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News & Research:

  • Is It Time to Redefine Iron Deficiency? - Medscape, 2/22/22 - "before you just say, "This is the heart failure getting worse," investigate the iron. I think we're going to find some very interesting relationships" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Micronutrient Supplementation to Prevent, Improve HF? - Medscape, 2/29/22 - "A new review suggests that micronutrient supplementation — particularly a combination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), zinc, copper, selenium, and iron — might be a potential strategy to improve myocardial function in patients with heart failure (HF) by improving mitochondrial function" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com, zinc supplements at Amazon.com, copper supplements at Amazon.com, Selenium at Amazon.com and iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low Iron in Midlife May Boost Risk for Heart Disease - WebMD, 10/19/21 - "With low iron, the heart must pump harder, which can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath, and a higher risk of heart attacks and strokes ... people with functional iron deficiency were 24% more likely to get coronary heart disease during the study. They were also 26% more likely to die from heart attacks or other cardiovascular causes and 12% more likely to die from any cause. The researchers found no link between functional iron deficiency and stroke"
  • Does Optimal Iron Absorption Include Vitamin C? - Medscape, 7/15/21 - "Less frequent administration of iron supplements (every other day) is as effective as more frequent administration, with less GI symptoms. Also, adding vitamin C does not appear to improve absorption of iron supplements" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and iHerb.com.
  • Iron Therapy May Help More Patients With Kidney Disease - Medscape, 7/12/21 - "Patients with the greatest levels of iron deficiency, with iron saturation levels of 15% or lower on the transferrin saturation index (TSAT), showed the highest risks for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44) and MACE (HR, 1.77) compared to those with iron levels of 26%-35% on the TSAT" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Iron-Clad Benefits of CRT Seen in Reduced-EF Heart Failure - Medscape, 7/2/21 - "a small randomized trial may highlight a potential mechanism for those benefits by demonstrating what appears to be a direct salutary effect of the injectable iron preparation ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject / Injectafer), or FCM, on reverse remodeling in iron-deficient patients with HFrEF ... Its patients, who were already receiving "very robust background medical therapy and robust device therapy consisting of CRT," Martens observed, benefited with significant new cardiac reverse remodeling after 3 months of FCM treatment, compared to similar patients assigned to a standard-care control group. Their left-ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) went up and left-ventricular end-systolic volumes (LVESVs) went down. They also showed relative gains in exercise capacity and higher scores on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), which measures functional status ... Iron deficiency can impair the reverse-remodeling benefit of CRT and blunt the heart's positive force-frequency relationship (FFR) ― a measure of contractile mechanics that normally climbs exponentially with accelerating heart rate. Put another way, cardiac output at exercise testing tends to go up less in HFrEF patients with iron deficiency compared to those who aren't iron deficient ... The IRON-CRT trial suggests that FCM iron repletion in such patients "improves cardiac performance and is capable of transforming the negative FFR into a positive FFR," thereby boosting cardiac output and exercise capacity"
  • Blood iron levels could be key to slowing aging, gene study shows - Science Daily, 7/16/20 - "The international study using genetic data from more than a million people suggests that maintaining healthy levels of iron in the blood could be a key to ageing better and living longer."
  • Higher iron levels may boost heart health -- but also increase risk of stroke - Science Daily, 7/16/19 - "The results reveal not only are naturally higher iron levels associated with a lower risk of high cholesterol levels, they also reduce the risk of arteries becoming furred with a build-up of fatty substances ... However the research, funded by the Wellcome Trust, also revealed the potential risks associated with naturally higher iron levels. These included a higher risk of blood clots related to slow blood flow blood -- a common cause of stroke -- and a higher risk of bacterial skin infection ... getting the right amount of iron in the body is a fine balance -- too little can lead to anemia, but too much can lead to a range of problems including liver damage"
  • The many reasons you need iron in your diet - Washington Post, 10/17/17 - "Iron equals energy. Iron’s main job is to help carry oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body. When you do not get enough oxygen to your cells, you are left feeling exhausted and weak — sound familiar, boys? Low iron is the most common nutrient deficiency in the United States. Even if my guys are not actually iron deficient, giving their cells a little more oxygen certainly cannot hurt ... Kids and adults who drink caffeine may be depleting their bodies of iron. Caffeine inhibits iron absorption, making it hard for the essential mineral to get to our cells to work its magic. Digestive distress can also inhibit the absorption of iron. Excess exercise can damage red blood cells, the cells that carry the oxygen throughout our bodies, so the body may need even more iron when exercising to the extreme. Boys, I am quite sure your twice-a-day football practices in August and September heat qualified as extreme"
  • Iron deficiency anemia associated with hearing loss - Science Daily, 12/29/16 - "iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common and easily correctable condition ... An association exists between IDA in adults and hearing loss"
  • Better Than Oral Iron for Preop Anemia? IV Iron, Maybe - Medscape, 6/24/15 - "standard therapy of oral iron has limitations of its own. In fact, issues with noncompliance typically caused by gastrointestinal discomfort can occur in more than 30% of patients ... The increase in median ferritin level from baseline to surgery was significantly greater with the IV therapy (32 µg/L to 544 µg/L) than with the oral therapy (76 µg/L to 107 µg/L; P < .001). And at 3 months, ferritin levels were significantly higher in the IV group than in the oral group (176 µg/L vs 90 µg/L; P < .001)" - Note:  I through this in because supplement can take up to five years.
  • Iron Deficiency: Emerging Therapeutic Target in Heart Failure - Medscape, 9/23/14 - "In patients with heart failure, iron deficiency is frequent but overlooked, with a prevalence of 30%–50%. Since it contributes to cardiac and peripheral muscle dysfunction, iron deficiency is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and a greater risk of death, independent of haemoglobin level" - Note the phrase "independent of haemoglobin level".  I had a doctor look at my hemoglobin and say that I didn't need a blood test for iron.  I showed him about ten studies and he ordered the test and it turned out I was right about my iron being way low.  I think it was athletes anemia.  See Iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Mothers of children with autism less likely to have taken iron supplements in pregnancy, study shows -- ScienceDaily - Science Daily, 9/22/14 - "Low iron intake was associated with a five-fold greater risk of autism in the child if the mother was 35 or older at the time of the child's birth or if she suffered from metabolic conditions such as obesity hypertension or diabetes ... The association between lower maternal iron intake and increased ASD risk was strongest during breastfeeding, after adjustment for folic acid intake ... Iron deficiency, and its resultant anemia, is the most common nutrient deficiency, especially during pregnancy, affecting 40 to 50 percent of women and their infants ... Iron is crucial to early brain development, contributing to neurotransmitter production, myelination and immune function. All three of these pathways have been associated with autism"
  • Iron supplements improve anemia, quality of life for women with heavy periods - Science Daily, 6/9/14 - "One year after treatment women in the anemic group had a significant increase in energy, along with physical and social function, and a decrease in anxiety and depression compared to the non-anemic group. It took five years for the iron stores to reach normal levels"
  • Negative iron balance predicts acute heart failure survival - Science Daily, 5/17/14 - "negative iron balance (NIB) ... Patients with NIB had the highest 12 month mortality (41%) compared to those with only high soluble transferrin receptor (15%), only low hepcidin (7%) and none of these abnormalities (0%) (p<0.001). During the hospital stay 3 patients died and all had NIB ... Iron supplementation may reverse NIB and improve survival in acute heart failure patients but this needs to be tested in a randomised clinical trial"
  • Taking iron improves women's exercise performance, study shows - Science Daily, 4/11/14 - "iron supplementation improved women's exercise performance, in terms of both the highest level they could achieve at 100% exertion (maximal capacity) and their exercise efficiency at a submaximal exertion. Women who were given iron were able to perform a given exercise using a lower heart rate and at a higher efficiency ... Iron deficiency can also produce fatigue and lethargy and eventually result in iron deficiency anemia"
  • 15 Signs You May Have an Iron Deficiency - ABC News, 3/28/14 - "Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the United States ... iron deficiency causes less oxygen to reach your tissues, so your body is deprived of the energy it needs. If your "normal" fatigue is coupled with you feeling, weak, irritable, or unable to focus, iron (or a lack thereof) might have something to do with it ... An overworked heart can end up suffering from irregular heartbeats, heart murmurs, enlargement, and even heart failure ... the brain's arteries can swell, causing headaches ... iron deficiency can trick you into feeling even more anxious ... It sends your body into survival mode, so your body channels oxygen to support vital functions as opposed to ones like keeping your hair intact ... Iron deficiency slows your body's thyroid function and blocks its metabolism-boosting effects ... many people who are iron deficient complain of a sore, inflamed, and strangely smooth tongue" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • 10 Signs You Have an Iron Deficiency - ABC News, 3/4/14 - "About 9 percent of women suffer from an iron deficiency ... even higher for physically active women ... Fatigue ... Difficulty Focusing ... Apathy ... Breathlessness ... Unusually Pale Skin ... Trouble Doing Your Normal Workout ... Crazy-Sore Muscles ... Brittle Nails ... Pink or Red Urine" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Deficiency May Raise Stroke Risk - WebMD, 2/20/14 - "Those who had an iron deficiency had stickier platelets -- which are small blood cells that trigger clotting when they stick together -- and were more likely to suffer a stroke ... Even those with moderately low iron levels were about twice as likely to suffer a stroke as those with iron levels in the middle of the normal range"
  • Iron Deficiency Key Determinant of HRQoL in HF - Medscape, 10/16/13 - "Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire (MLHFQ) for HRQoL (higher scores reflect worse HRQoL) ... ID was defined as serum ferritin levels <100 ng/mL or serum ferritin <800 ng/mL with transferrin saturation <20%. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin ≤12 g/dL ... The MLHFQ overall summary scores were 41.0 +/- 24.7 among those with ID, vs. 34.4 +/- 26.4 for non-ID patients (P = 0.003), indicating worse HRQoL. When adjusted for other factors associated with HRQoL, ID was significantly associated with worse MLHFQ overall summary (P = 0.008) and physical dimension scores (P = 0.002), whereas anaemia was not (both P > 0.05). Increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor were also associated with impaired HRQoL (P ≤ 0.001). Adjusting for haemoglobin and C-reactive protein, ID was more pronounced in patients with anaemia compared with those without ... In patients with CHF, ID but not anaemia was associated with reduced HRQoL, mostly due to physical factors"
  • Iron Supplements Improve Cognition and Health in Anemic Kids - Medscape, 10/15/13 - "iron supplementation improved both global cognitive scores, by a third of a point, and intelligence quotient, by about 5 points, in children who were anemic at baseline ... Supplementation was also associated with better age-adjusted height among all children and age-adjusted weight among the anemic subset. Furthermore, it cut the risk for anemia by half and the risk for iron deficiency by more than three fourths ... Supplementation was also associated with significantly better attention and concentration"
  • One Iron Pill a Day Keeps Fatigue Away? - Medscape, 8/20/13 - "evidence is growing that fatigue in non-anaemic, menstruating women with low ferritin can be influenced positively by iron supplementation ... the authors randomised 198 menstruating women with considerable fatigue (>6 on a 1–10 Likert scale), ferritin levels less than 50 μg/l and haemoglobin ≥12 g/dl to have 80 mg oral ferrous sulphate or placebo for 12 weeks ...A total of 47.7% of the patients in the iron group compared with 28.8% in the placebo group reported decreased fatigue. Quality of life, depression and anxiety were not affected ... As in all oral iron trials, darkening of stool leads to possible differentiation of verum from placebo, therefore, blinding was not totally assured; a substantial limitation considering the huge placebo effect on fatigue reported in studies using parenteral iron"
  • Iron Deficiency Linked to Psychiatric Disorders in Kids - Medscape, 6/24/13 - "Children and adolescents with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are at increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and autism ... should check the iron level in those children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders ... Iron plays a key role in brain development, including myelination of white matter and the development and functioning of the different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin systems ... There is well-documented evidence in the literature that IDA has a significant influence on cognitive development, intelligence, and developmental delay ... Odds Ratio ... Bipolar disorder ... 5.80"
  • Women's Iron Intake May Help to Protect Against PMS - Science Daily, 2/26/13 - "women who consumed the most non-heme iron, the form found primarily in plant foods and in supplements, had a 30 to 40 percent lower risk of developing PMS than women who consumed the lowest amount of non-heme iron ... The level of iron intake at which we saw a lower risk of PMS, roughly greater than 20 mg per day, is higher than the current recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron for premenopausal women, which is 18 mg per day ... Iron may be related to PMS because it is involved in producing serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate mood ... The level of zinc intake at which we saw suggestion of a lower risk of PMS, greater than 15 mg per day, was also higher than current recommendations of 8 mg per day"
  • Iron supplements reduce ADHD in low birth weight infants - Science Daily, 12/10/12 - "researchers in Sweden gave 285 marginally low birth weight infants either 0, 1 or 2 mg/kg and day of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age. At age three-and-a-half, these infants and 95 who had a normal birth weight were assessed for intelligence and behavior. There were no significant differences in IQ between the low birth weight groups and the normal-weight control group. However, for behavioral problems like ADHD, there was a significant effect from the iron supplements. Of the low birth weight infants who received no iron supplements, 12.7 percent showed signs of behavior problems, compared to 2.9 percent of infants in the 1-mg group and 2.7 percent of the 2-mg group. In the control group, 3.2 percent of children showed signs of behavioral problems"
  • Iron pills may help women beat fatigue - BBC News, 6/4/12 - "Prescribing iron supplements may help some women with fatigue even if they are not officially anaemic ... A severe shortage of iron is the most common cause of anaemia resulting in lethargy, weakness and feeling faint ... Nearly 200 women reporting fatigue, with no medical explanation, took part in the study. Half were given 80mg oral iron tablets every day, while half were given sugar pills ... iron supplementation for 12 weeks decreased fatigue [scores] by 50%" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diet counts: Iron intake in teen years can impact brain in later life - Science Daily, 1/12/12 - "healthy brain wiring in adults depended on having good iron levels in your teenage years ... This connection was a lot stronger than we expected, especially as we were looking at people who were young and healthy -- none of them would be considered iron-deficient ... You wouldn't think the iron in our diet would affect the brain so much in our teen years. But it turns out that it matters very much. Because myelin speeds your brain's communications, and iron is vital for making myelin, poor iron levels in childhood erode your brain reserves which you need later in life to protect against aging and Alzheimer's"
  • Helicobacter pylori infection linked to decreased iron levels in otherwise healthy children - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori and most of the individuals are asymptomatically infected ... Previous research has shown that iron levels correlate with several body functions including brain activity and have well documented long-term health consequences such as increased morbidity and mortality and loss of productivity ... the infection causes a decrease in the levels of iron in children who do not have anemia or an iron deficiency. The bacterium H. pylori infects the lining of the stomach resulting in chronic swelling of tissue, a condition known as gastritis. H. pylori is also a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and the cause of most cancers of the stomach ... Over time markers of iron stored in the body increased in children no longer infected. However, children who remained infected lagged in levels of one marker, serum ferritin, at their six month follow-up. The protein serum ferritin measures the amount of iron stored in your body"
  • Iron storage status not linked to mortality: Study - Nutra USA, 2/23/11 - "The study shows that – in a healthy population – there is no association with the biomarkers for iron storage and mortality … meaning that the upper limits of iron storage are no associated with an increased risk of death" - [Abstract]
  • Ritalin may ease early iron deficiency damage - Science Daily, 2/2/11 - "When children are deprived of iron at any point during the last trimester of pregnancy or the first six months of life -- a critical period of brain development -- they suffer brain damage at least through early adulthood, and possibly beyond. In particular, their motor function can be impaired as well as their ability to focus ... Iron-deficient adults often have restless leg syndrome. People who become iron deficient after three years of age can recover by taking iron supplements ... iron deficiency has a major hit on dopamine systems"
  • New findings pull back curtain on relationship between iron and Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "there is a very close link between elevated levels of iron in the brain and the enhanced production of the amyloid precursor protein, which in Alzheimer's disease breaks down into a peptide that makes up the destructive plaques ... it had been known that an abundance of iron in brain cells somehow results in an abundance of amyloid precursor protein, or APP, and its destructive peptide offspring"
  • Iron deficiency in heart failure - Science Daily, 8/31/10 - "Iron deficiency is a relatively common nutritional disorder that affects more than one third of the general population, and is often associated with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid diseases and renal failure ... iron deficiency must be viewed in a much broader clinical context, as it also affects at least one-third of non-anaemic CHF patients ... Iron deficiency appears to be independent of the severity of CHF symptoms, and occurs irrespective of anaemia. It also seems to be associated with exercise intolerance and leads to a reduced quality of life. Our research shows that it probably constitutes an ominous sign of a poor outcome, independently of the other well-established prognosticators. In light of its high prevalence and clinical consequences, iron deficiency may well be perceived as an attractive therapeutic target in CHF"
  • Polyphenol antioxidants inhibit iron absorption - Science Daily, 8/23/10 - "eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount of iron the body absorbs, which can increase the risk of developing an iron deficiency ... People already at risk for iron deficiency increase that risk if they consume high amounts of grape seed extract or EGCG"
  • Consumers over age 50 should consider cutting copper and iron intake, report suggests - Science Daily, 1/20/10
  • Iron Deficiency In Womb May Delay Brain Maturation In Preemies - Science Daily, 5/4/09
  • Iron Overload: An Important Co-factor In The Development Of Liver Disease In Alcoholics - Science Daily, 2/24/09 - "A high prevalence of iron overload was found in alcoholics, which appeared to be related to the development of liver disease [odds ration for having liver disease in alcoholics with transferrin saturation greater than 45% was 2.2 (95% CI 1.37-3.54)]"
  • New Form Of Intravenous Iron Treats Anemia In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients On Dialysis - Science Daily, 1/28/09
  • New Role For Serotonin 'Ironed Out' - Science Daily, 1/27/09 - "low-functioning variants of human SERT have been associated with anxiety, depression, and reduced efficacy of SSRI medications ... Iron is required to synthesize both serotonin and dopamine, and serotonin receptors are known to regulate iron-carrying proteins. But SERT had not been previously shown to control brain iron levels. Follow-up studies with mice where the SERT gene was eliminated (SERT "knock-out" mice) verified a critical role for the transporter in controlling brain iron levels ... Because SERT is such an important drug target in treating anxiety, depression and OCD, we need to stop and think about how iron might be influencing these disorders"
  • Ferritin Levels Linked With Risk of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 12/22/08 - "Elevated circulating ferritin concentrations are independently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects ... Men and women had median ferritin concentrations of 155.7 ng/mL and 111.9 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to patients in the lowest ferritin quartile, those in the highest quartile had substantially higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome (2.80) and diabetes (3.26)" - Iron supplements has been controversial for years.  I started taking it again because my ferritin was 11.9.
  • Blood Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Iron Overload - Medscape, 1/23/08
  • Inulin May Help With Iron Uptake, Too - Science Daily, 1/7/08
  • Body iron stores in relation to the metabolic syndrome, glycemic control and complications in female patients with type 2 diabetes - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 Dec 4 - "Ferritin, soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR), sTfR/Log ferritin ratio (sTfR-F index) ... Patients within the lowest tertile of the sTfR-F index had significantly higher fasting insulin, percent B, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B than those in the highest tertile. Ferritin showed significant correlations with insulin, percent B and inverse correlations with adiponectin and percent S. The sTfR-F index was significantly correlated with insulin, percent B and lipid parameters"
    • Ferritin definition - medterms.com - "The blood level of ferritin serves as an indicator of the amount of iron stored in the body"
  • Novel Way To Remove Iron From Ferritin Could Dramatically Improve Sickle Cell Treatment - Science Daily, 11/5/07
  • NIH Scientists Discover Novel Cause Of Iron Overload In Thalassemia Disorders - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/07
  • My periods are quite heavy. I lose so much blood that I become severely anemic and sometimes have to get iron shots. What can I do? - Dr. Murray
  • Teaching An Old Drug New Tricks: Fighting Iron Disorders With Drug Against Hypertension - Science Daily, 2/19/07
  • Iron-deficient Infants Have Lower Cognitive Scores At 19, Especially In Lower Socioeconomic Levels - Science Daily, 11/8/06
  • Low Iron Could Help Spur Baldness - HealthDay, 5/31/06 - "Iron deficiency is the world's most common nutritional deficiency ... If iron deficiency is detected and treated in the early stages, patients may be able to grow hair more effectively"
  • Recommended Iron Levels for Pregnant Women Found to Be too High - Doctor's Guide, 5/31/06
  • Hair Loss? It May Be Iron Deficiency - WebMD, 5/17/06 - "whatever the cause of hair loss -- for both women and men -- having too little iron in the blood makes it worse"
  • Iron, calcium linked to lung cancer - Nutra USA, 12/5/05 - "The risk of lung cancer increased by 50 per cent for calcium intake greater than 1270 mg per day ... the increased lung cancer risk was the result of nonheme iron [iron from plant sources]… heme iron [from animal sources] was associated with decreased risk of lung cancer"
  • Iron transporter discovered; major impact for supplements - Nutra USA, 9/12/05
  • High Dietary Iron in Patients With Elevated Transferrin Saturation May Increase Cancer Risk - Medscape, 3/29/05 - "Among persons with increased transferrin saturation, a daily intake of dietary iron more than 18 mg is associated with an increased risk of cancer"
  • Iron Supplementation May Help Children With ADHD - Medscape, 12/6/04 - "Iron deficiency has been previously considered a potent cause of poor cognitive impairment, learning disability, and psychomotor instability ... ferritin levels were significantly lower in children with ADHD"
  • Distracted Young Women May Need More Iron - Intelihealth, 4/28/04 - "Women in the Penn State study who were iron-deficient performed significantly worse on memory and attention tests than healthy women, and an iron supplement was all it took to correct the problem" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Profound Effects On Immune Function Of Iron Therapy In End-Stage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/30/03 - "Iron therapy, given to treat anaemia in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), depresses immune function by inhibiting TNF-a production and increasing IL-4"
  • Iron Stores May Predict Diabetes Risk - Doctor's Guide, 6/18/03 - "Women in the highest quintile of ferritin concentration were 2.66 times more likely to have diabetes, compared with those in the lowest quintile"
  • Iron May Increase Risk of Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 6/9/03 - "The rate of Parkinson's disease was almost double in those with the highest intake of iron and the trace mineral manganese ... To put it in perspective, a person's lifetime risk of getting Parkinson's disease is about one in 1,000, so doubling that means the risk would be two in 1,000"
  • Orally Active Iron Chelator May be Effective in Treating Iron Overload - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/03
  • Iron Supplements May Help Fatigued Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/22/03 - "Women who experience unexplained fatigue, but who are not anaemic may benefit from iron supplementation ...The level of fatigue after one month decreased by - 1.82/6.37 points (29%) in the iron group, compared with - 0.85/6.46 points (13%) in the placebo group ... the lower limit for serum ferritin concentration is controversial: iron stores in the bone marrow may serve as a better indicator of iron deficiency, they add. The lower reference limits for serum ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations have been considered too low for women and it has been suggested should be the same as for men"
  • Iron Improves Muscle Strength and Endurance - New Hope Natural Media, 4/10/03 - "after six weeks of iron supplementation, the women had 10 to 15% less muscle fatigue after the fourth minute of leg exercises, and leg muscle strength after completion of the exercises was increased by 26.5%" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Toxic Effects Of Iron Not Responsible For Increased Susceptibility To Infections In Children With Beta-Thalassaemia Major - Doctor's Guide, 4/2/03
  • Iron Deficiency Harms Brain - WebMD, 11/8/02 - "Too little iron may be the cause of at least some cases of Alzheimer's disease ... As people age, their red blood cells have less of the stuff that makes them red. It's called heme, a cellular form of iron ... It's fairly common for people to get too little iron or vitamin B6 in their diets. Exposure to aluminum or other toxic metals is also quite common. All these things block heme in brain cells" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Overload Gene Tied To Increased Risk Of Colon Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 1/16/03
  • Iron May Play Role In Endometriosis - Doctor's Guide, 10/17/02 - "Iron overload has been observed in the cellular and peritoneal fluid compartments of the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis"
  • Severe Iron Deficiency Anemia Warns of Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/02 - "Severe anemia defined by a ferritin level of 20 ng/mL or less, or a hemoglobin level of 12.5 or less, is a sign of cancer risk that should be investigated by endoscopy"
  • Iron Supplementation Enhances Aerobic Training In Iron-Depleted Women - Intelihealth, 3/25/02 - "Iron deficiency without anemia occurs in about 12% of premenopausal women in the United States, and may negatively affect adaptation to aerobic training in women by reducing their endurance capacity"
  • Fighting Fatigue: Iron Overload vs. Anaemia - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 2/02 - "Menstruating women are more likely to feel tired because of an iron deficiency, whereas men 40 years and older are more likely to tire from iron overload ... the anaemia rate of adults older than 85 may be similarly high—ranging from 17 to 28 per cent ... In a state of iron overload, fatigue is often accompanied by arthritis, diabetes, infertility, male impotence, skin pigmentation, and liver or heart disease ... unexplained fatigue may be a physical symptom of masked depression"
  • Pregnancy Vitamins Cut Leukemia in Kids - WebMD, 12/6/01 - "Moms who used both folic acid and iron supplements in pregnancy were 60% less likely to have a child develop leukemia"
  • Iron Deficiency Can Hamper Kids' Learning, Performance - WebMD, 6/20/01 - "Even if it's not severe, iron deficiency could affect your child's performance in school"
  • Study Links Even Mild Iron Deficiency With Low Math Scores - Intelihealth, 6/4/01 - "compared with children with normal iron levels, iron-deficient youngsters were more than twice as likely to score below average on a standardized math test"
  • Hair Loss and Thyroid Disease - About.com, 6/10/99 - "In a recent study, Dr Hugh Rushton, a professor at Portsmouth University, also found that 90 percent of women with thinning hair were deficient in iron and the amino acid lysine"
  • Can Cirrhosis be Prevented? - Nutrition Science News, 1/99 - "Limit iron because hepatitis viruses thrive in iron-rich environments. An iron surfeit impairs many aspects of immune function including T lymphocyte proliferation and maturation. Also, iron catalyzes damage by oxidants ..."


  • Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Alleviates Liver Oxidative Damage Caused by Iron Overload in Mice through Inhibiting Ferroptosis - Nutrients 2023 Apr 21 - "Here, we discovered that iron overload disturbed iron homeostasis in mice, leading to oxidative stress and damage in the liver by activating ferroptosis. However, EGCG supplementation alleviated the liver oxidative damage caused by iron overload by inhibiting ferroptosis. EGCG addition increased NRF2 and GPX4 expression and elevated antioxidant capacity in iron overload mice. EGCG administration attenuates iron metabolism disorders by upregulating FTH/L expression. Through these two mechanisms, EGCG can effectively inhibit iron overload-induced ferroptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGCG is a potential ferroptosis suppressor, and may be a promising therapeutic agent for iron overload-induced liver disease" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate supplementation on hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutr Rev 2023 Feb 2 - "Iron deficiency and anemia have serious consequences, especially for children and pregnant women. Iron salts are commonly provided as oral supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency, despite poor bioavailability and frequently reported adverse side effects. Ferrous bisglycinate is a novel amino acid iron chelate that is thought to be more bioavailable and associated with fewer gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events as compared with iron salts ... Compared with other iron supplements, supplementation with ferrous bisglycinate for 4-20 weeks resulted in higher hemoglobin concentrations in pregnant women (SMD, 0.54 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.94; P < 0.01) and fewer reported GI adverse events (IRR, 0.36; 95%CI, 0.17-0.76; P < 0.01). We observed a non-significant trend for higher ferritin concentrations in pregnant women supplemented with ferrous bisglycinate. No significant differences in hemoglobin or ferritin concentrations were detected among children" - See ferrous bisglycinatate Amazon.com.
  • Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease - Eur Heart J 2022 Oct 25 - "Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with cardiovascular disease. Up to 60% of patients with coronary artery disease, and an even higher proportion of those with heart failure (HF) or pulmonary hypertension have ID; the evidence for cerebrovascular disease, aortic stenosis and atrial fibrillation is less robust. The prevalence of ID increases with the severity of cardiac and renal dysfunction and is probably more common amongst women. Insufficient dietary iron, reduced iron absorption due to increases in hepcidin secondary to the low-grade inflammation associated with atherosclerosis and congestion or reduced gastric acidity, and increased blood loss due to anti-thrombotic therapy or gastro-intestinal or renal disease may all cause ID. For older people in the general population and patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), both anaemia and ID are associated with a poor prognosis; each may confer independent risk. There is growing evidence that ID is an important therapeutic target for patients with HFrEF, even if they do not have anaemia. Whether this is also true for other HF phenotypes or patients with cardiovascular disease in general is currently unknown. Randomized trials showed that intravenous ferric carboxymaltose improved symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise capacity and reduced hospitalizations for worsening HF in patients with HFrEF and mildly reduced ejection fraction (<50%). Since ID is easy to treat and is effective for patients with HFrEF, such patients should be investigated for possible ID" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association between serum ferritin level and the various stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Aug 3 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder across the world, and non-invasive evaluation approaches are in need to assess NAFLD disease progression. Serum ferritin has been proposed as one of the biomarkers for NAFLD diagnosis in previous studies ... Most studies identified serum ferritin to be a predictor of advanced NAFLD, while several revealed the opposite end"
  • Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure and Effect of Dapagliflozin: Findings From DAPA-HF - Circulation 2022 Aug 16 - "Iron deficiency is common in heart failure and associated with worse outcomes. We examined the prevalence and consequences of iron deficiency in the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure) and the effect of dapagliflozin on markers of iron metabolism ... Transferrin saturation, ferritin, and hepcidin were reduced and total iron-binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor increased with dapagliflozin compared with placebo ... Iron deficiency was common in DAPA-HF and associated with worse outcomes. Dapagliflozin appeared to increase iron use but improved outcomes, irrespective of iron status at baseline" - See dapagliflozin at reliablerxpharmacy.com.
  • Inverse Association between Dietary Iron Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies of the Stop Consortium - Nutrients 2022 Jun 20 - "Dietary iron is inversely related to GC, with no difference by subsite or histological type. While the results should be interpreted with caution, they provide evidence against a direct effect of iron in gastric carcinogenesis"
  • A prolonged bout of running increases hepcidin and decreases dietary iron absorption in trained female and male runners - J Nutr 2022 Jun 6 - "Declines in iron status are frequently reported in those who regularly engage in strenuous physical activity. A possible reason for the declines in iron status with physical activity is increases in the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which functions to inhibit dietary iron absorption and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) ... A prolonged bout of running increases hepcidin and decreases dietary iron absorption compared to rest in trained runners with low iron stores. The current study supports that IL-6 contributes to the increase in hepcidin with prolonged physical activity, though future studies should explore potential sex differences in the hepcidin response"
  • Changes in dietary total and non-haem iron intake is associated with incident frailty in older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Mar 30 - "Maintaining or increases in dietary total iron, and increases or changes in dietary non-haem iron intakes over three years were associated with reduced incidence of FP frailty in older me"
  • Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Enhance Iron Absorption Via Modulation of Protein Expression and Gut Microbiota in a Dose-response Manner in Iron-deficient Growing Rats - Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Feb 20 - "Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children is one of the most common nutrition-related health conditions worldwide. Prebiotic oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), have shown to affect iron absorption in anemic subjects, but the results in previous studies were inconsistent, thus the underlying mechanism and the effective dose of GOS in mitigating anemia remain unclear ... For the first time, the present study provided evidence that GOS supplementation induced a dose-response effect on iron absorption and gut microbiota in the established model, suggesting a positive role of GOS in ameliorating IDA in children" - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com and iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Iron supplementation given to nonanemic infants: neurocognitive functioning at 16 years - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Dec 19 - "Compared to adolescents in the no-added iron condition in infancy, those in the iron-supplemented condition had poorer visual-motor integration, quantitative reasoning skills, and incurred more errors on neurocognitive tasks. Consuming larger amounts of iron-fortified formula in infancy was associated with lower arithmetic achievement. Of adolescents who had high hemoglobin at 6 months (Hb ≥ 125 g/L), those in the iron supplemented condition had poorer performance on arithmetic, quantitative reasoning, and response inhibition tests than those in the no-added iron condition. Of adolescents who had marginally low 6-month hemoglobin (Hb > 100 and < 110 g/L), those who received no-added iron incurred more errors on a visual searching task than those in the iron-supplemented condition"
  • Iron supplementation given to nonanemic infants: neurocognitive functioning at 16 years - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Dec 19 - "There is concern that high iron uptake during the critical period of early brain development carries potential risks, especially for nonanemic infants ... Compared to adolescents in the no-added iron condition in infancy, those in the iron-supplemented condition had poorer visual-motor integration, quantitative reasoning skills, and incurred more errors on neurocognitive tasks. Consuming larger amounts of iron-fortified formula in infancy was associated with lower arithmetic achievement. Of adolescents who had high hemoglobin at 6 months (Hb ≥ 125 g/L), those in the iron supplemented condition had poorer performance on arithmetic, quantitative reasoning, and response inhibition tests than those in the no-added iron condition. Of adolescents who had marginally low 6-month hemoglobin (Hb > 100 and < 110 g/L), those who received no-added iron incurred more errors on a visual searching task than those in the iron-supplemented condition"
  • ron deficiency in middle age is linked with higher risk of developing heart disease - Science Daily, 10/4/21 - "Approximately 10% of new coronary heart disease cases occurring within a decade of middle age could be avoided by preventing iron deficiency ... Functional iron deficiency was associated with a 24% higher risk of coronary heart disease, 26% raised risk of cardiovascular mortality, and 12% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with no functional iron deficiency. Absolute iron deficiency was associated with a 20% raised risk of coronary heart disease compared with no absolute iron deficiency, but was not linked with mortality. There were no associations between iron status and incident stroke ... The study showed that iron deficiency was highly prevalent in this middle-aged population, with nearly two-thirds having functional iron deficiency ... These individuals were more likely to develop heart disease and were also more likely to die during the next 13 years"
  • Co-Administration of Iron and a Bioavailable Curcumin Supplement Increases Serum BDNF Levels in Healthy Adults - Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 22 - "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is key for the maintenance of normal neuronal function and energy homeostasis and has been suggested to improve cognitive function, including learning and memory. Iron and the antioxidant curcumin have been shown to influence BDNF homeostasis ... Participants were randomly allocated to five different treatment groups: both iron and curcumin placebo (FS0+Plac), low dose iron and curcumin placebo (FS18+Plac), low dose iron and curcumin (FS18+Curc), high dose iron and curcumin placebo (FS65+Plac) and high dose iron and curcumin (FS65+Curc). Results showed a significant increase in BDNF over time (26%) in the FS18+Curc group (p = 0.024), and at end-point between FS18+Curc and FS18+Plac groups (35%, p = 0.042), demonstrating for the first time that the combination with curcumin, rather than iron supplementation alone, results in increased serum BDNF. The addition of curcumin to iron supplementation may therefore provide a novel approach to further enhance the benefits associated with increased BDNF levels" - [Nutra USA] - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb and curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Iron and Physical Activity: Bioavailability Enhancers, Properties of Black Pepper (Bioperine ®) and Potential Applications - Nutrients 2020 Jun 24 - "Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been employed in medicine (epilepsy, headaches, and diabetes), where its effects are mainly attributed to a nitrogen alkaloid called piperidine (1-(1-[1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl]-1-oxo-2,4 pentenyl) piperidine). Piperine co-administered with vitamins and minerals has improved its absorption ... athletes have risk factors for Fe depletion, Fe deficiency, and eventually, anemia, mainly from mechanical hemolysis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and loss of Fe through excessive sweating. Declines in Fe stores have been reported to negatively alter physical capacities such as aerobic capacity, strength, and skeletal muscle recovery in elite athletes. Thus, there is a need to maintain Fe storage, even if Fe intake meets the recommended daily allowance (RDA), and Fe supplementation may be justified in physically active individuals, in states of Fe deficiency, with or without anemia. Females, in particular, should monitor their Fe hematological profile. The recommended oral Fe supplements are ferrous or ferric salts, sulfate, fumarate, and gluconate. These preparations constitute the first line of treatment; however, the high doses administered have gastrointestinal side effects that reduce tolerance and adherence to treatment. Thus, a strategy to counteract these adverse effects is to improve the bioavailability of Fe. Therefore, piperine may benefit the absorption of Fe through its bioavailability enhancement properties. Three research studies of Fe associated with black pepper have reported improvements in parameters related to the metabolism of Fe, without adverse effects" - See Bioprene black pepper extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Comparison of the Effects of Oral Iron Treatment Every Day and Every Other Day in Female Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia - Intern Med J. 2020 Jan 28 - "It is known that daily divided doses and high doses of iron increase hepcidin and reduce iron absorption. This study aimed to compare treatments of iron replacement every other day at low doses, once a day and twice a day in terms of their effectiveness and frequencies of side effects ... For a month, Group I received 270 mg ferrous sulfate twice a day (total elemental iron dose: 160 mg / day), Group II received 270 mg ferrous sulfate once a day (total elemental iron dose: 80 mg / day), and Group III received 270 mg ferrous sulfate every other day (total elemental iron dose: 80 mg / every other day) ... Hemoglobin (Hb) increased significantly in all three groups (p: 0.00). The increase in Hb levels was similar among the groups (p: 0.09). Ferritin significantly increased in all three groups after the treatment (p: 0.00). The increase in ferritin in Group I was significantly higher than those in Groups II and III (p<0.05). GIS side effects were also significantly higher in Group I in comparison to the others ... A low-dosage of iron treatment every other day may be used in the place of providing iron once or twice every day with similar effectiveness and lower rates of GIS side effects"
  • Longitudinal development of brain iron is linked to cognition in youth - J Neurosci. 2020 Jan 27 - "We quantified tissue iron concentration using R2* relaxometry within four basal ganglia regions ... the developmental trajectory of R2* in the putamen is significantly related to individual differences in cognitive ability, such that greater cognitive ability is increasingly associated with greater iron concentration through late adolescence and young-adulthood. Together, our results suggest a prolonged period of basal ganglia iron enrichment that extends into the mid-twenties, with diminished iron concentration associated with poorer cognitive ability during late adolescence" - [Nutra USA]
  • Increased Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Review - Med Sci Monit. 2019 Nov 7;25:8371-8378 - "Studies have shown that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with increased levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), but the mechanism remains unclear. Hematological changes, iron metabolism, study methodology, and other factors could affect the results of diagnostic investigations, leading to false results. Red blood cell turnover in the bone marrow and the quality and heterogeneity of erythrocytes may influence the rate of hemoglobin glycation. By changing the structure of hemoglobin and inducing peroxidation, iron deficiency accelerates glycation"
  • The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Anemia and Other Vitamin Deficiencies in the Elderly Receiving Home Care - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(7):677-682 - "With or without malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin D deficiency were common in the home care elderly patients" - See  iron supplements at Amazon.com, vitamin B12 at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Iron Supplementation on the Modulation of Iron Metabolism, Muscle Damage Biomarkers and Cortisol in Professional Cyclists - Nutrients. 2019 Feb 27;11(3) - "Eighteen elite male cyclists from two teams were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) control group (CG, n = 9; age: 26.1 ± 4.6 years; maximum oxygen uptake per kg: 78.0 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min) or (2) group treated with 80 mg/day iron (800 mg of iron protein succinylate ... Significant differences were observed between groups throughout the study in the group-by-time interaction and changes in serum iron (GC: -8.93 ± 10.35% vs. ITG: 0.60 ± 8.64%; p = 0.018), ferritin (GC: -13.88 ± 23.53% vs. ITG: 91.08 ± 118.30%; p = 0.004), haemoglobin (GC: 10.00 ± 3.32% vs. ITG: 13.04 ± 5.64%; p < 0.001), haematocrit (GC: -1.17 ± 3.78% vs. ITG: 7.32 ± 3.92%; p < 0.001) and cortisol (GC: 24.74 ± 25.84% vs. ITG: ⁻13.54 ... Oral iron supplementation with 80 mg/day iron (800 mg of iron protein succinylate) effectively prevented a decline in haematological parameters (serum iron, ferritin, haemoglobin and haematocrit) and maintained optimal levels of recovery in elite cyclists during the Vuelta a España. Moreover, the hematological values were shown to have relationship with muscular recovery parameters" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Increasing Iron Status through Dietary Supplementation in Iron-Depleted, Sedentary Women Increases Endurance Performance at Both Near-Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Intensities - J Nutr. 2019 Jan 10 - "Iron deficiency persists as the most common micronutrient deficiency globally, despite having known detrimental effects on physical performance ... ron-depleted, nonanemic (IDNA) women ... Seventy-three sedentary, previously untrained IDNA (serum ferritin <25 µg/L and hemoglobin >110 g/L) women aged 18-26 y with a body mass index (kg/m2) of 17-25 participated in a double-blind, 8-wk, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplementation (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic exercise training (5 d/wk for 25 min at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate) or no training ... Iron supplementation increases endurance performance at submaximal and maximal (VO2peak) exercise intensities in IDNA women. However, increasing iron status does not increase eVO2max"
  • Iron deficiency in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and its association with reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength and quality of life - Clin Res Cardiol. 2018 Jul 26 - "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) ... ID is a frequent co-morbidity in HFpEF and is associated with reduced exercise capacity and QoL. Its prevalence increases with increasing severity of diastolic dysfunction"
  • Enhanced aerobic exercise performance in women by a combination of three mineral Chelates plus two conditionally essential nutrients - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Nov 13 - "For 1 mo, aerobically fit, young adult women took either a combination of 3 mineral glycinate complexes (daily dose: 36 mg iron, 15 mg zinc, and 2 mg copper) + 2 CENs (daily dose: 2 g carnitine and 400 mg phosphatidylserine), or the same combination with generic mineral complexes, or placebo (n = 14/group) ... In Trial 1, the mineral glycinates + CENs decreased 3 mile run time (25.6 ± 2.4 vs 26.5 ± 2.3 min, p < 0.05, paired t-test) increased stationary bike distance after 25 min (6.5 ± 0.6 vs 6.0 ± 0.8 miles, p < 0.05, paired t-test), and increased steps in the step test (43.8 ± 4.8 vs 40.3 ± 6.4 steps, p < 0.05, paired t-test). The placebo significantly affected only the biking distance, but it was less than for the glycinates-CENs treatment (0.2 ± 0.4. vs 0.5 ± 0.1 miles, p < 0.05, ANOVA + Tukey). The generic minerals + CENs only significantly affected the step test (44.1 ± 5.2 vs 41.0 ± 5.9 steps, p < 0.05, paired t-test) In Trial 2, 3 mile run time was decreased for the mineral glycinates + CENs (23.9 ± 3.1 vs 24.7 ± 2.5, p < 0.005, paired t-test), but not by the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Zinc Balance, Bulksupplements Pure L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Powder (500 grams), iron supplements and Extra Strength Phosphatidyl Serine 300 mg Now Foods 50 Softgel at Amazon.com.
  • The Effect of Iron Status on Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017 Jul 6 - "We find evidence of a protective effect of higher iron status on CAD risk (iron odds ratio, 0.94 per SD unit increase" - [Nutra USA]
  • Low Iron Diet Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Rats - Nutrients. 2016 Jul 28;8(8) - "iron deficiency (ID) ... spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) ... ID without anemia delayed the recovery from noise-induced hearing loss and ribbon synapses damage, increased SGCs loss, and upregulated prestin after noise exposure. Thus, the cochleae in rat pups with ID without anemia were potentially susceptible to loud noise exposure, and this deficit may be attributed to the reduction of ribbon synapses and SGCs"
  • Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct;114(7):1064-71 - "these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis"
  • n-3 Long-chain PUFAs reduce respiratory morbidity caused by iron supplementation in iron-deficient South African schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):668-79 - "Iron supplementation increased morbidity (mostly respiratory) in iron-deficient South African schoolchildren with low DHA/EPA intake, but when iron was given in combination with DHA/EPA, this effect was prevented" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review - Nutrients. 2014 Nov 14 - "iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition ... Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in China Health and Nutrition Survey - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Aug 27 - "Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55±3.6 vs. 80.46±1.64 ng/mL, p<0.0001). The prevalences of MetS, diabetes, obesity, and overweight were 8.05%, 8.97%, 4.67%, 25.88% among men and 14.23%, 6.58%, 5.81%, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p<0.0001). Serum ferritin concentrations increased gradually with aging among women. The inverted U shaped association between serum ferritin and age was observed among men. Elevated concentration of ferritins were significantly related with higher risk of MetS (p<0.0001), obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p<0.0001), and diabetes (p<0.0001) among men, but not among women"
  • Iron deficiency defined as depleted iron stores accompanied by unmet cellular iron requirements identifies patients at the highest risk of death after an episode of acute heart failure - Eur Heart J. 2014 Jun 13 - "Iron is a key micronutrient for homoeostasis maintenance ... Iron deficiency defined as depleted body iron stores and unmet cellular iron requirements is common in AHF, and identifies those with the poor outcome. Its correction may be an attractive therapeutic approach" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Supplementation Benefits Physical Performance in Women of Reproductive Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Nutr. 2014 Apr 9 - "women of reproductive age (WRA) ... Daily iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance in WRA, providing a rationale to prevent and treat iron deficiency in this group"
  • Postnatal nutritional iron deficiency impairs dopaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Mar 28 - "Objectives Developmental iron deficiency (ID) has been shown to put children at risk for compromised learning and memory capacity, and it has also been shown to impair hippocampus-dependent forms of memory as well as hippocampal synaptic transmission ... The present study demonstrates that postnatal ID produces long-lasting impairments in dopaminergic-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. These impairments may play a role in the learning and memory deficits known to result from ID"
  • Is obesity associated with iron status in the elderly? A case study from Sharpeville, South Africa - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Mar 10:1-9 - "A sample size calculation determined a representative sample of 104 randomly selected elderly (≥60 years) respondents ... A coexistence of obesity and poor Fe status were observed in these elderly respondents. The positive relationship between hs-CRP and BMI indicated chronic inflammation in the higher BMI groups. The negative relationship between hs-CRP and serum Fe indicated that lower serum Fe levels were related to the inflammation linked with higher BMI. A relationship between obesity-related chronic, low-grade inflammation and poor Fe status has been found in adults, but the significance of the current study is that this relationship was also confirmed for elderly persons"
  • Low blood zinc, iron, and other sociodemographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):530-45 - "low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Premenopausal Plasma Ferritin Levels, HFE Polymorphisms, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jan 17 - "Ferritin levels and HFE SNPs were not associated with breast cancer risk in this population. Impact: Components of red meat other than iron are likely responsible for its positive association with breast cancer in premenopausal women"
  • Dietary Iron Intake and Body Iron Stores Are Associated with Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies - J Nutr. 2014 Jan 8 - "Twenty-one eligible studies (32 cohorts) including 292,454 participants with an average of 10.2 y of follow-up were included. Heme iron was found to be positively associated with CHD incidence (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.94), whereas total iron was inversely associated (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.999). Neither heme-iron nor total iron intakes were significantly associated with CHD mortality. Both transferrin saturation and serum iron were inversely related to CHD incidence [RR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.66, 0.88) and 0.68 (0.56, 0.82), respectively], but only transferrin saturation was inversely associated with CHD mortality (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.99)"
    • Heme - Wikipedia - "A haem (British English) or heme (American English) is a chemical compound of a type known as a prosthetic group consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges"
    • Total iron-binding capacity - Wikipedia - "Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is a medical laboratory test that measures the blood's capacity to bind iron with transferrin.[1] It is performed by drawing blood and measuring the maximum amount of iron that it can carry, which indirectly measures transferrin[2] since transferrin is the most dynamic carrier. TIBC is less expensive than a direct measurement of transferrin"
  • Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Dec 14 - "A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain ... Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders"
  • Body Iron Stores and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men - Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 May 28 - "Baseline serum ferritin (sF) ... Body iron within the sF reference range is not an important determinant of T2DM risk, whereas high normal and above is associated with markedly increased risk. Iron depletion towards iron deficiency as assessed by sTfR is not protective against T2DM. A rule of thumb safe range could be 30-200 µg/L of sF"
  • Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 9 - "Eight studies on heme iron intake and six studies on zinc intake met the inclusion criteria. The summary RR of CRC for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.14 (95 % CI = 1.04-1.24) for heme iron and 0.83 (95 % CI = 0.72-0.94) for zinc, respectively ... This meta-analysis suggests a significant positive dose-response association of heme iron intake and a significant inverse dose-response association of zinc intake with risk of CRC"
  • Tolerability of different oral iron supplements: a systematic review - Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Dec 20 - "Extended-release ferrous sulphate with mucoproteose appears to be the best tolerated of the different oral iron supplements evaluated"
  • Body iron is associated with cognitive executive planning function in college women - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun 7:1-8 - "The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body Fe, in the absence of Fe-deficiency anaemia, and neuropsychological function in young college women. Healthy, non-anaemic undergraduate women (n 42) provided a blood sample and completed a standardised cognitive test battery consisting of one manual (Tower of London (TOL), a measure of central executive function) and five computerised (Bakan vigilance task, mental rotation, simple reaction time, immediate word recall and two-finger tapping) tasks. Women's body Fe ranged from - 4.2 to 8.1 mg/kg. General linear model ANOVA revealed a significant effect of body Fe on TOL planning time (P = 0.002). Spearman's correlation coefficients showed a significant inverse relationship between body Fe and TOL planning time for move categories 4 (r - 0.39, P = 0.01) and 5 (r - 0.47, P = 0.002). Performance on the computerised cognitive tasks was not affected by body Fe level. These findings suggest that Fe status in the absence of anaemia is positively associated with central executive function in otherwise healthy college women"
  • Iron deficiency can cause cognitive impairment in geriatric patients - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(3):220-4 - "Transferrin saturation was significantly lower in the patients with dementia (p=0.040). It was found that patients with iron deficiency had lower MMSE scores (p<0.001) and this relationship was also present in patients without anemia"
  • Increased Serum Ferritin Predicts the Development of Hypertension Among Middle-Aged Men - Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jan 26 - "After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), the odds ratios (OR) was substantially higher for new hypertension (OR 1.54, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.26-1.88; P for trend <0.001) in subjects with the highest ferritin quartiles compared with those in the lowest quartiles"
  • Dietary Intakes of Zinc and Heme Iron from Red Meat, but Not from Other Sources, Are Associated with Greater Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease - J Nutr. 2012 Jan 18 - "Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010 ... Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD"
  • Serum ferritin levels associated with increased risk for developing CHD in a low-income urban population - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan 10:1-8 - "For men, there was a 0.5 % increase in risk for every 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, white race, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9.5 mg/l. For women, there was a 5.1 % increase in risk per 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, lower education, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9.5 mg/l"
  • The association of biomarkers of iron status with mortality in US adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb 15 - "The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality comparing the fourth versus the second quartiles of ferritin and transferrin saturation were 1.09 (0.82-1.44; p-trend across quartiles = 0.92) and 1.08 (0.82-1.43; p-trend across quartiles = 0.62), respectively, for men, 1.43 (0.63-3.23; p-trend across quartiles = 0.31) and 1.48 (0.70-3.11; p-trend across quartiles = 0.60), respectively, for premenopausal women, and 1.03 (0.79-1.34; p-trend across quartiles = 0.95) and 1.17 (0.92-1.49; p-trend across quartiles = 0.63), respectively, for postmenopausal women. Quartile of ferritin and transferrin saturation also showed no association between biomarkers of iron status and mortality ... CONCLUSIONS: In a large nationally representative sample of US adults, within the spectrum of normal iron metabolism, ferritin and transferrin saturation were not associated with risk of mortality among people who were not taking iron supplements and did not have a baseline history of cardiovascular disease or cancer"
  • Iron stores are associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis in healthy men of primary prevention - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 31 - "carotid intima-media thickness (IACC) ... The plasma-circulating transferrin receptor concentration to plasma ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/F) showed significant association with IACC (r = -0.310, P = 0.008 vs. r = 0.295, P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the correlation of TfR/F with IACC is independent of traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis ... Our study showed a clear association of body iron stores expressed by the TfR/F ratio with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis"
  • Serum ferritin and amphetamine response in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010 Dec;20(6):495-502 - "Their ADHD symptoms were moderately severe at baseline (SNAP item mean = 2.1). Their mean ferritin concentration was 18.4 ng/mL, with 23% of the participants having a level below 7, the assay-defined threshold for ID. Serum ferritin was inversely correlated with baseline inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and total ADHD symptom scores (Partial Spearman's r = -0.31, p = 0.04; r = -0.42, p < 0.006; and r = -0.43, p < 0.004, respectively) and with the weight-adjusted dose of amphetamine used to optimize clinical response (Partial Spearman's r = -0.45, p < 0.007). Psychotropic-treatment history moderated some, but not all, of these associations, with previously medicated children showing a stronger association between ferritin concentration and ADHD symptom severity" - See Slow Fe Slow Release Iron Tablets 90-Count Box.
  • Oral iron supplementation leads to oxidative imbalance in anemic women: A prospective study - Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 29 - "the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and antioxidant vitamins A, C and E were found significantly decreased ... Study found recommended dose of iron effective for improving Hb, but at the cost of increased oxidative stress (mild > moderate > severe). It is suggested that blind iron supplementation should be avoided and shall be provided on need basis"
  • Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Sep 4 - "A serum ferritin level of 70 mug/l should be targeted when hair loss is unexplained"
  • Do high ferritin levels confer lower cardiovascular risk in men with Type 2 diabetes? - Diabet Med. 2010 Apr;27(4):417-22 - "were divided according to ferritin quartiles (Q) as follows: QI-III, normal ferritin (NF; n = 318), mean +/- 1 sd ferritin 133 +/- 72 ng/ml; and QIV patients, high ferritin (HF; n = 106), ferritin 480 +/- 228 ng/ml ... the prevalence of macroangiopathy was unexpectedly much lower in patients with high ferritin, as follows: 25% vs. 43% for overall macroangiopathy; 7% vs. 16% for peripheral artery disease; and 16% vs. 31% for coronary artery disease (P = 0.0009, P = 0.0140 and P = 0.0035, respectively, vs. NF patients). Insulin resistance index and prevalence of liver steatosis were higher in HF compared with NF patients as follows: 2.17% vs. 1.89% and 78% vs. 64% (P = 0.0345 and P = 0.0059, respectively). Liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) were significantly higher in HF, by 33%, 42% and 72%, respectively (all P < 0.0002), suggesting a higher prevalence of steatohepatitis ... Our results demonstrate that T2DM males with high ferritin levels exhibit a markedly decreased prevalence of macroangiopathy, despite more severe insulin resistance and higher markers of steatohepatitis. High ferritin levels and/or steatosis may thus paradoxically confer a lowered cardiovascular risk in diabetic males" - See Slow Fe Slow Release Iron Tablets 90-Count Box at Amazon.com.
  • Iron excess in recreational marathon runners - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar 3 - "Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration <15 mug/l (iron depletion) ... iron overload was defined as PF >200 mug/l ... Median PF among males was 104 mug/l"
  • Association between serum ferritin level and fibromyalgia syndrome - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "The mean serum ferritin levels in the fibromyalgia (FM) and control groups were 27.3+/-20.9 and 43.8+/-30.8 ng/ml, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ...having a serum ferritin level <50 ng/ml caused a 6.5-fold increased risk for FMS"
  • Dietary iron intake and risk of endometrial cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China - Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(1):40-50 - "Dietary red meat and animal fat have been linked to endometrial cancer (EC) risk, but the impact of bioavailable iron in animal-derived foods has been less well studied ... Animal-derived iron intake was positively associated with EC risk [adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.4-2.7, P(trend) < 0.01, highest vs. lowest quartile], predominantly after menopause (OR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.4-3.4, P(trend) < 0.01) and in women with BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)(OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.4-7.5 in postmenopausal obese women, P(trend) < 0.01). Animal-derived fat was also associated with postmenopausal EC risk (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.5, P(trend) < 0.01). Multiplicative interactions between animal-derived iron and BMI or animal-derived fat intake were not observed. Animal-derived iron intake is associated with increased risk of EC after menopause and among obese women. Avoidance of animal-derived (heme) iron may reduce the risk of EC in these women"
  • Low Total and Nonheme Iron Intakes Are Associated with a Greater Risk of Hypertension - J Nutr. 2009 Nov 18 - "Low nonheme iron intake at baseline was associated with a greater increase in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure over time after adjustment for multiple possible confounding factors (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.0005, respectively). Conversely, participants in the 3rd tertile of nonheme iron intake at baseline had a 37% lower risk of hypertension after 5.4 y of follow-up compared with those in the first tertile (P-trend = 0.04). Heme iron intake was not associated with BP changes or risk of hypertension. Meat intake was positively associated with an increase in SBP (P-trend = 0.04). However, that relation became nonsignificant after adjusting for dietary pattern scores. Baseline hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were not associated with changes in BP or incidental hypertension. Our data support a possible role of low nonheme iron intake, independent of heme iron intake, in the development of hypertension"
  • Severe Iron Deficiency Decreases Both Bone Formation and Bone Resorption in Rats - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "These results suggest that severe iron deficiency decreases not only bone formation but also bone resorption"
  • Why Iron Deficiency Is Important in Infant Development - J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2534-2536 - "Rodent studies also show effects of iron deficiency during gestation and lactation that persist into adulthood despite restoration of iron status at weaning. These studies indicate that gestation and early lactation are likely critical periods when iron deficiency will result in long-lasting damage"
  • Ferritin concentrations, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep 16 - "Elevated circulating ferritin concentrations were associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese independent of obesity, inflammation, adipokines and other risk factors. Our data supports the crucial role of iron overload for metabolic diseases even in a country with relatively high prevalence of iron deficiency"
  • HbA1C, but not serum glycated albumin, is elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency - Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul 3 - "HbA(1C) levels were elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency. Serum GA may offer a better index for monitoring glycemic control in pregnancy"
  • Iron treatment normalizes cognitive functioning in young women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):778-87 - "Severity of anemia primarily affects processing speed, and severity of iron deficiency affects accuracy of cognitive function over a broad range of tasks. Thus, the effects of iron deficiency on cognition are not limited to the developing brain"
  • Effect of treatment with food supplement (containing: selected sea fish cartilage, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, zinc, copper) in women with iron deficiency: double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Minerva Med. 2006 Oct;97(5):385-390 - "in patients with iron deficiency, the use of a food supplement, consisting of nutrients that improve the bioavailability of Fe, leads to a significant improvement in blood iron and blood ferritin levels"
  • Are we giving too much iron? Low-dose iron therapy is effective in octogenarians - Am J Med. 2005 Oct;118(10):1142-7
  • Effects of 4 weeks iron supplementation on haematological and immunological status in elite female soccer players - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;13(4):353-358 - "These results suggest that 4 weeks of iron supplementation by elite female soccer players significantly increased body iron stores and inhibited decrease of haemoglobin concentration induced by soccer training"
  • Iron Deficiency Alters Brain Development and Functioning - J. Nutr. 133:1468S-1472S, May 2003 - "Iron deficiency anemia in early life is related to altered behavioral and neural development. Studies in human infants suggest that this is an irreversible effect that may be related to changes in chemistry of neurotransmitters, organization and morphology of neuronal networks, and neurobiology of myelination"
  • Ferric Citrate is Half as Effective as Ferrous Sulfate in Meeting the Iron Requirement of Juvenile Tilapia - J. Nutr. 133:483-488, 2/03
  • Nutritional factors and hair loss - Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, 7/02 - "serum ferritin concentrations were a factor in female hair loss ... The role of the essential amino acid, l-lysine in hair loss also appears to be important. Double-blind data confirmed the findings of an open study in women with increased hair shedding, where a significant proportion responded to l-lysine and iron therapy" - See l-lysine at Amazon.com.