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Home > Anti-aging Research > Cruciferous Vegetables

Cruciferous Vegetables

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  • Uncovered: Key to how exercise protects against consequences of aging - Science Daily, 12/16/21 - "Exercise-induced ROS drives adaptive responses that are integral to the health-promoting effects of exercise ... an enzyme called NOX-4 is essential for exercise-induced ROS and the adaptive responses that drive metabolic health ... that NOX4 is increased in skeletal muscle after exercise and that this then leads to increased ROS which elicits adaptive responses that protect mice from the development of insulin resistance, which otherwise occurs with ageing or diet induced-obesity ... One of these compounds is found naturally, for instance, in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli or cauliflower, though the amount needed for anti-ageing effects might be more than many would be willing to consume" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli sprout compound may restore brain chemistry imbalance linked to schizophrenia - Science Daily, 5/8/19 - "It's possible that future studies could show sulforaphane to be a safe supplement to give people at risk of developing schizophrenia as a way to prevent, delay or blunt the onset of symptoms ... The researchers used MRS again to monitor three brain regions for glutathione levels in the healthy volunteers before and after taking sulforaphane. They found that after seven days, there was about a 30% increase in average glutathione levels in the subjects' brains. For example, in the hippocampus, glutathione levels rose an average of 0.27 millimolar from a baseline of 1.1 millimolar after seven days of taking sulforaphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Could broccoli be a secret weapon against diabetes? - Science Daily, 6/14/17 - "The researchers constructed a signature for type 2 diabetes based on 50 genes, then used publically available expression datasets to screen 3,852 compounds for drugs that potentially reverse disease. The most promising chemical -- sulforaphane, a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables -- tamped down glucose production by liver cells growing in culture, and shifted liver gene expression away from a diseased state in diabetic rats ... When the researchers gave concentrated broccoli sprout extracts to 97 human type 2 diabetes patients in a 12-week randomized placebo-controlled trial, obese participants who entered the study with dysregulated disease demonstrated significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels compared to controls" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary anti-cancer compound may work by influence on cellular genetics - Science Daily, 3/16/17 - "They found that sulforaphane, a dietary compound from broccoli that's known to help prevent prostate cancer, may work through its influence on long, non-coding RNAs ... Scientists now believe that when these lncRNAs are dysregulated they can contribute to multiple disease processes, including cancer ... Unlike many chemotherapeutic drugs that affect healthy cells as well as malignant ones and can cause undesired side effects, the control of lncRNAs may offer a new way to specifically prevent or slow the progression of malignant cells ... In particular, this research showed that one lncRNA, called LINC01116, is upregulated in a human cell line of prostate cancer, but can be decreased by treatment with sulforaphane"
  • Sulforaphane, a phytochemical in broccoli sprouts, ameliorates obesity - Science Daily, 3/7/17 - "the mice fed with sulforaphane exhibited the weight gain rate 15% lower than that of the mice fed without sulforaphane, 20% visceral fat reduction, and reduction of augmentation of their hepatic steatosis and blood glucose level" - See Jarrow Formulas BroccoMax at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli sprout extract may protect against oral cancer recurrence - Science Daily, 6/23/16 - "With head and neck cancer, we often clear patients of cancer only to see it come back with deadly consequences a few years later ... Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage and garden cress, have a high concentration of the naturally occurring molecular compound sulforaphane, which previously has been shown to protect people against environmental carcinogens ... 10 healthy volunteers drank or swished fruit juice mixed with broccoli sprout extract for several days. The volunteers had no significant problems tolerating the extract and the lining of their mouths showed that the same protective genetic pathway activated in the laboratory cell tests was activated in their mouths, meaning that the sulforaphane was absorbed and directed to at-risk tissue ... to see how the extract performed in mice predisposed to head and neck cancer. The mice who received the sulforaphane developed far fewer tumors than their counterparts who did not receive the extract"
  • Broccoli may offer protection against liver cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 3/3/16 - "including broccoli in the diet may also protect against liver cancer, as well as aid in countering the development of fatty liver or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which can cause malfunction of the liver and lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a liver cancer with a high mortality rate ... in mice on the Westernized diet both the number of cancer nodules and the size of the cancer nodules increased in the liver. But when broccoli was added to the diet, the number of nodules decreased ... There are actually two ways of getting fatty liver; one, by eating a high-fat, high-sugar diet and the other by drinking too much alcohol ... Broccoli stopped too much uptake of fat into the liver by decreasing the uptake and increasing the output of lipid from the liver"
  • Broccoli sprout extract promising for head and neck cancer prevention - Science Daily, 4/19/15 - "People who are cured of head and neck cancer are still at very high risk for a second cancer in their mouth or throat, and, unfortunately, these second cancers are commonly fatal ... cruciferous vegetables that have a high concentration of sulforaphane ... his team gave sulforaphane to mice predisposed to oral cancer and found that it significantly reduced the incidence and number of tumors" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Beyond prevention: Sulforaphane may find possible use for cancer therapy - Science Daily, 1/12/14 - "The new study identified a particular enzyme in prostate cancer cells, SUV39H1, that is affected by exposure to sulforaphane ... sulforaphane has shown toxicity to a number of human cancer cell lines, including prostate, breast, ovarian, colon and pancreatic cancer, and in animal studies it decreased metastases of prostate cancer"
  • Broccoli Compound Shows Promise for Autism Symptoms in Small Study - WebMD, 10/13/14 - "recruited 44 boys and young men, aged 13 to 27, with moderate to severe autism. They were randomly assigned to take either sulforaphane capsules or identical-looking placebo capsules every day for 18 weeks ... Based on parents' reports, many of the boys taking the extract started showing improvements in irritability, repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity and communication by the fourth week ... 46 percent of the sulforaphane group were showing improved social interactions by week 18. Another 42 percent were faring better with verbal communication, and 54 percent were reining in various "aberrant" behaviors ... None of those taking the placebo had improvements in social interactions or verbal communications" - [Science Daily] [Abstract]
  • Top 4 Foods for Thicker, Shinier Hair - ABC News, 4/29/14 - "The brassicas (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, kale) are packed full of healthy nutrients and have been shown to help decrease the risk of heart disease and cancer. They are also rich in phosphatidic acid, little fatty acid messengers involved in cell creation and survival. A study in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology found that phosphatidic acid also promotes hair growth due to its growth-promoting effects on the cells in our hair follicles"
  • Broccoli to fight skin cancer? - Science Daily, 9/4/13 - "Dr. Dickinson's research currently focuses on how sulforaphane -- a naturally occurring compound in broccoli with established chemopreventive properties -- could possibly be used to help patients reduce their risk for skin cancer ... Sulforaphane may be an excellent candidate for use in the prevention of skin cancer caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays ... sulforaphane is a highly adaptable, highly effective agent when it comes to inhibiting cancer-causing pathways (such as the AP-1 protein), while activating chemoprotective genes (such as the Nrf2 gene) ... Her pilot study in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University will test a topical broccoli sprout solution on the skin a group of patients to see if the compound is effective in the context of solar simulated light ... Sulforaphane is the kind of compound that has so many incredible theoretical applications if the dosage is measured properly ... We already know that it is very effective in blocking sunburns, and we have seen cases where it can induce protective enzymes in the skin" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com and my macaroni and cheese recipe which contains broccoli.
  • Broccoli could be key in the fight against osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 8/27/13 - "sulforaphane slows down the destruction of cartilage in joints associated with painful and often debilitating osteoarthritis. The researchers found that mice fed a diet rich in the compound had significantly less cartilage damage and osteoarthritis than those that were not ... The study, which also examined human cartilage cells and cow cartilage tissue, was funded by medical research charity Arthritis Research UK ... Sulforaphane is released when eating cruciferous vegetables such as Brussels sprouts and cabbage, but particularly broccoli ... sulforaphane blocks the enzymes that cause joint destruction by stopping a key molecule known to cause inflammation"
  • Food Supplement Linked to Lower PSA in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "A commercially available food supplement that contains pomegranate, broccoli, green tea, and turmeric significantly lowers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ... made headlines around the world and caused the polyphenol-rich supplement, known as Pomi-T (nature Medical Products), to sell out within hours ... to receive the supplement 3 times a day for 6 months or placebo ... At 6-month follow-up, the median increase in PSA was 63.8% lower in the supplement groups than in the placebo group (14.7% vs 78.5; P =.0008). In addition, PSA levels were stable or lower than baseline more often in the supplement group (46% vs 14%"
  • Vegetable compound could become ingredient to treating leukemia - Science Daily, 12/12/12 - "A concentrated form of a compound called sulforaphane found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables has been shown to reduce the number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the lab setting ... performed this work while a clinical fellow in the Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, incubated human-derived leukemic cell lines and primary lymphoblasts from pediatric patients with the compound. The cancer cells died while the healthy cells obtained from healthy donors were unaffected. Studies tested in pre-clinical mouse models showed similar results" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Eating cruciferous vegetables may improve breast cancer survival - Science Daily, 4/3/12 - "a prospective study of 4,886 Chinese breast cancer survivors who were diagnosed with stage 1 to stage 4 breast cancer from 2002 to 2006 ... Women who were in the highest quartiles of intake of vegetables per day had a 62 percent reduced risk of total mortality, 62 percent reduced risk of breast cancer mortality, and 35 percent reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence ... cruciferous vegetable consumption habits differ between China and the United States and suggested this fact be considered when generalizing these results to U.S. breast cancer survivors ... Commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables in China include turnips, Chinese cabbage/bok choy and greens, while broccoli and Brussels sprouts are the more commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables in the United States and other Western countries ... Cruciferous vegetables contain phytochemicals known as isothiocyanates and indoles which appear to have a protective effect against some types of cancer"
  • Eat your broccoli: Another mechanism discovered by which sulforaphane prevents cancer - Science Daily, 2/28/12 - "it provides not just one, but two ways to prevent cancer through the complex mechanism of epigenetics ... Epigenetics, an increasing focus of research around the world, refers not just to our genetic code, but also to the way that diet, toxins and other forces can change which genes get activated, or "expressed." This can play a powerful role in everything from cancer to heart disease and other health issues ... HDAC inhibitors, such as sulforaphane, can help restore proper balance and prevent the development of cancer. This is one of the most promising areas of much cancer research. But the new OSU studies have found a second epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation, which plays a similar role" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • More evidence that spicing up broccoli boosts its cancer-fighting power - Science Daily, 9/13/11
  • Broccoli extract can ‘target’ cancer cells: Study - Nutra USA, 6/15/11 - "The research, published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, reports for the first time that sulforaphane – one of the primary phytochemicals in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables – is able to selectively target and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells healthy and unaffected ... Here we show for the first time that sulforaphane selectively targets benign hyperplasia cells and cancerous prostate cells while leaving the normal prostate cells unaffected" - [Abstract]
  • Study confirms safety, cancer-targeting ability of nutrient in broccoli, other vegetables, researchers say - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Sulforaphane, one of the primary phytochemicals in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that helps them prevent cancer, has been shown for the first time to selectively target and kill cancer cells while leaving normal prostate cells healthy and unaffected ... Here we show for the first time that sulforaphane selectively targets benign hyperplasia cells and cancerous prostate cells while leaving the normal prostate cells unaffected" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Sprouts? Supplements? Team them up to boost broccoli's cancer-fighting power - Science Daily, 1/27/11 - "To get broccoli's benefits, though, the enzyme myrosinase has to be present; if it's not there, sulforaphane, broccoli's cancer-preventive and anti-inflammatory component, doesn't form ... There was almost a twofold increase in sulforaphane absorption when sprouts and powder were eaten together. It changed the way the subjects metabolized the powder. We saw plasma and urine metabolites much earlier and at much higher levels than when either was eaten alone ... Steaming broccoli for two to four minutes is the perfect way to protect both the enzyme and the vegetable's nutrients"
  • Discovery of a biochemical basis for broccoli's cancer-fighting ability - Science Daily, 1/26/11
  • Eating broccoli could guard against arthritis - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "a compound in broccoli called sulforaphane blocks the enzymes that cause joint destruction in osteoarthritis -- the most common form of arthritis" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-cancer effects of broccoli ingredient explained - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "sulforaphane, a chemical found in broccoli, interacts with cells lacking a gene called PTEN to reduce the chances of prostate cancer developing" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Plant extract may be effective against inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 7/7/10 - "PEITC is found in the Brassica genus of plants, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, watercress and broccoli ... it not only alleviates several clinical signs of ulcerative colitis -- for example, it attenuates the damage that occurs in the colon tissues and colon epithelium, as well as the clinical signs like diarrhea and blood in stool. The weight loss is a major sign in colitis and that was alleviated, too"
  • New combination effective against pancreatic cancer: Substance in broccoli supports cancer therapy, study finds - Science Daily, 6/15/10 - "Sorafenib is used for advanced liver and kidney cancer and also appears to be effective against cancer stem cells in pancreatic cancer ... It inhibits resistant tumor stem cells and is also especially effective in combination with sulforaphane, an organic compound found in broccoli ... vegetables from the cruciferous family such as broccoli and cauliflower possess a high content of sulforaphane, an anti-cancer compound. The experiments show that sulforaphane prevents the activation of the NF-kB pathway by sorafenib. The combination treatment reinforces the effect of sorafenib without causing additional side effects"
  • Broccoli component limits breast cancer stem cells, study finds - Science Daily, 5/4/10 - "In the current study, researchers took mice with breast cancer and injected varying concentrations of sulforaphane from the broccoli extract. Researchers then used several established methods to assess the number of cancer stem cells in the tumors. These measures showed a marked decrease in the cancer stem cell population after treatment with sulforaphane, with little effect on the normal cells. Further, cancer cells from mice treated with sulforaphane were unable to generate new tumors. The researchers then tested sulforaphane on human breast cancer cell cultures in the lab, finding similar decreases in the cancer stem cells"
  • Broccoli-extract may protect skin from harmful UV - Nutra USA, 4/9/10 - "Hairless mice developed 25 per cent fewer skin tumours following exposure to UV radiation and fed a the broccoli extract for 13 weeks, compared with mice receiving a standard protective agent ... In addition, the tumours the broccoli-fed mice did develop were 70 per cent smaller" - [Abstract]
  • Antioxidant found in vegetables has implications for treating cystic fibrosis - 11/20/09 - "a dietary antioxidant found in such vegetables as broccoli and cauliflower protects cells from damage caused by chemicals generated during the body's inflammatory response to infection and injury. The finding has implications for such inflammation-based disorders as cystic fibrosis (CF), diabetes, heart disease, and neurodegeneration ... the antioxidant thiocyanate normally existing in the body protects lung cells from injuries caused by accumulations of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite, the active ingredient in household bleach. These potentially harmful chemicals are made by the body as a reaction to infection and injury. In addition, thiocyanate also protects cells from hypochlorite produced in reactions involving MPO, an enzyme released from germ-fighting white blood cells during inflammation"
  • Broccoli extract’s heart health benefits pinpointed? - Nutra USA, 9/7/09 - "Researchers from Imperial College London (ICL) report that sulforaphane, a compound most widely associated with broccoli, may activate a protein called Nrf2 in arteries ... the natural compound sulforaphane reduced inflammation at the high-risk areas by 'switching on' Nrf2 ... Atherosclerosis, known as hardening or furring of the arteries is a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the cause of over 50 per cent of deaths in Europe and the US ... When these cells were exposed to sulforaphane, a re-activation of Nrf2 in the disease-prone regions of the artery was observed. This indicated that the cells’ ability to protect themselves from becoming inflamed was restored" - [Abstract] - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Naturally Occurring Compounds Selectively Deplete Mutant P53 In Tumor Cells - Science Daily, 4/20/09 - "This study demonstrates for the first time that phenethyl isothiocyante (PEITC), a naturally-occurring compound, can selectively deplete mutant p53. The authors also made an intriguing observation that the depletion of mutant p53 in human cancer cells is accompanied by restoration of the wild type p53. PEITC is a member of the isothiocyanate family compounds found in cruciferous vegetables, such as watercress, broccoli and cabbage. PEITC has been shown to have cancer preventive activity"
  • Broccoli May Help Protect Against Respiratory Conditions Like Asthma - Science Daily, 3/2/09 - "a naturally occurring compound found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables may help protect against respiratory inflammation that causes conditions like asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... sulforaphane, a chemical in broccoli, triggers an increase of antioxidant enzymes in the human airway that offers protection against the onslaught of free radicals that we breathe in every day in polluted air, pollen, diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli And Cabbage-based Drug Could Inhibit Melanoma - Science Daily, 3/1/09 - "We have developed drugs from naturally occurring compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumors in mice by 50 to 60 percent with a very low dose ... Robertson and his colleagues previously showed the therapeutic potential of targeting the Akt3 protein in inhibiting the development of melanoma. The search for a drug to block the protein led them to a class of compounds called isothiocyanates ... These naturally occurring chemicals found in cruciferous vegetables are known to have certain cancer-fighting properties ... Selenium deficiency is common in cancer patients ... the selenium-enhanced compounds significantly reduced the production of Akt3 protein and shut down its signaling network"
  • How Certain Vegetables Combat Cancer - Science Daily, 12/23/08 - "Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women, can be protected against by eating cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and near relatives of cabbage such as broccoli and cauliflower ... Our paper focuses on the anti-cancer activity of one of these compounds, called sulforaphane, or SFN ... SFN inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cells by a mechanism similar to the way that the anticancer drugs taxol and vincristine inhibit cell division during mitosis ... SFN, like the more powerful anticancer agents, interferes with microtubule functioning during mitosis in a similar manner to the more powerful anticancer drugs ... SFN may be an effective cancer preventive agent because it inhibits the proliferation and kills precancerous cells"
  • Broccoli May Help Smokers' Lungs - WebMD, 11/18/08 - "asked 948 lung cancer patients and 1,743 people without lung cancer about their smoking history and consumption of fruits, cruciferous vegetables, and other vegetables ... Among smokers -- and especially among former smokers -- higher intake of cruciferous vegetables was linked to lower risk of lung cancer"
  • Unpopular veggies vital for cancer protection: Study - Nutra USA, 10/7/08 - "Significant inhibition of all the cancer cell lines tested – stomach, lung, breast, kidney, skin, pancreas, prostate, and brain – was observed for all the extracts from cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and curly cabbage, and vegetables of the genus Allium, such as garlic ... These chemopreventive effects are likely related to the formation of organosulfur compounds following mechanical disruption of these vegetables, namely isothiocyanates from cruciferous and a series of allyl sulfur molecules from Allium vegetables"
  • COPD? Eat Your Veggies - Science Daily, 9/12/08 - "Sulforapane has been shown to be able to restore antioxidant gene expression in human epithelial tissue in which DJ-1 has been reduced. Isothicyanate compounds such as that found in broccoli inhibit KEAP1, and thus prevent it from degrading NRF2"
  • Broccoli Could Reverse The Heart Damaging Effects Of Diabetes - Science Daily, 8/26/08 - "Our study suggests that compounds such as Sulforaphane from broccoli may help counter processes linked to the development of vascular disease in diabetes"
  • Broccoli can reverse diabetic heart damage, say researchers - Nutra USA, 8/8/08 - "Our study suggests that compounds such as Sulforaphane from broccoli may help counter processes linked to the development of vascular disease in diabetes ... Published in the journal Diabetes Care, the epidemiological study of 71,346 female nurses found for every additional serving of green leafy vegetables, the risk of developing diabetes may be reduced by almost 10 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 reverses biochemical dysfunction of endothelial cells induced by hyperglycemia linked to vascular disease - Diabetes. 2008 Aug 4 - "Sulforaphane (SFN) is an activator of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (nrf2) that regulates gene expression through the promoter antioxidant response element (ARE). Nrf2 regulates the transcription of a battery of protective and metabolic enzymes ... We conclude that activation of nrf2 may prevent biochemical dysfunction and related functional responses of endothelial cells induced by hyperglycemia in which increased expression of transketolase has a pivotal role" - [Nutra USA]
  • Broccoli May Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 7/1/08 - [Science Daily] - "men who regularly ate broccoli showed more changes in gene expression suggestive of a reduced risk of cancer"
  • Veggies, Exercise May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 4/15/08 - "Foods rich in plant chemicals called isothiocyanates and quercetin appeared to offer the best protection against lung cancer ... Isothiocyanates are found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, and turnips"
  • Could foods prevent ovarian cancer? - MSNBC, 3/14/08 - "Kaempferol — a flavonoid found in tea, broccoli, kale and spinach — and luteolin — which is provided by peppers, carrots, cabbage and celery — were both identified as cancer protective. Women who consumed the most of these two flavonoids were 40 percent and 34 percent less likely, respectively, to develop ovarian cancer compared to women who consumed the least ... A 2007 study published in the British Journal of Nutrition linked greater consumption of carotenoid phytochemicals with a 67 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer. This included not only beta-carotene, the oft-cited carotenoid in deep-orange vegetables and fruits, but also alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin — carotenoids found in a wide range of red, orange, yellow and green vegetables" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli May Help Boost Aging Immune System - Science Daily, 3/6/08 - "As we age, the ability of the immune system to fight disease and infections and protect against cancer wears down as a result of the impact of oxygen radicals on the immune system ... our study shows that a chemical present in broccoli is capable of stimulating a wide range of antioxidant defense pathways and may be able to interfere with the age-related decline in immune function ... The UCLA team not only found that the direct administration of sulforaphane in broccoli reversed the decline in cellular immune function in old mice, but they witnessed similar results when they took individual immune cells from old mice, treated those cells with the chemical outside the body and then placed the treated cells back into a recipient animal"
  • Extract Of Broccoli Sprouts May Protect Against Bladder Cancer - Science Daily, 2/28/08 - "A concentrated extract of freeze dried broccoli sprouts cut development of bladder tumors in an animal model by more than half" - [WebMD]
  • Finding the Right Prostate Cancer Diet - WebMD, 2/15/08 - "poultry and eggs double the risk of prostate cancer progression ... orange and yellow vegetables, such as squash, yams, and carrots, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cut the risk of recurrence by about half ... If you eat chicken or poultry, eat it without the skin ... the men's overall PSA doubling time was nearly four times slower after they began drinking pomegranate juice"
  • Vegetables- and antioxidant-related nutrients, genetic susceptibility, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Jan 17 - "For the GSTM3 3-base insertion and higher total vegetable intake, the risk was 0.56 (0.35-0.92, p interaction = 0.03); for GSTP1 A114V and higher cruciferous vegetable intake, the risk was 0.52 (0.34-0.81, p interaction = 0.02); for OGG1 S326C and higher daily zinc intake, the risk was 0.71 (0.47-1.08, p interaction = 0.04) and for XRCC3 T241M and higher green leafy vegetable intake, the risk was 0.63"
  • Broccoli Good for the Heart - WebMD, 1/18/08 - "The rats that had eaten the broccoli extract had three heart advantages over the other rats: ... Better blood-pumping ability ... Less heart damage during oxygen deprivation ... Higher levels of heart-health chemicals during oxygen deprivation ... Broccoli's key nutrients include selenium and sulforaphane, which may also curb cancer"
  • Is There an Anticancer Diet? - WebMD, 12/6/07 - "Raw cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, broccoli sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower seem to reduce bladder cancer risk by about 40%"
  • Natural Chemical Found In Broccoli Helps Combat Skin Blistering Disease - Science Daily, 8/20/07
  • Broccoli May Help Cut Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 7/24/07 - "Men who reported eating cauliflower more than once per week were 52% less likely to be diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported eating cauliflower less than once a month ... Men who reported eating broccoli more than once per week were 45% less likely to be diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer than men who reported eating broccoli less than once a month"
  • Eat Your Broccoli: Study Finds Strong Anti-Cancer Properties In Cruciferous Veggies - Science Daily, 5/17/07 - "if you’re at all worried about cancer or at high risk of cancer, especially of prostate or colon cancer, then increasing your dietary intake of broccoli and other vegetables could be a good idea"
  • Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti-cancer Properties, According To Study - Science Daily, 5/15/07 - "Boiling appeared to have a serious impact on the retention of those important glucosinolate within the vegetables. The loss of total glucosinolate content after boiling for 30 minutes was: broccoli 77%, Brussel sprouts 58%, cauliflower 75% and green cabbage 65%"
  • Nutrients In Certain Vegetables May Provide Cancer-fighting Benefit - Science Daily, 4/17/07 - "Dr. Singh's study is based on phytochemicals, called isothiocyanates (ITCs), found in several cruciferous vegetables and generated when vegetables are either cut or chewed. His laboratory has found that phenethyl-ITC, or PEITC, is highly effective in suppressing the growth of human prostate cancer cells at concentrations achievable through dietary intake"
  • Worried About Prostate Cancer? Tomato-broccoli Combo Shown To Be Effective - Science Daily, 1/16/07 - "fed a diet containing 10 percent tomato powder and 10 percent broccoli powder to laboratory rats that had been implanted with prostate cancer cells ... The tomato/broccoli combo outperformed all other diets in shrinking prostate tumors ... The only treatment that approached the tomato/broccoli diet's level of effectiveness was castration ... To get these effects, men should consume daily 1.4 cups of raw broccoli and 2.5 cups of fresh tomato, or 1 cup of tomato sauce, or ½ cup of tomato paste"
  • Broccoli, Cauliflower May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 5/19/06
  • Broccoli, Cauliflower And Genetic Cancer - Science Daily, 5/18/06 - "cruciferous vegetables ... are abundant in sulforaphane (SFN) ... those mice fed with an SFN-supplemented diet developed significantly fewer and smaller tumors"
  • Crunchy Veggies Fight Cancer - WebMD, 4/5/06 - "focused on a substance found in cruciferous vegetables called phenethyl-ITC, or PEITC ... After 31 days of treatment, the size of the tumors in the treated animals was about half that of the untreated animals"
  • Curry And Cauliflower Could Halt Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 1/15/06 - "The bottom line is that PEITC and curcumin, alone or in combination, demonstrate significant cancer-preventive qualities in laboratory mice, and the combination of PEITC and curcumin could be effective in treating established prostate cancers"
  • Eat Your Veggies and Fight Cancer, Too - WebMD, 10/31/05
  • Broccoli May Protect Some Against Lung Cancer - WebMD, 10/27/05 - "consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a 33%-37% reduction in lung cancer risk among people with an inactive form of one of the two genes. Among those with an inactive form of both genes, the reduction in risk provided by eating cruciferous vegetables was doubled to more than 70%"
  • Broccoli May Fight Lung Cancer - WebMD, 9/15/05
  • Compounds Found In Cruciferous Vegetables Block Lung Cancer Progression - Science Daily, 9/15/05 - "A family of compounds found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and watercress, blocked lung cancer progression in both animal studies and in tests with human lung cancer cells"
  • Broccoli Ingredient May Fight Bladder Cancer - WebMD, 8/3/05
  • Broccoli Packs Powerful Punch To Bladder Cancer Cells - Science Daily, 7/29/05 - "men who ate two or more half-cup servings of broccoli per week had a 44 percent lower incidence of bladder cancer compared to men who ate less than one serving each week ... The plant's kin, which include cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kale, may all contain similar disease-fighting phytochemicals"
  • Cruciferous veg, chili could slow or stop cancer cell growth - Nutra USA, 4/20/05
  • Maximizing The Anti-Cancer Power Of Broccoli - Science Daily, 4/5/05 - "For the consumer, who cannot readily hold the temperature as low as 140 degrees, that means the best way to prepare broccoli is to steam it lightly about 3 or 4 minutes--until the broccoli is tough-tender"
  • Ward off cancer with a Japanese diet - MSNBC, 12/17/04 - "Cruciferous vegetables make a unique contribution to good health. They contain natural substances called glucosinolates that break down in the body to form indoles and other compounds that fight cancer development in several different ways"
  • An Apple a Day for Cancer Prevention - WebMD, 10/18/04 - "Those who ate both green leafy and cruciferous vegetables got "particularly strong" cancer prevention protection"
  • Crunchy Veggies May Crush Breast Cancer - WebMD, 9/3/04
  • Anti-cancer Compound In Vegetables Found To Block Late-stage Breast-cancer Cell Growth - Science Daily, 9/1/04 - "The compound, in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables ... sulforaphane (SUL) ... We were surprised and pleased to find that SUL could block the growth of breast cells that were already cancerous ... SUL's actions appear similar to a group of anticancer drugs currently in use, such as Taxol"
  • Broccoli compound may protect against AMD - Nutra USA, 7/15/04
  • Broccoli May Prevent Blindness - WebMD, 7/13/04 - "sulforaphane, the naturally occurring antioxidant in broccoli and broccoli sprouts, protects the eye from damage caused by the sun's ultraviolet light"
  • Cabbage to fight cancer? - Nutra USA, 5/11/04
  • Broccoli Blocks Prostate Cancer Cells - WebMD, 5/20/03
  • New Broccoli Compound Appears Promising Against Breast Cancer - Intelihealth, 8/19/02 - "Called oxomate, the synthetic compound works like its natural counterpart, sulforaphane, which was recently identified as a cancer-preventive agent in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (such as cabbage and Brussels sprouts). Both compounds boost the body's production of phase II enzymes, which can detoxify cancer-causing chemicals and reduce cancer risk ... But the natural broccoli compound, sulforaphane, can be toxic in high doses ... It is also difficult and expensive to synthesize ... oxomate was seven times less toxic than sulforaphane ... In tests on female rats, those that were fed oxomate after exposure to cancer-inducing chemicals had up to a 50 percent reduction in the number of breast tumors"
  • Broccoli Pill Prevents Breast Cancer - WebMD, 8/19/02
  • Broccoli Beats Ulcers, Cancer - WebMD, 5/28/02
  • Broccoli Tea: Can't Find Enough Of A Good Thing - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 5/02
  • Broccoli Finally Gets Respect - Intelihealth, 2/4/02
  • New research shows how broccoli beats cancer - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Sulforaphane is most highly concentrated in broccoli, as well as in other cruciferous vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower ... animal studies to date have shown that sulforaphane can dramatically reduce the number of malignant tumors, reproduction, growth rate and size, as well as delay cancer onset"
  • Veggies Not Created Equal In Fighting Cancer - Intelihealth, 1/18/01 - "But the Agriculture Department studied 71 types of broccoli plants and found a 30-fold difference in the amounts of glucoraphanin. Some had virtually none of it."
  • One More Reason To Eat Your Broccoli, Chemical Compounds Found to Prevent Lung Cancer - WebMD, 8/25/00
  • Prostate Cancer and Cruciferous Vegetables - Life Extension Magazine, 7/00
  • Phytochemicals: Nutrients Whose Time Has Come - Nutrition Science News, 7/00
  • Betting on Broccoli - WebMD, 4/3/00
  • Fruits & Vegetables Slash Strokes - Nutrition Science News, 1/00
  • Can Cirrhosis be Prevented? - Nutrition Science News, 1/99


  • Sulforaphane Targets the TBX15/KIF2C Pathway to Repress Glycolysis and Cell Proliferation in Gastric Carcinoma Cells - Nutr Cancer 2023;75(4):1263-1270 - "The anti-tumor effects of sulforaphane were antagonized by down-regulation of TBX15, up-regulation of KIF2C or addition of a PKM2 agonist. Sulforaphane can reduce cell proliferation and PKM2-mediated glycolysis in gastric carcinoma cells, apparently by activating the TBX15/KIF2C pathway" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane Suppresses MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Growth via miR-19/PTEN Axis to Antagonize the Effect of Butyl Benzyl Phthalate - Nutr Cancer 2022 Dec 21 - "Collectively, these results demonstrated, for the first time, that SFN regulates the miR-19/PTEN axis to exert protective effects against BBP-mediated breast cancer promotion, suggesting a new potential role for SFN (or SFN-rich foods) in phthalate antagonism"
  • Cruciferous vegetable consumption and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of 41 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 303 observational studies - Food Funct 2022 Mar 30 - "Of the 41 meta-analyses, we observed suggestive evidence for beneficial associations between gastric cancer, lung cancer, endometrial cancer, and all-cause mortality. Moreover, 16 associations were supported by weak evidence, including breast cancer, lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, colon cancer, colorectal adenoma, colorectal neoplasm, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and total cancer" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane protects myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating CaMKIIN2 and CaMKIIδ - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Mar 4 - "Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury poses a significant threat to human health. High level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium overload are the foremost causes of myocardial damage in I/R. Sulforaphane (SFN) is known for its promising antioxidant effect ... this study demonstrated that SFN exerts cardioprotective effect toward I/R injury through upregulating CaMKIIN2 and down-regulating CaMKIIδ" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Brain Training and Sulforaphane Intake Interventions Separately Improve Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults, Whereas a Combination of These Interventions Does Not Have More Beneficial Effects: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial - Nutrients 2021 Jan 25 - "Earlier studies have demonstrated that a single-domain intervention, such as a brain-training (BT) game alone and a sulforaphane (SFN) intake, positively affects cognition. This study examined whether a combined BT and SFN intake intervention has beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults ... In a 12-week double-blinded randomized control trial, 144 older adults were randomly assigned to one of four groups: BT with SFN (BT-S), BT with placebo (BT-P), active control game (AT) with SFN (AT-S), and active control game with placebo (AT-P) ... Participants were asked to play BT or AT for 15 min a day for 12 weeks while taking a supplement (SFN or placebo). We measured several cognitive functions before and after the intervention period. Results: The BT (BT-S and BT-P) groups showed more improvement in processing speed than the active control groups (AT-S and AT-P). The SFN intake (BT-S and AT-S) groups recorded significant improvements in processing speed and working memory performance unlike the placebo intake groups (BT-P and AT-P). However, we did not find any evidence of the combined intervention’s beneficial effects on cognition" - [Nutra USA] - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • The Combination of Sulforaphane and Fernblock ® XP Improves Individual Beneficial Effects in Normal and Neoplastic Human Skin Cell Lines - Nutrients 2020 May 30 - "we investigated in vitro the antioxidant/antineoplastic efficacy and anti-aging activity of a dietary supplement containing sulforaphane (SFN), a sulfur-isothiocyanate present in broccoli, combined with the patented extract Fernblock® XP (FB), obtained from the tropical fern Polypodium leucotomos. We evaluated the effect of SFN and FB, alone or in combination, on migration ability, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) production, neoangiogenic potential and inflammasome activation in human WM115 and WM266-4 melanoma cells. Moreover, the effects on MMPs and reactive oxygen species production, and IL-1β secretion were studied in human normal keratinocytes. The SFN/FB combination inhibited melanoma cell migration in vitro, MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 production, inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion more efficiently than each individual compound did. In normal keratinocytes, SFN/FB was more efficient than SFN or FB alone in inhibiting MMP-1 and -3 production and IL-1β secretion in the presence of a pro-inflammatory stimulus such as TNF-α. The potential use of SFN/FB based supplements for the prevention of skin aging and as adjuvants in the treatment of advanced melanoma is suggested" - See Fernblock at Amazon.com.  See sulforaphane at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • The Role of Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 2 in Prostate Cancer Chemopreventive Mechanisms of Sulforaphane - Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 20 - "Prostate cancer chemoprevention by sulforaphane (SFN), which is a metabolic by-product of glucoraphanin found in broccoli, in preclinical models is associated with induction of both apoptosis and autophagy ... The present study demonstrates a role for lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) in SFN-mediated autophagy and apoptosis ... the present study reveals that induction of LAMP2 by SFN inhibits its ability to induce apoptotic cell death at least in human prostate cancer cells"
  • Sulforaphane Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects against Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells by Suppressing p38MAPK and AKT Phosphorylation - Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(12):2109-2112 - "Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) ... Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural compound found in cruciferous vegetables and broccoli sprouts, modulates signaling pathways and epigenetic gene expression ... Our data and previous literature indicate that SFN represses the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and AKT, which results in PEL cell apoptosis"
  • Sulforaphane suppresses the growth of triple-negative breast cancer stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Jan 24 - "Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents the poorest prognosis among all of breast cancer subtypes with no currently available effective therapy. In this study, we hypothesized that sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary component abundant in broccoli and its sprouts, can inhibit malignant cell proliferation and tumor sphere formation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in TNBC ... In vivo, BalbC/nude mice were supplemented with SFN before and after TNBC cell inoculation (daily i.p. injection of 50mg SFN/kg for 5 and 3 weeks respectively), and effects of SFN during mammary tumor initiation and growth were accessed with Nanostring gene analysis. We found that SFN can inhibit cell proliferation and mammosphere formation of CSCs in TNBC. Further analysis of gene expression in these TNBC tumor cells revealed that SFN significantly decreases the expression of cancer-specific CR1, CRIPTO-3/TDGF1P3 (CR3, a homologue of CR1), and various stem cell markers including Nanog, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), Wnt3, and Notch4. Our results suggest that SFN may control the malignant proliferation of CSCs in TNBC via Cripto-mediated pathway by either suppressing its expression and/or by inhibiting Cripto/Alk4 protein complex formation. Thus, the use of SFN for chemoprevention of TNBC is plausible and warrants further clinical evaluation"
  • Crucifers and related vegetables and supplements for neurologic disorders: what is the evidence? - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Sep 7 - "Much new evidence suggests that neurological disorders are among the potential targets for this approach. This evidence includes at least nine clinical studies of neurodevelopmental conditions like autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, and there are a great many studies in animal model systems, of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases ... There is great promise for the regular use of cruciferous vegetables or supplements containing standardized levels of bioactives in the treatment and prevention of neurologic disorders" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Glucoraphanin Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance Through Adipose Tissue Browning and Reduction of Metabolic Endotoxemia in Mice - Diabetes. 2017 Feb 16 - "Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Glucoraphanin supplementation attenuated weight gain, decreased hepatic steatosis, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed wild-type mice but not in HFD-fed Nrf2-knockout mice ... By promoting fat browning, limiting metabolic endotoxemia-related chronic inflammation, and modulating redox stress, glucoraphanin may mitigate obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD" - [Nutra USA] - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com
  • Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Jun 23 - "broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) ... Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability ... Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 May 24 - "Obesity is closely related to the imbalance of white adipose tissue storing excess calories, and brown adipose tissue dissipating energy to produce heat in mammals. Recent studies revealed that acquisition of brown characteristics by white adipocytes, termed "browning," may positively contribute to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism homeostasis ... SFN-induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorder"
  • Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Apr 21 - "The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes"
  • Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet - J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):542-50 - "The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate ... Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli ... Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P < 0.001) and NAFLD scores (P < 0.0001), decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.0001), suppressed activation of hepatic CD68(+) macrophages (P < 0.0001), and slowed initiation and progression of hepatic neoplasm. Hepatic Cd36 was downregulated by broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides" - [Nutra USA] - See Jarrow Formulas BroccoMax, Supports Liver Health, 60 Delayed Veggie Caps at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli ingredient has positive influence on drug efficacy - Science Daily, 3/15/16 - "The enzyme AKR1C3 is a biochemical actor in several metabolic pathways in the human body. It is also central in the efficacy of a cancer drug that is currently still in development and clinical testing. This drug, called PR-104A, is administered in an inactive form and is converted into its active form inside the cancer cells by the AKR1C3 present there. The researchers therefore used cell culture to investigate whether the broccoli ingredient increased the efficacy of PR-104A. Their hypothesis was confirmed: when the scientists pre-treated the colon cancer cells with sulforaphane, less than a third of the usual dose of PR-104A was enough to kill the cancer cells. "Since cancer drugs generally have strong side-effects, any approach that reduces the dose of medication while maintaining efficacy is always welcome," says Sturla"
  • Sulforaphane promotes murine hair growth by accelerating the degradation of dihydrotestosterone - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Feb 25 - "Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes the regression of human hair follicles in the parietal scalp, leading to androgenic alopecia (AGA) ... These results suggest that SFN treatment increases the amount of 3α-HSDs in the liver, accelerates the degradation of blood DHT, and subsequently blocks the suppression of hair growth by DHT"
  • Sulforaphene suppresses growth of colon cancer-derived tumors via induction of glutathione depletion and microtubule depolymerization - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Feb 26 - "Cruciferous vegetables harbor a number of isothiocyanates that have been recognized for their cancer-related properties. Of these, sulforaphene (a naturally occurring derivative of sulforaphane) has received little attention in studies of colon cancer and its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated ... These findings demonstrate that sulforaphene may contribute to the anti-tumor effects of cruciferous vegetables that contain sulforaphene and other isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Sulforaphane exerts its anti-inflammatory effect against amyloid-β peptide via STAT-1 dephosphorylation and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 cascade in human THP-1 macrophages - Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Feb;38:1-10 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, accounting for most cases of dementia in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane against Aβ1-42 monomers in human THP-1 microglia-like cells. The results showed that sulforaphane preferentially inhibited cathepsin B- and caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mostly Aβ1-42 monomers, an effect that potently reduced excessive secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) ... These findings suggest that the phytochemical sulforaphane has a potential application in AD therapeutics"
  • Sulforaphane produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in adult mice - Behav Brain Res. 2015 Dec 22 - "Increasing evidence suggests that depression is accompanied by dysregulation of neuroimmune system. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities ... these findings demonstrated that SFN has antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities in stressed mice model of depression, which likely occurs by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory response to stress. These data support further exploration for developing SFN as a novel agent to treat depression and anxiety disorders"
  • Associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and selected biomarkers among women scheduled for breast biopsies - Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep 2 - "The present study sought to provide additional evidence for the potential role of sulforaphane in histone acetylation and cell proliferation. Here, we report that total cruciferous vegetable intake is associated with decreased cell proliferation in breast DCIS tissue"
  • Effect of Sulforaphane in Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 May 12 - "Since the phytochemical sulforaphane (SF) has been studied extensively as an anticancer agent, we performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with SF in 78 patients (mean age 69±6 years) with rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Treatment comprised daily oral administration of 60 mg of a stabilized free SF for 6 months (M0 to M6) followed by 2 months without treatment (M6 to M8) ... Mean changes in PSA levels between M6 and M0 were significantly lower in the SF group (+0.099 ± 0.341 ng/ml) compared with placebo (+0.620 ± 1.417 ng/ml; p = 0.0433). PSA doubling time was 86% longer in the SF than in the placebo group (28.9 and 15.5 months, respectively). PSA increases >20% at M6 were significantly greater in the placebo group (71.8%) than in the SF group (44.4%); p=0.0163. Compliance and tolerance were very good. SF effects were prominent within 3 months of intervention (M3 to M6)"
  • Cruciferous Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Dec 16 - "Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates ... Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases ... Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity < 0.001]. Broccoli in particular exhibited protective benefits against colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon" - See cruciferous vegetables supplements at Amazon.com.
  • B-DIM Impairs Radiation-Induced Survival Pathways Independently of Androgen Receptor Expression and Augments Radiation Efficacy in Prostate Cancer - Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 9 - "Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with decreased risk in prostate cancer (PCa). The active compound in cruciferous vegetables appears to be the self dimerized product [3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM)] of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Nutritional grade B-DIM (absorption-enhanced) has proven safe in a Phase I trial in PCa ... B-DIM inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in both PC-3 (AR-) and C4-2B (AR+) cell lines. B-DIM was effective at increasing radiation-induced cell killing in both cell lines, independently of AR expression. B-DIM inhibited NF-κB and HIF-1α DNA activities and blocked radiation-induced activation of these transcription factors in both PC-3 and C4-2B cells. In C4-2B (AR+) cells, AR expression and nuclear localization were significantly increased by radiation. However, B-DIM abrogated the radiation-induced AR increased expression and trafficking to the nucleus, which was consistent with decreased PSA secretion. In vivo, treatment of PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice with B-DIM and radiation resulted in significant primary tumor growth inhibition and control of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. These studies demonstrate that B-DIM augments radiation-induced cell killing and tumor growth inhibition. B-DIM impairs critical survival signaling pathways activated by radiation, leading to enhanced cell killing. These novel observations suggest that B-DIM could be used as a safe compound to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for castrate-resistant PCa" - See diindolylmethane at Amazon.com.
  • Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 18 - "Overall, fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in both women and men, and a dose-response pattern was particularly evident for cruciferous vegetable intake. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total mortality across increasing quintiles of intake were 1 (reference), 0.91 (0.84, 0.98), 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), and 0.78 (0.71, 0.85) for cruciferous vegetables (P < 0.0001 for trend) and 0.88 (0.79, 0.97), 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), and 0.84 (0.69, 1.00) for total vegetables (P = 0.03 for trend). The inverse associations were primarily related to cardiovascular disease mortality but not to cancer mortality"
  • Chemopreventative Potential of the Cruciferous Vegetable Constituent Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in a Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Feb 17 - "This study was undertaken to determine the chemopreventative efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a bioactive constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and to identify potential biomarker(s) associated with PEITC response ... Administration of PEITC (3 μmol/g diet) decreased incidence (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 21.65 vs 57.58%, difference = -35.93%, 95% confidence interval = -45.48% to -13.10%, P = .04) as well as burden (affected area) (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 18.53% vs 45.01%, difference = -26.48%, 95% confidence interval = -49.78% to -3.19%, P = .02) of poorly differentiated tumors in the dorsolateral prostate of transgenic mice compared with control mice, with no toxic effects. PEITC-mediated inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis was associated with induction of autophagy and overexpression of E-cadherin in the dorsolateral prostate. However, PEITC treatment was not associated with a decrease in cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, or inhibition of neoangiogenesis. Plasma proteomics revealed distinct changes in the expression of several proteins (eg, suppression of clusterin protein) in the PEITC-treated mice compared with control mice. Conclusions In this transgenic model, dietary PEITC suppressed prostate cancer progression by induction of autophagic cell death. Potential biomarkers to assess the response to PEITC treatment in plasma were identified"
  • Sulphoraphane inhibited the expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor-4 pathway in cultured endothelial cells - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 27 - "Chronic inflammation plays pivotal roles in both cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A large body of evidence suggests that high intake of cruciferous vegetables is closely related with low risk of these disorders ... Taken all together, adhesion molecules are confirmed to be the novel targets of sulphoraphane in preventing inflammatory insult to endothelial cells. Sulphoraphane suppressed TLR-4 followed by MyD88 and downstream factors such as p38 MAPK and JNK, ultimately blocking NF-кB translocation and the subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. These data suggested a novel inflammatory pathway mediated by sulphoraphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of Cruciferous Vegetables Modifies Bladder Cancer Survival - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jun 15 - "After an average of 8 years of follow-up, 179 deaths occurred, with 101 deaths attributable to bladder cancer. After adjustment for other prognostic factors, a strong and significant inverse association was observed between bladder cancer mortality and broccoli intake, in particular raw broccoli intake (>/=1 versus <1 serving per month; HR for overall death, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.83; HR for disease-specific death, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). There were no significant associations for total vegetables, total fruits, or other individual cruciferous vegetables" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of phenylethyl isothiocyanate and its metabolite on cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May;11(7):324-36 - "Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of several cancers, including prostate cancer. Gluconasturtiin, one of the predominant glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, is hydrolyzed to yield phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC absorption and metabolism in humans involves glutathione conjugation followed by conversion via the mercapturic acid pathway to an N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate that is excreted in the urine. We observed an inhibitory effect of PEITC and its metabolite, NAC-PEITC, on cancer cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. PEITC and NAC-PEITC suppressed LNCaP cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and exposure to 5 microM PEITC or NAC-PEITC reduced cell proliferation by 25% and 30%, respectively. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that cells treated with 5 microM PEITC or NAC-PEITC arrested at the G(2)/M phase. In addition, the percentage of cells in the S phase decreased from 46% to 25% following 48 h of incubation with PEITC or NAC-PEITC. The G(2)/M-phase cell-cycle arrest of LNCaP cells grown in the presence of PEITC or NAC-PEITC is correlated with the downregulation of Cdk1 and cyclin B(1) protein expression. Apoptosis was observed at the later stages of 24-h and 48-h treatments with 5 microM PEITC and NAC-PEITC. In conclusion, PEITC and NAC-PEITC are potential chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents against LNCaP human prostate cancer cells"
  • Activation of Nrf2 in Endothelial Cells Protects Arteries From Exhibiting a Proinflammatory State - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Sep 3 - "Treatment with sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant, activated Nrf2 and suppressed p38-VCAM-1 signaling at the susceptible site in wild-type but not Nrf2(-/-) animals, indicating that it suppresses EC activation via Nrf2 ... Nrf2 prevents ECs at the atheroprotected site from exhibiting a proinflammatory state via the suppression of p38-VCAM-1 signaling. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 reduces EC activation at atherosusceptible sites and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or reduce atherosclerosis" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Indole-3-carbinol Inhibits Sp1-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression To Attenuate Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 5 - "Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a major indole metabolite in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to inhibit invasion of breast cancer cells ... Migration, invasion, and MMP-2 activity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were dose-dependently inhibited by I3C. In addition, the MMP-2 mRNA level was also reduced by I3C ... In addition, I3C inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in MCF-7 cells. The results suggest that I3C inhibits MMP-2 expression by blocking the ERK/Sp1-mediated gene transcription to attenuate migration and invasion of breast cancer cells" - See indole-3-carbinol at Amazon.com.
  • Consumption of Raw Cruciferous Vegetables is Inversely Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Apr;17(4):938-44 - "We observed a strong and statistically significant inverse association between bladder cancer risk and raw cruciferous vegetable intake (adjusted OR for highest versus lowest category = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97), with a significant trend (P = 0.003); there were no significant associations for fruit, total vegetables, or total cruciferous vegetables ... These data suggest that cruciferous vegetables, when consumed raw, may reduce the risk of bladder cancer, an effect consistent with the role of dietary isothiocyanates as chemopreventive agents against bladder cancer"
  • Broccoli: A Unique Vegetable That Protects Mammalian Hearts through the Redox Cycling of the Thioredoxin Superfamily - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 29 - "the results of the present study indicate that the consumption of broccoli triggers cardioprotection by generating a survival signal through the activation of several survival proteins and by redox cycling of thioredoxins"
  • Cruciferous vegetables, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione s-transferases m1 and t1, and prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2004;50(2):206-13 - "two or more servings per month of cruciferous vegetables may reduce risk of prostate cancer"
  • Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women Is Inversely Associated with Consumption of Broccoli, a Source of Isothiocyanates, but Is Not Modified by GST Genotype - J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1134-1138 - "These data indicate that cruciferous vegetables may play an important role in decreasing the risk of premenopausal breast cancer"