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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 12/22/21

Uncovered: Key to how exercise protects against consequences of aging - Science Daily, 12/16/21 - "Exercise-induced ROS drives adaptive responses that are integral to the health-promoting effects of exercise ... an enzyme called NOX-4 is essential for exercise-induced ROS and the adaptive responses that drive metabolic health ... that NOX4 is increased in skeletal muscle after exercise and that this then leads to increased ROS which elicits adaptive responses that protect mice from the development of insulin resistance, which otherwise occurs with ageing or diet induced-obesity ... One of these compounds is found naturally, for instance, in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli or cauliflower, though the amount needed for anti-ageing effects might be more than many would be willing to consume" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.

Gum disease increases risk of other illness such as mental health and heart conditions, study suggests - Science Daily, 12/20/21 - "The results of the study showed, in patients with a recorded history of periodontal disease at the start of the study, the increased risk of developing mental ill-health was 37%, while the risk of developing autoimmune disease was increased by 33%, and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease was raised by 18%, while the risk of having a cardiometabolic disorder was increased by 7% (with the increased risk much higher for Type 2 diabetes at 26%) ... Previous studies have shown that people with RA were four times more likely to have gum disease than their RA-free counterparts and it tended to be more severe. This research provides further clear evidence why healthcare professionals need to be vigilant for early signs of gum disease and how it can have wide-reaching implications for a person's health, reinforcing the importance of taking a holistic approach when treating people"

Cannabis may contain heavy metals and affect consumer health, study finds - Science Daily, 12/16/21 - "Cannabis plants -- which are used to produce industrial hemp, medical marijuana and cannabidiol (CBD) oil, among other products -- have an inherent ability to absorb heavy metals from the soil, making them useful for remediating contaminated sites ... Compounding the problem, Bengyella said, is the fact that some cannabis strains have been bred specifically for phytoremediation, which is the use of plants to remove pollutants from soil, water or air ... eavy metal contamination in cannabis can cause various health problems due to the fact that the heavy metals are rarely metabolized, and therefore, accumulate in specific areas of the human body. The most common mechanism of heavy metal toxicity in the human body is via the production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which can damage enzymes, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and cause cancer and neurological issues ... Cannabis consumed in combustive form represents the greatest danger to human health, as analysis of heavy metals in the smoke of cannabis revealed the presence of selenium, mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic"

Anti-aging ‘superfoods’ aren’t enough. Try one of these healthy overall eating plans - Washington Post, 12/17/21 - "At least one dark green leafy vegetable each day ... Berries at least twice a week ... At least 5 servings of nuts per week ... Beans or legumes at least every other day ... At least 3 servings of whole grains per day ... Poultry (not fried) at least twice a week ... Fish (not fried) at least once a week ... Limited consumption of cheese, fast foods and fried foods — less than once per week ... Less than one tablespoon a day of butter (use olive oil instead) ... Sweets or pastries less than 5 times per week ... Red meat no more than 3 meals per week ... Wine — no more than one glass daily, preferably red wine"

Aducanumab for Alzheimer's Gets Thumbs Down in Europe - Medscape, 12/17/21 - "The EMA committee noted that while aducanumab reduces amyloid beta in the brain, the link between this effect and clinical improvement had not been established ... The committee also felt that results of the main studies assessing the drug were "conflicting and did not show overall that Aduhelm was effective at treating adults with early stage Alzheimer's disease.""

New discovery on how omega-3 fatty acids can reduce atherosclerosis - Science Daily, 12/15/21 - "A receptor activated by substances formed from omega-3 fatty acids plays a vital role in preventing inflammation in blood vessels and reducing atherosclerosis ... Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death globally and a serious public health problem. Atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammation in the blood vessels. Inflammation a is normally controlled by stop signals called resolvins, which switch off the inflammation and stimulate tissue healing and repair through a process called resolution of inflammation. Resolvins are formed from omega-3 fatty acids and bind to and activate a receptor called GPR32 ... this receptor is dysregulated in atherosclerosis, indicating a disruption in the body's natural healing processes ... We'll now be studying the mechanisms behind the failed management of inflammation in the blood vessels and how omega-3 mediated stop signals can be used to treat atherosclerosis" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Cleanup on Aisle PFAS - Bulwark, 12/17/21 - "Although the original PFAS chemical used to make Teflon has been taken off the market, PFAS chemicals are widely used in a variety of ways: coated paper and cardboard packaging for fast-food takeouts; stain-resistant chemicals for furniture and carpets; water-repellent outdoor hiking clothing (like Gore-Tex); as a base in many personal care products and cosmetics; and firefighting foam ... Tap-water samples tested by the Environmental Working Group in 2020 from 44 sites in 31 states and Washington, D.C. found that only three had PFAS readings below EPA standard ... So PFAS is in our water. The key question we must then ask is this: “What is the provable danger?” This is where it gets tricky. Health concerns resulting from PFAS contamination are more speculative than certain. A recent Harvard University review of PFAS health-care issues came to the conclusion it could possibly be causing some increases in cancer, liver damage, decreased fertility, increased risk of asthma, and thyroid disease. But is the level of certainty sufficient to act upon?" - See reverse osmosis systems at Amazon.com.

Suspect Cannabis With Diabetic Ketoacidosis and High pH - Medscape, 12/17/21 - "Cannabis use should be considered in anyone with type 1 diabetes who presents with symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but has high pH and bicarbonate levels, new research suggests ... Now recognized as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), it has been recently described in chronic or heavy cannabis users ... The condition can be life-threatening ... Serum bicarbonate was 19.2 mmol/L versus 9.1 mmol/L in users versus non-users, respectively, a highly significant difference"

Can a Commonly Prescribed Thyroid Medication Lift Depression and Dementia? - Medscape, 12/16/21 - "While the therapeutic advantages and disadvantages over replacement with pure levothyroxine [T4] or a mixture of T4 with triiodothyronine [T3] have generated a consensus in favor of levothyroxine alone, we still grapple with treated patients who complain of impaired well-being ... Despite thyroid hormone replacement's clinical use for over 100 years and levothyroxine monotherapy for about 50 years, when to use a mixture, if ever, remains contentious despite numerous comparison trials ... A recent trial sponsored by the US military perhaps offers the branch point that affects prescribing. The group studied about 75 people with established hypothyroidism that was corrected to normal TSH with medication. They also administered a variety of quality-of-life and skill measurements. Using a crossover design, they identified people who scored poorly on the quality-of-life assessment when taking levothyroxine alone, and then offered a T3-containing alternative, and saw the quality-of-life score improve. But again, measurements of well-being and a few cognitive symptoms remained mostly independent of the type of thyroid hormone that produced the therapeutic TSH" - Note: I've read many studies and I'm sticking with the combo but I've found that getting a prescription for T3 is like trying to get a prescription for cocaine. Endocrinologist are old school. I think they're still going by the textbooks from college written in the 50s. I started out self medicating then I put my foot down and kept changing endocrinologists until I found one that would prescribe the combo. My blood pressure is normal but it goes through the roof when I get in an endocrinologist's office. My grandfather had a joke: "People who think they know it all really annoy those of us that do." I'm sure the endocrinologists that I've seen feel the same way.

Gallic acid and stretching decrease osteoarthritis markers in cartilage cells - Science Daily, 12/15/21 - "gallic acid, an antioxidant found in gallnuts, green tea and other plants, and applied a stretching mechanism to human cartilage cells taken from arthritic knees that mimics the stretching that occurs when walking. The combination not only decreased arthritis inflammation markers in the cells but improved the production of desired proteins normally found in healthy cartilage ... We found the combined stretching, which acts like an exercise for the cell itself, with the gallic acid decreased inflammation markers, which means we were able to reverse osteoarthritis ... The study adds evidence that it may be good to eat foods high in antioxidants -- and to exercise, although the researchers caution that gallic acid should not be seen as a miracle cure, and any course of action should be taken only in consultation with a person's doctor" - See gallic acid at Amazon.com but it doesn't show anything. Sounds like green tea is your best bet. - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D Counters Bone Density Loss With Aromatase Inhibitors - Medscape, 12/14/21 - "The researchers examined women before the start of treatment, at 6 months, and at 5 years. Those with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL received 7,000 IU/day for 8 weeks, followed by a 1,000 IU/day maintenance dose. Subjects with osteopenia received a calcium supplement (500 mg calcium carbonate), and those with osteoporosis received 4 mg zoledronic acid ... Another prospective observational study, published earlier this year, looked at vitamin D supplementation in 741 patients (mean age 61.9 years) being treated with aromatase inhibitors, whose baseline vitamin D levels were less 30 ng/mL. They received 16,000 IU dose of oral calcifediol every 2 weeks. At 3 months, individuals who achieved vitamin D levels of 40 ng/mL or higher were less likely to have joint pain (P < .05). At 12 months, data from 473 patients showed that for every 10-ng/mL increase in serum vitamin D at 3 months, there was a reduction in loss of bone marrow density in the lumbar spine (adjusted beta = +0.177%, P < .05), though there were no associations between vitamin D levels and BMD of the femur or total hip ... Our results suggest that optimal levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of joint pain related to AI treatment. A target threshold (of vitamin D) levels was set at 40 ng/mL to significantly reduce the increase in joint pain." The authors noted that this threshold is well above the goal of 20 ng/mL recommended by the 2010 Institute of Medicine report" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Metformin Benefits Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure - Medscape, 12/14/21 - "SGLT2 inhibitors must be part of the treatment regimen for patients with heart failure of any type. This report supports also using metformin in those with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, but not in place of an SGLT2 inhibitor or to delay start of an SGLT2 inhibitor ... Patients started on metformin had a significant 19% reduction in 12-month incidence of all-cause death or HHF relative to other patients in the study in an analysis that adjusted for 29 potential confounders ... HHF was reduced by 20% in those who started metformin compared with those who did not ... A more granular analysis that divided patients by LVEF during their index hospitalization showed metformin use was linked with a significant 42% lower incidence of HHF and a significant 32% lower rate of HHF or all-cause death in patients with an LVEF of more than 40%" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Half an Hour of Daily Sun Exposure Cuts MS Risk in Half - Medscape, 12/14/21 - "participants who spent an average of 30 minutes to 1 hour outside daily during the previous summer had a 52% lower chance of developing MS compared with those who spent less than 30 minutes outdoors daily. Additionally, those who spent 1-2 hours outdoors daily had an 81% lower risk for MS ... Particularly, low sun exposure, low ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, and low vitamin D status are environmental risk factors for adult-onset MS, with increased risk associated with "insufficient sun exposure in childhood" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Cannabis use could cause harmful drug interactions - Science Daily, 12/13/21 - "a group of substances found in the cannabis plant -- and their major metabolites found in cannabis users' blood and found that they interfere with two families of enzymes that help metabolize a wide range of drugs prescribed for a variety of conditions. As a result, either the drugs' positive effects might decrease or their negative effects might increase with too much building up in the body, causing unintended side effects such as toxicity or accidental overdose ... One study focused on a family of enzymes known as cytochrome P450s (CYPs), whereas the other looked at UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), another enzyme family. Together, these two enzyme families help metabolize and eliminate more than 70 percent of the most commonly used drugs from the body ... Cannabinoids stay in your body only for about 30 minutes before they are rapidly broken down ... The metabolites that result from that process stay in your body for much longer -- up to 14 days -- and at higher concentrations than cannabinoids and have been overlooked in previous studies ... If you have a kidney disease or you are taking one or more drugs that are metabolized primarily through the kidney and you're also smoking marijuana, you could be inhibiting normal kidney function, and it may have long-term effects for you"

Melatonin exacerbates asthma, study finds - Science Daily, 12/10/21 - "a research group led by Kentaro Mizuta from Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry has discovered that melatonin, a sleep hormone, worsens asthma ... Asthma patients suffer from bronchoconstriction, where the smooth muscles of the bronchus -- the pathway that moves air to and from your lungs -- contract. To ease this, many take a bronchodilator, a medicine which widens the bronchus ... However, melatonin, which is often prescribed for insomnia, favors a state of bronchoconstriction and weakens the relaxing effect of a bronchodilator through the activation of the melatonin MT2 receptor."

A diet rich in plant-based products reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly - Science Daily, 12/9/21 - "The results reveal a protective association between metabolites derived from cocoa, coffee, mushrooms and red wine, microbial metabolism of polyphenol-rich foods (apple, cocoa, green tea, blueberries, oranges or pomegranates) and cognitive impairment in the elderly ... A higher intake of fruits, vegetables and plant-based foods provides polyphenols and other bioactive compounds that could help reduce the risk of cognitive decline due to ageing" -

Common drugs affect our gut microbiome differently, with good and bad impacts on health - Science Daily, 12/9/21 - "In the colon of people who take gastric acid medication, we found relatively high levels of bacteria that are normally only present in the oral cavity. Stomach acid usually kills bacteria from the oral cavity that try to escape to the gut where they do not belong. But this is not the case when you use these gastric acid inhibitors. The observation we have made is important because the presence of oral bacteria in the colon is associated with an increased risk of developing some types of colon cancer" -

Erectile Dysfunction Drug Tadalafil Exerts Modest Glucose Control - Medscape, 12/9/21 - "International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ... At the end of the study, A1c levels declined compared with baseline by an average of 0.137% in the tadalafil group and rose by an average of 0.196% in the placebo group ... After 6 months, average fasting plasma glucose was 6.40 mg/dL lower than baseline in the tadalafil group and was 5.35 mg/dL higher than baseline in the placebo group ... Improvement in the IIEF-5 score was significantly greater in the tadalafil group than in the placebo group at 6 months, with an average score of 6.56 with tadalafil and 2.22 with placebo ... The IPSS showed a numerical improvement among patients taking tadalafil compared with those taking placebo, which was not significant" - See tadalafil at ReliableRXPharmacy.

The impact of drugs on gut microbes is greater than we thought - Science Daily, 12/8/21 - "We know that the microbiome can reflect the status of a patient's health and provide a range of biomarkers to assess the severity of diseases. What is often overlooked, however, is that the medication used to treat a disease also affects the state of the microbiome ... The researchers are hopeful that these results can provide knowledge that could potentially help in drug repurposing as well as in planning individualised treatment and prevention strategies" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.

Blood from marathoner mice boosts brain function in their couch-potato counterparts - Science Daily, 12/8/21 - "It's already known that exercise induces a number of healthy manifestations in the brain, such as more nerve-cell production and less inflammation ... The mice getting runner blood were smarter ... On two different lab tests of memory, sedentary mice injected with marathoner plasma outperformed their equally sedentary peers who received couch-potato plasma ... In addition, sedentary mice receiving plasma from marathoner mice had more cells that give rise to new neurons in the hippocampus (a brain structure associated with memory and navigation) than those given couch-potato plasma transfusions ... Removing a single protein, clusterin, from marathoner mice's plasma largely negated its anti-inflammatory effect on sedentary mice's brains ... Separately, the investigators found that at the conclusion of a six-month aerobic exercise program, 20 military veterans with mild cognitive impairment, a precursor to Alzheimer's disease, had elevated clusterin levels in their blood"

Are Long-Term Beta Blockers Following MI in the Absence of Angina and HF Indicated in the PCI Era? - Medscape, 12/8/21 - "Therefore, in older adults who are completely revascularized and have no LV dysfunction or residual angina, long term BB therapy should be reassessed after 3 months since these drugs may cause adverse effects with no appreciable long-term benefits" -

A daily dose of yogurt could be the go-to food to manage high blood pressure - Science Daily, 12/7/21 - "Dairy foods, especially yoghurt, may be capable of reducing blood pressure ... This is because dairy foods contain a range of micronutrients, including calcium, magnesium and potassium, all of which are involved in the regulation of blood pressure ... Yoghurt is especially interesting because it also contains bacteria that promote the release of proteins which lowers blood pressure ... This study showed for people with elevated blood pressure, even small amounts of yoghurt were associated with lower blood pressure ... And for those who consumed yoghurt regularly, the results were even stronger, with blood pressure readings nearly seven points lower than those who did not consume yoghurt" - Note: Go with the recipe on my yogurt page or go with the Noosa brand at the grocery store.

Abstracts from this week:

Habitual Intake of Marine-derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids is Inversely Associated with a Cardiometabolic Inflammatory Profile in Yup'ik Alaska Native People - J Nutr 2021 Dec 6 - "DHA concentration in RBC membranes was inversely associated with IL-6 (β = -0.0066, P < 0.001); EPA was inversely associated with TNFα (β = -0.4925, P < 0.001); and the NIR was inversely associated with MCP-1 (β = -0.8345, P < 0.001) and IL-10 (β = -1.2868, P < 0.001) ... Habitual intake of marine mammals and fish rich in n-3 PUFAs in this study population of Yup'ik Alaska Native adults is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, which may contribute to the low prevalence of diseases in which inflammation plays an important role" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Total dairy consumption in relation to overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Obes Rev 2021 Dec 8 - "results showed an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity prevalence (OR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.48-0.91). No significant associations were found between milk or yogurt and obesity prevalence risk. Regarding prospective studies, total milk consumption was positively associated with overweight prevalence (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.01-1.26)) and incidence (RR (95%CI): 1.17 (1.01-1.35)) risk. Evidence from pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies suggested an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity"

The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanisms underlying metaflammation and infections in obesity: A narrative review - Obes Rev 2021 Dec 3 - "The tight connection between adipose tissue and the immune system has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in inflammation, and melatonin is important for circadian rhythm regulation and metabolic homeostasis, in which it orchestrates several molecular mechanisms involved in obesity and associated inflammation. Melatonin also regulates innate and adaptive immunity; its antioxidant properties are linked to reduced predisposition to infection and weight gain in patients with obesity through the modulation of the immune response, which has a significant beneficial effect on inflammation and, consequently, on the metabolic state. Low melatonin levels have been linked to obesity, and melatonin supplementation can reduce body weight, improve metabolic profile, and ameliorate immune responses and pro-inflammatory stimuli. The role of melatonin in obesity is mainly related to improved oxidative stress signaling, modulation of adipokine secretion, and a switching from white-to-brown adipose tissue phenotype and activity. Moreover, the role of melatonin in obesity modulation by controlling circadian rhythm has recently emerged as a pivotal mechanism for lipid and glucose metabolism dysfunction in adipose, muscle, and liver tissues. Melatonin may also regulate the immune system by acting directly on thymus morphology and activity as well as by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory states during infections. The tight association between melatonin and immune response regulation is coordinated by Toll-like receptors, which are rhythmically expressed during the day. Their expression may be strongly modulated by melatonin as their signaling is highly inhibited by melatonin" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.

Role of the microbiota in hypertension and antihypertensive drug metabolism - Hypertens Res 2021 Dec 9 - "In this review, we provide insights into host-microbiota interactions and summarize the evidence supporting the importance of the microbiota in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), modulate BP and vascular responses. Harmful gut-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide and several uremic toxins, exert proatherosclerotic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory effects. High-salt intake alters the composition of the microbiota, and this microbial alteration contributes to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension. In addition, the microbiota may impact the metabolism of drugs and steroid hormones in the host. The drug-metabolizing activities of the microbiota affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of antihypertensive drugs and contribute to the pathogenesis of licorice-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. Furthermore, the oral microbiota plays a role in BP regulation by producing nitric oxide, which lowers BP via its vasodilatory effects. Thus, antihypertensive intervention strategies targeting the microbiota, such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics (e.g., SCFAs), are considered new therapeutic options for the treatment of hypertension" - See Probiotic supplements at Amazon.com, Prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and postbiotics at Amazon.com.

  • Short-chain fatty acid - Wiki - "Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the three most common SCFAs"
  • WHAT ARE POSTBIOTICS? 5 HEALTH BENEFITS - Meridian Chiropractics - "Postbiotics are byproducts of the fermentation process carried out by probiotics in the intestine. In other words, as probiotics feed on prebiotics, postbiotics are produced. They are basically the “waste” of probiotics."

Non-linear Mendelian randomization analyses support a role for vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular disease risk - Eur Heart J 2021 Dec 5 - "There was a L-shaped association between genetically predicted serum 25(OH)D and CVD risk (Pnon-linear = 0.007), where CVD risk initially decreased steeply with increasing concentrations and levelled off at around 50 nmol/L. A similar association was seen for systolic (Pnon-linear = 0.03) and diastolic (Pnon-linear = 0.07) BP" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Effect of empagliflozin in patients with heart failure across the spectrum of left ventricular ejection fraction - Eur Heart J 2021 Dec 8 - "The magnitude of the effect of empagliflozin on heart failure outcomes was clinically meaningful and similar in patients with ejection fractions <25% to <65%, but was attenuated in patients with an ejection fraction ≥ 65%"

The effect of empagliflozin on the total burden of cardiovascular and hospitalization events in the Asian and non-Asian populations of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Dec 14 - "Among 1517 Asian participants, empagliflozin reduced relative risk of total events of the primary outcome by 38% versus placebo (rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.427, 0.885]), the key secondary outcome by 33% (0.67 [0.479, 0.929]), the composite of cardiovascular death (excluding fatal stroke) and hospitalization for heart failure by 43% (0.57 [0.329, 0.996]), and all-cause hospitalization by 21% (0.79 [0.651, 0.967]). Empagliflozin's effects were consistent between Asian and non-Asian populations" -

Metformin Promotes the Hair-Inductive Activity of Three-Dimensional Aggregates of Epidermal and Dermal Cells Self-Assembled In Vitro - Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Dec 9 - "These results suggest that metformin can promote hair follicle regeneration in vitro through up-regulation of the hair inductive capability of dermal cells" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

The effect of 8 weeks of physical training on muscle performance and maximal fat oxidation rates in patients treated with simvastatin and coenzyme Q10 supplementation - J Physiol 2021 Dec 10 - "Simvastatins are prescribed for treatment of elevated cholesterol, but they may negatively impact metabolism, muscle performance and the response to training. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation may alleviate some of these effects ... simvastatin treatment decreases plasma concentrations of total CoQ10, but this can be alleviated by simultaneous supplementation with CoQ10" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.

Dietary Piperine Suppresses Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Regulating the miR-181c-3p/ PPARα Axis - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Dec 14 - "piperine represents a potential candidate for further development as an anticancer agent for treating obesity-associated breast cancer" - See piperine extract at Amazon.com.

Lactoferrin Alleviates Acute Alcoholic Liver Injury by Improving Redox-Stress Response Capacity in Female C57BL/6J Mice - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Dec 15 - "Lactoferrin (Lf) can attenuate alcoholic liver injury (ALI) in male mice; however, the effects of Lf on acute ALI in female mice are still unknown ... low-dose Lf (LLf) and high-dose Lf (HLf) groups ... HLf could prevent acute ALI in female mice" - See lactoferrin at Amazon.com.

Fructooligosaccharides Increase in Plasma Concentration of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Rats - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Dec 15 - "(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) undergoes auto-oxidation at physiological pH and therefore may be poorly absorbed in the intestine. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), comprising a group of 1-kestose, nystose, and 1F-β fructofuranosyl-nystose, are fermentable by gut bacteria and converted mainly into lactate. This study was conducted to determine whether dietary FOS may help to increase the plasma concentration of EGCG in rats by preventing it from auto-oxidation ... Because EGCG concentrations in the cecal digesta of rats fed the FOS-containing diet maintained comparatively high levels, FOS likely contributed to the protection of EGCG from auto-oxidation. In conclusion, FOS reduced the pH of the lumen of the intestine, kept EGCG intact to a certain degree, and consequently allowed EGCG to be taken into the blood circulation from the intestine" - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com. Note: I replace have the sugar with inulin in all my recipes that include sugar.

  • Prebiotics: A look at FOS & Inulin - optibacprobiotics.com - "The principal difference between these two prebiotics is their structural difference. Fructooligosaccharides are shorter chain molecules and are linear in their molecular structure, whereas inulin is slightly longer and has more cross-links in its structure"

Sustained LDL-Cholesterol <70 mg/dL is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in the clinical setting - Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Dec 14 - "During 5 years of follow-up, 252 patients (21%) suffered major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The incidence rates of MACE were 3.42 events per 100 patient-years (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.17-5.14) in patients with levels <70 mg/dL and 5.57 (95% CI. 4.87-6.34) in those with ≥70 mg/dL; the rate ratio was 0.61 (95% CI. 0.39-0.92), p=0.019. On multivariable analysis, patients with LDL-C levels <70 mg/dL were at lower risk for MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.61 (95% CI. 0.39-0.93) p<0.05). MACE reduction was driven by a decrease in coronary and peripheral events with no significant effect on stroke ... Long term sustained LDL-C <70 mg/dl in the clinical practice is associated with reduction in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular events with no apparent effect on stroke"

Blueberry anthocyanin intake attenuates the postprandial cardiometabolic effect of an energy-dense food challenge: Results from a double blind, randomized controlled trial in metabolic syndrome participants - Clin Nutr 2021 Nov 27 - "For the first time, in an at-risk population, we show that single-exposure to the equivalent of 1 cup blueberries (provided as freeze-dried powder) attenuates the deleterious postprandial effects of consuming an energy-dense high-fat/high-sugar meal over 24 h; reducing insulinaemia and glucose levels, lowering cholesterol, and improving HDL-C, fractions of HDL-P and Apo-A1. Consequently, intake of anthocyanin-rich blueberries may reduce the acute cardiometabolic burden of energy-dense meals" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.

Olive oil consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke - Clin Nutr 2021 Nov 15 - "Olive oil is associated with lower risk of CVD and stroke. The maximum benefit could be obtained with a consumption between 20 and 30 g/day. The association could be stronger for virgin olive oil and might operate from the early stages of the disease" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com but it could just be the omega-9 in olive oil.

Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Dec 3 - "Higher predicted 25(OH)D levels, but not vitamin D intake, were associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing participants in the highest quintile of predicted 25(OH)D levels to the lowest, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.99; P-trend = 0.04). Participants in the highest quartile of UVB (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.87; P-trend = 0.002) and UVA (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.88; P-trend<0.001) also had lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to the lowest. High intake of vitamin D from supplements (≥400 IU/d) was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization (OR: 0.51 ... Our study provides suggestive evidence on the association between higher predicted circulating 25(OH)D levels and a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Greater intake of vitamin D supplements was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization. Our data also support an association between exposure to UVB or UVA, independent of vitamin D, and SARS-CoV-2 infection, so results for predicted 25(OH)D need to be interpreted cautiously" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Traditional and Dairy Products and Vegetables Dietary Patterns Are Inversely Associated with the Risk of Cataract in the Middle Age and Aged Population: A Case-Control Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(10):1248-1254 - "Cataract is one of the most common causes of visual impairment and blindness in the world. In the present study, we have been trying to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and cataract ... The results showed "dairy products and vegetables" dietary pattern had a negative association with cataract (OR: 0.301, 95%CI =0.137-0.658, P trend =0.002). The fourth quartile of the "traditional" dietary pattern also showed a protective role against the cataract (OR: 0.393, 95%CI =0.184-0.842, P trend = 0.036). The third and fourth quartiles of "carbohydrate and simple sugar" pattern were more related with cataract compared to the first quartile (OR: 3.574, 95%CI =1.665-7.671, and OR: 5.067, 95%CI =2.265-11.335, P trend <0.001 respectively). No significant association was found between «nuts, seeds and simple sugar" dietary pattern and cataract. ... It seems a dietary pattern rich in proteins and vegetables can decrease the risk of cataract in middle-aged and aged subjects"

Survival outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer concomitantly receiving proton pump inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors - Int J Cancer 2021 Dec 7 - "Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota dysbiosis adversely affects the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Our objective was to investigate the association between concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ICIs and poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ... concomitant PPI use was associated with a 28% increased risk of all-cause mortality, compared with non-use (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.28; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.13-1.46). We observed an increased risk when we restricted the analysis to new users of PPI (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.25-2.17). Subgroup analysis showed that PPI use was associated with high mortality risk among patients with viral hepatitis (adjusted HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.54-4.78; pinteraction , 0.048). Our study indicates that PPI use is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs"

Cyclophosphamide-induced testicular oxidative-inflammatory injury is accompanied by altered immunosuppressive indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in Wister rats: Influence of dietary quercetin - Andrologia 2021 Dec 1 - "quercetin protected the testes against cyclophosphamide-induced alterations in immunosuppressive IDO/TDO activities elicited by oxidative-inflammatory mediators" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

Quercetin Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis by Inhibiting HMGB1 and Its Translocation, Thereby Alleviating Liver Injury in ACLF Rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Oct 25 - "Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome of acute liver failure that occurs on the basis of chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a rapid deterioration in a short period and high mortality. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) may be involved in the pathological process of ACLF; its specific role remains to be further elucidated ... Que alleviates liver injury in ACLF rats, and its mechanism may be related to oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by HMGB1 and its translocation" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

Quercetin Improves Mitochondrial Function and Inflammation in H 2 O 2-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage in the Gastric Mucosal Epithelial Cell by Regulating the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Nov 27 - "Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, the therapeutic strategy of which it is limited due to its complex pathogenesis. Oxidative stress-induced damage in gastric mucosal epithelial cells is related to the pathogenesis and development of FD. Quercetin (Que) is one of the active ingredients of Zhishi that showed antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects ... the current study demonstrates that Que alleviates oxidative stress damage in GES-1 cells by improving mitochondrial function and mucosal barrier and suppressing inflammation through regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, indicating the potential therapeutic effects of Que on FD" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

Effect of Curcumin on Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Dec 2 - "Five RCTs involving 290 participants with DKD were included. Curcumin supplementation significantly improved the serum creatinine (WMD: -0.16 mg/dL, 95% CI: -0.3 to -0.02, P = 0.029, I 2 = 0%, moderate certainty), total cholesterol (WMD: -10.13 mg/dL, 95% CI: -17.84 to -2.14, P = 0.01, I 2 = 0%, moderate certainty), systolic blood pressure (WMD: 3.94 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.86 to 6.01, P < 0.01, I 2 = 33.5%, moderate certainty), and fasting blood glucose (WMD: -8.29 mg/dL, 95% CI: -15.19 to -1.39, P = 0.019, I 2 = 43.7%, moderate certainty) levels; however, it had no significant effects on blood urea nitrogen, proteinuria, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure levels" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.

Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract on Cognitive Functions in Healthy, Stressed Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Nov 30 - "Stress adversely affects cognitive ability, sleep quality, and overall psychological well-being. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal), an essential medicine in Ayurveda, is reportedly beneficial in reducing stress and improving memory ... Subjects (130 healthy cognitively sound adults [20-55 years, body mass index:18-29 kg/m2]) having a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) score of 14-24 were randomized to receive either Ashwagandha SR or placebo. Subjects took one capsule of Ashwagandha SR or placebo daily for 90 consecutive days ... The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) reported significantly improved recall memory, and the total error rate in recalling patterns significantly decreased at visit 4 in the Ashwagandha SR group vs. the placebo group (first attempt memory score:12.9 ± 6.7 vs. 10.1 ± 6.3; total errors:17.5 ± 23.3 vs. 27.7 ± 23.6). At visit 4, lower PSS-10 score (13.0 ± 5.0 vs. 18.7 ± 4.6; p < .0001), serum cortisol levels (p=0.0443), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score (p < .0001) but higher Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) scores (p < .0001) were seen in Ashwagandha SR vs. the placebo group, suggesting significantly lower stress levels and significantly better psychological well-being and sleep quality in the former. No adverse events were reported" - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com.

Low vitamin B 12 but not folate is associated with incident depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults: a 4 year longitudinal study - Br J Nutr 2021 Dec 13 - "B12 status profiles (pmol/l) were defined as: <185, deficient-low; 185 - <258, low normal; >258 - 601, normal and >601 high. Folate status profiles (nmol/l) were defined as: ≤10.0, deficient-low; >10 - 23.0, low normal; >23.0 - 45.0, normal; >45.0, high. Logistic regression models reporting odds ratios were used to analyse the longitudinal association of B-vitamin categories with incident depression. Both B12 and folate plasma concentrations were lower in the group with incident depressive symptoms vs. non depressed (folate: 21.4 vs. 25.1 nmol/L; P=0.0003); (B12: 315.7 vs. 335.9 pmol/L; P=0.0148). Regression models demonstrated that participants with deficient-low B12 status at baseline had a significantly higher likelihood of incident depression four years later (odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.27, P=0.043). This finding remained robust after controlling for relevant covariates including physical activity, chronic disease burden, vitamin D status. cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. No associations of folate status with incident depression were observed. Older adults with deficient-low B12 status had a 51% increased likelihood of developing depressive symptoms over 4 years" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

Beta-Blocker Use in Hypertension and Heart Failure (A Secondary Analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) - Am J Cardiol 2021 Dec 11 - "Given the concern that beta-blocker use may be associated with an increased risk for heart failure (HF) in populations with normal left ventricular systolic function, we evaluated the association between beta-blocker use and incident HF events, as well as loop diuretic initiation in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) ... Subjects on a beta blocker for the entire trial duration were compared with subjects who never received a beta blocker after 1:1 propensity score matching. A competing risk survival analysis by beta-blocker status was performed to estimate the effect of the drug on incident HF and was then repeated for a secondary end point of cardiovascular disease death. Among the 3,284 propensity score-matched subjects, beta-blocker exposure was associated with an increased HF risk (hazard ratio 5.86; 95% confidence interval 2.73 to 13.04; p <0.001). A sensitivity analysis of propensity score-matched cohorts with a history of coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation revealed the same association (hazard ratio 3.49; 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 10.06; p = 0.028). In conclusion, beta-blocker exposure in this secondary analysis was associated with increased incident HF in subjects with hypertension without HF at baseline"

Dietary flavonoid kaempferol reduces obesity-associated hypothalamic microglia activation and promotes body weight loss in mice with obesity - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Dec 14 - "Energy balance (EB) is critically regulated by the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) by promoting appetite or anorectic actions. Hypothalamic inflammation, driven by high activation of the microglia, has been reported as a key mechanism involved in the development of diet-induced obesity. Kaempferol (KF), a flavonoid-type polyphenol present in a large number of fruits and vegetables, was shown to regulate both energy metabolism and inflammation ... These findings suggest that KF might fight obesity by regulating central processes related to EB regulation and hypothalamic inflammation" - See kaempferol at Amazom.com.

Atorvastatin protects against liver and vascular damage in a model of diet induced steatohepatitis by resetting FXR and GPBAR1 signaling - FASEB J 2022 Jan;36(1):e22060 - "Atorvastatin increased the percentage of 7α-dehydroxylase expressing bacteria in the intestine promoting the formation of deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid, two GPBAR1 agonists, along with the expression of GPBAR1-regulated genes in the white adipose tissue and colon. In conclusion, present results highlight the central role of bile acids in regulating lipid and cholesterol metabolism in response to atorvastatin and provide explanations for limited efficacy of FXR agonists in the treatment of NAFLD"

α-Lipoic Acid Has the Potential to Normalize Copper Metabolism, Which Is Dysregulated in Alzheimer's Disease - J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Nov 30 - "Collectively, these results provide evidence that LA has the potential to normalize copper metabolism in AD" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.

Association Between Serum Vitamins and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease in Chinese Population - J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Dec 2 - "We conclude that lower vitamin B2, B9, B12, D, and E might be associated with the risk of AD, especially vitamin B2, B9, and B12. And lower vitamin E might be related to severe ability impairment of daily activities" - See B complex supplements at Amazon.com, vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin E at Amazon.com.

Effectiveness of B Vitamins and Their Interactions with Aspirin in Improving Cognitive Functioning in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Pooled Post-Hoc Analyses of Two Randomized Trials - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(10):1154-1160 - "A randomized placebo-controlled trial found a significant negative interaction between aspirin and B vitamins in cognitive functioning in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ... Overall, B vitamins reduced whole brain atrophy rate significantly (P = 0.003), but did not have significant effect on CDR-global, CDR-SOB, memory and executive function. Aspirin use had significant negative interaction effects on B vitamins in CDR-global and CDR-SOB (Beta = 0.993, P = 0.038, and Beta = 0.583, P = 0.009, respectively), but not in memory or executive function Z-scores. Among aspirin non-users, B-vitamin group subjects had more favourable changes in CDR-global and CDR-SOB (P = 0.019 and 0.057, respectively). B vitamins significantly slowed brain atrophy in aspirin non-users (P = 0.001), but not in aspirin users, though the interaction term was not significant ... In older people with MCI, B vitamins had significantly favourable effects on global cognitive functioning and whole brain atrophy rate in those who were not taking aspirin, but not in aspirin users" - See See B complex supplements at Amazon.com.


In response to an abstract a few weeks ago that concluded the opposite in rats:

Risk Factors for Sarcopenia in the Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Effect of Metformin - J Diabetes Research Oct 7 2020 - "Participants who took metformin alone or combined with other drugs exhibited a lower risk for sarcopenia than those who took no medication (, 95% –0.904 and , 95% –0.702, respectively; ) ... Conclusions. We showed that being female and at an older age, lower educational level, and lower BMI were risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly T2DM and that metformin acted as a protective agent against sarcopenia in these patients" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Someone asked me about Alzheimer's. Personally, I'd be taking everything in the book to prevent or delay it. People have no idea the burden that puts on the family. An important item is selegiline. I've been taking it for decades for anti-aging.

  • Selegiline in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a long-term randomized placebo-controlled trial. Czech and Slovak Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type Study Group - J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1999 May; 24(3): 234–243 - "A total of 143 subjects completed enough of the trial to be entered in the analysis. Subjects were analyzed by 2 subgroups depending on whether they had a normal or pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test. Analysis of variance showed significant improvement with selegiline versus placebo among those with a normal result of the Clock Drawing Test on the Mini Mental Status Examination (total score and orientation-place subscale) and among those with a pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test of Sternberg's Memory Scanning test (for both speed and accuracy), on the Clinical Global Impressions scale as well as in terms of the dominant frequency on electroencephalograms. CONCLUSION: Selegiline has a long-term beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease on memory modalities that reflect the function of the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are rich in dopamine receptors. The delayed appearance of differences between selegiline and placebo supports the notion that the mechanism of action is through neuronal rescue or neuroprotection. The differential response of patients with normal and pathologic results of the Clock Drawing Test may reflect the fact that the evaluation methods' sensitivity to change depends on the severity of dementia" - See selegiline at ReliableRXPharmacy.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

 Logitech Brio 4K Webcam at Amazon. I bought one because I got tired of the hassle of using my Canon 90D for both a webcam and outside photography. It seems to give as good a picture. It doesn't come with much for directions so make sure you search Google for the Logi Tune software. No where does it tell you that. Also, see the Logitech capture recording software. I see so many people, such as university presidents, company CEOs and newscasters, on the news that appear to have a $20 webcam setup. So unprofessional.


Health Focus (Memory Loss):