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News & Research:

  • Creatine powers T cells' fight against cancer - Science Daily, 10/18/19 - "Creatine, the organic acid that is popularly taken as a supplement by athletes and bodybuilders, serves as a molecular battery for immune cells by storing and distributing energy to power their fight against cancer ... Taken together, these findings suggest that killer T cells really need creatine to fight cancer ... Without it, they simply can't do their jobs effectively ... These new findings add killer T cells to the list of creatine-dependent cells, all of which utilize two distinct sources of power, much like hybrid cars. The first power source is a metabolic process that is similar to a fuel engine, converting nutrients like glucose, amino acids and lipids into ATP, the energy currency of cells. The secondary power source is creatine, which -- like a hybrid car's battery -- absorbs excess energy (in this case, ATP) and stores it to be released when fuel is in short supply to keep the cells working until more fuel can be burned" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary supplement boosts cognitive function in vegetarians - Science Daily, 4/8/19 - "Vegetarians who take the dietary supplement creatine may enjoy improved brain function ... Creatine is a chemical stored in the muscles and brain that helps build lean muscle ... One group took a daily creatine supplement for four weeks, and the other group did not. Before and after the trial, all participants took the ImPACT test, a widely used standardized measure of neurocognitive function. The vegetarian supplement group scored higher on the ImPACT test than the group that ate 10 or more servings of meat, poultry or seafood per week. "Meat eaters did not show any significant improvement of cognition following supplementation because [their] creatine levels were already elevated [from their diet],"" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Creatine Increased Muscle Mass, Not Strength, in Patients With RA - Medscape, 6/8/16 - "Despite the increase in muscle mass, creatine supplementation did not differ from placebo in effect on isometric knee extensor strength, handgrip strength, or objectively assessed physical function" - Note:  If they ever do a study on it I'm betting they find the same problem with growth hormone.
  • High-Dose Creatine Promising in Prodromal Huntington's - Medscape, 3/14/14 - "Creatine helps maintain intracellular energy levels and so may prevent or impede the neurodegenerative process. Past studies have reported that reduced energy stores play a role in neuronal loss ... The drug or placebo came in packets, each with of 5 g of powder that could be added to foods such as yogurt or apple juice. Participants could take the maximum tolerated dose of the drug (30 g) daily. The creatine was pharmaceutical grade ... Interestingly, more carriers (9 of 10) dropped out of the study during the placebo-controlled phase, 7 of whom knew their genetic status (2 had been assigned to placebo) ... That so many carriers dropped out of the study was "completely counterintuitive," said Dr. Rosas. "You come in with this notion that if you know what your risk ... the rate of cortical thinning in several regions, including portions of precentral, superior and middle-temporal, superior and middle frontal precuneus, posterior parietal and occipital was significantly slower in the carriers taking creatine compared with the carriers receiving placebo"
  • Huntington disease prevention trial shows creatine safe, slows progression - Science Daily, 2/8/14 - "Among the ways that the mutated form of the huntingtin protein damages brain cells is by interfering with cellular energy production, leading to a depletion of ATP, the molecule that powers most biological processes. Known to help restore ATP and maintain cellular energy, creatine is being investigated to treat a number of neurological conditions -- including Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Studies in mouse models of HD showed that creatine raises brain ATP levels and protects against neurodegeneration ... In participants who carried the HD mutation, the MRI scans taken at the outset of the trial had revealed significant atrophy in regions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia known to be affected by the disease. Followup MRI scans at six months showed a slower rate of atrophy in participants taking creatine compared to those on placebo. At the end of the second phase, the rate of brain atrophy had also slowed in presymptomatic participants that started taking creatine after 6 months on placebo"
  • Outmuscling major depression with creatine - Science Daily, 8/7/12 - "women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone ... Creatine is an amino acid made in the human liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It also is found in meat and fish. Inside the body it is converted into phosphocreatine and stored in muscle. During high-intensity exercise, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, an important energy source for cells. For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability ... The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the creatine group showed no signs of depression compared with one-quarter in the placebo group. There were no significant adverse side effects associated with creatine"
  • Creatine in Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 5/10/11 - "The patients were allocated to receive either creatine (CR) (5 g.d−1) or placebo (PL) ...This is the first randomized controlled trial to describe the beneficial effects of creatine supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients who underwent exercise training. As such, this supplement emerges as a valuable nonpharmacological approach for treating diabetes ... the mean reduction in HbA1c (−1.1%) was superior to that commonly seen with exercise training[25] or metformin[10] treatment alone, pointing out the therapeutic potential of this novel nutritional intervention"
  • Creatine may beef up brain function: Study - Nutra USA, 12/13/10 - "A battery of cognitive tests were performed by the women, both before and after the five days of study, with results showing that memory improved by about 40 percent in the vegetarians consuming the creatine supplements" - [Abstract]
  • Creatine In Addition To Exercise Enhances Strength In Older Adults - Science Daily, 10/2/07 - "The exercise training resulted in improvements of functional ability and strength in all participants, but those taking the CrM and CLA showed even greater gains in muscle endurance, an increase in fat-free mass and a decrease in the percentage of body fat"
  • Counting on Creatine? - Dr. Weil, 4/20/07
  • Creatine May Help Muscular Dystrophy - WebMD, 2/2/07
  • Creatine Supplement May Help People With Muscular Dystrophies - Science Daily, 1/31/07
  • Preliminary Study Shows Creatine and Minocycline May Warrant Further Study in Parkinson's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 2/24/06 - "Both creatine and minocycline appeared to modify the disease features as measured by a decline in the clinical signs of Parkinson's disease"
  • Compounds could slow Parkinson's disease - USA Today, 2/23/06
  • Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Training - Medscape, 1/3/06
  • Anti-Aging Benefits of Creatine - Life Extension Magazine, 4/05
  • The “Strength Supplement” that Improves Brain Power - Life Extension Magazine, 2/04
  • Creatine Supplements May Improve Muscle Strength in Young Children With DMD - Medscape, 10/23/03
  • Muscular Enhancement Supplements: Creatine, HMB, and Glutamine review - ConsumerLab.com, 9/25/03
  • Creatine: Not Just a Sports Nutrition Supplement - Life Extension Magazine, 9/03
  • Creatine May Boost Brain Performance - WebMD, 8/13/03 - "Forty-five vegetarian young adults received either 5 grams of creatine or a placebo powder for six weeks, followed by six weeks of no supplementation. The groups were then switched, and the placebo group received creatine for six weeks and vice versa ... The researchers found that creatine supplementation gave a "significant, measurable boost to brain power." In a memory test that asked participants to recall a string of numbers, people taking creatine recalled an average of 8.5 numbers vs. seven for people not taking the supplement"
  • Creatine Improves Muscle Function in Children with Muscular Dystrophy - Doctor's Guide, 7/24/03
  • Whey Protein Plus Creatine Boosts Strength, Muscle Mass - WebMD, 4/11/03
  • Athletes Believe The "Whey" To Greater Muscle Strength Is Through Training And Protein Supplements - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "supplementation with a100% whey isolate formulation and creatine produced greater muscle fiber growth increases that transferred into significant increases in functional strength" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon whey products.
  • Supplements That Increase The Effects Of Resistance Exercise Identified - Intelihealth, 3/19/03 - "of the more than 250 dietary products available, only HMB and creatine supplements have sufficient scientific evidence showing that lean body mass and strength gains accompanying resistance training are augmented with their use"
  • Creatine: More than a sports nutrition supplement - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03
  • Progress in Lou Gehrig's Disease - WebMD, 1/24/02 - "the antibiotic minocycline helps fight several brain diseases -- including ALS. Meanwhile, another group showed that the dietary supplement creatine also helps fight these kinds of diseases ... We combined the two and showed that together they are both more effective than either alone in the treatment of ALS"
  • Creatine Helps Maintain Alertness - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 11/02 - "They received either 8 g of creatine or a placebo for five days.  The participants were tested to determine mental fatigue before and after supplementation ... In the group taking the creatine supplements, performance was substantially better after five days of supplementation than before ... Oxygenation studies showed a complex pattern that is consistent with increased brain oxygen consumption following supplementation"
  • Supplements that Turn Up the Heat? - Dr. Weil, 8/15/02
  • FDA Grants Orphan Drug Status to Creatine for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Doctor's Guide, 3/26/02 - "Creatine is a critical element in cellular energy production and modulation. It is the substrate of the creatine kinase system, which helps prolong cellular life and protect against cell injury and death ... We have seen, and continue to see, encouraging results among ALS patients, as measured by muscle strength and a decreased rate of deterioration. Additionally, creatine has a long history of safe use, and is well tolerated by patients in the study"
  • Studies Say Creatine Is OK - Intelihealth, 12/17/01 - "there were indications that users were less likely to feel they were overtrained and were less likely to report arm and shoulder fatigue, while nonusers were more likely to report feeling they were falling behind in their training ... All creatine is doing is letting you do a few extra reps in weight training, or cut a tenth of a second off your time ... You are looking at a 5 to 10 percent performance improvement ... Athletes on creatine might overtrain and might hurt themselves, but this would be the result of the athletes expecting to do more than they can ... If you want to go from training four days to training seven days, that could lead to overtraining, but that's not creatine's fault"
  • French Experts Link Creatine To Potential Cancer Risk - Intelihealth, 1/24/01
  • Creatine Use Spreads to High School Athletes, Long-Term Health Effects of Strength-Building Supplement Still Unknown - WebMD, 12/27/00
  • Young Athletes Try Creatine - Intelihealth, 12/11/00
  • Young athletes try creatine; adults hold their breath - CNN, 12/11/00
  • Study: Dietary supplement may protect against brain injury - CNN, 11/2/00
  • Creatine May Limit Brain Damage - WebMD, 11/2/00
  • Study Shows Dietary Supplement Helps Protect Against Brain Injury In Mice And Rats - Intelihealth, 11/2/00
  • Creatine Tests Well - Nutrition Science News, 10/00
  • Creatine Stands Its Ground - Nutrition Science News, 9/00
  • Creatine Boosts Effects of Weight Training - Nutrition Science News, 3/00 - "12 weeks of creatine supplementation had no side effects and significantly increased muscle, or fat-free, mass and maximal bench press strength compared with placebo. Muscle mass was also greater in the creatine group after the first week. The muscle gains seen at week 12 appeared to be due, in part, to increases in muscle fiber size"
  • Creatine May Help Athletes Perform - Intelihealth, 3/6/00
  • Using Creatine For More Than Muscles - Nutrition Science News, 10/99
  • Creatine: Is A Burst Of Energy Worth The Risk? - Dr. Dean, 8/2/99


  • Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutr Rev 2022 Aug 19 - "From an energy perspective, the brain is very metabolically demanding. It is well documented that creatine plays a key role in brain bioenergetics. There is some evidence that creatine supplementation can augment brain creatine stores, which could increase memory ... Overall, creatine supplementation improved measures of memory compared with placebo (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.29, 95%CI, 0.04-0.53; I2 = 66%; P = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant improvement in memory in older adults (66-76 years) (SMD = 0.88; 95%CI, 0.22-1.55; I2 = 83%; P = 0.009) compared with their younger counterparts (11-31 years)" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • A randomized open-labeled study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate and combined training on jump and scoring performance in young basketball players - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2022 Aug 8 - "Creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation has been shown to be an effective and safe nutritional supplement to improve performance; however, the impact of CrM supplementation in young basketball players is less clear ... CrM supplementation in conjunction with resistance and plyometric training increased the lower-limb ABK power and scoring performance in U16 basketball players" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Creatine in Health and Disease - Nutrients 2021 Jan 29 - "Although creatine has been mostly studied as an ergogenic aid for exercise, training, and sport, several health and potential therapeutic benefits have been reported. This is because creatine plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, particularly during metabolically stressed states, and limitations in the ability to transport and/or store creatine can impair metabolism. Moreover, increasing availability of creatine in tissue may enhance cellular metabolism and thereby lessen the severity of injury and/or disease conditions, particularly when oxygen availability is compromised. This systematic review assesses the peer-reviewed scientific and medical evidence related to creatine's role in promoting general health as we age and how creatine supplementation has been used as a nutritional strategy to help individuals recover from injury and/or manage chronic disease. Additionally, it provides reasonable conclusions about the role of creatine on health and disease based on current scientific evidence. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that creatine supplementation has several health and therapeutic benefits throughout the lifespan" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Creatine Supplementation and Brain Health - Nutrients 2021 Feb 10 - "There is a robust and compelling body of evidence supporting the ergogenic and therapeutic role of creatine supplementation in muscle. Beyond these well-described effects and mechanisms, there is literature to suggest that creatine may also be beneficial to brain health (e.g., cognitive processing, brain function, and recovery from trauma). This is a growing field of research, and the purpose of this short review is to provide an update on the effects of creatine supplementation on brain health in humans. There is a potential for creatine supplementation to improve cognitive processing, especially in conditions characterized by brain creatine deficits, which could be induced by acute stressors (e.g., exercise, sleep deprivation) or chronic, pathologic conditions (e.g., creatine synthesis enzyme deficiencies, mild traumatic brain injury, aging, Alzheimer's disease, depression). Despite this, the optimal creatine protocol able to increase brain creatine levels is still to be determined. Similarly, supplementation studies concomitantly assessing brain creatine and cognitive function are needed"
  • A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly - Nutrients 2020 Aug 10 - "Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown ... Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  I'd add leucine, HBM and collagen.
  • Creatine Supplementation Improves Performance, but Is It Safe? Double-blind Placebo-Controlled Study - J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jul - "Eighteen males performing resistance training three times per week were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg per day creatine monohydrate for 7 days and compared with matched controls supplemented with dextrosol ... Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not cause adverse events and, as expected, promoted an increase of the performance and body weight. No modification of red blood cells parameters, white blood cells profile, blood lipid profile, metabolic and urine markers, hepatic and renal function were observed in the supplemented group ... Despite the expected weight increase, the creatine monohydrate supplementation is safe for health and no detrimental effects on different organs and physiological systems were observed in our cohort of volunteers"
  • Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - [Nutra USA]
  • Long-Term Effect of Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Anabolic/Catabolic Hormones in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Biomolecules. 2020 Jan 15;10(1) - "randomized into four different groups: placebo group (PLG; n = 7), CrM group (CrMG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM; n = 7), HMB group (HMBG; 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7), and CrM-HMB group (CrM-HMBG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7) ... we observed significant differences in CrM-HMBG with respect to PLG, CrMG, and HMBG on testosterone (p = 0.006; η2p = 0.454) and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C; p = 0.032; η2p = 0.349). Moreover, we found a synergistic effect of combined supplementation on testosterone (CrM-HMBG = -63.85% vs. CrMG + HMBG = -37.89%) and T/C (CrM-HMBG = 680% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 57.68%) and an antagonistic effect on cortisol (CrM-HMBG = 131.55% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 389.99%). In summary, the combination of CrM plus HMB showed an increase in testosterone and T/C compared with the other groups after 10 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, this combination presented a synergistic effect on testosterone and T/C and an antagonistic effect on cortisol compared with the sum of individual or isolated supplementation" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - See creatine at Amazon.com and HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Creatine electrolyte supplement improves anaerobic power and strength: a randomized double-blind control study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 May 24 - "Creatine supplementation aids the Phosphagen system by increasing the amount of free creatine and phosphocreatine available to replenish adenosine triphosphate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creatine and electrolyte formulated multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on strength and power performance compared to a placeb ... The MIPS was found to be beneficial to recreationally trained individuals compared to a placebo. The greatest benefits are seen in bench press and back squat maximal strength as well as multiple repetition tests to fatigue during the bench press exercise"
  • Creatine monohydrate supplementation during eight weeks of progressive resistance training increases strength in as little as two weeks without reducing markers of muscle damage - J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May 2 - "Cr increased muscular strength in as little as two weeks during a resistance training program; however, this was not accompanied by decreased muscle damage. Greater muscle damage with Cr may be due to a greater training intensity enabled by Cr supplementation. This might lead to greater protein turnover and enhanced muscle adaptation"
  • Creatine-electrolyte supplementation improves repeated sprint cycling performance: A double blind randomized control study - j int sp nutr, May 2, 18 - "A supplement-time interaction showed a 4% increase in overall peak power (pre: 734 ± 75 W; post: 765 ± 71 W; p = 0.040; ηp2 = 0.187) and a 5% increase in overall mean power (pre: 586 ± 72 W; post: 615 ± 74 W; p = 0.019; ηp2 = 0.234) from pre- to post-supplementation for the CE group" - [Nutra USA] - See Albion Laboratories Creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Myoprotective Potential of Creatine Is Greater than Whey Protein after Chemically-Induced Damage in Rat Skeletal Muscle - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 30 - "Creatine supplementation appears to offer an element of myoprotection which was not observed following whey protein supplementation" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Optimal Individual Post-Activation Potentiation Time of the Upper Body in Canoeists - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 27;9(11) - "Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group, and later consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After supplementation, the maximal strength in the creatine group significantly increased"
  • The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Explosive Performance and Optimal Individual Postactivation Potentiation Time - Nutrients. 2016 Mar 4;8(3) - "repetition maximum (1RM) strength ... After the supplementation, the 1RM strength in the creatine group significantly increased"
  • Creatine Linked to Testicular Cancer - WebMD, 4/16/15 - "Men who use muscle-building supplements containing creatine or androstenedione may have a higher risk of getting testicular cancer ... This risk seems to rise even more among men who begin using the supplements before age 25 ... almost 20% of participants with testicular cancer had used muscle-building supplements"
  • Effects of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on oxidative stress in different tissues of rats - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Mar 24;11(1):11 - "Forty male Wistar rats (250-300 g, 90 days old) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Sedentary (SED, n = 10), Sedentary + Creatine (SED-Cr, n = 10), Resistance Training (RT, n = 10) and Resistance Training + Creatine (RT-Cr, n = 10) ... greater strength gain was observed in the SED-Cr, RT and RT-Cr groups compared to the SED group (P < 0.001). The RT-Cr group showed a higher maximum strength gain when compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation associated with resistance training was able to reduce lipoperoxidation in the plasma (P < 0.05), the heart (P < 0.05), the liver (P < 0.05) and the gastrocnemius (P < 0.05) when compared to control groups" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 1 - "Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27) ... In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8"
  • Creatine Supplementation Prevents the Accumulation of Fat in the Livers of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Aug 31 - "In conclusion, creatine supplementation prevented the fatty liver induced by feeding rats a HF diet, probably by normalization of the expression of key genes of β-oxidation"
  • The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores - Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec 1:1-6 - "Creatine supplementation influences brain functioning as indicated by imaging studies and the measurement of oxygenated Hb ... Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task"
  • Guanidino Compounds After Creatine Supplementation in Renal Failure Patients and their Relation to Inflammatory Status - Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Nov 29 - "Specific guanidino compounds have been described as uraemic toxins and their concentrations are increased in renal failure due to dimished glomerular filtration, whereas the guanidino compound creatine is used as a performance-enhancing substance in athletes. The present study investigates the effects of creatine supplementation on plasma guanidino compounds in a chronic haemodialysis population ... Patients were treated with creatine (2 g/day) or placebo during two treatment periods of 4 weeks ... Upon creatine supplementation, guanidinoacetate concentrations decreased by 15%, due to inhibition of creatine synthesis. Concentrations of alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid increased three-fold and argininic acid concentrations doubled"
  • Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance - J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Sep;87 Suppl 2:S228-32 - "the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity"
  • Beneficial effects of creatine supplementation in dystrophic patients - Muscle & Nerve, Volume 27, Issue 5, 2003. Pages: 604-610
  • Supplementation: A Comparison of Loading and Maintenance Protocols on Creatine Uptake By Human Skeletal Muscle - Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 13 (1) (2003)
  • Short-term Creatine Supplementation Improves Maximum Quadriceps Contraction in Women - Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 13 (1) (2003)