stress and antioxidant systems" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Aug 19 - "The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance ... it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  100 nmol/L equals 40 ng/ml.  I think they usually use ng/ml in the U.S.  At least that's what my blood tests show.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin C: The exercise replacement? - Science Daily, 9/4/15 - "The blood vessels of overweight and obese adults have elevated activity of the small vessel-constricting protein endothelin (ET)-1. Because of the high ET-1 activity, these vessels are more prone to constricting, becoming less responsive to blood flow demand and increasing risk of developing vascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce ET-1 activity, but incorporating an exercise regimen into a daily routine can be challenging ... daily supplementation of vitamin C (500 mg/day, time-released) reduced ET-1-related vessel constriction as much as walking for exercise did" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
• Curcumin treatment enhances the effect of exercise on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by increasing cAMP levels - Metabolism. 2015 Jul 21 - "endurance training (eTR) ... Taken together, these results suggest that the combination of curcumin treatment and eTR has the potential to accelerate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by increasing cAMP levels" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Performed Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 5 - "body composition (BC) ... total protein intake (TPro) ... In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements"
• Green Tea, Intermittent Sprinting Exercise, and Fat Oxidation - Nutrients. 2015 Jul 13 - "After GTE ingestion, however, at rest and post-exercise, fat oxidation was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that after placebo. Plasma glycerol levels at rest and 15 min during post-exercise were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after GTE consumption compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, plasma catecholamines increased significantly after GTE consumption and 20 min after ISE (p < 0.05). Acute GTE ingestion significantly increased fat oxidation under resting and post-exercise conditions when compared to placebo" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
• International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15 - "Daily supplementation with 4 to 6 g of beta-alanine for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration; 5) Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance" - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015 - "The plasma muscle enzymes levels were reduced significantly by Asx supplementation and by regular training. The increase in neutrophil count and hs-CRP level was found only in placebo group, indicating a significant blunting of the systemic inflammatory response in the subjects taking Asx. This study indicates that Asx supplementation improves sIgA response and attenuates muscle damage, thus preventing inflammation induced by rigorous physical training. Our findings also point that Asx could show significant physiologic modulation in individuals with mucosal immunity impairment or under conditions of increased oxidative stress and inflammation" - See Puritan's Pride Lutein 20 mg with Zeaxanthin-120 Softgels at Amazon.com.
• L-Carnitine enhances exercise endurance capacity by promoting muscle oxidative metabolism in mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jul 8 - "These results suggest that LC administration promotes fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis while sparing stored glycogen in skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise, resulting in enhanced endurance capacity" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com and l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Nutritional supplement boosts muscle stamina in animal studies - Science Daily, 7/7/15 - "The researchers then introduced a carnitine supplement. Exercise tolerance improved only in animals with normal CrAT activity in muscle. Muoio said these results strongly imply that carnitine and the CrAT enzyme work together to optimize muscle energy metabolism during exercise"
• Beta-Alanine Boosts Performance in Female Masters Athletes - Medscape, 6/16/15 - "Beta-alanine, a nonessential amino acid, appears to function as a precursor to carnosine in muscle tissue. Carnosine buffers hydrogen ions, making muscle tissue less acidic and delaying fatigue ... randomly assigned 11 female masters cyclists to beta-alanine 800 mg and 11 to placebo four times a day for 28 days" - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.

 Table: Changes in Endurance During the 28-Day Study Period Variable Beta-Alanine Group, % Placebo Group, % Time to exhaustion 23 1 Total work completed 21 2 Lactate -17 0
• Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice - Nutrients. 2015 May 15 - "Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle ... Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle" - See
• Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes - Eur J Sport Sci. 2015 Jun;15(4):305-14 - "The effects of dietary supplementation (n-3 PUFA at a dose of 1.3 g twice daily for 3 weeks) and placebo administration ... Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after n-3 PUFA dietary protocol (13.9 ± 4.2 vs. 23.5 ± 3.6 µmol·l(-1); P < 0.001). Higher post-intervention baseline NO level was observed after n-3 PUFA diet compared with placebo (23.5 ± 3.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0 µmol·l (-1); P < 0.01, respectively). The n-3 PUFA increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO) by 6.7 ± 3.8 µmol·l(-1) and placebo by 1.6 ± 4.4 µmol·l(-1). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and also between ΔNO and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.54; P < 0.05) in response to omega-3 fatty acids supplementation. There was an association between a 5.25% higher FMD (P < 0.05) and higher [Formula: see text] (P < 0.001) after n-3 PUFA diet compared with lower values of placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
• Intake of antioxidants and subsequent decline in physical function in a racially/ethnically diverse population - J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(5):542-7 - "Oxidative stress is considered a risk factor for physical function (PF) decline with aging ... A low intake (first quartile) of vitamin E was associated with a greater decline in PF compared with the highest quartile, with a mean difference in change in PF of -1.73 (95%CI:-3.31,-0.15). Notably, this mean difference was clinically meaningful as it was equivalent to the effect estimate we found for participants who were approximately 15 years apart in age in our cohort, as 1 year increase in age was associated with a mean difference in change in PF of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.16,-0.06). PF decline was not significantly different in the lowest compared with the highest quartile of vitamin C (mean difference=-1.29, 95%CI:-2.61, 0.03) or carotenoids (mean difference=-0.62, 95%CI:-2.22,0.99)" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
• Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Physiological Fatigue and Physical Performance in Mice - Nutrients. 2015 Jan 30;7(2):905-921 - "Curcumin (CCM) ... CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
• Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Promotes Erythrocyte Antioxidant Defense and Reduces Protein Nitrosative Damage in Male Athletes - Lipids. 2014 Dec 16 - "DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/109 erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise ... dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
• Why Stretching Is a Waste of Time for Runners - ABC News, 10/23/14 - "runners who stretched were just as likely to be plagued with injuries as those who never bothered. Another study that looked at more than 1,500 serious male marathoners found that those who stretched on a regular basis -- whether before or after a run -- actually had 33 percent more injuries than those who didn't, even taking things like age and average weekly mileage into account ... Even worse, some studies suggest that stretching may be detrimental to performance" - Note:  I've read studies as far back as the '70's saying this but I still see people doing it.
• Effects of vitamin C and exercise on lipid profile, platelet and erythrocyte indices in young soccer players - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2014 Oct;54(5):665-71 - "Exercise may increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhancing oxidative stress. Antioxidants can efficiently scavenge ROS before they initiate oxidative damage of biomolecules such as enzymes, nucleic acids, lipids and lipoproteins in the body ... While the levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly increased (P<0.05) with only exercise, the cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased (P<0.05 to P<0.01) with exercise and exercise plus vitamin C treatment. While TBARS levels were increased (P<0.05) with exercise training, it was decreased (P<0.05) with exercise plus vitamin C treatment. The platelet counts (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) were significantly decreased (P<0.05) with exercise plus vitamin C" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
• Resveratrol enhanced FOXO3 phosphorylation via synergetic activation of SIRT1 and PI3K/Akt signaling to improve the effects of exercise in elderly rat hearts - Age (Dordr). 2014 Oct;36(5):9705 - "Our experimental results strongly suggest that resveratrol treatment improves the beneficial effects of exercise training in aging rat hearts" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin C supplementation slightly improves physical activity levels and reduces cold incidence in men with marginal vitamin C status: a randomized controlled trial - Nutrients. 2014 Jul 9;6(7):2572-83 - "The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity ... This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18-35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m2; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L) received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial ... In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [-4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10). The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04) and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (-3.2 days; 95% CI [-7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
• Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 9 - "139 healthy women (mean ± SD age: 71.5 ± 5.2 y) attending a mild fitness program were randomly allocated to a treatment group (300 mg Mg/d; n = 62) or a control group ... Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) ... After 12 wk, the treated group had a significantly better total SPPB score (Δ = 0.41 ± 0.24 points; P = 0.03), chair stand times (Δ = -1.31 ± 0.33 s; P < 0.0001), and 4-m walking speeds (Δ = 0.14 ± 0.03 m/s; P = 0.006) than did the control group. These findings were more evident in participants with a magnesium dietary intake lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance" - See Magtein (my favorite) at Amazon.com.
• Red Ginseng Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice - Nutrients. 2014 May 5;6(5):1874-85 - "These results suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
• Taking iron improves women's exercise performance, study shows - Science Daily, 4/11/14 - "iron supplementation improved women's exercise performance, in terms of both the highest level they could achieve at 100% exertion (maximal capacity) and their exercise efficiency at a submaximal exertion. Women who were given iron were able to perform a given exercise using a lower heart rate and at a higher efficiency ... Iron deficiency can also produce fatigue and lethargy and eventually result in iron deficiency anemia" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
• Iron Supplementation Benefits Physical Performance in Women of Reproductive Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Nutr. 2014 Apr 9 - "women of reproductive age (WRA) ... Daily iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance in WRA, providing a rationale to prevent and treat iron deficiency in this group" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
• Effects of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on oxidative stress in different tissues of rats - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Mar 24;11(1):11 - "Forty male Wistar rats (250-300 g, 90 days old) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Sedentary (SED, n = 10), Sedentary + Creatine (SED-Cr, n = 10), Resistance Training (RT, n = 10) and Resistance Training + Creatine (RT-Cr, n = 10) ... greater strength gain was observed in the SED-Cr, RT and RT-Cr groups compared to the SED group (P < 0.001). The RT-Cr group showed a higher maximum strength gain when compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation associated with resistance training was able to reduce lipoperoxidation in the plasma (P < 0.05), the heart (P < 0.05), the liver (P < 0.05) and the gastrocnemius (P < 0.05) when compared to control groups" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
• The effect of an acute antioxidant supplementation compared with placebo on performance and hormonal response during a high volume resistance training session - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Mar 21;11(1):10 - "Antioxidant supplementation is known to increase human endogenous antioxidant (AOX) capacity providing a means of blunting exercise induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a single acute dose of an AOX (vs blinded placebo) on muscle contractile performance and hormonal responses to a single bout of lower limb 'hypertrophic' resistance training (RT) ... hThis study demonstrates ingestion of an AOX cocktail prior to a single bout of resistance training improved muscle contractile performance and modulated the GH response following completion of the resistance exercise"
• Older adults: Build muscle and you'll live longer - Science Daily, 3/14/14 - "The researchers analyzed data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, conducted between 1988 and 1994. They focused on a group of 3,659 individuals that included men who were 55 or older and women who were 65 or older at the time of the survey. The authors then determined how many of those individuals had died from natural causes based on a follow-up survey done in 2004 ... They found that all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the fourth quartile of muscle mass index compared with the first quartile"
• Taking vitamin D2 is a poor choice for athletes, research shows - Science Daily, 1/28/14 - "taking vitamin D2 supplements decreased levels of vitamin D3 in the body and resulted in higher muscle damage after intense weight lifting ... When the sun hits our skin, it turns into vitamin D3 ... High vitamin D2 levels are not a normal experience for the human body" - See vitamin D3 at Amazon.com.
• Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Dec;53(6):644-54 - "physical fitness (PF) ... Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) ... divided into 2 parts. In PART 1 (Pycnogenol 100 mg/day), the APFT was used to assess an improvement in PF during an 8-week preparation and training program. In PART 2 (Pycnogenol 150 mg/day), the study evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation in athletes in training for a triathlon ... Results: PART 1. There was a significant improvement in both males and females in the 2-mile running time within both groups, but the group using Pycnogenol (74 subjects) performed statistically better than controls (73 subjects). The number of push-ups was improved, with Pycnogenol subjects performing better. Sit-ups also improved in the Pycnogenol group. Oxidative stress decreased with exercise in all subjects; in Pycnogenol subjects the results were significantly better. PART 2. In the Pycnogenol group 32 males (37.9; SD 4.4 years) were compliant with the training plan at 4 weeks. In controls there were 22 subjects (37.2;3.5) completing the training plans. The swimming, biking and running scores in both groups improved with training. The Pycnogenol group had more benefits in comparison with controls. The total triathlon time was 89 min 44 s in Pycnogenol subjects versus 96 min 5 s in controls. Controls improved their performing time on average 4.6 minutes in comparison with an improvement of 10.8 minutes in Pycnogenol subjects. A significant decrease in cramps and running and post-running pain was seen in the Pycnogenol group; there were no significant differences in controls. There was an important, significant post-triathlon decrease of PFR one hour after the end of the triathlon with an average of -26.7, whereas PFR in controls increased. In Pycnogenol subjects there was a lower increase on oxidative stress with a faster recovery to almost normal levels (<330 for these subjects). These variations in PFR values were interpreted as a faster metabolic recovery in subjects using Pycnogenol" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin D and Physical Performance in Older Men and Women Visiting the Emergency Department Because of a Fall: Data from the Improving Medication Prescribing to reduce Risk Of FALLs (IMPROveFALL) Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct 1 - "Physical performance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go Test, the Five Time Sit to Stand Test, handgrip strength, and the tandem stand test ... In men, higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly associated with better handgrip strength (regression coefficient (B) = 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.04-5.69), faster TUG time (B = -2.82, 95% CI = -4.91 to -0.73), and faster FTSS time (B = -3.39, 95% CI = -5.67 to -1.11). In women, higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly associated with faster TUG time" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Green Tea and Vitamin E Enhance Exercise-Induced Benefits in Body Composition, Glucose Homeostasis, and Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men and Women - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):31-40 - "For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 +/- 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) ... Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001) and a decrease of men's and women's waist circumferences (from 100.8 and 95.7 to 96.9 and 85.0 cm, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) and fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p < 0.01)" - Note the decrease in waist circumference from 95.7 to 85.0 cm in men.  That's a 10.7 cm reduction or 4.2 inches. - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
• The effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on acute hormonal reponses to resistance exercise in men - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):66-74 - "For many resistance-trained men concerns exist regarding the production of estrogen with the consumption of soy protein when training for muscle strength and size. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on sex hormones following an acute bout of heavy resistance exercise in resistance trained men ... Ten resistance-trained men (age 21.7 +/- 2.8 [SD] years; height 175.0 +/- 5.4 cm; weight 84.2 +/- 9.1 kg) volunteered to participate in an investigation ... all subjects completed 3 experimental treatment conditions supplementing with whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), and maltodextrin placebo control for 14 days with participants ingesting 20 g of their assigned supplement each morning at approximately the same time each day ... This investigation observed lower testosterone responses following supplementation with soy protein in addition to a positive blunted cortisol response with the use of whey protein at some recovery time points. Although sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was proposed as a possible mechanism for understanding changes in androgen content, SHBG did not differ between experimental treatments. Importantly, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in estradiol concentrations" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
• Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Apr;32(2):122-35 - "Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis ... randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22) ... Lean body mass gains were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in whey (3.3 +/- 1.5 kg) than carb (2.3 +/- 1.7 kg) and soy (1.8 +/- 1.6 kg). Fat mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
• Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 22;10(1):39 - "Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 +/- 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 +/- 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles ... Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press work capacity, attenuated the rise in urinary HCTL, and tended to improve power (p = .07) but not strength" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.
• HMB attenuates muscle loss during sustained energy deficit induced by calorie restriction and endurance exercise - Metabolism. 2013 Jul 19 - "Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): 1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1h/d for 3d/wk); 2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5g/kg BW/d); 3) C=calorie restricted (-30%)+trained (6h/d, 6d/wk); and 4) CH=C+HMB ... HMB improves body composition and sensorimotor function during normal training and attenuates muscle mass and strength loss during catabolic conditions" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
• Legal Performance Enhancer Discovered in the Nutrient Betaine - Science Daily, 7/5/13 - "betaine -- a nutrient found in shellfish and beets -- boosts athletic performance by nearly six percent when added to a sports drink ... Betaine may contribute to creatine synthesis, which improves, strength, power and short-term performance ... researchers suggest: Dissolve 2.5 grams of betaine (either powder or tablet form) in a 20-ounce sports drink, and drink half in the morning and half in the afternoon" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin C may be beneficial against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction - Science Daily, 6/12/13 - "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction means the transient narrowing of the airways that occurs during or after exercise. It can cause symptoms such as cough, wheezing and the shortness of breath. Formerly, this condition was called exercise-induced asthma ... About 10% of the general population suffers from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but among some fields of competitive winter sports the prevalence can be up to 50% ... The pooled estimate of vitamin C effect indicated a 48% reduction in the FEV1 decline caused by exercise" - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats - Cytokine. 2013 May 10 - "we concluded that vitamin D may play a pivotal role in exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation through the modulation of MAPK and NF-κB involved with VDR" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Ubiquinol supplementation enhances peak power production in trained athletes: a double-blind, placebo controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Apr 29;10(1):24 - "In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100 young German well trained athletes (53 male, 47 female, age 19.9 +/- 2.3 years) received either 300 mg Ubiquinol or placebo for 6 weeks ... This study demonstrates that daily supplementation of 300 mg Ubiquinol for 6 weeks significantly enhanced physical performance measured as maximum power output by +0.08 W/kg bw (+2.5%) versus placebo in young healthy trained German Olympic athletes" - See Jarrow Formulas, Ubiquinol, QH-Absorb, 100 mg, 120 Softgels.
• Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 7:1-7 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO ... These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
• Men who do exercise produce better quality semen, study finds - Science Daily, 10/31/12 - "conducted by researchers at the University of Cordoba ... The results conclude that the physically active subjects display better semen values. More specifically, the differences found were in the seminological parameters of total progressive velocity and morphology, in the FSH, LH and T hormones and in the T/C ratio. Hormone data thus supports the hypothesis of a more favourable environment for sperm formation"
• Exercise Protects Aging Brains Better - WebMD, 10/22/12 - "The new research included about 700 people living in the United Kingdom who all had brain scans when they reached the age of 73 ... Three years earlier, at age 70, the study participants were questioned about the leisure and physical activities they engaged in ... People in the study who reported being the most physically active tended to have larger brain volumes of gray and normal white matter, and physical activity was linked to less brain atrophy ... Regular exercise also appeared to protect against the formation of white matter lesions, which are linked to thinking and memory decline"
• Resveratrol may be natural exercise performance enhancer - Science Daily, 6/19/12 - "high doses of the natural compound resveratrol improved physical performance, heart function and muscle strength in lab models ... resveratrol showed results similar to what you would see from extensive endurance exercise training ... I think resveratrol could help patient populations who want to exercise but are physically incapable. Resveratrol could mimic exercise for them or improve the benefits of the modest amount of exercise that they can do" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
• Improvements in Skeletal Muscle Strength and Cardiac Function Induced by Resveratrol Contribute to Enhanced Exercise Performance in Rats - J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2 - "Exercise training (ET) improves endurance capacity by increasing both skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function, as well as contributing to favourable cardiac remodelling. Interestingly, some of the benefits of regular exercise can also be mimicked by the naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RESV). However, it is not known whether RESV enhances physiologic adaptations to ET. To investigate this, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control chow diet or a chow diet that contained RESV (4g/kg of diet) and subsequently subjected to a program of progressive treadmill running for 12-weeks. ET-induced improvements in exercise tolerance were enhanced by 21% (p<0.001) by the addition of RESV to the diet ... Overall, our findings provide evidence that the capacity for fatty acid oxidation is augmented by the addition of RESV to the diet during ET, and that this contributes to the improved physical performance of rats following ET" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
• Exercise and caffeine change your DNA in the same way, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/6/12 - "when healthy but inactive men and women exercise for a matter of minutes, it produces a rather immediate change to their DNA. Perhaps even more tantalizing, the study suggests that the caffeine in your morning coffee might also influence muscle in essentially the same way ... for those who can't exercise, the new findings might point the way to medicines (caffeinated ones, perhaps?) with similar benefits"
• Scientists identify an innate function of vitamin E - Science Daily, 12/20/11 - "Everyday activities such as eating and exercise can tear the plasma membrane and the new research shows that vitamin E is essential to repair. Without repair of muscle cells, for example, muscles eventually waste away and die in a process similar to what occurs in muscular dystrophy ... Vitamin E appears to aid repair in several ways. As an antioxidant, it helps eliminate destructive byproducts from the body's use of oxygen that impede repair. Because it's lipid-soluble, vitamin E can actually insert itself into the membrane to prevent free radicals from attacking. It also can help keep phospholipids, a major membrane component, compliant so they can better repair after a tear" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
• Resveratrol prevents dexamethasone-induced expression of the muscle atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in cultured myotubes through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Dec 7 - "Results suggest that resveratrol can prevent glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting and that this effect is at least in part SIRT1-dependent" - Note:  I think what they are saying is that resveratrol may help prevent muscle loss due to high cortisol.  Stress increases cortisol.  Exercise may be partially defeating as far as muscle tone in that it increases cortisol.  That's just my theory.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
• Caffeine study shows sport performance increase - Science Daily, 12/14/11 - "Mayur Ranchordas, a senior lecturer and performance nutritionist at Sheffield Hallam University, carried out studies on footballers using caffeine and carbohydrates combined in a drink ... There is already plenty of research that shows that caffeine and carbohydrate improve endurance, but this study shows that there is also a positive effect on skill and performance ... We found that the combination of carbohydrate and caffeine allowed players to sustain higher work intensity for the sprints, as well as improving shooting accuracy and dribbling during simulated soccer activity"
• Green tea extract may protect against muscle damage from exercise - Nutra USA, 12/8/11 - "Thirty-five were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either the green tea extract or placebo in combination with strength training ... Markers of oxidative stress like lipid hydroxyperoxides were seen to increase as a result of exercise, but only in the placebo group. No such increases were recorded in the green tea group" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
• Amino acid-rich supplements boost muscle mass with exercise - Nutra USA, 11/8/11 - "Supplements containing a combination of amino acids and protein before and after resistance training may boost upper body strength by 13% ... The commercial supplements NO-Shotgun and NO-Synthesize by VPX were also associated with a 21% increase in lower-body strength ... The commercial supplements contain a list of ingredients including creatine, arginine, glutamine, beta-alanine, keto-isocaproate (KIC), and leucine, casein and whey protein, branched-chain amino acids, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, histidine, and methionine ... the primary active ingredients are whey protein, creatine, leucine, beta-alanine, and KIC" - [Abstract] - See BCAA products at Amazon.com.
• CoQ10 may reduce muscle damage during intensive exercise - Nutra USA, 10/27/11 - "Twenty ultra-runners participated in the study and were divided into two equal groups. One group received one 30 mg capsule of CoQ10 two days before the test, three 30 mg capsules the day before the test, and one capsule one hour before the test. The other group received placebo at the same time. The test involved a 50 km distance run across Europe’s highest road in the Sierra Nevada ... Results showed that the placebo group displayed a 100% increase in levels of 8-OHdG, which <i>“a sensitive indicator of DNA damage as a result of oxidative stress”,</i> said the researchers, compared with an increase of 37.5% in the runners taking the CoQ10 supplements ... The data also indicated that CoQ10 countered the over-expression of certain pro-inflammatory compounds after exercise ... a reduction in levels of creatinine in the urine was observed in the CoQ10 group, compared with the placebo group. Creatinine is produced from creatine and high levels are a marker of muscle break down (or kidney damage) ... CoQ10 supplementation reduces creatinine excretion and therefore decrease muscle damage during physical performance" - [Abstract] - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
• Leucine supplements boost muscle synthesis by 33% during exercise - Nutra USA, 10/6/11 - "In contrast with resistance exercise, sustained endurance exercise is mainly catabolic, yielding simultaneous reductions in muscle protein synthesis and plasma leucine concentrations during exercise, which may be attributed to the metabolic demand for branched chain amino acids in exercising skeletal muscle ... the leucine-enriched beverage was associated with a 33% increase in muscle protein synthesis ... Our findings indicate that increasing the leucine content of protein supplements provided for those populations susceptible to muscle loss, including proteolytic conditions—such as cachexia, sarcopenia, and calorie deprivation—may warrant further exploration" - [Abstract] - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
• A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Nutr J. 2011 Sep 7;10(1):90 - "While exercise acts to combat inflammation and aging, the ability to exercise may itself be compromised by inflammation and inflammation's impact on muscle recovery and joint inflammation. A number of nutritional supplements have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve recovery. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement containing branched chain amino acids, taurine, anti-inflammatory plant extracts, and B vitamins on inflammatory status, endothelial function, physical function, and mood in middle-aged individuals ...Thirty-one healthy and active men (N=16, mean age 56+/-6.0 yrs) and women (N=15, mean age=52+/-7.5 yrs) participated in this investigation. Subjects completed one 28 day cycle of placebo supplementation and one 28 day cycle of multi-nutrient supplementation (separated by a one week washout period) in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design ... IL-6 significantly decreased in both men (from 1.2 +/- 0.2 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1) and women (from 1.16+/-0.04 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1). Perceived energy also improved for both men (placebo: 1.8 +/- 0.7; supplement: 3.7+/-0.8 AUC) and women (placebo: 1.2 +/- 0.7; supplement: 2.8+/-0.8 AUC). Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (from 108.9+/-38.6 to 55.5+/-22.2 ug * mL-1), Creatine Kinase (from 96+/-34 to 67+/-23 IU * L-1), general pain, and joint pain decreased in men only, while anxiety and balance (from 0.52+/-0.13 to 0.45+/-0.12 cm) improved in women only. Men showed increased performance in vertical jump power (from 2642+/-244 to 3134+/-282 W) and grip strength (from 42.1+/-5.9 to 48.5+/-4.9 kg)" - See taurine at Amazon.com
• Aerobic exercise may reduce the risk of dementia, researchers say - Science Daily, 9/7/11 - "Researchers examined the role of aerobic exercise in preserving cognitive abilities and concluded that it should not be overlooked as an important therapy against dementia ... Examples include walking, gym workouts and activities at home such as shoveling snow or raking leaves ... We culled through all the scientific literature we could find on the subject of exercise and cognition, including animal studies and observational studies, reviewing over 1,600 papers, with 130 bearing directly on this issue ... brain imaging studies have consistently revealed objective evidence of favorable effects of exercise on human brain integrity"
• Research from Everest: Can leucine help burn fat and spare muscle tissue during exercise? - Science Daily, 8/28/11 - "Research on Mt. Everest climbers is adding to the evidence that an amino acid called leucine -- found in foods, dietary supplements, energy bars and other products -- may help people burn fat during periods of food restriction, such as climbing at high altitude, while keeping their muscle tissue ... We knew that leucine has been shown to help people on very low-calorie, or so-called 'calorie-restricted diets', stay healthy at sea level ... the findings also could help people at lower altitudes who want to lose weight while preserving their lean body mass, or who are elderly and don't eat or exercise enough to maintain their strength" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
• Oral hydroxycitrate supplementation enhances glycogen synthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 9:1-8 - "Glycogen stored in skeletal muscle is the main fuel for endurance exercise. The present study examined the effects of oral hydroxycitrate (HCA) supplementation on post-meal glycogen synthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy male volunteers (aged 22.0 (se 0.3) years) completed a 60-min cycling exercise at 70-75 % \dot {>V}O_{2\hairsp max} and received HCA or placebo in a crossover design repeated after a 7 d washout period. They consumed 500 mg HCA or placebo with a high-carbohydrate meal (2 g carbohydrate/kg body weight, 80 % carbohydrate, 8 % fat, 12 % protein) for a 3-h post-exercise recovery. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from vastus lateralis immediately and 3 h after the exercise. We found that HCA supplementation significantly lowered post-meal insulin response with similar glucose level compared to placebo. The rate of glycogen synthesis with the HCA meal was approximately onefold higher than that with the placebo meal. In contrast, GLUT4 protein level after HCA supplementation was significantly decreased below the placebo level, whereas expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 mRNA was significantly increased above the placebo level. Furthermore, HCA supplementation significantly increased energy reliance on fat oxidation, estimated by the gaseous exchange method. However, no differences were found in circulating NEFA and glycerol levels with the HCA meal compared with the placebo meal. The present study reports the first evidence that HCA supplementation enhanced glycogen synthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle and improved post-meal insulin sensitivity" - See hydroxycitrate at Amazon.com.
• Low-fat chocolate milk can boost aerobic fitness, research - Nutra USA, 6/8/11 - "Immediately following exercise and again, two hours following exercise, participants consumed a recovery drink of low-fat chocolate milk, a calorie and fat-matched carbohydrate beverage or a non-caloric flavoured water ... chocolate milk improved cycling performance more than the other drinks, cutting at least six minutes on average off the cyclist’s ride time ... Chocolate milk was also found to increase signals for muscle protein synthesis, which leads to the repair and rebuilding of muscle proteins, more than the other drinks"
• Protein drinks after exercise help maintain aging muscles - Science Daily, 5/26/11 - "protein drinks after aerobic activity increases the training effect after six weeks, when compared to carbohydrate drinks. Additionally, this study suggests that this effect can be seen using as little as 20 grams of protein"
• Moderate exercise dramatically improves brain blood flow in elderly women - Science Daily, 4/12/11 - "it's never too late for women to reap the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise. In a 3-month study of 16 women age 60 and older, brisk walking for 30-50 minutes three or four times per week improved blood flow through to the brain as much as 15% ... At study's end, the team measured blood flow in the women's carotid arteries again and found that cerebral blood flow increased an average of 15% and 11% in the women's left and right internal carotid arteries, respectively. The women's VO2 max increased roughly 13%, their blood pressure dropped an average of 4%, and their heart rates decreased approximately 5% ... A steady, healthy flow of blood to the brain achieves two things. First, the blood brings oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to the brain, which are vital for the brain's health. Second, the blood washes away brain metabolic wastes such as amyloid-beta protein released into the brain's blood vessels. Amyloid-beta protein has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease"
• DSM builds olive extract IP with energy & exercise performance patent - Nutra USA, 4/7/11 - "According to European Patent EP2009/063492, the invention refers to hydroxytyrosol in combination with at least one other ingredient, including the likes of CoQ10, resveratrol, B vitamins, and EGCG from green tea ... Hydroxytyrosol is thought to be the main antioxidant compound in olives, and believed to play a significant role in the many health benefits attributed to olive oil. Previous research has linked the compound to cardiovascular benefits, with reductions in LDL or 'bad' cholesterol. Data has also suggested the compound may boost eye health and reduce the risk of against macular degeneration ... Hydroxytyrosol significantly increased the running distance to exhaustion in mice and so improved endurance in prolonged exercise ... hydroxytyrosol promotes mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial biogenesis leading to an enhancement of mitochondrial function and cellular defense system" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.  As far as the synergy, I would think that most would be already taking the CoQ-10, resveratrol, B-vitamins and green tea.
• Carbohydrate Ingestion during Endurance Exercise Improves Performance in Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "This study was a systematic review with meta-analysis examining the efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion compared with placebo (PLA) on endurance exercise performance in adults. Relevant databases were searched to January 2011 ... time trial (TT) or exercise time to exhaustion (TTE) ... effect size (ES) ... The ES for submaximal exercise followed by TT was significant (ES = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.69; P < 0.001) as was the ES for TT (ES = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.07-0.53; P = 0.011). The weighted mean improvement in exercise performance favored CHO ingestion (7.5 and 2.0%, respectively). TTE (ES = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.32-0.62; P < 0.001) and submaximal exercise followed by TTE (ES = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.08-0.80; P = 0.017) also showed significant effects, with weighted mean improvements of 15.1 and 54.2%, respectively, with CHO ingestion. Similar trends were evident for subanalyses of studies using only male or trained participants, for exercise of 1-3 h duration, and where CHO and PLA beverages were matched for electrolyte content. The data support that ingestion of CHO between 30 and 80 g/h enhances endurance exercise performance in adults"
• Relation of Vitamin D Level to Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 22 - "Low cardiorespiratory fitness and low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but whether low 25(OH)D is independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults is not known ... Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to Vo(2max) (r = 0.29, p = 0.0001), even after adjusting for relevant predictors (e.g., age, gender, and body mass index). There was also a significant interaction between 25(OH)D level and self-reported hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p <0.02). With each SD increase in 25(OH)D, Vo(2max) increased by 2.6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.0001) when MVPA was low (16 hours/week) and 1.6 ml/kg/min (p <0.0004) when MVPA was moderate (35 hours/week) but only 0.01 ml/kg/min (p = 0.9) when MVPA was high (64 hours/week). In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels predict Vo(2max) in adults; the effect is greatest in those with low levels of physical activity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Is dairy colostrum the key to Olympic success? - Science Daily, 2/24/11 - "bovine colostrum can massively reduce gut permeability -- otherwise known as 'leaky gut syndrome.' Their findings, published in the March issue of the American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, could have positive implications not just for athletes but also for sufferers of heatstroke ... The London School of Medicine and Dentistry looked at athletes who were asked to run for 20 minutes at 80 per cent of their aerobic maximum. At the end of the exercise, changes in the subjects gut leakiness were measured using urine sample -- also determined were changes in the athletes' core temperature. Under standard conditions, gut leakiness had increased by 250 per cent and temperature had risen by 2 degrees. However, when the group were given a drink of dairy colostrum for two weeks before the trial, the rise in gut leakiness was reduced by about 80 per cent, despite the same effort and temperature rise" - See colostrum at Amazon.com.
• Relation of Whole Blood n-3 Fatty Acid Levels to Exercise Parameters in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 7 - "After multivariable adjustment, n-3 fatty acid levels (DHA + EPA) were strongly associated with heart rate recovery (beta 2.1, p = 0.003), exercise capacity (beta 0.8, p <0.0001), and exercise time (beta 0.9, p <0.0001). Increasing levels of (DHA + EPA) were also associated with decreased risk of impaired heart rate recovery (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.004) and exercise time (odds ratio 0.7, p = 0.01) and trended toward significance for exercise capacity (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.07). These associations were not modified by demographics, body mass index, smoking, co-morbid conditions, statin use, or β-blocker use (p for interaction >0.1 for all comparisons). In conclusion, an independent association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and important exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease. These findings support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may increase vagal tone and physical conditioning" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
• vagal tone - encyclopedia.com - "The effect produced on the heart when only the parasympathetic nerve fibres (which are carried in the vagus nerve) are controlling the heart rate. The parasympathetic nerve fibres slow the heart rate from approximately 70 beats per minute to 60 beats per minute"
• Taurine Prevents Hypertension and Increases Exercise Capacity in Rats With Fructose-Induced Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2011 Feb 3 - "Five groups of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated and designated as control, high fructose-fed (fructose), high fructose-fed plus exercise (FE), high fructose-fed plus 2% taurine supplement (FT) and high fructose-fed plus 2% taurine supplement and exercise (FET) groups ... Noninvasive SBP differed significantly (P < 0.001) from week 3, both noninvasive and invasive ABP increased significantly (P < 0.001), and exercise capacity significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the fructose group compared with the control group. The individual effects of swimming and taurine supplementation were incapable of preventing the development of hypertension and SBP significantly (P < 0.001) increased in the FE and FT groups; exercise capacity in those groups remained similar to control. The combined effects of exercise and taurine alleviated hypertension and significantly increased exercise capacity in the FET group. Insulin resistance increased significantly and plasma nitric oxide (NO) decreased significantly in the F, FE, and FT groups. Both parameters remained similar to control values in the FET group with an increasing antioxidant activity. Conclusion Taurine supplementation in combination with exercise prevents hypertension and increases exercise capacity by possibly antioxidation and maintaining NO concentrations" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
• Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans: the dual role of muscle carnitine in exercise metabolism - J Physiol. 2011 Jan 4 - "total carnitine (TC) ... At 50% VO2max, the Carnitine group utilised 55% less muscle glycogen compared to Control (P<0.05) and 31% less pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation (PDCa) compared to before supplementation (P<0.05). Conversely, at 80% VO2max, muscle PDCa was 38% higher (P<0.05), acetylcarnitine content showed a trend to be 16% greater (P<0.10), muscle lactate content was 44% lower (P<0.05) and the muscle PCr/ATP ratio was better maintained (P<0.05) in Carnitine compared to Control. The Carnitine group increased work output 11% from baseline in the performance trial, while Control showed no change. This is the first demonstration that human muscle TC can be increased by dietary means and results in muscle glycogen sparing during low intensity exercise (consistent with an increase in lipid utilisation) and a better matching of glycolytic, PDC and mitochondrial flux during high intensity exercise, thereby reducing muscle anaerobic ATP production. Furthermore, these changes were associated with an improvement in exercise performance" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Boosting supply of key brain chemical reduces fatigue in mice - Science Daily, 12/10/10 - "Researchers at Vanderbilt University have "engineered" a mouse that can run on a treadmill twice as long as a normal mouse by increasing its supply of acetylcholine ... could lead to new treatments for neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis, which occurs when cholinergic nerve signals fail to reach the muscles ... The choline transporter is vital to the capacity for muscle contraction -- including the ability to breathe -- because it regulates the supply of choline, the precursor to acetylcholine. "We reasoned that giving more of this protein might enhance muscle function and reduce nerve-dependent fatigue,"" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
• Bicarbonate adds fizz to players' tennis performance - Science Daily, 10/25/10 - "sodium bicarbonate supplementation can prevent the fatigue-induced decline in skilled tennis performance seen during matches. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency was maintained after a simulated match in the bicarbonate trial. On the other hand, these consistency scores were decreased after the match in the placebo trial" - Note:  If you're not an athlete I wouldn't try it.  I'm sure the sodium in sodium bicarbonate will have the same effect as sodium chloride (table salt) on your blood pressure.
• Lonza’s L-carnitine may boost exercise recovery: Study - Nutra USA, 8/12/10 - "Blood samples showed that L-carnitine supplementation significantly improved a range of biochemical markers, including purine metabolism, free radical formation, and muscle tissue disruption ... The l-carnitine l-tartrate supplementation therefore reduced both myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations, providing additional evidence that LCLT reduces post-exercise muscle disruption ... Such findings support the additional findings that l-carnitine l-tartrate significantly reduced muscle soreness immediately after the exercise workout and at 24 and 48 hours postexercise when compared with the placebo condition" - [Abstract] - See GPLC at Amazon.com.
• l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women - Metabolism. 2010 Aug;59(8):1190-9 - "Two grams of l-carnitine supplementation had positive effects and significantly (P < or = .05) attenuated biochemical markers of purine metabolism (ie, hypoxanthine, xanthine oxidase), free radical formation (malondialdehyde), muscle tissue disruption (myoglobin, creatine kinase), and muscle soreness after physical exertion. However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Olympic gold? A new effect of caffeine boosts performance - Science Daily, 6/29/10 - "high doses of caffeine directly increase muscle power and endurance during relatively low-intensity activities ... a caffeine dosage of 70 µM enhanced power output by ~6% during both types of activity. This effect in humans is likely to be very similar"
• Early physical activity promotes lower prevalence of chronic diseases in adulthood - Hypertens Res. 2010 Jun 24 - "Physical activity in youth was associated with lower rates of occurrence of arterial hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.62)) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR=0.29 (95% CI=0.15-0.56)) in adulthood, but current physical activity was not related to these outcomes"
• Folic acid found to improve vascular function in amenorrheic runners - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "folic acid supplement improved blood flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery which correlates with increased blood flow to the heart"
• Effects of continuous vs. interval exercise training on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in treated hypertension - Hypertens Res. 2010 Apr 9 - "Continuous and interval exercise training were beneficial for blood pressure control, but only interval training reduced arterial stiffness in treated hypertensive subjects"
• Blueberries may protect muscles from exercise damage - Nutra USA, 4/2/10 - "Although it is difficult to deduce the biological significance of the data presented here from in vitro studies, one may speculate that consumption of blueberry fruit polyphenolics and particularly malvidin glycosides may be beneficial in alleviating the damaging consequences of oxidative stress in muscle tissue" - [Abstract] - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
• Blueberry fruit polyphenolics suppress oxidative stress-induced skeletal muscle cell damage in vitro - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Mar;54(3):353-63 - "These in vitro data support the concept that blueberry fruits or derived foods rich in malvidin glycosides may be beneficial in alleviating muscle damage caused by oxidative stress" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
• Exercise Plays a Preventive Role Against Alzheimer's Disease - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "Regular physical activity increases the endurance of cells and tissues to oxidative stress, vascularization, energy metabolism, and neurotrophin synthesis, all important in neurogenesis, memory improvement, and brain plasticity. Although extensive studies are required to understand the mechanism, it is clear that physical exercise is beneficial in the prevention of AD and other age-associated neurodegenerative disorders"
• Low levels of vitamin D linked to muscle fat, decreased strength in young people - Science Daily, 3/6/10 - "A ground-breaking study published in the March 2010 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism found an astonishing 59 per cent of study subjects had too little Vitamin D in their blood. Nearly a quarter of the group had serious deficiencies (less than 20 ng/ml) of this important vitamin. Since Vitamin D insufficiency is linked to increased body fat, decreased muscle strength and a range of disorders, this is a serious health issue ... The study by Dr. Kremer and co-investigator Dr. Vincente Gilsanz, head of musculoskeletal imaging at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles of the University of Southern California, is the first to show a clear link between Vitamin D levels and the accumulation of fat in muscle tissue -- a factor in muscle strength and overall health" - [Nutra USA] -See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Omega-3 may boost lung function during sport - Nutra USA, 3/3/10 - "Amateur Iranian wrestlers, and not the Hulk Hogan kind, experienced improvements in numerous measures of lung capacity, including lung volume [forced vital capacity (FVC)] and airflows [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)], and found significant improvements following 12 weeks of supplementation and training ... At the end of the study, improvements in FEV1 of 41 per cent and FVC of 53 per cent, in the omega-3 supplements and training group as well as four other measures, compared to the other groups" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
• The effects of omega-3 supplementation on pulmonary function of young wrestlers during intensive training - J Sci Med Sport. 2010 Mar;13(2):281-286 - "consuming omega-3 during 12 weeks training had a significantly positive effect on pulmonary variables such as FEV1, FVC, VC, MVV, FEF25-75, FIV1 (p=0.001), but no significant changes were observed in FEV1% (p=0.141) and FIV1% (p=0.117). The results of the present study suggest that consuming omega-3 during intensive wrestling training can improve pulmonary function of athletes during and in post-exercise" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
• What You Eat After Working Out Matters - WebMD, 1/29/10 - "A new study shows that eating a low-carbohydrate meal after aerobic exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. Increased insulin sensitivity makes it easier for the body to take up sugar from the bloodstream and store it in muscles and other tissues where it can be used for fuel ... Impaired insulin sensitivity, or insulin resistance, increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease"
• Antioxidants aren't always good for you and can impair muscle function, study shows - Science Daily, 1/26/10
• Moderate physical activity and breast cancer risk: the effect of menopausal status - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jan 19 - "Participating in moderate-intensity physical activity decreased the risk of BC in both pre- and postmenopausal women (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92.-0.99; OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.86-0.93, respectively) for every 3 h per week of moderate-intensity physical activity. There was a statistically significant modification effect by menopausal status"
• Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jan 19:1-5 - "randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design ... the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals"
• l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women - Metabolism. 2009 Dec 30 - "Two grams of l-carnitine supplementation had positive effects and significantly (P </= .05) attenuated biochemical markers of purine metabolism (ie, hypoxanthine, xanthine oxidase), free radical formation (malondialdehyde), muscle tissue disruption (myoglobin, creatine kinase), and muscle soreness after physical exertion. However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
• Exercise reduces death rate in prostate cancer patients - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "men who walked four or more hours a week had a 23 percent lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to men who walked less than 20 minutes per week. Men who walked 90 or more minutes at a normal to brisk pace had a 51 percent lower risk of death from any cause than men who walked less than 90 minutes at an easy walking pace"
• Danisco extends betaine’s sport science - Nutra USA, 8/13/09 - "During various power, muscle endurance and anaerobic power exercise tests over a two week period, subjects given BetaPower showed a significant improvement in lower body muscle endurance and quality of the workout compared to those participants that were not given supplementation" - [Abstract] - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.
• Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 27;6:7 - "Subjects were tested prior to the onset of supplementation (T1) and 7 (T2) and 14 days (T3) following supplementation ... No differences were seen at T2 or T3 in the repetitions performed to exhaustion or in the number of repetitions performed at 90% of both peak and mean power between the groups in the bench press exercise. The number of repetitions performed in the squat exercise for BET was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that seen for PL at T2. The number of repetitions performed at 90% or greater of peak power in the squat exercise was significantly greater for BET at both T2 and T3 than PL" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.
• CLA may protect against elderly muscle loss - Nutra USA, 7/24/09 - "Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevented age-related muscle loss in mice ... After six months the researchers note that both the trans-10 cis-12 and CLA-mix showed “significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to corn oil and cis-9 trans-11 CLA groups” ... Both groups also exhibited increased cellular energy production (ATP), as well as higher levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the muscles, compared to the corn oil and cis-9 trans-11 CLA groups" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
• Exercise Cuts Decline in Mental Skills - WebMD, 7/13/09 - "sedentary older people who began new exercise programs curbed their rate of cognitive decline, especially when it came to the ability to process complex information quickly ... people who were consistently sedentary had the worst mental skills. On a standard test that measures overall cognitive function, including memory, attention span and problem-solving, "they scored the worst at the beginning and experienced the fastest rate of cognitive decline,""
• Antioxidant may boost exercise endurance - msnbc.com, 6/29/09 - "Compared with days of no supplementation, the quercetin supplement periods were associated with a modest — nearly 4 percent — increase in maximum oxygen uptake. Quercetin was also associated with a 13 percent increase in "ride time" before the volunteers were too fatigued to continue" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
• Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2009 Jun 6 - "Serum 25(OH)D was the common contributor to physical fitness indices (androidal fat mass, lean mass, balance, handgrip strength) in healthy postmenopausal women" .
• Sleep Extension Improves Athletic Performance And Mood - Science Daily, 6/8/09
• Antioxidants needed by exercising populations: Nutritionist - Nutra USA, 5/14/09 - "Commenting on the design of the study, Dr Childs said it was unclear if the subjects encountered the same absolute level of muscle fatigue during exercise in the supplement and control conditions and hence stimulus for antioxidant up-regulation. “Because of this, the reported ‘prevention of the ‘health promoting effects of antioxidants’ may be nothing more than an experimental artefact,” ... In addition, Dr Childs said that comments by the authors that antioxidants may block many of the beneficial effects of exercise were a “gross over extrapolation of the experimental findings on two levels”"
• Do Antioxidants Curb an Exercise Benefit? - WebMD, 5/11/09
• Vitamin-exercise study questioned - Nutra USA, 5/12/09 - "The authors noted that biopsies for the ‘early’ time-point were only obtained from five people in the vitamin group, and four in the placebo group. “Yet the authors conclude a “strong induction of PGCl-alpha, PGCl-beta, and PPAR-gamma expression in skeletal muscle following 4 weeks of exercise training in previously untrained, antioxidant naïve individuals” and “markedly reduced exercise-related induction” in those taking antioxidants, based on these limited number of biopsies,” ... “Would it not have made more sense to appropriately increase the intensity and duration of exercise slowly and then see if the subject’s bodies didn’t accommodate handling of ROS without a significant change in induction of these markers?” ... The study reflects a ‘transient’ increase in ROS during ‘limited periods of physical exercise only’, noted Dr Schauss, “whereas the bulk of the literature, including that in non-primate models have not observed these concerns obtained in models of ‘continuous exposure to increased levels of ROS’” ... the authors presented no evidence of adverse effects by any of the individuals from vitamin C and E supplementation"
• Do Antioxidants Curb an Exercise Benefit? - WebMD, 5/11/09 - "Physical activity induced an increase in insulin sensitivity only in the absence of antioxidants"
• Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Apr 21 - "using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups ... may be a novel dietary supplement that will prevent sarcopenia by maintaining redox balance during aging" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
• Physical Activity Improves Life Expectancy And Decreases Need Of Care Among Older People - Science Daily, 4/28/09 - "people who have been regularly physically active since middle age and have lived long, needed less hospital and institutional care during their last year of life than those people who have been only occasionally or not at all physically active"
• Low Glycemic Breakfast May Increase Benefits Of Working Out - Science Daily, 4/15/09 - "Overall, fat oxidation was higher in the LGI treatment than in the HGI treatment (P < 0.05) during the post-breakfast and exercise periods. Following lunch, fullness scores were higher in the LGI trial than in the HGI trial (P < 0.05). The authors concluded that consuming a LGI breakfast increases fat oxidation during subsequent exercise and improved satiety during recovery in sedentary females. As such, individuals trying to shed fat may consider choosing LGI foods eaten prior to when they exercise"
• Caffeine Reduces Pain During Exercise, Study Shows - Science Daily, 3/30/09 - "What's interesting ... is that when we found that caffeine tolerance doesn't matter ... caffeine reduces pain reliably, consistently during cycling, across different intensities, across different people, different characteristics"
• Building Strong Bones: Running May Provide More Benefits Than Resistance Training, Study Finds - Science Daily, 2/27/09 - "both resistance training and high-impact endurance activities increase bone mineral density. However, high-impact sports, like running, appear to have a greater beneficial effect"
• Vitamin D Tied To Muscle Power In Adolescent Girls - Science Daily, 2/10/09 - "Our study found that vitamin D is positively related to muscle power, force, velocity and jump height in adolescent girls ... Vitamin D affects the various ways muscles work and we've seen from this study that there may be no visible symptoms of vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Arginine Discovery Could Help Fight Human Obesity - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "arginine, an amino acid, reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese rats and could help fight human obesity ... dietary arginine supplementation shifts nutrient partitioning to promote skeletal-muscle gain ... The findings were published recently in the Journal of Nutrition ... arginine supplementation for a 12-week period decreased the body fat gains of low-fat and high-fat fed rats by 65 percent and 63 percent, respectively. The long-term arginine treatment did not have any adverse effects on either group ... funded by the American Heart Association" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
• Vitamin D Tied To Muscle Power In Adolescent Girls - Science Daily, 2/3/09 - "Vitamin D is significantly associated with muscle power and force in adolescent girls" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
• Brief, Rigorous Exercise Cuts Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 1/27/09 - "doing a few intense muscle exercises, each lasting only about 30 seconds, dramatically improves your metabolism in just two weeks"
• Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Reduces White Fat Gain and Enhances Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat Masses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "l-arginine-HCl ... Despite similar energy intake, absolute weights of white fat pads increased by 98% in control rats over a 12-wk period but only by 35% in arginine-supplemented rats. The arginine treatment reduced the relative weights of white fat pads by 30% and enhanced those of soleus muscle by 13%, extensor digitorum longus muscle by 11%, and brown fat by 34% compared with control rats ... arginine treatment resulted in lower serum concentrations of leptin, glucose, triglycerides, urea, glutamine, and branched-chain amino acids, higher serum concentrations of nitric-oxide metabolites, and improvement in glucose tolerance. Thus, dietary arginine supplementation shifts nutrient partitioning to promote muscle over fat gain and may provide a useful treatment for improving the metabolic profile and reducing body white fat in diet-induced obese rats" - See arginine products at Amazon.com.
• Protein Sports Drinks Proven To Give Best Performance - Science Daily, 12/23/08 - "Both formulas had the same energy content ... Both formulas had the same energy content. After their six-hour rest, the athletes did another virtual cycle race. According to Berardi, "Both groups showed a reduction in performance in the afternoon session. However, the reduction in distance traveled and power output during the afternoon exercise was significantly less among those who had the protein and carbs drink, relative those who just had the carbs ... The subjects' self-reported fatigue levels were lower in the protein group and increases in fat oxidation were also seen"
• Exercise Suppresses Appetite By Affecting Appetite Hormones - Science Daily, 12/19/08 - "A vigorous 60-minute workout on a treadmill affects the release of two key appetite hormones, ghrelin and peptide YY, while 90 minutes of weight lifting affects the level of only ghrelin"
• Exercise Increases Brain Growth Factor And Receptors, Prevents Stem Cell Drop In Middle Age - Science Daily, 11/27/08 - "exercise significantly slows down the loss of new nerve cells in the middle-aged mice. They found that production of neural stem cells improved by approximately 200% compared to the middle-aged mice that did not exercise. In addition, the survival of new nerve cells increased by 170% and growth by 190% compared to the sedentary middle-aged mice. Exercise also significantly enhanced stem cell production and maturation in the young mice. In fact, exercise produced a stronger effect in younger mice compared to the older mice"
• Dietary Sport Supplement Shows Strong Effects In The Elderly - Science Daily, 11/7/08 - "In the treatment group, 67% of the subjects showed an improvement in their fitness levels, compared to 21.5% of the people receiving the placebo treatment" - See beta alanine at Amazon.com.
• Walking Boosts Brainpower - WebMD, 9/2/08 - "Those in the exercise group scored higher on cognitive tests and had better delayed recall. For example, they could more accurately remember a list of words after a certain amount of time had passed than those in the other group ... Unlike medication, which was found to have no significant effect on mild cognitive impairment at 36 months, physical activity has the advantage of health benefits that are not confined to cognitive function alone, as suggested by findings on depression, quality of life, falls, cardiovascular function, and disability"
• Exercise May Prevent Brain Shrinkage In Early Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 7/14/08 - "People with early Alzheimer's disease who were less physically fit had four times more brain shrinkage when compared to normal older adults than those who were more physically fit"
• Interval Training May Beat Mild Exercise at Taming Metabolic Syndrome - WebMD, 7/7/08 - "aerobic interval training -- in which people push their heart rate almost to its limits briefly, followed by a more moderate pace, several times during a workout -- may be even better at reining in metabolic syndrome"
• Post-exercise Caffeine Helps Muscles Refuel - Science Daily, 7/1/08 - "Recipe to recover more quickly from exercise: Finish workout, eat pasta, and wash down with five or six cups of strong coffee ... Athletes who ingested caffeine with carbohydrate had 66% more glycogen in their muscles four hours after finishing intense, glycogen-depleting exercise, compared to when they consumed carbohydrate alone" - Yeah, if you want to fell like crap for the rest of the day.  I drink by caffeine before the workout then again after a power nap. - Ben
• Extra Sleep Improves Athletic Performance - Science Daily, 6/9/08 - "Getting extra sleep over an extended period of time improves athletic performance, mood and alertness ... The athletes then extended their sleep to 10 hours per day for six to seven weeks ... After obtaining extra sleep, athletes swam a 15-meter meter sprint 0.51 seconds faster, reacted 0.15 seconds quicker off the blocks, improved turn time by 0.10 seconds and increased kick strokes by 5.0 kicks"
• When It Comes To Living Longer, It's Better To Go Hungry Than Go Running, Mouse Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/14/08 - "at least two studies which examined people who engage in high-volume exercise versus people who restricted their calorie intake, had a similar outcome: caloric restriction has physiological benefits that exercise alone does not ... One theory is that exercise places stress on the body, which can result in damage to the tissues and DNA. Another theory is that caloric restriction leads to physiological changes which benefit the body" - I still think it boils down to the ravages of higher insulin and blood sugar which increase advanced glycation end products a major cause of aging.
• CoQ10 may cut muscle injuries for athletes - Nutra USA, 5/5/08 - "The volunteers had daily training sessions of five and a half hours per day for six days during the intervention period. At day three and five of the six day training period, the researchers report that both groups experienced increased in serum creatine kinase activity and the concentration of myoglobin, but these increases were significantly lower in the group receiving the CoQ10 supplements ... Elevated levels of the enzyme are indicative of muscle damage and injury ... levels of lipid peroxide, a marker of oxidative stress, were also lower in the CoQ10 group after three and five days of training" - [Abstract] - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
• Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10 - Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb 20;:1-7 - "Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per d for 20 d ... These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
• HDL Cholesterol Linked to Lower Extremity Performance in Elderly - Medscape, 5/2/08 - "HDL-C levels were significantly associated with all indices of function ... participants with the highest HDL-C levels having the best physical performance"
• Low plasma carotenoids and skeletal muscle strength decline over 6 years - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Apr;63(4):376-83 - "These findings suggest that older community-dwelling adults with lower plasma carotenoids levels, a marker of poor fruit and vegetable intake, are at a higher risk of decline in skeletal muscle strength over time" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
• Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen Help Build Muscle in Older Resistance Trainers - Medscape, 4/10/08 - "We used 1200 milligrams a day for ibuprofen and 4000 milligrams per day of acetaminophen, which is the maximum over-the-counter daily dose ... Muscle volume increased 11% in the ibuprofen group and 13% in the acetaminophen group, compared with 9% in the placebo. Muscle strength increased 30% in the ibuprofen group and 28% in the acetaminophen, compared with 23% in the placebo group"
• Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults - Br J Nutr. 2008 Mar 13;:1-7 - "heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death ... 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks ... maximal heart rate (HR) ... Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
• Low-intensity Exercise Reduces Fatigue Symptoms By 65 Percent, Study Finds - Science Daily, 2/28/08 - "Sedentary people who regularly complain of fatigue can increase their energy levels by 20 percent and decrease their fatigue by 65 percent by engaging in regular, low intensity exercise"
• Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10 - Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb 20;:1-7 - "These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
• Astaxanthin may boost muscle endurance and fat loss - Nutra USA, 2/5/08 - "astaxanthin supplementation "accelerated the decrease of body fat accumulation with exercise training" - [Abstract] - Note:  Astaxanthin is just one of over 600 carotenoids.  The problem with taking large doses of just one carotenoid is that it may cause a deficiency of the others.  I had a study on that but the link went dead.  I tried to find it via http://www.archive.org/web/web.php but it was a .asp web page and it appears that it doesn't work with those extensions. (Click here and see the OnHealth.com, 5/2/00 article).  I take Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
• Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Feb 22;366(4):892-7 - "Astaxanthin increased fat utilization during exercise compared with mice on a normal diet with prolongation of the running time to exhaustion. Colocalization of fatty acid translocase with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in skeletal muscle was increased by astaxanthin. We also found that hexanoyl-lysine modification of CPT I was increased by exercise, while astaxanthin prevented this increase. In additional experiment, we found that astaxanthin treatment accelerated the decrease of body fat accumulation with exercise training"
• Sedentary Lifestyles Associated With Accelerated Aging Process - Science Daily, 1/28/08 - "Telomere length decreased with age, with an average loss of 21 nucleotides (structural units) per year. Men and women who were less physically active in their leisure time had shorter leukocyte telomeres than those who were more active. ... "The mean difference in leukocyte telomere length between the most active [who performed an average of 199 minutes of physical activity per week] and least active [16 minutes of physical activity per week] subjects was 200 nucleotides, which means that the most active subjects had telomeres the same length as sedentary individuals up to 10 years younger, on average."" - I'm must be in fat city on this one.  I must have averaged 60 minutes per day since I've been 18 which comes to 420 minutes per week.  Maybe that's the main reason people claim I look young. Plus I've always taken vitamin D which helps with telomere length also. - Ben
• Fitness Cuts Men's Death Rate - WebMD, 1/22/08 - "Compared to men with a low level of fitness, death rates were 50% lower for highly fit men and 70% lower for men in the "very fit" category"
• Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):142-9 - "The administration of vitamin C significantly (P = 0.014) hampered endurance capacity"
• Moderate Exercise Cuts Rate Of Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 12/17/07 - "a person can lower risk of MetS by walking just 30 minutes a day, six days per week ... Before exercising regularly, 41 percent of the participants met the criteria for MetS. At the end of the 8-month exercise program, only 27 percent did"
• Exercise May Play Role In Reducing Inflammation In Damaged Skin Tissue - Science Daily, 11/28/07 - "moderate exercise sped up how fast wounds heal in old mice ... the improved healing response “may be the result of an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory response in the wound.” ... Cytokines are molecules that signal and direct immune cells, such as macrophages, to the site of an infection ..."
• Alpha-tocopherol supplementation prevents the exercise-induced reduction of serum paraoxonase 1/arylesterase activities in healthy individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19 - "Alpha-T supplementation may result in protection of the enzyme PON 1/Aryl activities from free radical production"
• Exercise May Boost 'Good' Cholesterol - WebMD, 5/29/07 - "Participants who got at least two hours per week of aerobic exercise had a modest rise in their HDL cholesterol level ... the gains in HDL cholesterol levels translate to a 5% drop in men's heart disease risk and more than a 7% drop in women's heart disease risk"
• Maintain Healthy Muscle Mass As You Age - Life Extension Magazine, 1/07 - "By adopting a regimen that includes dietary modifications, hormone replacement therapy as indicated, nutritional supplements, and exercise, it is possible to dramatically improve lean muscle mass at virtually any age"
• Coffee helps douse workout pain - MSNBC, 1/10/06 - "Those who consumed caffeine one hour before the maximum force test had a 48 percent reduction in pain compared with the placebo group"
• Poor Athletic Performance Linked To Vitamin Deficiency - Science Daily, 12/27/06 - "Current national B-vitamin recommendations for active individuals may be inadequate, and athletes who follow the recommended daily allowances set by the U.S. government may be receiving lower amounts of nutrients than there bodies need"
• Red Wine Ingredient Increases Endurance, Study Shows - New York Times, 11/16/06 - "Resveratrol makes you look like a trained athlete without the training" - See resveratrol at Amazon.com.
• Exercise Important in Reducing Size of Abdominal Fat Cells - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/06 - "The diet-alone group had no changes in abdominal fat cell size. However, both exercise groups had decreases of about 18% in the size of their abdominal fat cells"
• Coenzyme Q10 and exercise training in chronic heart failure - Eur Heart J. 2006 Aug 1 - "CoQ10 main effect was: peak VO2+9%, EDDBA +38%, systolic wall thickening score index (SWTI) - 12%" - See coenzyme Q10 at Amazon.com.
• Exercise in Itself Improves Blood Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 7/24/06 - "exercise helps regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels, increases the body's sensitivity to insulin, and decreases blood lipids (fats) while also helping to burn body fat ... Participants who exercised had an overall decrease of 0.6% of A1c levels. While that may not sound like much, it represents a 30% improvement towards the goal of attaining an A1c of 7%, and a 20% improvement towards a normal A1c of 6%"
• Exercise: Key to good sex, good sleep - CNN, 6/20/06 - "exercise in the afternoon can help deepen shut-eye and cut the time it takes for you to fall into dreamland ... exercise has also been linked to a better sex life"
• Key Sugar Sweetens Athletic Performance - HealthDay, 1/12/06 - "The women were tracked on how they performed on 2,000-meter rowing time trials over eight weeks ... The women who took the dextrose drink showed a median improvement of 15.2 seconds over eight weeks, compared to a median improvement of 5.2 seconds among the women who took the ribose drink" [WebMD] - See dextrose at Amazon.com.  By my calculations, 10 grams would be 3.125 teaspoons or about a tablespoon and would be 37.5 calories.  It's worth a try to see if it makes my jogging a swimming easier. - Ben
• Exercise could build brain cells in elderly, study suggests - USAToday, 9/20/05 - "Older mice that exercised on a running wheel developed new brain cells and learned a new task more effectively than older mice that took it easy all day"
• Moderate Exercise Reduces Risk of Colon Cancer Recurrence - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/05 - "disease-free survival was 49% lower in patients who engaged in 18 to 27 MET-hours/week of physical activity, compared with those who exercised less than 3 MET-hours/week. "This is equivalent to a 2 to 3 mph walk a day, 6 days a week, running fast 2 times a week or playing tennis 3 a week,""
• Physical Activity in Old Age Keeps Mind Sharp - WebMD, 12/28/04 - "elderly men who decreased the duration or intensity of their physical activity level over a 10-year period experienced a greater decline in cognitive skills, such as attention, memory, and language skills, than men who maintained the intensity of their physical activity"
• Study Shows Vitamins C And E Can Prevent Metabolic Damaage In Extreme Exercise - Science Daily, 7/15/04 - "ultramarathon runners who used supplements of vitamins C and E for six weeks prior to their races totally prevented the increase in lipid oxidation that is otherwise associated with extreme exercise"
• Vitamin E benefits athlete recovery, further antioxidant evidence  - Nutra USA, 6/24/04 - "This study clearly showed that supplementation with these antioxidant vitamins could help prevent the significant levels of lipid oxidation that are associated with intense exercise"
• Fish Oil May Help Elite Athletes - WebMD, 11/14/03 - "Among the athletes with exercise-induced asthma, there was an almost 80% improvement in a lung function test taken 15 minutes after exercise. The athletes also reduced their use of bronchodilators by 20% after exercise"
• Exercise: What A Little Can Do - Time Magazine, 9/22/03 - "Even 30 minutes a day of moderate exercise, such as walking, led to a weight loss of 14 lbs. over a year. Women who worked out vigorously for an hour a day lost only 6 lbs. more. The second study, part of the Women's Health Initiative, showed that women who exercised moderately for 75 to 150 minutes a week were 18% less likely than inactive women to develop breast cancer. The more the women exercised, the more their risk declined, but once again the incremental difference was small"
• Vitamin E, Exercise Prevent Aging Damage - WebMD, 7/31/03 - "Whether they exercised or not, those taking vitamin E pills had the same reduction in harmful substances known as free radicals -- unstable molecules that damage cells and are believed to contribute to the development of some 200 different diseases, many of them age-related. The levels of a blood marker that signals free-radical damage were cut in half ... Basically, vitamin E prevents free radicals from bumping into cell walls and destroying them" - See my favorite, Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
• Iron Improves Muscle Strength and Endurance - New Hope Natural Media, 4/10/03 - "after six weeks of iron supplementation, the women had 10 to 15% less muscle fatigue after the fourth minute of leg exercises, and leg muscle strength after completion of the exercises was increased by 26.5%" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
• How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? - Obes Rev 2003 May;4(2):101-14 - "The following consensus statement was accepted unanimously. 'The current physical activity guideline for adults of 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity daily, preferably all days of the week, is of importance for limiting health risks for a number of chronic diseases including coronary heart disease and diabetes. However for preventing weight gain or regain this guideline is likely to be insufficient for many individuals in the current environment. There is compelling evidence that prevention of weight regain in formerly obese individuals requires 60-90 minutes of moderate intensity activity or lesser amounts of vigorous intensity activity. Although definitive data are lacking, it seems likely that moderate intensity activity of approximately 45 to 60 minutes per day, or 1.7 PAL (Physical Activity Level) is required to prevent the transition to overweight or obesity. For children, even more activity time is recommended. A good approach for many individuals to obtain the recommended level of physical activity is to reduce sedentary behaviour by incorporating more incidental and leisure-time activity into the daily routine"

News & Research:

• How exercise stalls cancer growth through the immune system - Science Daily, 10/26/20 - "Our research shows that exercise affects the production of several molecules and metabolites that activate cancer-fighting immune cells and thereby inhibit cancer growth"
• Exercise May Boost Your Vaccine Response - NYT, 8/26/20 - "Together, the two studies tell us that being in shape is likely to increase our protection from a vaccination, no matter how intensely or when we work out before the shot"
• The impact of aerobic fitness on arterial stiffness and adrenal cortex hormones in middle-aged and older adults - Endocr J 2020 Aug 1 - "An increase in arterial stiffness with advance aging is a risk for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular dysfunction is associated with the imbalance of adrenal cortex hormones, especially with the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs) ratio ... These findings suggest that the cortisol/DHEAs ratio is associated with aerobic fitness and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults."
• Aerobic exercise could have the final say on fatty livers - Science Daily, 7/29/20 - "fitness may be a more important clinical endpoint for improvement in patients with fatty liver diseases during exercise trials, rather than weight loss"
• Aerobics may be a smart workout for your brain at any age - Science Daily, 5/13/20 - "The study involved 206 adults who prior to starting the six-month exercise intervention worked out no more than four days per week at a moderate intensity for 30 minutes or less, or no more than two days per week a high intensity for 20 minutes or less per day. They had an average age of 66 and no history of heart or memory problems. Participants were given thinking and memory tests at the start of the study, as well as an ultrasound to measure blood flow in the brain. Physical testing was repeated at three months, and thinking and physical testing repeated at the end of the six months ... Participants were enrolled in a supervised aerobic exercise program held three days a week. As they progressed through the program, they increased their workout from an average of 20 minutes a day to an average of at least 40 minutes. In addition, people were asked to work out on their own once a week ... Researchers found that after six months of exercise, participants improved by 5.7% on tests of executive function, which includes mental flexibility and self-correction. Verbal fluency, which tests how quickly you can retrieve information, increased by 2.4% ... This change in verbal fluency is what you'd expect to see in someone five years younger"
• Higher daily step count linked with lower all-cause mortality - Science Daily, 3/24/20 - "They found that, compared with taking 4,000 steps per day, a number considered to be low for adults, taking 8,000 steps per day was associated with a 51% lower risk for all-cause mortality (or death from all causes). Taking 12,000 steps per day was associated with a 65% lower risk compared with taking 4,000 steps. In contrast, the authors saw no association between step intensity and risk of death after accounting for the total number of steps taken per day."
• Aerobic exercise training linked to enhanced brain function - Science Daily, 2/3/20 - "Compared to the participants maintaining their usual level of physical activity, individuals assigned to the active training program improved their cardiorespiratory fitness, spent less time sedentary after the training program ended, and performed better on cognitive tests of executive functioning (but not episodic memory). Executive function, an aspect of cognition that is known to decline with the progression of AD, comprises the mental processes enabling individuals to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, and juggle multiple tasks successfully. The participants' improved cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex, an area of the brain linked to AD ... "This research shows that a lifestyle behavior -- regular aerobic exercise -- can potentially enhance brain and cognitive functions that are particularly sensitive to the disease. The findings are especially relevant to individuals who are at a higher risk due to family history or genetic predisposition," noted Dr. Okonkwo"
• Run a First Marathon, and Your Arteries May Look 4 Years Younger - NYT, 1/15/20 - "Ultimately, 136 men and women completed the race, in an average finishing time of 4.5 hours for the men and 5.5 hours for the women. A week or two later, they returned to the lab to repeat the tests ... Their aortas proved to be more flexible now. In fact, their arteries seemed to have shed the equivalent of about four years, in functional terms. The aorta of a 60-year-old marathoner in the study now expanded and contracted about as lithely as that of a 56-year-old participant did at the study’s start, and the 56-year-old’s arteries worked like those of a pre-race 52-year-old, and so on ... These improvements were most marked in older male runners and those whose finishing times had been slowest. They did not depend on changes in runners’ fitness or weight, which, in most cases, had been negligible. All that had mattered was that people had kept up with their training and raced."
• Keep exercising: New study finds it's good for your brain's gray matter - Science Daily, 1/2/20 - "Brain tissue is made up of gray matter, or cell bodies, and filaments, called white matter, that extend from the cells. The volume of gray matter appears to correlate with various skills and cognitive abilities. The researchers found that increases in peak oxygen uptake were strongly associated with increased gray matter volume ... The results suggest cardiorespiratory exercise may contribute to improved brain health and decelerate a decline in gray matter. An editorial by three Mayo Clinic experts that accompanies the Mayo Clinic Proceedings study says the results are "encouraging, intriguing and contribute to the growing literature relating to exercise and brain health." ... According to Mayo Clinic experts, moderate and regular exercise -- about 150 minutes per week -- is recommended. Good cardiorespiratory fitness also involves: Not smoking ... Following healthy eating habits ... Losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight level ... Managing blood pressure and avoiding hypertension ... Controlling cholesterol levels ... Reducing blood sugar, which over time can damage your heart and other organs"
• High-intensity exercise improves memory in seniors - Science Daily, 10/31/19 - "Some performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) while a separate control group engaged in stretching only ... They found older adults in the HIIT group had a substantial increase in high-interference memory compared to the MICT or control groups. This form of memory allows us to distinguish one car from another of the same make or model, for example"
• Exercise can reduce artery stiffness associated with heart failure - Science Daily, 10/22/19 - "studied three different groups of swine with heart failure: one group was inactive; a second group exercised using intervals with a higher level of intensity for short periods of time intermixed with periods of lower intensity; and the third group exercised with a constant lower level of intensity. Emter found that regardless of exercise intensity or duration, any level of exercise resulted in improved health of blood vessels in the heart"
• Increase health benefits of exercise by working out before breakfast - Science Daily, 10/18-19 - "people who performed exercise before breakfast burned double the amount of fat than the group who exercised after breakfast ... They found that increased fat use is mainly due to lower insulin levels during exercise when people have fasted overnight, which means that they can use more of the fat from their fat tissue and the fat within their muscles as a fuel ... Whilst this did not lead to any differences for weight loss over six weeks, it did have 'profound and positive' effects on their health because their bodies were better able to respond to insulin, keeping blood sugar levels under control and potentially lowering the risk of diabetes and heart disease"
• The fast and the curious: Fitter adults have fitter brains - Science Daily, 9/9/19 - "physical fitness is associated with better brain structure and brain functioning in young adults. This opens the possibility that increasing fitness levels may lead to improved cognitive ability, such as memory and problem solving, as well as improved structural changes in the brain ... It surprised us to see that even in a young population cognitive performance decreases as fitness levels drops. We knew how this might be important in an elderly population which does not necessarily have good health, but to see this happening in 30 year olds is surprising. This leads us to believe that a basic level of fitness seems to be a preventable risk factor for brain health"
• How Exercise Lowers the Risk of Alzheimer’s by Changing Your Brain - Time, 8/9/19 - "Through a series of studies, the team has been building knowledge about which biological processes seem to change with exercise. Okonkwo’s latest findings show that improvements in aerobic fitness mitigated one of the physiological brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s: the slowing down of how neurons breakdown glucose ... But they found that in people who reported exercising at moderate intensity at least 150 minutes a week, as public health experts recommend, brain scans showed that these changes were significantly reduced and in some cases non-existent compared to people who were not active ... In yet another previous study, Okonkwo and his team also found that people with higher aerobic fitness showed lower amounts of white matter hyperintensities, brain changes that are signs of neuron degeneration and show up as brighter spots on MRI images (hence the name). White matter hyperintensities tend to increase in the brain with age, and are more common in people with dementia or cognitive impairment. They form as neurons degrade and the myelin that surrounds their long-reaching arms—which helps nerves communicate with each other effectively—starts to deteriorate. In people with dementia, that process happens faster than normal, leading to an increase in white matter hyperintensities. Okonwko found that people who were more aerobically fit showed lower amounts of these hyperintensities than people who were less fit."
• Timing of exercise may be key to successful weight loss - Science Daily, 7/3/19 - "In a study of 375 adults who have successfully maintained weight loss and who engage in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, most reported consistency in the time of day that they exercised, with early morning being the most common time"
• Extreme exercise can strain the heart without causing permanent damage - Science Daily, 6/27/19 - "Researchers have found no evidence of elevated cardiac risk in runners who completed a 24-hour ultramarathon (24UM), despite the transient elevation of blood biomarkers that measure cardiac health"
• How Much Physical Activity Offsets the Bad From Prolonged Sitting? - Medscape, 4/23/19 - "the excess all-cause and CV mortality risks caused by regular, prolonged sitting — 6 or more hours a day — were seen primarily in people who achieved less than 150 minutes per week of physical activity ... The excess risks were substantially countered in those who maintained the lower guidelines-recommended range of physical activity for improving survival, 150 to 200 minutes per week. And they were all but erased for those achieving the higher recommended physical activity range, at least 300 minutes per week"
• The Heart of a Swimmer vs. the Heart of a Runner - NYT, 4/3/19 - "It turned out, to no one’s surprise, that the athletes, whether runners or swimmers, enjoyed enviable heart health. Their heart rates hovered around 50 beats per minute, with the runners’ rates slightly lower than the swimmers’. But all of the athletes’ heart rates were much lower than is typical for sedentary people, signifying that their hearts were robust ... While all of the athletes’ left ventricles filled with blood earlier than average and untwisted more quickly during each heartbeat, those desirable changes were amplified in the runners. Their ventricles filled even earlier and untwisted more emphatically than the swimmers’ hearts did"
• Exercise adds up to big brain boosts - Science Daily, 3/25/19 - "Study participants underwent fMRI brain scans and working memory tests before and after single sessions of light and moderate intensity exercise and after a 12-week long training program. The researchers found that those who saw the biggest improvements in cognition and functional brain connectivity after single sessions of moderate intensity physical activity also showed the biggest long-term gains in cognition and connectivity"
• Better Late Than Never: Exercising Helps You Live Longer No Matter When You Start, Study Says - Time, 3/8/19 - "they asked more than 315,000 U.S. adults — between ages 50 and 71 — about their leisure-time activity at four different points in their lives: when they were 15-18 years, 19-29 years, 35-39 years and 40-61 years ... People who said they exercised anywhere from two to eight hours a week at each time period had a 29% to 36% lower risk of dying from any cause during the study’s 20-year period, compared to people who rarely or never exercised. They also lowered their risk of dying from heart disease by up to 42% and cancer by up to 14% compared to inactive people. The more people exercised, the greater their risk reductions"
• This Is the Best Time of Day to Work Out, According to Science - Time, 2/27/19 - "If he had to pick a best time to exercise, morning would win, Hackney says. Early workouts make the most of your biology and psychology, potentially leading to better results and adherence over time. But there’s really no bad time to exercise, Hackney reiterates, and the most important thing is finding the time to do so, whenever works for you"
• Keeping active in middle age may be tied to lower risk of dementia - Science Daily, 2/25/19 - "women with a high level of mental activities were 46 percent less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease and 34 percent less likely to develop dementia overall than the women with the low level of mental activities. The women who were physically active were 52 percent less likely to develop dementia with cerebrovascular disease and 56 percent less likely to develop mixed dementia than the women who were inactive"
• How exercise may protect against Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/8/19 - "A few years ago, exercise researchers discovered a hormone called irisin that is released into the circulation during physical activity. Initial studies suggested that irisin mainly played a role in energy metabolism. But newer research found that the hormone may also promote neuronal growth in the brain's hippocampus, a region critical for learning and memory ... irisin is present in the human hippocampus and that hippocampal levels of the hormone are reduced in individuals with Alzheimer's ... irisin, in mice, protects the brain's synapses and the animals' memory: When irisin was disabled in the hippocampus of healthy mice, synapses and memory weakened. Similarly, boosting brain levels of irisin improved both measures of brain health ... mice who swam nearly every day for five weeks did not develop memory impairment despite getting infusions of beta amyloid -- the neuron-clogging, memory-robbing protein implicated in Alzheimer's ... Blocking irisin with a drug completely eliminated the benefits of swimming, the researchers also found"
• Lifelong Exercise Halts Markers of Aging, Immune System Decline - Medscape, 2/1/19 - "Researchers found that muscle fiber type and composition, size, and mitochondrial protein content showed no association with age. However, they did find that in males, type 1 fibers and capillary density were significantly associated with training volume, maximum oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake kinetics, and ventilatory threshold; whereas in females, capillary density was associated with training volume. Male subjects also failed to increase body fat and cholesterol levels with age and experienced no declines in testosterone levels. Moreover, the thymus glands of the subjects made T cells at the same rate as young people, a marker of immune system competency"
• Exercise may improve thinking skills in people as young as 20 - Science Daily, 1/30/19 - "The specific set of thinking skills that improved with exercise is called executive function. Executive function is a person's ability to regulate their own behavior, pay attention, organize and achieve goals ... Researchers found that aerobic exercise increased thinking skills. From the beginning of the study to the end, those who did aerobic exercise improved their overall scores on executive function tests by 0.50 points, which was a statistically significant difference from those who did stretching and toning, who improved by 0.25 points. At age 40, the improvement in thinking skills was 0.228 standard deviation units higher in those who exercised compared to those who did stretching and toning and at age 60, it was 0.596 standard deviation units higher ... "Since a difference of 0.5 standard deviations is equivalent to 20 years of age-related difference in performance on these tests, the people who exercised were testing as if they were about 10 years younger at age 40 and about 20 years younger at age 60," Stern said ... Researchers also found an increase in the thickness of the outer layer of the brain in the left frontal area in all those who exercised, suggesting that aerobic exercise contributes to brain fitness at all ages."
• The fat-burning heart-rate zone is a myth: How exercise and weight loss really work - Washington Post, 12/18/18 - "If you’re the kind of exerciser who constantly checks your heart rate to ensure you’re in the fat-burning zone, you should stop. You’ll probably never meet your weight-loss goals that way. That’s because there’s no special fat-burning zone that’s key to getting lean"
• Physical activity in the evening does not cause sleep problems - Science Daily, 12/13/18 - "The scientists combed through the literature on the subject and analysed all 23 studies that met their quality requirements. They concluded that doing exercise in the four hours before going to bed does not have a negative effect on sleep"
• Phys Ed: Is Aerobic Exercise the Key to Successful Aging? - NYT, 12/11/18 - "Aerobic activities like jogging and interval training can make our cells biologically younger; weight training did not have the same effect." - Note:  I'm always been an aerobic person and never bought off on the anaerobic craze.  You can only do so much and I already spend an hour and a half on aerobics per day.
• Phys Ed: Regular Exercise May Keep Your Body 30 Years ‘Younger’ - NYT, 11/21/18 - "We were very interested in people who had started exercising during the running and exercise booms of the 1970s ... That era, bookended to some extent by the passage of Title IX in 1972 and the publication of “The Complete Book of Running” in 1977, introduced a generation of young men and women to recreational physical activity, Dr. Trappe says ... Instead, the muscles of the older exercisers resembled those of the young people, with as many capillaries and enzymes as theirs, and far more than in the muscles of the sedentary elderly ... In fact, when the researchers compared the active older people’s aerobic capacities to those of established data about “normal” capacities at different ages, they calculated that the aged, active group had the cardiovascular health of people 30 years younger than themselves"
• Fitness Levels in Middle-Age May Predict Survival Decades Later - Medscape, 8/21/18 - "Taking VO2max as a continuous variable, each 1-mL/kg/min increment was associated with a 45-day increase in longevity ... The current findings support well-established observations that the greatest survival gains are achieved with improvements at the lowest levels of physical activity, that is, "simply by moving away from the least-fit end of the CRF distribution,""
• New research shows marathoners have less arthritis than non-runners - Washington Post, 6/13/18 - "veteran American marathoners had only half as much arthritis as non-runners"
• Better physical fitness and lower aortic stiffness key to slower brain aging - Science Daily, 6/12/18 - "The results of this study indicate that remaining as physically fit as possible, and monitoring central arterial health, may well be an important, cost effective way to maintain our memory and other brain functions in older age"
• Time spent sitting at a screen matters less if you are fit and strong - Science Daily, 5/24/18 - "the amount of leisure time spent watching a television or computer screen had almost double the impact on the risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer in people with low grip strength or low fitness levels than on participants who had the highest levels of fitness and grip strength. Increasing strength and fitness may offset the adverse health consequences of spending a large proportion of leisure time sitting down and watching a screen"
• Higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with better word production skills in healthy older adults - Science Daily, 4/30/18 - "In our study, the higher the older adults' aerobic fitness level, the lower the probability of experiencing a tip-of-the-tongue state ... Importantly, our results also showed that the relationship between the frequency of tip-of-the-tongue occurrences and aerobic fitness levels exists over and above the influence of a person's age and vocabulary size"
• Brain pathology is related to total daily physical activity in older adults - Neurology. 2018 Apr 25 - "Macroinfarcts, nigral neuronal loss, and white matter pathologies are related to total daily physical activity in older adults, but further studies are needed to explain its pathologic basis more fully"
• Physically fit women nearly 90 percent less likely to develop dementia - Science Daily, 3/15/18 - "Women with high physical fitness at middle age were nearly 90 percent less likely to develop dementia decades later, compared to women who were moderately fit ... When the highly fit women did develop dementia, they developed the disease an average of 11 years later than women who were moderately fit, or at age 90 instead of age 79"
• A lifetime of regular exercise slows down aging, study finds - Science Daily, 3/8/18 - "The study showed that loss of muscle mass and strength did not occur in those who exercise regularly. The cyclists also did not increase their body fat or cholesterol levels with age and the men's testosterone levels also remained high, suggesting that they may have avoided most of the male menopause ... More surprisingly, the study also revealed that the benefits of exercise extend beyond muscle as the cyclists also had an immune system that did not seem to have aged either ... An organ called the thymus, which makes immune cells called T cells, starts to shrink from the age of 20 and makes less T cells. In this study, however, the cyclists' thymuses were making as many T cells as those of a young person."
• Poor fitness linked to weaker brain fiber, higher dementia risk - Science Daily, 2/14/18 - "a new study from UT Southwestern's O'Donnell Brain Institute suggests that the lower the fitness level, the faster the deterioration of vital nerve fibers in the brain. This deterioration results in cognitive decline, including memory issues characteristic of dementia patients ... This research supports the hypothesis that improving people's fitness may improve their brain health and slow down the aging process ... lower fitness levels were associated with weaker white matter, which in turn correlated with lower brain function"
• Cycling Won't Sabotage a Man's Sex Life: Study - WebMD, 1/17/18 - "high-intensity cyclists logged better erectile function scores than low-intensity cyclists ... Also notably, cyclists did experience more than twice the incidence of scarring or narrowing in the urethra -- a condition known as urethral strictures -- compared to swimmers or runners. The condition can affect the flow of urine from the body. But cyclists' sexual and urinary health was comparable overall to the other athletes ... Urethral strictures "are such an uncommon event that I wouldn't keep people from riding," Breyer said"
• Working memory positively associated with higher physical endurance, better cognitive function - Science Daily, 12/5/17 - "They found that cohesiveness in the working memory brain map was positively associated with higher physical endurance and better cognitive function. Physical traits such as high body mass index, and suboptimal lifestyle choices including binge alcohol drinking and regular smoking, had the opposite association"
• Male Triathletes May Be Harming Their Hearts - WebMD, 11/21/17 - "18 percent of the men had evidence of scarring of the heart, known as myocardial fibrosis"
• Exercise increases brain size, new research finds - Science Daily, 11/13/17 - "Brain health decreases with age, with the average brain shrinking by approximately five per cent per decade after the age of 40 ... while exercise had no effect on total hippocampal volume, it did significantly increase the size of the left region of the hippocampus in humans ... When you exercise you produce a chemical called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which may help to prevent age-related decline by reducing the deterioration of the brain"
• Running rats remember better - Science Daily, 8/14/17 - "Early life interventions that increase physical activity may therefore help to build up this reserve, potentially delaying the onset of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease"
• Why running is so beneficial for older women - Washington Post, 8/1/17 - "Our bodies build bone mass when we apply stress along the full length of our bones, which is what happens when we run, according to sports medicine specialist and physical therapist Kevin McGuinness, who practices at Washington Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine. Bones build structure in response to the stresses applied to them, and for the weight-bearing bones, such as those in our legs and hips, you need to apply stresses while upright, working against gravity, in a weight-bearing fashion, he explained."
• How physical exercise prevents dementia - Science Daily, 7/21/17 - "As expected, physical activity had influenced brain metabolism: it prevented an increase in choline. The concentration of this metabolite often rises as a result of the increased loss of nerve cells, which typically occurs in the case of Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise led to stable cerebral choline concentrations in the training group, whereas choline levels increased in the control group. The participants' physical fitness also improved: they showed increased cardiac efficiency after the training period. Overall, these findings suggest that physical exercise not only improves physical fitness but also protects cells"
• The Best Thing to Eat Before a Workout? Maybe Nothing at All - NYT, 4/26/17 - "these efforts obviously have focused on sports performance. Far less has been known about how meal timing and exercise might affect general health ... The implication of these results is that to gain the greatest health benefits from exercise, it may be wise to skip eating first ... our ancestors would have had to expend a great deal of energy through physical activity in order to hunt and gather food. So, it would be perfectly normal for the exercise to come first, and the food to follow"
• An Hour of Running May Add 7 Hours to Your Life - NYT, 4/12/17 - "In concrete terms, an hour of running statistically lengthens life expectancy by seven hours"
• Sperm DNA fragmentation as a result of ultra-endurance exercise training in male athletes - Andrologia. 2017 Mar 15 - "Sperm DNA fragmentation and the T/C ratio, however, were correlated in a positive manner (p = .03). As evidenced by the observed results, sperm DNA fragmentation is affected by high-level sports practice; therefore, high loads of endurance training could potentially interfere with the athlete's fertility potential"
• Runners' brains may be more connected, research shows - Science Daily, 12/14/16 - "The runners, overall, showed greater functional connectivity -- or connections between distinct brain regions -- within several areas of the brain, including the frontal cortex, which is important for cognitive functions such as planning, decision-making and the ability to switch attention between tasks ... The areas of the brain where we saw more connectivity in runners are also the areas that are impacted as we age, so it really raises the question of whether being active as a young adult could be potentially beneficial and perhaps afford some resilience against the effects of aging and disease"
• Aerobic exercise preserves brain volume and improves cognitive function - Science Daily, 11/30/16 - "adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who exercised four times a week over a six-month period experienced an increase in brain volume in specific, or local, areas of the brain, but adults who participated in aerobic exercise experienced greater gains than those who just stretched ... Compared to the stretching group, the aerobic activity group had greater preservation of total brain volume, increased local gray matter volume and increased directional stretch of brain tissue"
• Stronger Muscles May Pump Up Your Memory - WebMD, 10/24/16 - "volunteers who did weight training twice a week for six months to at least 80 percent of their maximum strength showed significant improvements in mental function ... The benefits lasted for at least a year after their supervised weight-lifting sessions ended ... The stronger people became, the greater the benefit for their brain ... The key, however, is to make sure you are doing it frequently, at least twice a week, and at a high intensity so that you are maximizing your strength gains. This will give you the maximum benefit for your brain"
• Can Running Make You Smarter? - NYT, 7/13/16 - "when lab rodents or other animals exercise, they create extra neurons in their brains, a process known as neurogenesis. These new cells then cluster in portions of the brain critical for thinking and recollection ... animals living in cages enlivened with colored toys, flavored varieties of water and other enrichments wind up showing greater neurogenesis than animals in drab, standard cages. But animals given access to running wheels, even if they don’t also have all of the toys and other party-cage extras, develop the most new brain cells of all"
• Another reason to stay active as we age - Science Daily, 5/26/16 - "individuals who maintain an active jogging habit into their senior years are spending nearly the same amount of metabolic energy as a 20-year-old"
• Exercise Lowers Risk for These 13 Cancer Types - NBC News, 5/16/16 - "Those who exercised the most had: A 26 percent lower risk of lung cancer ... A 23 percent lower risk of kidney cancer ... A 22 percent lower risk of stomach cancer ... A 21 percent lower risk of endometrial cancer ... A 20 percent lower risk of myeloid leukemia ... A 17 percent lower risk of myeloma ... A 16 percent lower risk of colon cancer... A 15 percent lower risk of head and neck cancer ... A 13 percent lower risk of rectal cancer...A 13 percent lower risk of bladder cancer ... A 10 percent lower risk of breast cancer"
• Exercise May Keep Your Brain 10 Years Younger, Study Suggests - WebMD, 3/23/16 - "physical activity boosts blood flow to the brain, and may enhance the connections among brain cells ... When it came to tests of episodic memory -- remembering words from a list -- less-active and sedentary seniors showed the equivalent of 10 extra years of brain aging ... a casual walk around your neighborhood is not enough to preserve brain function as you age"
• Health Benefit of Standing Desks Not Proven, Medical Review Shows - ABC News, 3/16/16 - The video is more informative than the article.  Standing has problems also such a varicose veins.
• The Tricky Business of Treating Altitude Sickness - NYT, 12/8/15 - "For future trips, her doctor prescribed acetazolamide, sold as Diamox, one of the few proven AMS drugs ... it can have unpleasant side effects ... The best way to avoid altitude sickness is to ascend gradually, and either stop at a lower altitude for a night or return to one to sleep. Visitors should avoid alcohol and plan their vacations so they don’t overexert themselves in the first 48 hours ... If a gradual ascent isn’t possible, Diamox might be appropriate, the C.D.C. said"
• Physical activity may leave the brain more open to change - Science Daily, 12/7/15 - "moderate levels of physical activity enhance neuroplasticity in the visual cortex of adult humans"
• Can physical exercise enhance long-term memory? - Science Daily, 11/25/15 - "mice that spent time running on wheels not only developed twice the normal number of new neurons, but also showed an increased ability to distinguish new objects from familiar objects ... studies have shown that exercise can improve spatial navigation, contextual memory and the ability to distinguish between highly similar objects or stimuli (pattern separation) in rodents and humans ... Because exercise can increase the rate of new neurons being produced, it makes it an attractive candidate for therapeutic purposes. Studies have shown that exercise can have both structural and cognitive benefits in rodent models of pathological conditions like Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Alzheimer's disease"
• Improving fitness may counteract brain atrophy in older adults, study shows - Science Daily, 11/19/15 - "the study participants who showed the greatest improvements in fitness had the most growth in the cortical layer, including both the group diagnosed with MCI and the healthy elders. While both groups showed strong associations between increased fitness and increased cortical thickness after the intervention, the MCI participants showed greater improvements compared to healthy group in the left insula and superior temporal gyrus, two brain regions that have been shown to exhibit accelerated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease"
• Does Exercise Slow the Aging Process? - NY Times, 10/28/15 - "As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. But the process can be accelerated by obesity, smoking, insomnia, diabetes and other aspects of health and lifestyle ... For every point someone gained from any type of exercise, his or her risks of having unusually short telomeres declined significantly ... That risk declined more substantially if someone exercised more. People who reported two types of exercise were 24 percent less likely to have short telomeres; three types of exercise were 29 percent less likely; and those who had participated in all four types of activities were 59 percent less likely to have very short telomeres"
• Active body, active mind: The secret to a younger brain may lie in exercising your body - Science Daily, 10/23/15 - "the fitter men performed better mentally than the less fit men, by using parts of their brains in the same way as in their youth ... less fit older men by using the more important brain regions when needed. In fact, the fitter older men are using parts of their brains in the same way as when they were younger ... one possible explanation suggested by the research is that the volume and integrity of the white matter in the part of brain that links the two sides declines with age"
• New study says 30 minutes of exercise a day is not enough. You should double or quadruple that - Washington Post, 10/6/15 - "those following the 30-minutes-a-day guidelines issued by the American Heart Association had “modest reductions” in heart failure risk compared to those who did not work out at all ... But those who did twice and four times as much exercise experienced “a substantial risk reduction" of 20 and 35 percent respectively" - Note:  This has been going back and forth for years.  I never bought off on the "less is more" theory.
• The Most Effective Way to Protect an Aging Brain - WebMD, 8/7/15 - "Exercise lowered levels of toxic tau proteins and increased blood flow in the brains of people with early memory changes that put them at risk for dementia. Four months of intense exercise improved symptoms like anxiety, irritability, and depression in people with Alzheimer’s, though it didn’t help their memories. But 6 months of exercise did improve memory and thinking in people diagnosed with vascular dementia ... the not-so-great news is that studies are showing that it takes a pretty big commitment to get this protection -- at least 3 hours, or 180 minutes, of vigorous physical activity each week. That’s significantly more than the 150 minutes a week that government guidelines recommend ... rigorous physical activity is any exercise that makes you pant and sweat. And it requires people to get their heart pumping at 70% to 80% of their age-related maximum heart rate. For someone who’s 65 years old, that’s somewhere between 109 and 124 beats per minute ... Experts say in order to see the brain benefits, it’s really important to hit the right dose of physical activity"
• Half hour of physical activity 6 days a week linked to 40 percent lower risk of early death - Science Daily, 5/15/15 - "The more time spent doing vigorous exercise the lower the risk seemed to be, falling by between 36% and 49% ... And men who regularly engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity during their leisure time lived five years longer, on average, than those who were classified as sedentary ... Overall, these showed that 30 minutes of physical activity--of light or vigorous intensity--6 days a week was associated with a 40% lower risk of death from any cause"
• Reducing Belly Fat - NYTimes.com, 5/15/15 - "The good news about fighting visceral fat is that it seems to be uniquely vulnerable to exercise. “Exercise disproportionately targets visceral fat,” says Gary R. Hunter, a professor of human studies at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Cutting calories should also reduce visceral flab, he said, but the effects are more substantial and lasting with exercise ... sedentary women who began a yearlong program of moderate exercise twice a week lost about 2 percent of their total body fat, he said. But they lost about 10 percent of their visceral fat ... While some studies suggest that endurance training, such as walking or jogging, is more effective than weight training, a comprehensive 2013 review concluded that programs combining aerobic exercise and occasional sessions of weight training were superior to either type of exercise alone at reducing belly fat ... One exercise that will not slim your belly is the situp, despite entrenched beliefs to the contrary"
• Association Between Healthy Diet and Exercise and Greater Muscle Mass in Older Adults J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr 27 - "vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass"
• Strength vs. endurance: Does exercise type matter in the fight against obesity? - Science Daily, 4/23/15 - "In addition to the diet, participants were randomly assigned to follow one of three different types of exercise training programs or to follow the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for weekly physical activity. Subjects assigned to exercise training groups performed either endurance exercise alone (their choice of running, elliptical or cycling); strength exercises alone (shoulder press, squats, barbell row, biceps curl, lateral split, front split, bench press and French press); or a combination of strength and endurance exercises ... Perhaps surprisingly, the outcomes for the participants -- including significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total fat mass, and a significant increase in lean mass -- were positive across the board despite the differences in the type of exercise performed ... One calorie burned in exercise is not the same as one not ingested"
• Regular, Vigorous Exercise May Lengthen Your Life: Study - WebMD, 4/6/15 - "Researchers compared those who engaged in only moderate activities -- like gentle swimming, social tennis or household chores -- with people who got some amount of vigorous activity -- such as jogging, aerobics or competitive tennis ... The death rate for those who said up to 30 percent of their physical activity was vigorous was 9 percent lower than those who reported no vigorous activity. The risk of death dropped 13 percent for those who said that more than 30 percent of their exercise was vigorous, the study authors reported"
• Physical Activity, Television Watching and Semen Quality - Medscape, 3/25/15 - "men in the highest quartile of moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥15 h/week) had 73% (95% CI 15% to 160%) higher sperm concentration than men in the lowest quartile (<5 h/week)"
• Exercise linked to improved erectile, sexual function in men - Science Daily, 3/23/15 - "men who reported more frequent exercise, a total of 18 metabolic equivalents, or METS, per week, had higher sexual function scores, regardless of race. MET hours reflect both the total time of exercise and the intensity of exercise. A total of 18 METS can be achieved by combining exercises with different intensities, but is the equivalent of two hours of strenuous exercise, such as running or swimming, 3.5 hours of moderate exercise, or six hours of light exercise ... In contrast, men of any ethnicity who exercised less reported lower levels of sexual function. Additional contributors to low sexual function included diabetes, older age, past or current smoking and coronary artery disease"
• Jogging Dose and Long-term Mortality: Copenhagen Heart Study - Medscape, 3/20/15 - "Compared with sedentary nonjoggers, 1 to 2.4 h of jogging per week was associated with the lowest mortality (multivariable hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11 to 0.80). The optimal frequency of jogging was 2 to 3 times per week (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.69) or ≤1 time per week (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.72). The optimal pace was slow (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.10) or average (HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.66). The joggers were divided into light, moderate, and strenuous joggers. The lowest HR for mortality was found in light joggers (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.47), followed by moderate joggers (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.38) and strenuous joggers (HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.48 to 8.14)"
• How Exercise Keeps Us Young - NYTimes.com, 1/7/15 - "the scientists recruited 85 men and 41 women aged between 55 and 79 who bicycle regularly ... the cyclists did not show their age. On almost all measures, their physical functioning remained fairly stable across the decades and was much closer to that of young adults than of people their age. As a group, even the oldest cyclists had younger people’s levels of balance, reflexes, metabolic health and memory ability ,,, Age does seem to reduce our endurance and strength to some extent"
• Significant link between daily physical activity, vascular health - Science Daily, 12/31/14 - "The researchers studied the early effects on the body's blood vessels when someone transitions from high daily physical activity -- 10,000 or more steps per day -- to low daily physical activity, less than 5,000 steps per day. Five thousand steps is the national average, but only half of the daily recommendation from the U.S. Surgeon General. The researchers found going from high to low levels of daily physical activity for just five days decreases the function of the inner lining of the blood vessels in the legs  ... The impairment we saw in just five days was quite striking ... It shows just how susceptible the vascular system is to physical inactivity"
• Are you crazy for working out while sick? - CNN.com, 12/22/14 - "If you don't have a fever, a runny nose is no reason to skip a workout ... If you are mildly sick, [staying] active will promote your immune function, and help you sleep better ... When you have a cold, you're typically contagious for about five full days, and your germs spread most easily during your two to three most symptomatic days ... Working out with a fever can make your health way worse ... Angarone recommends resting until your fever has been gone for a full 24 hours, without the help of any fever-reducing medications like ibuprofen"
• Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats - Int J Impot Res. 2014 Dec 18 - "Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats"
• Exercise Offsets the Effects of a High-Fructose Diet - Medscape, 11/26/14 - "physical activity (PA) ... Low PA during a period of high fructose intake augments fructose-induced postprandial lipidemia and inflammation, whereas high PA minimizes these fructose-induced metabolic disturbances. Even within a young healthy population, maintenance of high PA (>12,500 steps per day) decreases susceptibility to cardiovascular risk factors associated with elevated fructose consumption"
• Men who exercise less more likely to wake up to urinate - Science Daily, 8/28/14 - "Among men in the incident group, those who were physically active one or more hours per week were 13 percent less likely to report nocturia and 34 percent less likely to report severe nocturia then men who reported no physical activity. (Nocturia was defined as waking two or more times during the night to urinate; severe nocturia was defined as waking three or more times to urinate.)"
• Lifetime of fitness: Fountain of youth for bone, joint health? - Science Daily, 8/27/14 - "It long has been assumed that aging causes an inevitable deterioration of the body and its ability to function, as well as increased rates of related injuries such as sprains, strains and fractures; diseases, such as obesity and diabetes; and osteoarthritis and other bone and joint conditions. However, recent research on senior, elite athletes suggests usage of comprehensive fitness and nutrition routines helps minimize bone and joint health decline and maintain overall physical health ... A lot of the deterioration we see with aging can be attributed to a more sedentary lifestyle instead of aging itself ... A minimum of 150 to 300 minutes a week of endurance training, in 10 to 30 minute episodes, for elite senior athletes is recommended. Less vigorous and/or short-duration aerobic regimens may provide limited benefit ... For senior athletes, a daily protein intake of 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg is recommended, as well as carbohydrate consumption of 6 to 8 g/kg (more than 8 g/kg in the days leading up to an endurance event)" - Note:  300/7 = 43 minutes  per day.
• Association Between Hearing Impairment and Lower Levels of Physical Activity in Older Adults - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jul 15 - "Individuals with moderate or greater hearing impairment had greater odds than those with normal hearing of being in a lower category of physical activity as measured according to self-report (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.11-2.28) and accelerometry (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 0.99-2.91)"
• Life-long endurance running is associated with reduced glycation and mechanical stress in connective tissue - Age (Dordr). 2014 Aug;36(4):9665 - "Life-long regular endurance runners (master athletes) had a 21 % lower AGE cross-link density compared to old untrained. Furthermore, both master athletes and young athletes displayed a thicker patellar tendon. These cross-sectional data suggest that life-long regular endurance running can partly counteract the aging process in connective tissue by reducing age-related accumulation of AGEs. This may not only benefit skin and tendon but also other long-lived protein tissues in the body. Furthermore, it appears that endurance running yields tendon tissue hypertrophy that may serve to lower the stress on the tendon and thereby reduce the risk of injury" - 21% of 60 years would equate to 12.6 years younger.
• Why exercise may not help obese shed much weight: Exercise can elevate stress response and make it more difficult to become slim - Science Daily, 5/12/14 - "The research covered 17 inactive people with a body mass index greater than 35 who took part in a 22 week programme for lifestyle change which involved exercise, diet and seminars ... Despite their efforts, the participants lost less weight than expected from the amount of keep-fit they did and the changes they made to their eating habits ... The scientists believe this could be related to cortisol ... those participants who lost the most weight had the lowest level of morning cortisol"
• Road to fountain of youth paved with fast food ... and sneakers? Exercise may prevent or delay fundamental process of aging - Science Daily, 4/28/14 - "The research team compared mice fed a fast food diet (FFD) for 5 months with those fed a standard chow diet (control). Unlike the controls, the FFD mice developed insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired exercise ability, and heart dysfunction. But when the FFD mice were given a running wheel, the exercise began to counteract the effects of a poor diet. White et al. observed a number of improvements including body weight, metabolism, and cardiac function. They also saw a significant decrease in signs of cell senescence and associated inflammation ... Our data clearly show that poor nutritional choices dramatically accelerate the accumulation of senescent cells, and for the first time, that exercise can prevent or delay this fundamental process of aging"
• Younger Skin Through Exercise - NYTimes.com, 4/16/14 - "The scientists biopsied skin samples from each volunteer and examined them microscopically. When compared strictly by age, the skin samples overall aligned with what would be expected. Older volunteers generally had thicker outer layers of skin and significantly thinner inner layers ... But those results shifted noticeably when the researchers further subdivided their samples by exercise habits. They found that after age 40, the men and women who exercised frequently had markedly thinner, healthier stratum corneums and thicker dermis layers in their skin. Their skin was much closer in composition to that of the 20- and 30-year-olds than to that of others of their age, even if they were past age 65 ... the researchers next set a group of sedentary volunteers to exercising ... I don’t want to over-hype the results, but, really, it was pretty remarkable to see ... Under a microscope, the volunteers’ skin “looked like that of a much younger person, and all that they had done differently was exercise"
• Regular aerobic exercise boosts memory area of brain in older women - Science Daily, 4/9/14 - "The researchers tested the impact of different types of exercise on the hippocampal volume of 86 women who said they had mild memory problems, known as mild cognitive impairment -- and a common risk factor for dementia ... All the women were aged between 70 and 80 years old ... the results showed that the total volume of the hippocampus in the group who had completed the full six months of aerobic training was significantly larger than that of those who had lasted the course doing balance and muscle toning exercises ... No such difference in hippocampal volume was seen in those doing resistance training compared with the balance and muscle toning group ... at the very least, aerobic exercise seems to be able to slow the shrinkage of the hippocampus and maintain the volume in a group of women who are at risk of developing dementia"
• Young and Fit? You'll Be Old and Sharp, Study Finds - NBC News.com, 4/2/14 - "The study started back in 1985 when the researchers recruited about 5,000 people aged 18 to 30 in Minneapolis, Birmingham, Ala., Chicago and Oakland, Calif. They did the treadmill test and got physical examinations. Many of the people had interim examinations, and more than 2,700 agreed to try the treadmill test again 20 years later ... The better people did on the treadmill test 20 years before, the better they did on the memory test. And if people had kept their fitness up in middle age, they did even better ... One reason is that the brain uses a lot of oxygen, and people who are fitter make more efficient use of oxygen ... Physical activity also benefits mitochondrial function — a measure of how well structures in the cells call mitochondria make use of energy"
• Want a better work-life balance? Exercise, study finds - Science Daily, 1/9/14 - "Individuals who exercised regularly were more confident they could handle the interaction of their work and home life and were less likely to be stressed at work ... The idea sounds counterintuitive. How is it that adding something else to our work day helps to alleviate stress and empower us to deal with work-family issues? We think exercise is a way to psychologically detach from work -- you're not there physically and you're not thinking about it either -- and, furthermore, it can help us feel good about ourselves ... Researchers examined responses of 476 working adults to survey questions ... Our findings suggest that employers can help employees with work-life balance by encouraging them to exercise"
• Aerobic Fitness in Youth Linked to Lower MI Risk Later - Medscape, 1/7/14 - "Aerobic fitness is not the same as physical activity ... Physical fitness is basically how long you can run on the treadmill before you fall off. It's how long and how fast you can go and it's determined by genetic factors. So in this study, we have estimated the amount of physical fitness, which is attributed to an individual's genes. A lot of the variation in physical fitness is attributed to genetics ... the large cohort study included 743 498 Swedish men 18 years of age who were conscripted into military service between 1969 and 1984. All individuals underwent aerobic fitness testing using an electrically braked ergometer cycling test that increased resistance until the point of fatigue ... mean follow-up of 34 years ... each SD increase in the maximal work rate, which was used as a marker of aerobic fitness, decreased the risk of MI by 18%. Compared with men in the highest quintile, those with the lowest levels of aerobic fitness had a more than twofold increase in risk" - [Abstract]
• 35 year study finds exercise reduces risk of dementia - Science Daily, 12/10/13 - "The study identifies five healthy behaviors as being integral to having the best chance of leading a disease-free lifestyle: taking regular exercise, non-smoking, a low body weight, a healthy diet and a low alcohol intake ... The people who consistently followed four or five of these behaviors experienced a 60 per cent decline in dementia and cognitive decline -- with exercise being the strongest mitigating factor -- as well as 70 per cent fewer instances of diabetes, heart disease and stroke, compared with people who followed none"
• Exercise as a remedy for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):25-31 - "Resistance exercise training is more effective in increasing muscle mass and strength, whereas endurance exercises training is superior for maintaining and improving maximum aerobic power. Based on these evidences, recommendations for adult and frail older people should include a balanced program of both endurance and strength exercises, performed on a regular schedule (at least 3 days a week) ... Regular exercise is the only strategy found to consistently prevent frailty and improve sarcopenia and physical function in older adults"
• Life-long endurance exercise in humans: Circulating levels of inflammatory markers and leg muscle size - Mech Ageing Dev. 2013 Nov 25 - "endurance training (Tr) ... we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr (Y-Tr) and 12 Young-Un (Y-Un) ... Tr was associated with an improved insulin profile (p<0.05), and lower leucocyte (p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (p<0.05), independent of age. Aging was associated with poorer glucose control (p<0.05), independent of training. The age-related changes in waist circumference, VO2 peak, cholesterol, LDL, leg muscle size, CRP and IL-6 were counteracted by physical activity (p<0.05). A significant increase in suPAR with age was observed (p<0.05). Most importantly, life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p<0.05), and with a greater thigh muscle area (p<0.05), compared to age-matched untrained counterparts. These findings in a limited group of individuals suggest that regular physical endurance activity may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging"
• Children's Cardiovascular Fitness Declining Worldwide - Science Daily, 11/20/13 - "In the United States, kids' cardiovascular endurance fell an average 6 percent per decade between 1970 and 2000 ... In a mile run, kids today are about a minute and a half slower than their peers 30 years ago"
• Aerobic Exercise Improves Memory, Brain Function, Physical Fitness - Science Daily, 11/12/13 - "sedentary adults ages 57-75 were randomized into a physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group participated in supervised aerobic exercise on a stationary bike or treadmill for one hour, three times a week for 12 weeks ... By measuring brain blood flow non-invasively using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, we can now begin to detect brain changes much earlier than before ... One key region where we saw increase in brain blood flow was the anterior cingulate, indicating higher neuronal activity and metabolic rate. The anterior cingulate has been linked to superior cognition in late life ... Exercisers who improved their memory performance also showed greater increase in brain blood flow to the hippocampus, the key brain region affected by Alzheimer's disease"
• Molecule produced during exercise boosts brain health - Science Daily, 10/10/13 - "a molecule called FNDC5 and its cleavage product, irisin, are elevated by endurance exercise in the brain and increase BDNF expression. On the other hand, mice genetically altered to have low irisin levels in the brain had reduced levels of BDNF ... FNDC5/irisin has the ability control a very important neuroprotective pathway in the brain"
• The role of resistance and aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity measures in STZ-induced Type 1 diabetic rodents - Metabolism. 2013 Jun 27 - "Treadmill trained rats had the lowest insulin dose requirement of the T1DM rats and the greatest reduction in insulin dosage was evident in high intensity treadmill exercise"
• Physical activity and other lifestyle factors in relation to the prevalence of colorectal adenoma: a colonoscopy-based study in asymptomatic Koreans - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jun 11 - "1,526 asymptomatic subjects who underwent a colonoscopy were enrolled. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and smoking data were obtained using a questionnaire ... higher levels of physical activity were associated with a significantly decreased risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.40-0.79). This inverse association was stronger for the risk of high-risk adenomas (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.21-0.73) than for low-risk adenomas (OR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.43-0.89). The negative relation of physical activity was significant for distal colon adenomas (OR = 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.95) and the adenomas with multiple locations (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.21-0.72)"
• Is It Better to Walk or Run? - NYTimes.com, 5/29/13 - "The walkers turned out to be hungry, consuming about 50 calories more than they had burned during their hourlong treadmill stroll ... The runners, on the other hand, picked at their food, taking in almost 200 calories less than they had burned while running ... The runners also proved after exercise to have significantly higher blood levels of a hormone called peptide YY, which has been shown to suppress appetite ... runners had far less risk of high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol profiles, diabetes and heart disease than their sedentary peers. But the walkers were doing even better. Runners, for instance, reduced their risk of heart disease by about 4.5 percent if they ran an hour a day. Walkers who expended the same amount of energy per day reduced their risk of heart disease by more than 9 percent"
• Association between physical activity and mortality in colorectal cancer: A Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 12 - "conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies ... The analyses showed that patients who participated in any amount of PA before diagnosis had a RR of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.87, p<0.001) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality, compared with patients who did not participate in any PA. Those who participated in high PA before diagnosis (vs. low PA) had a RR of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87, p=0.002). Similarly, patients who participated in any PA after diagnosis had a RR of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.58-0.95, p=0.02) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality, compared with patients who did not participate in any PA. Those who participated in high PA after diagnosis (vs. low PA) had a RR of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47-0.92, p=0.01). Similar inverse associations of pre-diagnosis PA or post-diagnosis PA were found for all-cause mortality"
• Association of pre-diagnosis physical activity with recurrence and mortality among women with breast cancer - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 27 - "physical activity (PA) ... assessed the association of pre-diagnosis PA with recurrence, overall and cause-specific survival in a prospective cohort study in Germany including 3,393 non-metastatic breast cancer patients aged 50-74 years ... median follow-up of 5.6 years ... Overall mortality was significantly inversely associated with pre-diagnosis recreational PA. However, this effect was mainly attributed to deaths due to causes other than breast cancer. Multiple fractional polynomial analyses yielded a non-linear association with markedly increased non-breast cancer mortality for women who did not engage in any sports or cycling in the years before the breast cancer diagnosis with a hazard ratio HR (none vs. any) of 1.71, 95% confidence interval (1.16, 2.52). There were no further risk reductions with increasing activity levels. The association with breast cancer-specific mortality showed a similar dose-response but was far less pronounced with HR (none vs. any)=1.22 (0.91, 1.64). In contrast, regarding cancer recurrence the dose-response was linear. However, this association was restricted to estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative (ER-/PR-) cases (p(interaction) =0.033) with HR (highest vs. no recreational PA)=0.53 (0.24, 1.16), p(trend) =0.0045"
• Long, slow walks may beat shorter, higher intensity runs - TODAY Health, 2/13/13 - "when volunteers spent two hours standing and four hours walking each day they had healthier insulin levels and lower triglycerides than when they spent an hour a day at the gym cycling for all they were worth, Norwegian researchers found. And that was true even though the volunteers burned nearly the same amount of calories whether they were cycling or slow walking: The main difference was in the number of hours spent sitting ... The new study may go a long way to explaining the results of another recent report that found that baby boomers are less healthy than their parents at the same age. The older generation spent much more time walking to work and for errands"
• Exercise linked with reduced prostate cancer risk in Caucasians but not African-Americans - Science Daily, 2/11/13 - "Lionel L. Bañez, MD, of the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and his colleagues asked 307 men (164 white; 143 black) undergoing a prostate biopsy to complete a survey that assessed their exercise amounts per week ... Among Caucasians, men who were moderately or highly active were 53% less likely to have biopsy results indicating that they had prostate cancer compared with men who were sedentary or mildly active ... Among men with cancer, those who exercised had a 13% reduced risk of having high grade disease"
• Twenty Hours of TV a Week Linked to Almost Half Sperm Count of Those Who Watch Little TV - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Healthy young men who watch TV for more than 20 hours a week have almost half the sperm count of men who watch very little TV ... Conversely, men who do 15 or more hours of moderate to vigorous exercise every week have sperm counts that are 73% higher than those who exercise little ... light physical exercise made no difference to the sperm count, no matter how frequent it was"
• Better Midlife Fitness Linked to Lower Dementia Risk - Medscape, 2/4/13 - "Dementia is the second most feared disease after cancer ... study included 19,458 individuals participating in the Cooper Clinic Longitudinal Study at the Cooper Institute ... followed for an average of 25 years ... participants with the highest fitness level (quintile 5) at midlife had a 36% reduction in risk of developing dementia from any cause during follow-up than those in the lowest fitness category (quintile 1) ... animal studies have suggested that increased fitness and activity correlates with a reduction in brain atrophy and loss of cognition, and changes in amyloid have been seen with regular activity"
• Lose fat faster before breakfast - Science Daily, 1/25/13 - "those who had exercised in the morning did not consume additional calories or experience increased appetite during the day to compensate for their earlier activity ... They also found that those who had exercised in a fasted state burned almost 20% more fat compared to those who had consumed breakfast before their workout. This means that performing exercise on an empty stomach provides the most desirable outcome for fat loss"
• Metabolic Syndrome in 40s Linked to TV, Exercise at Age 16 - Medscape, 1/25/13 - "TV viewing habits and leisure-time physical activity at age 16 years were assessed by self-administered questionnaires in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. The presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was ascertained in 888 participants (82% of the baseline sample) using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria ... Those who reported "watching several [TV] shows a day" at 16 were twice as likely to have the metabolic syndrome at age 43 than those who said they watched "1 show/week" or less (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.14). Similarly, those who noted leisure-time physical activity "several times per month" were more likely to have metabolic syndrome later in life than those who reported "daily" leisure-time physical activity in their teens (OR, 2.31) ... TV viewing at age 16 years was linked to central obesity, low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension at age 43 years. Low leisure-time physical activity in the teen years was associated with central obesity and raised triglycerides later in life"
•  Exercise Can Slow Onset of Alzheimer's Memory Loss: Scientists Identify Link - Science Daily, 1/25/13 - "the stress hormone CRF -- or corticotrophin-releasing factor -- may have a protective effect on the brain from the memory changes brought on by Alzheimer's disease ... CRF is most associated with producing stress and is found in high levels in people experiencing some forms of anxiety and depressive diseases. Normal levels of CRF, however, are beneficial to the brain, keeping the mental faculties sharp and aiding the survival of nerve cells. Unsurprisingly then, studies have shown that people with Alzheimer's disease have a reduced level of CRF ... interrupting the hormone from binding on to the CRFR1 receptor blocked the improvement of memory normally promoted by exercise. However, in mice with Alzheimer's a repeated regime of moderate exercise restored the normal function of the CRF system allowing its memory enhancing effects. The results are in line with the idea that regular exercise is a means of improving one's ability to deal with everyday stress in addition to keeping mental abilities keen" Corticotropin-releasing hormone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), originally named corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)"
• For those short on time, aerobic, not resistance, exercise is best bet for weight- and fat loss - Science Daily, 1/2/13 - "If increasing muscle mass and strength is a goal, then resistance training is required. However, the majority of Americans could experience health benefits due to weight and fat loss. The best option in that case, given limited time for exercise, is to focus on aerobic training. When you lose fat, it is likely you are losing visceral fat, which is known to be associated with cardiovascular and other health benefits" - Note:  This must be a follow-up to the following story a couple weeks ago:
• Aerobic exercise trumps resistance training for weight and fat loss - Science Daily, 12/15/12 - "Participants were randomly assigned to one of three exercise training groups: resistance training (three days per week of weight lifting, three sets per day, 8-12 repetitions per set), aerobic training (approximately 12 miles per week), or aerobic plus resistance training (three days a week, three set per day, 8-12 repetitions per set for resistance training, plus approximately 12 miles per week of aerobic exercise) ... The groups assigned to aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training lost more weight than those who did just resistance training. The resistance training group actually gained weight due to an increase in lean body mass ... The combination exercise group, while requiring double the time commitment, provided a mixed result. The regimen helped participants lose weight and fat mass, but did not significantly reduce body mass nor fat mass over aerobic training alone. This group did notice the largest decrease in waist circumference, which may be attributed to the amount of time participants spent exercising ... Balancing time commitments against health benefits, our study suggests that aerobic exercise is the best option for reducing fat mass and body mass"
• Effect of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Concentrations: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 - Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jan;88(1):11-21 - "Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations"
• Aerobic exercise trumps resistance training for weight and fat loss - Science Daily, 12/15/12 - "Participants were randomly assigned to one of three exercise training groups: resistance training (three days per week of weight lifting, three sets per day, 8-12 repetitions per set), aerobic training (approximately 12 miles per week), or aerobic plus resistance training (three days a week, three set per day, 8-12 repetitions per set for resistance training, plus approximately 12 miles per week of aerobic exercise) ... The groups assigned to aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training lost more weight than those who did just resistance training. The resistance training group actually gained weight due to an increase in lean body mass ... The combination exercise group, while requiring double the time commitment, provided a mixed result. The regimen helped participants lose weight and fat mass, but did not significantly reduce body mass nor fat mass over aerobic training alone. This group did notice the largest decrease in waist circumference, which may be attributed to the amount of time participants spent exercising ... Balancing time commitments against health benefits, our study suggests that aerobic exercise is the best option for reducing fat mass and body mass"
• Aerobic Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Review Finds - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "this is published in a new review by Hayley Guiney and Liana Machado from the University of Otago, New Zealand ... fitter individuals scored better in mental tests than their unfit peers. In addition, intervention studies found scores in mental tests improved in participants who were assigned to an aerobic exercise regimen compared to those assigned to stretch and tone classes"
• Long-term Aerobic Exercise Is Associated With Greater Muscle Strength Throughout the Life Span - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Dec 3 - "we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension ... In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits"
• High physical fitness in young adulthood reduces the risk of fractures later in life in men: A nationwide cohort study - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov 26 - "Aerobic capacity and isometric muscle strength were measured in 435445 Swedish men that conscripted for military service from 1969-1978 ... When comparing men in the lowest and highest decile of physical fitness, the risk of a fracture was 1.8 times higher (95% CI = 1.6-2.1) and that of hip fracture was 2.7 times higher (95% CI = 1.6-4.7). The risk of fracture was also 1.4-1.5 times higher when comparing the extreme deciles of muscle strength (p < 0.001 for all). In a subcohort of 1009 twin pairs, up to 22% of the variation in physical fitness and 27-39% of the variation in muscle strength was attributable to environmental factors unique to one twin, e.g. physical activity. In conclusion, low aerobic capacity and muscle strength in young adulthood are associated with an increased risk of low-energy fractures later in life, while a low-energy fracture is associated with an increased risk of death already in middle-aged men"
• This is your brain on exercise - nbcnews.com, 11/26/12 - "Seniors who fit in the most daily physical activity – from raking leaves to dancing – can have more gray matter in important brain regions ... The scientists have images that show people who were the most active had 5 percent more gray matter than people who were the least active. Having more little gray brain cells translates into a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease, other studies have shown ... the MRIs showed the differences were in areas of the brain like the hippocampus, which is heavily damaged in Alzheimer’s disease ... No pharmaceutical drug on the market has been shown to have these effects on the brain -- not a single drug ...  And exercise is available to anyone ... And it doesn’t cost anything"
• Association between habitual physical activity and lower cardiovascular risk in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women: a population-based study - Menopause. 2012 Nov 19 - "The mean (SD) age was 57.1 (5.4) years. The average number of steps per day for the total sample was 5,250.7 (3,372.9): 3,472.4 (1,570.2) in the inactive group (61.8%) and 9,055.9 (3,033.4) in the active group (31.9%). A negative and statistically significant correlation was found between physical activity and smoking (P = -0.019), body mass index (P = -0.006), waist circumference (P = -0.013), and waist-to-hip ratio of 0.85 or higher (P = -0.043). Inactive women presented a higher risk of overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.233-3.622; P = 0.006) and waist circumference larger than 88 cm (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.054-2.942; P = 0.03), even after adjustment for age, menopause status, smoking, and hormone therapy. Inactive women also had a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.233-6.295; P = 0.014) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.443-4.294; P = 0.001) ... Habitual physical activity, specifically walking 6,000 or more steps daily, was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in middle-aged women, independently of menopause status" - Note:  Sometimes I hesitate to include things like this.  Is there anyone that doesn't know the importance of exercise?
• Exercise makes middle-aged people smarter - Science Daily, 10/29/12 - "High-intensity interval training involves alternating between short periods of low and high intensity aerobic exercise -- for example, a series of 30 seconds of sprinting followed by 30 seconds of walking or jogging ... Our participants underwent a battery of cognitive, biological and physiological tests before the program began in order to determine their cognitive functions, body composition, cardiovascular risk, brain oxygenation during exercise and maximal aerobic capacity ... After the program was finished, we discovered that their waist circumference and particularly their trunk fat mass had decreased. We also found that their VO2max, insulin sensitivity had increased significantly, in tandem with their score on the cognitive tests and the oxygenation signals in the brain during exercise" - Note: They didn't do a placebo of regular training vice interval training so how do they know whether regular training might have done the same thing?  Most people's bones and joints can't take high-intensity training.
• Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity Ameliorates the Breast Cancer Risk in Diabetic Women - Diabetes Care. 2012 Oct 1 - "A population-based case-control study was conducted using 1,000 incident case subjects and 1,074 control subjects ... The association between diabetes and BC risk decreased with increasing tertiles of moderate-intensity physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.9 [95% CI 2.3-10.8]; 3.0 [1.3-6.9]; and 1.0 [0.1-9.2] respectively, for each tertile) (test for interaction = 0.04). Compared with the women in the lowest tertiles, increased risk was observed in those premenopausal women with the highest serum C-peptide, IGF-1, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 levels"
• Melatonin and exercise work against Alzheimer's in mice - Science Daily, 9/26/12 - "The mice were divided into one control group and three other groups which would undergo different treatments: exercise -unrestricted use of a running wheel-, melatonin -a dose equivalent to 10 mg per kg of body weight-, and a combination of melatonin and voluntary physical exercise ... After six months, the state of the mice undergoing treatment was closer to that of the mice with no mutations than to their own initial pathological state. From this we can say that the disease has significantly regressed ... The results, which were published in the journal Neurobiology of Aging, show a general improvement in behaviour, learning, and memory with the three treatments ... These procedures also protected the brain tissue from oxidative stress and provided good levels of protection from excesses of amyloid beta peptide and hyperphosphorylated TAU protein caused by the mutations" - Note:  That's a huge amount of melatonin though but then on the other hand it was a short six month period but on the third hand, mice have a much shorter life span so it might interpolate to a much longer time span for humans.  See Source Naturals, Melatonin, 2.5 mg, Peppermint Flavored Sublingual, 60 Tablets which is what I take.
• More Data Suggests Fitness Matters More Than Weight - NYTimes.com, 9/17/12 - "In study after study, overweight and moderately obese patients with certain chronic diseases often live longer and fare better than normal-weight patients with the same ailments ... being fat and fit is better, healthwise, than being thin and unfit. Regular aerobic exercise may not lead to weight loss, but it does reduce fat in the liver, where it may do the most metabolic damage, according to a recent study at the University of Sydney ... the biggest risks of death were associated with being at either end of the spectrum — underweight or severely obese. The lowest mortality risks were among those in the overweight category (B.M.I.s of 25 to 30), while moderate obesity (30 to 35) offered no more risk than being in the normal-weight category ... Maintaining fitness is good and maintaining low weight is good ... But if you had to go off one, it looks like it’s more important to maintain your fitness than your leanness. Fitness looks a little bit more protective"
• Bodybuilding myth debunked: Growth-promoting hormones don't stimulate strength - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "anabolic hormones -- long thought to be essential for building a muscular frame -- do not influence muscle protein synthesis, the process that leads to bigger muscles ... In the first study, researchers examined the responses of both male and female participants to intense leg exercise. Despite a 45-fold difference in testosterone increase, men and women were able to make new muscle protein at exactly the same rate ... In the second study ... The men experienced gains in muscle mass that ranged from virtually nothing to more than 12 pounds, yet their levels of testosterone and growth hormone after exercise showed no relationship to muscle growth or strength gain ... Surprisingly, the researchers noted that cortisol -- considered to have the opposite effect of anabolic hormones because it reduces protein synthesis and breaks down tissue -- was related to the gain in muscle mass" - Note:  That may be true about cortisol but looking at it another way, cortisol could be an indicator of how much you're working out.
• Habitual physical exercise has beneficial effects on telomere length in postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2012 Jun 4 - "Habitual physical exercise was defined as combined aerobic and resistance exercise performed for at least 60 minutes per session more than three times a week for more than 12 months ... The mean age of all participants was 58.11 +/- 6.84 years, and participants in the habitual exercise group had been exercising more than three times per week for an average of 19.23 +/- 5.15 months. Serum triglyceride levels (P = 0.01), fasting insulin concentrations (P < 0.01), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.01) were significantly lower and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.01), circulating adiponectin (P < 0.01), mitochondrial DNA copy number (P < 0.01), and telomere length (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the habitual exercise group than in the sedentary group. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, habitual exercise (β = 0.522, P < 0.01) and adiponectin levels (β = 0.139, P = 0.03) were the independent factors associated with the telomere length of PBMCs in postmenopausal women"
• Excessive endurance training can be too much of a good thing, research suggests - Science Daily, 6/4/12 - "True would run as far as 100 miles in a day. On autopsy his heart was enlarged and scarred; he died of a lethal arrhythmia (irregularity of the heart rhythm). Although speculative, the pathologic changes in the heart of this 58 year-old veteran extreme endurance athlete may have been manifestations of "Phidippides cardiomyopathy," a condition caused by chronic excessive endurance exercise ... recent research suggests that chronic training for, and competing in, extreme endurance exercise such as marathons, iron man distance triathlons, and very long distance bicycle races may cause structural changes to the heart and large arteries, leading to myocardial injury ... In one study, approximately 12% of apparently healthy marathon runners showed evidence for patchy myocardial scarring, and the coronary heart disease event rate during a two-year follow up was significantly higher in marathon runners than in controls ... Endurance sports such as ultramarathon running or professional cycling have been associated with as much as a 5-fold increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation ... Chronic excessive sustained exercise may also be associated with coronary artery calcification, diastolic dysfunction, and large-artery wall stiffening"
• More physical education in schools leads to better grades, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/23/12 - "96 percent of the intervention group compared to 89 percent in the control group achieved the goals of compulsory school and were eligible to go on to upper-secondary school. It is primarily the boys' achievements -- with 96 percent vs. 83 percent -- that lies behind this outcome. Moreover, the boys in the intervention group had significantly higher grades in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and health than the boys in the control group ... In grade 9, 93 percent of the students in the intervention group evinced good motor skills compared to 53 percent in the control group ... The study is unique. There are no previous findings that statistically show the effects and impact of an intervention over so many years. The reliability of the findings is further enhanced by the homogenity in the groups under investigation: the children are the same age, go to the same school, and have parents with comparable education, income, and interest in physical activity"
• Fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and mortality in older community-dwelling women - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 May;60(5):862-8 - "During 5 years of follow-up, 82 (11.5%) participants died. Measured continuously, physical activity improved survival (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41-0.66, P < .001). The most active women were more likely to survive than the least physically active women (HR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.13-0.59, P < .001). Continuous measures of carotenoids improved survival (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.51-0.89, P = .01). Women in the highest tertile of total carotenoids were more likely to survive those in the lowest (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91, P = .03). When examined in the same model, continuous measures of physical activity (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.42-0.68, P < .001) and carotenoids (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.98, P = .04) predicted survival during follow-up" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
• Exercise slows muscle wasting from age and heart failure - Science Daily, 5/7/12 - "Exercise can counteract muscle breakdown, increase strength and reduce inflammation caused by aging and heart failure ... Many physicians -- and insurance companies -- still believe that cardiac rehabilitation does not really help in old age. This study clearly falsifies this belief ... Half the participants in each age group were randomly assigned to four weeks of supervised aerobic training or no exercise. Researchers took muscle biopsies of all participants before and after the intervention ... In both age groups, four training sessions of 20 minutes of aerobic exercise per day, five days a week plus one 60 minute group exercise session was associated with increased muscle force endurance and oxygen uptake. Heart failure patients 55 and under increased their peak oxygen uptake by 25 percent, while those 65 and over increased it by 27 percent ... Exercise switches off the muscle-wasting pathways and switches on pathways involved in muscle growth, counteracting muscle loss and exercise intolerance in heart failure patients"
• Regular jogging shows dramatic increase in life expectancy - Science Daily, 5/3/12 - "Results show that in the follow-up period involving a maximum of 35 years, 10,158 deaths were registered among the non-joggers and 122 deaths among the joggers. Analysis showed that risk of death was reduced by 44% for male joggers (age-adjusted hazard ratio 0.56) and 44% for female joggers (age-adjusted hazard ratio 0.56) ... Furthermore the data showed jogging produced an age adjusted survival benefit of 6.2 years in men and 5.6 years in women. Further analysis exploring the amounts of exercise undertaken by joggers in the study has revealed a U-shaped curve for the relationship between the time spent exercising and mortality. The investigators found that between one hour and two and a half hours a week, undertaken over two to three sessions, delivered the optimum benefits, especially when performed at a slow or average pace ... The ideal pace can be achieved by striving to feel a little breathless. "You should aim to feel a little breathless, but not very breathless," ... It improves oxygen uptake, increases insulin sensitivity, improves lipid profiles (raising HDL and lowering triglycerides), lowers blood pressure, reduces platelet aggregation, increases fibrinolytic activity, improves cardiac function, bone density, immune function, reduces inflammation markers, prevents obesity, and improves psychological function"
• A Simple Way to Preserve Cognitive Function - Medscape, 4/3/12 - "The investigators found significantly reduced rates of cognitive decline with increasing energy expenditure. The equivalent of a daily 30-minute walk at a brisk pace led to rates of cognitive decline similar to those of women 5-7 years younger"
• Good aerobic capacity promotes learning - Science Daily, 2/13/12 - "It was found that rats with intrinsically high aerobic capacity clearly outperformed those with intrinsically low aerobic capacity. It must be emphasized that the animals were not given any physical exercise before the learning test. Thus, the results suggest that it is the aerobic capacity and not physical activity alone that is related to flexible cognition"
• Effects of Swimming Training on Blood Pressure and Vascular Function in Adults >50 Years of Age - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jan 11 - "Forty-three otherwise healthy adults >50 years old (60 +/- 2) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension and not on any medication were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of swimming exercise or attention time control ... Casual systolic BP decreased significantly from 131 +/- 3 to 122 +/- 4 mm Hg in the swimming training group. Significant decreases in systolic BP were also observed in ambulatory (daytime) and central (carotid) BP measurements. Swimming exercise produced a 21% increase in carotid artery compliance (p <0.05). Flow-mediated dilation and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity improved after the swim training program"
• Pool Chlorine Tied to Lung Damage in Elite Swimmers - Medscape, 1/12/12 - "samples taken from swimmers' lungs had nearly six times as many immune cells associated with asthma and allergies as the lung tissue of healthy subjects - and a similar amount to what was found in the group with mild asthma"
• School performance may be linked to physical activity - Science Daily, 1/2/12 - "According to the best-evidence synthesis, we found strong evidence of a significant positive relationship between physical activity and academic performance. The findings of one high-quality intervention study and one high-quality observational study suggest that being more physically active is positively related to improved academic performance in children ... exercise may help cognition by increasing blood and oxygen flow to the brain, increasing levels of norepinephrine and endorphins to decrease stress and improve mood, and increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and support synaptic plasticity"
• Increased Fitness, Not Weight Loss, Improves Mortality - Medscape, 12/5/11 - "Fitness appears to trump weight loss when it comes to reducing all-cause and cardiovascular mortality [1]. Data from a large longitudinal study show that maintaining and improving physical-fitness levels were associated with lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas changes in body-mass index (BMI) were not ... Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs), is a strong independent predictor of mortality ... men who maintained their physical-fitness levels had a 30% and 27% lower risk of death and cardiovascular death, respectively, when compared with men who lost fitness. Those who got into better shape from baseline had a 39% and 42% lower risk of death and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, when compared with those who lost fitness over the years. Every 1-MET improvement resulted in a significant 15% reduction in the risk of death and a 19% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality ... BMI changes, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality"
• Physical fitness could have a positive effect on eye health - Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "low ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), an important risk factor for glaucoma ... From 2006 to 2010, study participants were examined for eye pressure -- medically termed intraocular pressure (IOP ) -- and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements. The results showed that moderate physical exercise performed approximately 15 years previously is associated with a 25% reduced risk of low OPP"
• A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat - Obes Rev. 2011 Sep 26 - "systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions on VAT content/volume in overweight and obese adults ... These data suggest that aerobic exercise is central for exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for beneficial VAT modification"
• Cycling fast: Vigorous daily exercise recommended for a longer life - Science Daily, 8/28/11
• Aerobic exercise bests resistance training at burning belly fat - Science Daily, 8/25/11 - "Belly or abdominal fat -- known in scientific communities as visceral fat and liver fat -- is located deep within the abdominal cavity and fills the spaces between internal organs. It's been associated with increased risk for heart disease, diabetes, and certain kinds of cancer ... The Duke study showed aerobic training significantly reduced visceral fat and liver fat, the culprit in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Aerobic exercise also did a better job than resistance training at improving fasting insulin resistance, and reducing liver enzymes and fasting triglyceride levels. All are known risk factors for diabetes and heart disease ... Resistance training achieved no significant reductions in visceral fat, liver fat, liver enzyme levels or improvements in insulin resistance. The combination of aerobic with resistance ... What really counts is how much exercise you do, how many miles you walk and how many calories you burn ... If you choose to work at a lower aerobic intensity, it will simply take longer to burn the same amount of unhealthy fat"
• Arthritis sufferers are not engaging in physical activity critical to their health - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "Being physically active is one of best ways people with arthritis can improve their health ... more than half of women and 40 percent of men with arthritis are virtually couch potatoes ... fewer than one in seven men and one in 12 women met those guidelines when we had this objective measure, using the accelerometer ... The fact that so many people with arthritis are inactive should be a wake-up call to physicians"
• Some exercise is better than none: More is better to reduce heart disease risk - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "150 minutes of exercise per week is beneficial, 300 minutes per week will give even more benefits ... researchers examined more than 3,000 studies of physical activity and heart disease, and included 33 of them in their analysis. Among those, nine measured leisure activity quantitatively"
• Increased muscle mass may lower risk of pre-diabetes: Study shows building muscle can lower person's risk of insulin resistance - Science Daily, 7/28/11 - "the greater an individual's total muscle mass, the lower the person's risk of having insulin resistance, the major precursor of type 2 diabetes"
• How Exercise Can Keep the Brain Fit - NYTimes.com, 7/27/11 - "While the wholly sedentary volunteers, and there were many of these, scored significantly worse over the years on tests of cognitive function, the most active group showed little decline. About 90 percent of those with the greatest daily energy expenditure could think and remember just about as well, year after year ... The same message emerged from another study published last week in the same journal. In it, women, most in their 70s, with vascular disease or multiple risk factors for developing that condition completed cognitive tests and surveys of their activities over a period of five years. Again, they were not spry. There were no marathon runners among them. The most active walked. But there was “a decreasing rate of cognitive decline” among the active group, the authors wrote. Their ability to remember and think did still diminish, but not as rapidly as among the sedentary ...scientists from the Aging, Mobility and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at the University of British Columbia and other institutions have shown, for the first time, that light-duty weight training changes how well older women think and how blood flows within their brains. After 12 months of lifting weights twice a week, the women performed significantly better on tests of mental processing ability than a control group of women who completed a balance and toning program, while functional M.R.I. scans showed that portions of the brain that control such thinking were considerably more active in the weight trainers"
• Humans Alone See Brains Shrink With Age, Researchers Find - WSJ, 7/26/11 - "they found the human brains lost significant volume over time, while the chimpanzees didn't ... Stress can affect brain size. So can depression, research shows. Diet can be a factor, too. More broadly, though, humanity's unusual shrinking brain just may be the price our species pays for living so much longer than other primates ... During those extra decades of life, natural cell-repair mechanisms may wear out and neural circuits wither, the researchers said. As the brain normally ages, it acquires the neural equivalent of sore knees and stiff fingers. Natural grooves in the brain widen. Healthy swellings subside. And tangles of damaged neurons become dense thickets of dysfunctional synapses"
• Exercise Sharpens Older Minds - WebMD, 7/20/11 - "Two new studies add to growing evidence that physical activity helps to keep older people's brains sharp ... women in the highest two-fifths of physical activity had substantially lower rates of cognitive decline than women in the lowest exercise bracket ... In the second study, researchers used a more objective measure of energy expended during physical activity, employing the so-called doubly labeled water technique to determine how much water a person loses ... Over the next two to five years, those in the highest third of energy expenditure were substantially less likely to develop clinical cognitive impairment than those in the lowest third ... About 2% of people in the highest third suffered declines in cognitive function, compared with 5% in the middle third and 17% in the lowest third"
• Going Swimming? Guard Your Teeth - ABC News, 7/15/11 - "39 percent of competitive swimmers suffered from dental enamel erosion. In this recent paper, dentists from the New York University College of Dentistry analyzed the case of a 52-year-old man who complained of sensitive teeth, dark tooth staining, and enamel loss that came on quickly and had lasted for just five months. The only logical explanation for these sudden changes the researchers could pinpoint was his newly adopted, 90-minutes-per-day swimming routine ... Damage to tooth enamel occurs when the pH balance of swimming pool water drops too low, or becomes too acidic"
• Sport performance follows a physiological law; Study suggests peak at 20-30 years of age, then irreversible decline - Science Daily, 7/1/11 - "The evolution of the performances of an individual throughout his life follows an exponential growth curve to a peak before declining irreversibly, following another negative exponential curve. This peak is reached at the age of 26.1 years for the disciplines studied: athletics (26.0 years), swimming (21.0 years) and chess (31.4 years). For each data set, the evolution curve is representative of a range of 91.7% of the variance at the individual level and 98.5% of the variance in terms of sport events. Moreover, these cycles are observable in other physiological parameters such as the development of lung function or cognitive skills, but also at the level of cells, organisms and populations, reflecting the fractal properties of such a law"
• Phys Ed: To Stretch or Not to Stretch - nytimes.com, 6/22/11 - "So there you have the state of the science on stretching. Hockey goalies, gymnasts, cheerleaders and dancers should be stretching before workouts or performances. The rest of us are unlikely, the latest findings show, to sustain any harm from brief spurts of static stretching — but equally unlikely to gain much advantage" - So lets see, if you stretch for less than 30 seconds, its not going to harm you but you're not getting any benefit.  If you stretch for more than that it does more harm then good.  So what's the point in stretching?  They've been saying that since the '70's but people still do it.
• Swimmer's Ear Costs U.S. Half a Billion Yearly - WebMD, 5/19/11 - "Swimmer's ear, known to doctors as acute otitis externa, is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Bacterial infection is the typical cause. The symptoms include pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling of the ear canal. There can also be discharge from the ear" - Tell me about it.  I run three times per week and swim another three times per week.  I just had this.  I get it about every year and a half.
• Erectile dysfunction association with physical activity level and physical fitness in men aged 40-75 years - Int J Impot Res. 2011 May 12 - "This study showed that younger men with higher physical activity and better physical fitness are less likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction. Multivariable analysis through logistic regression showed that age (odds ratio (OD)=1.15; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.07-1.23), physical activity (OD=10.38; 95% CI=3.94-27.39) and physical fitness (OD=4.62; 95% CI=1.75-12.25) were independent variables associated with erectile dysfunction. This study reinforces the concept that healthy habits have a direct effect on erectile function"
• Exercise protects the heart via nitric oxide, researchers discover - Science Daily, 5/4/11 - "Nitric oxide, a short-lived gas generated within the body, turns on chemical pathways that relax blood vessels to increase blood flow and activate survival pathways. Both the chemical nitrite and nitrosothiols, where nitric oxide is attached to proteins via sulfur, appear to act as convertible reservoirs for nitric oxide in situations where the body needs it, such as a lack of blood flow or oxygen ... Our study provides new evidence that nitric oxide generated during physical exercise is actually stored in the bloodstream and heart in the form of nitrite and nitrosothiols. These more stable nitric oxide intermediates appear to be critical for the cardioprotection against a subsequent heart attack ... voluntary exercise boosted levels of an enzyme that produces nitric oxide (eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Moreover, the levels of eNOS in heart tissue, and nitrite and nitrosothiols in the blood as well as heart tissue, stayed high for a week after exercise ceased, unlike other heart enzymes stimulated by exercise. The protective effects of exercise did not extend beyond four weeks after the exercise period was over, when nitrite and nitrosothiols in the heart returned to baseline"
• Aerobic exercise may improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "A study of 15 obese people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease revealed that the daily walks not only increase insulin sensitivity, but improve the liver's polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI), which is thought to be a marker of liver health ... The improvements are linked to an increase in the hormone adiponectin ... Adiponectin influences the body's response to insulin and is associated with a reduced risk of heart attack because of its anti-inflammatory properties"
• Put Those Shoes On: Running Won't Kill Your Knees - NPR, 3/28/11 - "We know from many long-term studies that running doesn't appear to cause much damage to the knees ... When we look at people with knee arthritis, we don't find much of a previous history of running, and when we look at runners and follow them over time, we don't find that their risk of developing osteoarthritis is any more than expected ... exercise, including jogging, may even be beneficial ... exercise appears to stimulate cartilage to repair to minor damage. It could be that the impact of body weight when the foot hits the ground increases production of certain proteins in the cartilage that make it stronger, he says" - Note:  I run six miles per day three times per week and swim three times per week.  I've never had knee problems.  Even my doc seems confused that I don't.
• Physical activity decreases salt's effect on blood pressure, study finds - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "Investigators compared study participants' blood pressure on two one-week diets, one low in sodium (3,000 mg/day) and the other high in sodium (18,000 mg/day) ... The American Heart Association recommends consuming less than 1,500 mg/day of sodium ... Compared with the sedentary group, the odds of being salt-sensitive, adjusted for age and gender, fell: 10 percent in the next-to-lowest activity group ... 17 percent in the next-to-highest activity group ... 38 percent in the most active group"
• Exercise Reduces Risk for Colon Polyps, Resulting in Less Colon Cancer - Medscape, 3/9/11 - "reanalyzed data collected in 20 clinical trials that reported on physical activity levels (obtained mainly from questionnaires) in individuals who had undergone sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (both symptomatic and screening). Most studies did not specify the reason for undergoing the procedure ... Together, these trials involved more than 250,000 individuals ... Overall, there was a significant inverse association between physical activity and colon polyps (fixed-effect relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.91; random-effects RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.92) ... "Our meta-analysis found the effect was stronger, though not significantly so, for large or advanced adenomas than for the overall effect," they add ... The risk reduction (RR, 0.83) was "largely unchanged" when the analysis was restricted to the 18 studies in which the results for adenomatous polyps were separated from all polyps (i.e., hyperplastic, malignant polyps), they report"
• Can Exercise Keep You Young? - NYTimes.com, 3/2/11 - "in heartening new research published last week in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, exercise reduced or eliminated almost every detrimental effect of aging in mice that had been genetically programmed to grow old at an accelerated pace ... mitochondria can accumulate small genetic mutations, which under normal circumstances are corrected by specialized repair systems within the cell. Over time, as we age, the number of mutations begins to outstrip the system’s ability to make repairs, and mitochondria start malfunctioning and dying ... Half of the mice were allowed to run on a wheel for 45 minutes three times a week, beginning at 3 months ... At 8 months, when their sedentary lab mates were bald, frail and dying, the running rats remained youthful. They had full pelts of dark fur, no salt-and-pepper shadings. They also had maintained almost all of their muscle mass and brain volume. Their gonads were normal, as were their hearts. They could balance on narrow rods, the showoffs ... But perhaps most remarkable, although they still harbored the mutation that should have affected mitochondrial repair, they had more mitochondria over all and far fewer with mutations than the sedentary mice had"
• Stretching before a run does not prevent injury, study finds - Science Daily, 2/18/11 - "This study included 2,729 runners who run 10 or more miles per week. Of these runners, 1,366 were randomized to a stretch group, and 1,363 were randomized to a non-stretch group before running. Runners in the stretch group stretched their quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius/soleus muscle groups. The entire routine took 3 to 5 minutes and was performed immediately before running ... The study found that stretching before running neither prevents nor causes injury ... There was no significant difference in injury rates between the runners who stretched and the runners who didn't for any specific injury location or diagnosis" - Note:  I've read studies going as far back as the '70's saying the same thing but people still do it.  I remember showing fellow runners in the '70's a study published in "Time" (I believe) showing that stretching actually increased injuries.
• Exercise helps overweight children think better, do better in math - Science Daily, 2/10/11 - "Regular exercise improves the ability of overweight, previously inactive children to think, plan and even do math ... MRIs showed those who exercised experienced increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex -- an area associated with complex thinking, decision making and correct social behavior -- and decreased activity in an area of the brain that sits behind it. The shift forward appears consistent with more rapidly developing cognitive skills ... And the more they exercised, the better the result. Intelligence scores increased an average 3.8 points in those exercising 40 minutes per day after school for three months with a smaller benefit in those exercising 20 minutes daily ... Animal studies have shown that aerobic activity increases growth factors so the brain gets more blood vessels, more neurons and more connections between neurons. Studies in older adults have shown exercise benefits the brain and Davis's study extends the science to children and their ability to learn in school"
• Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 31 - "Here we show, in a randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. Exercise training increased hippocampal volume by 2%, effectively reversing age-related loss in volume by 1 to 2 y. We also demonstrate that increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal volume declined in the control group, but higher preintervention fitness partially attenuated the decline, suggesting that fitness protects against volume loss. Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that aerobic exercise training is effective at reversing hippocampal volume loss in late adulthood, which is accompanied by improved memory function"
• Exercise May Slow Age-Related Memory Loss - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "A new study suggests moderate aerobic exercise may slow or even reverse age-related memory loss in older adults by increasing the size of the hippocampus ... one year of moderate aerobic exercise, like walking, in a group of older adults increased the volume of hippocampus by 2%, which effectively reversed the age-associated shrinkage by one to two years ... Brain scans taken at the start of the study and again one year later showed that the right and left sides of the hippocampus increased by 2.12% and 1.97%, respectively, in the aerobic exercise group ... these regions decreased in volume in the comparison group by 1.40% and 1.43%, respectively"
• Comparison of Central Artery Elasticity in Swimmers, Runners, and the Sedentary - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 17 - "Brachial systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were higher (p <0.05) in swimmers than in sedentary controls and runners. Runners and swimmers had lower (p <0.05) carotid systolic blood pressure and carotid pulse pressure than sedentary controls. Carotid arterial compliance was higher (p <0.05) and β-stiffness index was lower (p <0.05) in runners and swimmers than in sedentary controls. There were no significant group differences between runners and swimmers. Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity was greater (p <0.05) in runners than in sedentary controls and swimmers and baroreflex sensitivity tended to be higher in swimmers than in sedentary controls (p = 0.07). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significant greater (p <0.05) in runners compared with sedentary controls and swimmers. In conclusion, our present findings are consistent with the notion that habitual swimming exercise may be an effective endurance exercise for preventing loss in central arterial compliance"
• Exercise may lower risk of death for men with prostate cancer - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "Compared with men who walked less than 90 minutes per week at an easy pace, those who walked 90 or more minutes per week at a normal to very brisk pace had a 46% lower risk of dying from any cause ... Only vigorous activity -- defined as more than three hours per week -- was associated with reduced prostate cancer mortality. Men who did vigorous activity had a 61% lower risk of prostate cancer-specific death compared with men who did less than one hour per week of vigorous activity"
• The Benefits of Exercising Before Breakfast - NYTimes.com, 12/15/10 - "One of the groups ate a hefty, carbohydrate-rich breakfast before exercising and continued to ingest carbohydrates, in the form of something like a sports drink, throughout their workouts. The second group worked out without eating first and drank only water during the training. They made up for their abstinence with breakfast later that morning, comparable in calories to the other group’s trencherman portions ... Only the group that exercised before breakfast gained almost no weight and showed no signs of insulin resistance. They also burned the fat they were taking in more efficiently"
• Even kids who play sports don't exercise enough - MSNBC, 12/7/10 - "Practices sometimes lasted more than three hours, but much of that time is likely spent improving skills and strategy, during which kids are often standing in line. In baseball, hitting, catching and other skills require little activity, he added. "So, time spent on skills can compete for active time.""
• Light exercise may prevent osteoarthritis, study suggests - Science Daily, 11/29/10 - "participating in a high-impact activity, such as running, more than one hour per day at least three times a week appears associated with more degenerated cartilage and potentially a higher risk for development of osteoarthritis ... On the other hand, engaging in light exercise and refraining from frequent knee-bending activities may protect against the onset of the disease"
• Effects of aerobic and resistance training on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial - JAMA. 2010 Nov 24;304(20):2253-62 - "The mean changes in HbA(1c) were not statistically significant in either the resistance training (-0.16%; 95% CI, -0.46% to 0.15%; P = .32) or the aerobic (-0.24%; 95% CI, -0.55% to 0.07%; P = .14) groups compared with the control group. Only the combination exercise group improved maximum oxygen consumption (mean, 1.0 mL/kg per min; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5, P < .05) compared with the control group. All exercise groups reduced waist circumference from -1.9 to -2.8 cm compared with the control group. The resistance training group lost a mean of -1.4 kg fat mass (95% CI, -2.0 to -0.7 kg; P < .05) and combination training group lost a mean of -1.7 (-2.3 to -1.1 kg; P < .05) compared with the control group ... Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a combination of aerobic and resistance training compared with the nonexercise control group improved HbA(1c) levels. This was not achieved by aerobic or resistance training alone"
• Regular exercise reduces large number of health risks including dementia and some cancers, study finds - Science Daily, 11/15/10 - "Regular exercise can reduce around two dozen physical and mental health conditions and slow down how quickly the body ages ... Health conditions covered by the review include: cancer, heart disease, dementia, stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, obesity and high blood pressure"
• Exercise may reduce risk of endometrial cancer - Science Daily, 11/9/10 - "Those who exercised for 150 minutes a week or more had a 34 percent reduced risk of endometrial cancer compared with those women who were inactive"
• Professional athletes should drink more water, Spanish research finds - Science Daily, 10/21/10 - "91% of professional basketball, volleyball, handball and football players are dehydrated when they begin their training sessions"
• Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 14;9(1):116 - "The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group"
• Walk much? It may protect your memory down the road - Science Daily, 10/13/10 - "walking at least six miles per week may protect brain size and in turn, preserve memory in old age ... people who walked at least 72 blocks per week, or roughly six to nine miles, had greater gray matter volume than people who didn't walk as much, when measured at the nine-year time point after their recorded activity. Walking more than 72 blocks did not appear to increase gray matter volume any further ... those who walked the most cut their risk of developing memory problems in half"
• Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity - Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 4 - "exercise training (ET) ... With ET, improvements in S(I) were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P<0.05, R(2)=0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of ET (P<0.05, R(2)=0.34). Conclusions: These observations support prior observations in animal models that ET promotes more efficient mitochondrial beta oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding ET and glycine metabolism"
• Phys Ed: Can Exercise Make Kids Smarter? - NYTimes.com, 9/15/10 - "among more than a million 18-year-old boys who joined the army, better fitness was correlated with higher I.Q.’s, even among identical twins. The fitter the twin, the higher his I.Q. The fittest of them were also more likely to go on to lucrative careers than the least fit, rendering them less likely, you would hope, to live in their parents’ basements. No correlation was found between muscular strength and I.Q. scores. There’s no evidence that exercise leads to a higher I.Q., but the researchers suspect that aerobic exercise, not strength training, produces specific growth factors and proteins that stimulate the brain"
• Aerobic exercise relieves insomnia - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "Exercise improved the participants' self-reported sleep quality, elevating them from a diagnosis of poor sleeper to good sleeper. They also reported fewer depressive symptoms, more vitality and less daytime sleepiness"
• Ultra-endurance running may not be good for the heart, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/31/10
• More time spent sitting linked to higher risk of death; Risk found to be independent of physical activity level - Science Daily, 7/22/10 - "more leisure time spent sitting was associated with higher risk of mortality, particularly in women. Women who reported more than six hours per day of sitting were 37 percent more likely to die during the time period studied than those who sat fewer than 3 hours a day. Men who sat more than 6 hours a day were 18 percent more likely to die than those who sat fewer than 3 hours per day. The association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for physical activity level. Associations were stronger for cardiovascular disease mortality than for cancer mortality"
• Moderate Physical Activity Linked to Lower Dementia Risk - Medscape, 7/12/10 - "Compared with those with lower levels of activity, participants reporting moderate to heavy physical activity had a 45% lower risk for dementia over time"
• Aerobic fitness and multidomain cognitive function in advanced age - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Jun 22:1-11 - "The moderately-fit group achieved significantly better scores on the global cognitive score (U = 97, p = 0.04), and a significant correlation was found between peak VO2 and attention, executive function, and global cognitive score (rs = .37, .39, .38 respectively). The trend for superior cognitive scores in the moderate-fitness compared to the low-fitness groups was unequivocal, both in terms of accuracy and reaction time.  Conclusion: Maintenance of higher levels of cardiovascular fitness may help protect against cognitive deterioration, even at an advanced age"
• Is Exercise the Best Drug for Depression - Time Magazine, 6/19/10 - "depressed adults who participated in an aerobic exercise plan improved as much as those treated with sertraline, the drug that was marketed as Zoloft ... Subsequent trials have repeated these results, showing again and again that patients who undergo aerobic exercise regimens see comparable improvement in their depression as those treated with medication, and that both groups do better than patients given only a placebo ... exercise may alter brain chemistry in much the same way that antidepressant drugs do — regulating the key neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine"
• Getting extra sleep improves the athletic performance of collegiate football players - Science Daily, 6/8/10 - "football players' sprint times improved significantly after seven to eight weeks of sleep extension. Average sprint time in the 20-yard shuttle improved from 4.71 seconds to 4.61 seconds, and the average 40-yard dash time decreased from 4.99 seconds to 4.89 seconds. Daytime sleepiness and fatigue also decreased significantly, while vigor scores significantly improved"
• To burn more fat, don’t eat before workout - MSNBC, 6/3/10 - "cyclists who trained without eating burned significantly more fat than their counterparts who ate ... When you exercise (after fasting), your adrenaline is high and your insulin is low ... That ratio is favorable for your muscles to oxidize (break down) more fatty acids"
• Brief exercise reduces impact of stress on cell aging, study shows - Science Daily, 5/27/10 - "A growing body of research suggests that short telomeres are linked to a range of health problems, including coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as early death ... In the study, 62 post-menopausal women -- many of whom were caring for spouses or parents with dementia ... when participants were divided into groups -- an inactive group, and an active group (i.e., they met federal recommendations for 75 minutes of weekly physical activity) -- only the inactive high stress group had shorter telomeres. The active high stress group did not have shorter telomeres. In other words, stress predicted shorter telomeres in the sedentary group, but not in the active group"
• Those who exercise when young have stronger bones when they grow old - 5/3/10 - "those who actively did sports, and also those who used to do sports, had greater bone density than those who had never done sports ... men who had stopped training more than six years ago still had larger and thicker bones in the lower leg than those who had never done sport ... The bones respond best when you're young, and if you train and load them with your own bodyweight during these years, it has a stimulating effect on their development"
• Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections in Marathon Runners - Am J Hypertens. 2010 May 20 - "Marathon runners had significantly higher systolic, diastolic, pulse (both aortic and brachial), and mean pressures compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). Marathon runners had significantly higher PWV (6.89 m/s vs. 6.33 m/s, P < 0.01), whereas there was no difference in AIx and AIx corrected for heart rate (AIx@75) compared to controls (13.8% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.985 and 8.2% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.340, respectively). Marathon race caused a significant fall in both AIx (12.2% vs. -5.8%, P < 0.001) and AIx@75 (7.0% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.01), whereas PWV did not change significantly (6.66 m/s vs. 6.74 m/s, P = 0.690). Aortic and brachial systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures were also decreased (P < 0.05).Conclusions A significant fall in wave reflections was observed after marathon race, whereas aortic stiffness was not altered. Moreover, marathon runners have increased aortic stiffness and pressures, whereas wave reflections indexes do not differ compared to controls"
• Regular aerobic exercise is good for the brain - Science Daily, 4/26/10 - "Regular exercise speeds learning and improves blood flow to the brain ... monkeys who exercised regularly at an intensity that would improve fitness in middle-aged people learned to do tests of cognitive function faster and had greater blood volume in the brain's motor cortex than their sedentary counterparts ... This suggests people who exercise are getting similar benefits ... When the researchers examined tissue samples from the brain's motor cortex, they found that mature monkeys that ran had greater vascular volume than middle-aged runners or sedentary animals. But those blood flow changes reversed in monkeys that were sedentary after exercising for five months"
• Long-Term Marathon Running Linked With Increased Coronary Calcification - Medscape, 3/22/10 - "Compared with controls, marathoners had significantly more calcified plaque volume--274 mm3 for the marathoners and 169 mm3 for the controls--and higher calcium scores and noncalcified plaque volumes, although the latter two measures did not reach statistical significance"
• High-intensity interval training is time-efficient and effective, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/12/10 - "Doing 10 one-minute sprints on a standard stationary bike with about one minute of rest in between, three times a week, works as well in improving muscle as many hours of conventional long-term biking less strenuously ... less extreme HIT method may work well for people (the older, less fit, and slightly overweight among us) whose doctors might have worries about them exercising "all-out.""
• Physical activity associated with healthier aging: Links between exercise and cognitive function, bone density and overall health - Science Daily, 1/25/10 - "After one year, women in both resistance training groups significantly improved their scores on tests of selective attention (maintaining mental focus) and conflict resolution. The program simultaneously improved muscular function in the women ... Moderate or high physical activity appears to be associated with a lower the risk of developing cognitive impairment in older adults after a two-year period ... The incidence of new cognitive impairment among participants with no, moderate and high activity at baseline was 13.9 percent, 6.7 percent and 5.1 percent, respectively," the authors write ... Fractures due to falls were twice as common in the controls vs. the exercise group"
• Running Boosts Brainpower - WebMD, 1/19/10 - "Running may do more than improve your cardiovascular fitness and overall physique. It might actually make you smarter ... Scientists reporting in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences say that running has a profound impact on the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory"
• Young adults who exercise get higher IQ Scores - Science Daily, 12/2/09 - "The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension ... Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen ... This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular strength. We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important"
• To keep muscles strong, the 'garbage' has to go - Science Daily, 12/1/09
• Molecular Proof: Exercise Keeps You Young - WebMD, 12/1/09 - "Compared to people who did not exercise, elite runners in the study had cells that looked much younger under a microscope ... Just as the plastic tips on the ends of shoelaces keep the laces from fraying, telomeres protect the chromosomes that carry genes during cell division ... Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. When telomeres get too short, cells can no longer divide and they die ... Researchers now believe telomere shortening is critical to aging, making people more vulnerable to diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer ... That study suggested exercise might trump genes when it comes to keeping people young"
• Cardiovascular Fitness May Sharpen Mind - WebMD, 11/30/09 - "A large new study links cardiovascular fitness in early adulthood to increased intelligence, better performance on cognitive tests, and higher educational achievement later in life ... When researchers looked at twins, they found that environmental factors rather than genetics appeared to play the largest role in these associations. Non-shared environmental influences accounted for 80% or more of differences in academic achievement, whereas genetics accounted for less than 15% of these differences"
• Too much physical activity may lead to arthritis - Science Daily, 11/30/09 - "Middle-aged men and women who engage in high levels of physical activity may be unknowingly causing damage to their knees and increasing their risk for osteoarthritis"
• Exercise Keeps Dangerous Visceral Fat Away A Year After Weight Loss, Study Finds - Science Daily, 10/29/09 - "as little as 80 minutes a week of aerobic or resistance training helps not only to prevent weight gain, but also to inhibit a regain of harmful visceral fat one year after weight loss"
• Sedentary Lives Can Be Deadly: Physical Inactivity Poses Greatest Health Risk To Americans, Expert Says - Science Daily, 8/10/09 - "Blair is a professor of exercise science and epidemiology at the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health. He is one of the world's premier experts on exercise and its health benefits and was the senior scientific editor of the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health ... approximately 25 percent to 35 percent of American adults are inactive ... meaning that they have sedentary jobs, no regular physical activity program and are generally inactive around the house or yard ... these individuals are doubling their risk of developing numerous health conditions compared with those who are even moderately active and fit ... moderately fit men lived six years longer than unfit men ... Blair also highlighted the benefits of exercise on the mind, referring to recent emerging evidence that activity delays the mind's decline and is good for brain health overall"
• Why Exercise Won't Make You Thin - Time Magazine, 8/9/09 - "Many obesity researchers now believe that very frequent, low-level physical activity — the kind humans did for tens of thousands of years before the leaf blower was invented — may actually work better for us than the occasional bouts of exercise you get as a gym rat ... You cannot sit still all day long and then have 30 minutes of exercise without producing stress on the muscles ... The muscles will ache, and you may not want to move after. But to burn calories, the muscle movements don't have to be extreme. It would be better to distribute the movements throughout the day"
• Aerobic Activity May Keep The Brain Young - Science Daily, 6/29/09 - "The brain’s blood vessels naturally narrow and become more tortuous with advancing age, but the study showed the cerebrovascular patterns of active patients appeared “younger” than those of relatively inactive subjects. The brains of these less active patients had increased tortuosity produced by vessel elongation and wider expansion curves"
• High Levels Of Cycling Training Damage Sperm: What Can Be Done To Protect Triathletes From Infertility? - Science Daily, 6/29/09 - "While all triathletes had less than 10% of normal-looking sperm, the men with less than 4% – at which percentage they would generally be considered to have significant fertility problems – were systematically covering over 300km per week on their bicycles"
• Only Exercise Effective In Preventing Low-back Problems, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 3/1/09 - "Strong and consistent evidence finds many popular prevention methods to fail while exercise has a significant impact, both in terms of preventing symptoms and reducing back pain-related work loss"
• People Who Exercise Lower Their Risk Of Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "people who exercised the most were 24 percent less likely to develop the disease than those who exercised the least"
• Physically Fit Kids Do Better In School - Science Daily, 1/28/09 - "physically fit kids scored better on standardized math and English tests than their less fit peers"
• Exercise No Danger For Joints, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 1/27/09 - "There is no good evidence supporting a harmful effect of exercise on joints in the setting of normal joints and regular exercise"
• Physical Activity Improves Mood For People Serious Mental Illness - Science Daily, 1/14/09 - "even meager levels of physical activity can improve the mood of people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) such as bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia"
• Prospective cohort study of lifetime physical activity and breast cancer survival - Int J Cancer. 2008 Nov 17 - "A decreased risk of breast cancer death and all deaths was observed among women in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of recreational activity"
• Physical Exercise Keeps Brain Young - WebMD, 11/19/08 - "The brain-boosting effects of exercise diminish rapidly after early middle age ... mice that worked out every day grew 2.5 times more new brain cells than couch potato mice. And in the exercising mice, far more of these new neurons survived, grew, and integrated into existing brain networks"
• Physical Activity, Sleep May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/17/08 - "Among the most physically active women younger than 65 -- women who reported getting about an hour a day of moderate physical activity -- cancer was 47% rarer for those who got at least seven hours of nightly sleep. Those findings held regardless of other cancer risk factors"
• Heart Rate-lowering Drug Improves Exercise Capacity In Patients With Stable Angina - Science Daily, 11/4/08 - "adding ivabradine over and above the standard of care achieves increases exercise tolerance"
• Vigorous Exercise Cuts Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 10/30/08 - "When we evaluated the relation of vigorous activity to breast cancer among women who were of normal weight ... the risk among women reporting the highest amount of vigorous activity decreased by about 30% compared with women with no vigorous activity"
• Running Slows the Effects of Aging - WebMD, 8/11/08 - "Older runners have fewer disabilities, remain more active as they get into their 70s and 80s, and are half as likely as non-runners to die early deaths, the study shows ... If you had to pick one thing to make people healthier as they age, it would be aerobic exercise ... The researchers used national death records to learn which participants died and why. Nineteen years into the study, 34% of the non-runners had died, compared with only 15% of the runners"
• 'Exercise Pill' Is No Replacement For Real Exercise, Expert Cautions - Science Daily, 8/5/08 - "Media reports have described this substance as an “exercise pill,” potentially eliminating the need for exercise ... A complete list of the 26 benefits not tested in the paper is included below"
• Exercise Could Be The Heart's Fountain Of Youth - Science Daily, 7/23/08 - "Absence may make the heart grow fonder, but endurance exercise seems to make it younger ... older people who did endurance exercise training for about a year ended up with metabolically much younger hearts ... after endurance exercise training -- which involved walking, running or cycling exercises three to five days a week for about an hour per session -- the participants' hearts doubled their glucose uptake during high-energy demand"
• Exercise May Cut Risk of Dementia - WebMD, 6/3/08 - "In a study of more than 1,400 adults, those who were physically active in their free time during middle age were 52% less likely to develop dementia 21 years later than their sedentary counterparts. Their chance of developing Alzheimer's disease was slashed even more, by 62%"
• Stay Fit, Avoid Breast Cancer? - WebMD, 5/12/08 - "the women whose activity equaled 13 walking hours a week or 3.25 running hours per week had a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer compared with the less active women. The strongest association was seen with increased exercise during adolescent and young adult years (ages 12-22)"
• Regular Exercise Through Middle Age May Delay Biological Aging - Medscape, 4/29/08 - "Review of the available evidence suggests that a regular program of aerobic exercise can slow or reverse functional deterioration, lowering biological age by at least 10 years, and potentially prolonging independence by a similar amount"
• Tailored Workouts for Heart Disease? - WebMD, 4/22/08 - "Endurance training involved one- to three-hour sessions of rowing on the water or on gym equipment. Strength training involved weight training and drills designed to improve muscle strength and reaction time ... Both the right and left ventricles of the endurance athletes expanded, while the heart muscle in the left ventricle tended to thicken (but did not expand) among the strength athletes. The ventricles are the principal pumping chambers of the heart and are responsible for sending blood to the body and to the lungs ... The heart relaxed more in the endurance athletes, but less well in the strength athletes, though still remaining within normal ranges. In general, better heart muscle relaxation is considered advantageous"
• Veggies, Exercise May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 4/15/08 - "Overall, women who engaged in recreational exercise 30 to 150 minutes per week were 50% less likely to have breast cancer than women who exercised less than a half hour per week"
• Men Who Are Continually Active At Work May Have Decreased Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/13/08 - "The message from this study for today is that if you’re more active, you may be able to prevent this cancer from happening"
• Recreational Physical Activity and Cancer Risk in Subsites of the Colon (the Nord-Trondelag Health Study) - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):183-8 - "Overall, we found an inverse association between recreational physical activity and colon cancer risk, but subsite analyses showed that the association was confined to cancer in the transverse and sigmoid colon. The adjusted HR, comparing people who reported high versus no physical activity, was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.78) for cancer in the transverse colon and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.31-0.75) for cancer in the sigmoid colon. The corresponding HR for cancer mortality was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.14-0.76) for the transverse colon and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.15-0.56) for the sigmoid colon. For rectal cancer, there was no association with physical activity in these data"
• Surprise -- Cholesterol May Actually Pose Benefits, Study Shows - Science Daily, 1/10/08 - "Three days a week for 12 weeks, participants performed several exercises, including stretching, stationary bike riding and vigorous weight lifting ... At the conclusion of the study, the researchers found that there was a significant association of dietary cholesterol and change in strength. In general, those with higher cholesterol intake also had the highest muscle strength gain ... One possible explanation is through cholesterol’s important role in the inflammation process"
• Marathon Runners Beware Of Drinking Too Much Water - Science Daily, 1/9/08
• Staying Active And Drinking Moderately Is The Key To A Long Life, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/9/08 - "ischaemic heart disease ... People who drank at least one drink a week and were physically active had a 44-50 per cent lower risk of IHD compared to physically inactive non-drinkers"
• Moderate Exercise May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD,12/19/07- "Moderate physical activity (such as walking and climbing stairs) may help prevent dementia in people aged 65 and older"
• Physical activity recommendations and decreased risk of mortality - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Dec 10;167(22):2453-60 - "During 1 265 347 person-years of follow-up, 7900 participants died. Compared with being inactive, achievement of activity levels that approximate the recommendations for moderate activity (at least 30 minutes on most days of the week) or vigorous exercise (at least 20 minutes 3 times per week) was associated with a 27% (relative risk [RR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.78) and 32% (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.64-0.73) decreased mortality risk, respectively. Physical activity reflective of meeting both recommendations was related to substantially decreased mortality risk overall (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.46-0.54) and in subgroups, including smokers (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.44-0.53) and nonsmokers (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.45-0.64), normal weight (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.39-0.52) and overweight or obese individuals (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.44-0.54), and those with 2 h/d (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.44-0.63) and more than 2 h/d of television or video watching (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.45-0.55). Engaging in physical activity at less than recommended levels was also related to reduced mortality risk (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76-0.86)"
• Fit Beats Fat for a Longer Life - WebMD, 12/4/07 - "Fitness was found to be a strong predictor of longevity in the study, which involved adults ages 60 and older, while obesity had little influence on death risk"
• Use It Or Lose It: Physical Activity In Middle Age - Science Daily, 11/28/07 - "Researchers from the Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, UK, have concluded a study that proves a direct link between levels of physical activity in middle age and physical ability later in life -- regardless of body weight"
• Exercise When Young May Reduce Risk Of Fractures Later In Life - Science Daily, 12/7/06 - "Even though the best time to gain lifetime bone health benefits is while people are young, exercising when people are older is essential to maintain bone mass and balance, as well as maintain aerobic fitness, all of which aid in reducing the risk of low-trauma (osteoporotic) fractures associated with aging"
• Fasting Blood Glucose Levels Are Related to Exercise Capacity in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Medscape, 12/5/06 - "The VO2max values were lower in subjects with FBG levels between 126 and 140 and ≥140 mg/dL ... The lower exercise capacity of patients with CAD with higher FBG levels could theoretically be attributed to differences in left ventricular dimensions and pump function, ischemia, or differences in baseline and exercise-induced hemodynamics, compared with patients with normoglycemia"
• Walking Not Enough For Significant Exercise Benefits - Science Daily, 9/22/06 - "low-intensity activity such as walking alone is not likely going to give anybody marked health benefits compared to programs that occasionally elevate the intensity"
• Study: Lifting weights attacks belly fat - USA Today, 3/3/06 - "Women who did the weight-training for two years had only a 7% increase in intra-abdominal fat, compared to a 21% increase in the group given exercise advice"
• Working out may help prevent colds, flu - MSNBC, 1/17/06 - "moderate amounts of aerobic exercise such as jogging, brisk walking and cycling during the cold and flu season boost the body’s defenses against viruses and bacteria"
• Research shows exercise protects against Parkinson's - USA Today, 1/17/06 - "men who said they jogged, played basketball or did some other sweat-breaking activity at least twice a week as young adults reduced their risk of getting Parkinson's later by 60%"
• Staying active helps keep the mind sharp - MSNBC, 1/16/06 - "healthy people who reported exercising regularly had a 30 to 40 percent lower risk of dementia"
• Seeking Long Life? Researchers Get Clues - WebMD, 11/14/05 - "Compared to those with low levels of physical activity, highly active men in the study lived 3.7 years longer and moderately active men lived 1.3 years longer. In women, the figures were 3.5 and 1.5 years"
• Regular Exercise Keeps Brain Young - WebMD, 11/14/05 - "In people, that translates to a daily 30-minute walk or a light 1-mile run ... The DNA for these animals after two years looked as if it were from their younger counterparts of only about 6 months of age"
• Don't Run Away From Jogging - WashingtonPost.com, 10/4/05 - "regular runners reported about 25 percent less musculoskeletal pain than the controls. The benefit was seen in participants through the age of 76"
• Exercise Fights 'Hidden' Body Fat - WebMD, 9/14/05 - "Higher amounts of exercise cut deep belly fat and fat around the waist ... Deep belly fat (technically called "visceral fat" or fat surrounding organs within the abdomen) has been linked to health problems including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of risk factors that greatly increase the chance of developing these diseases"
• Studies Link Bike Seats, Erectile Dysfunction - WebMD, 8/25/05 - "three new studies in The Journal of Sexual Medicine ... when erectile dysfunction is related to bicycling, it's linked to pressure on the perineum (the area between the anus and scrotum where nerves and arteries pass). The pressure, which comes from sitting on a bicycle seat with a nose extension, restricts blood flow to the penis"
• Level of Activity Key to Cutting Stroke Risk - WebMD, 8/4/05 - "Being moderately to highly active during leisure time can slash stroke risk ... This means vigorous activity (like running, swimming, or heavy gardening) for more than three hours a week"
• Fitness Level Predicts Likelihood of Death - WebMD, 8/3/05 - "Having a good fitness level for one's age predicts better survival ... If you are below the fitness level for your age, you are more likely to die ... women double their risk of death if they can't exercise at 85% of the level normal for their age"
• Fitness Level Declines Dramatically With Age - WebMD, 7/25/05 - "By participating in a training program, you can raise your aerobic capacity 15% to 25%, which in our study would be equivalent to being 10-20 years younger"
• Exercise Away Risk of Early Death - WebMD, 12/29/04 - "After six months, 18% of exercisers and 15% of the comparison group no longer had metabolic syndrome. However, 8% of volunteers in the comparison group had developed the syndrome ... Older people can benefit greatly from exercise, especially to reduce their risk for developing metabolic syndrome"
• Exercising More Cuts Need for Doctor Visits - WebMD, 12/9/04 - "Fit men, as well as those who become fit, may reduce health care costs by more than 50%"
• Exercise Increases Bone Mass: Start Early For Long-Lasting Effects - Science Daily, 10/7/04 - "Mechanical loading through exercise builds bone strength and this effect is most pronounced during skeletal growth and development"
• Regardless of Weight, Physical Activity Lowers Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 9/25/03 - "A new study shows a brisk 30-minute walk every day can substantially lower a person's risk of diabetes, no matter how much they weigh"
• A Little Exercise Lowers Blood Pressure - WebMD, 8/29/03 - "The ability to lower blood pressure was greatest among those who exercised 61-90 minutes per week -- an average of 12 point drop in systolic and eight points in diastolic. But there were no further reductions in systolic blood pressure among those who exercised more than 90 minutes a week ... The researchers also found that how many times the participants exercised per week had no obvious effect on blood pressure -- just the total amount of time"
• Walking Won't Prevent Heart Disease - WebMD, 4/15/03 - "only more strenuous exercise and physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, and climbing stairs, on a regular basis can significantly reduce the risk of early death due to heart disease"
• Textured Shoe Insoles Prevent Sports Injuries - WebMD, 4/9/03
• Exercise Training, Without Weight Loss, Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Postheparin Plasma Lipase Activity in Previously Sedentary Adults - Medscape, 3/19/03 - "Exercise, without weight loss, increases SI [insulin sensitivity] and PHPL activity in previously sedentary adults, without changing K2 or fasting lipid levels. Furthermore, increased LPL is associated with a decreased total:HDL ratio, and an increased LPL:HL ratio is associated with a decreased waist circumference. Therefore, even modest amounts of exercise in the absence of weight loss positively affect markers of glucose and fat metabolism in previously sedentary, middle-aged adults" - I threw this out because I didn't know that "decreased total:HDL ratio ... is associated with a decreased waist circumference".  This might be a long shot but that sounds like increasing insulin sensitivity via such methods as metformin and increasing HDL via supplements such as niacin might decrease pot bellies. - Ben
• Heart Failure Patients Benefit From Exercise - WebMD, 3/3/03 - "Exercise may be the best medicine for even those with the weakest hearts, such as people with heart failure who are awaiting a heart transplant"
• Exercise Cuts Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/10/03 - "women who reported high levels of physical activity from as young as age 16 in some cases cut their risk of developing breast cancer after menopause in half, compared to women who reported no strenuous activity ... The study has a drawback, though, that all such studies face, which is what's called a "healthy patient bias." In this case, women who exercise often might be more apt to take care of themselves in other ways, so that a decrease in breast cancer later in life may not be due to the exercise itself, but rather some other associated factor. The researchers accounted for this by factoring in subjects such as smoking history and weight. "After adjusting for all these factors we're pretty confident that what we see is the effect of exercise,""
• Long distance Women Runners Risk Low Bone Mineral Density - Doctor's Guide, 1/29/03
• Exercise Saves Brain Cells - WebMD, 1/29/03 - "aerobic exercise can help protect brain tissue from age-related damage and mental decline ... the brain loses an average of 15% to 25% of its tissue between the ages of 30 and 90 ... exercise decreased the amount of brain-tissue loss associated with aging"
• Exercise Alone Trims Tummy, Health Risks - WebMD, 1/14/03 - "173 sedentary, overweight menopausal women between the ages of 50 and 75 were randomly assigned ... Women in the exercise group participated in moderate exercise, such as brisk walking or riding a stationary bike for an average total of about 171 minutes a week ... After 12 months, researchers found that weight loss among the exercisers was modest, but the loss of intra-abdominal fat was considerable and increased with the amount of exercise. Women who exercised for more than 195 minutes a week lost almost 7% of intra-abdominal fat compared to a loss of about 4% among those who exercised between 136 to 195 minutes per week"
• Dose-Response Relationship Between Exercise, Heart Disease In Men - Doctor's Guide, 10/23/02 - "There is a significant inverse, dose-response relationship between total physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary heart disease (CHD) in men"
• Walking Lowers Women's Heart Risk - WebMD, 9/4/02 - "women who either walked briskly or exercised vigorously at least two and a half hours per week had a 30% lower risk of heart-related problems, such as heart attack, stroke, the need for heart bypass surgery, heart failure, or death. And the heart-healthy benefits extended to all women in the study, regardless of race or ethnic group, age, or weight"
• Reduction of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy After Exercise and Weight Loss in Overweight Patients With Mild Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 7/15/02 - "Blood pressure fell by 7.0 / 6.0 mmHg in the weight management group and by 3.0 / 4.0 mmHg in the aerobic exercise group"
• Exercise Said Best For Blood Pressure - Intelihealth, 4/22/02 - "The average reduction was 3.8 milligrams of mercury in systolic pressure ... average diastolic ... 2.58 milligrams of mercury lower"
• Government Study: 7 in 10 Not Exercising - Intelihealth, 4/8/02 - "A new government report says seven in 10 adults don't regularly exercise and nearly four in 10 aren't physically active at all ... About 300,000 people a year in the United States die from diseases related to inactivity. In addition to diabetes, lack of exercise can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke"
• Exercise Helps Everyone's Heart - WebMD, 4/1/02 - "The overwhelming evidence shows exercise can reduce blood pressure in virtually anyone -- regardless of weight, race, or current blood pressure level ... regular aerobic exercise decreased systolic blood pressure (the top number) by an average of 3.8 mmHg and diastolic (the bottom number) by 2.58 mmHg, in people who were previously inactive"
• Body Makes Natural Antidepressant After Moderate Exercise - WebMD, 9/27/01 - "Even moderate exercise apparently raises levels of a brain chemical that improves a person's mood ... The substance is phenylethylamine, or PEA, a natural stimulant produced by the body. It is related to amphetamines but does not have the long-lasting effects that make "speed" or "ice" such deadly drugs ... moderate exercise increases PEA levels for most people"
• Six Months Of Endurance Exercise Reverses 30 Years Of Aerobic Decline - Intelihealth, 8/18/01 - "The studies indicate that middle-aged men can actually reverse many of the negative results of non-exercise, even after being physically inactive for a long time ... We found that 100 percent of the age-related decline in aerobic power that occurred over 30 years in these men was reversed by six months of endurance training"
• Looking for the Fountain of Youth? Try the Gym - WebMD, 9/17/01 - "endurance training reversed a 30-year decline in cardiovascular fitness among a group of middle-aged men who were first studied in their 20s ... After the six-month training period, all five men were back to the fitness level they had 30 years earlier ... Remarkably, this study shows that 20 days of bed rest caused the cardiovascular fitness of these men who were in their 20s to decline worse than 30 years of aging"
• Exercise can help you recover faster from the discomfort of arthritis - Healthscout, 1/29/01 - "Not only is regular exercise the best way to prevent pain from occurring in arthritic joints in the first place, those who exercise regularly also recover faster from existing arthritic pain"
• Study Relates Jogging And Strong Bones - Intelihealth, 6/28/01 - "Young men who jog regularly build strong bones and may be less likely to develop the brittle bone disease osteoporosis ... For couch potatoes, men who do little or no exercise, the bone density of joggers was almost 8 percent better"
• Exercise Junkies: How Hard Should You Push Your Heart? - WebMD, 3/8/01 - "Researchers found that maximal heart rates were strongly related to age in both men and women. This led to the development of a new formula to estimate heart rate: 208 - (0.7 × age)"
• Campaign Pushes At-Home Exercises - Intelihealth, 2/27/01 - "specialists are starting a campaign to help Americans properly treat a sprained ankle with at-home strengthening exercises that can work as well as formal physical therapy"
• Study: Stretch Cords Help Exercise - Intelihealth, 2/26/01 - "Straining against the stretch cords, which were made for exercise, has the same effect as weight training - spurring muscle growth in a way that simply bounding up and down on a step platform cannot match"