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Home > Anti-aging Research > Fruits & Vegetables

Fruits & Vegetables

News & Research:

  • Eating more plant foods may lower heart disease risk in young adults, older women - Science Daily, 8/4/21 - "People who scored in the top 20% on the long-term diet quality score (meaning they ate the most nutritionally rich plant foods and fewer adversely rated animal products) were 52% less likely to develop cardiovascular disease, after considering several factors (including age, sex, race, average caloric consumption, education, parental history of heart disease, smoking and average physical activity) ... In addition, between year 7 and 20 of the study when participants ages ranged from 25 to 50, those who improved their diet quality the most (eating more beneficial plant foods and fewer adversely rated animal products) were 61% less likely to develop subsequent cardiovascular disease, in comparison to the participants whose diet quality declined the most during that time."
  • Eat Two Fruits a Day, Ward Off Diabetes? - Medscape, 6/10/21 - "Researchers divided participants into quartiles based on their median fruit consumption: 62 (range 0-95) g/day, 122 (95-162) g/day, 230 (162-283) g/day, and 372 (283-961) g/day ... The most commonly consumed fruit was apples (23% of total fruit intake), followed by bananas (20%) and citrus fruit (18%). Other fruits each accounted for less than 8% of total fruit intake, so they were not studied separately ... Compared to participants with a low fruit intake (quartile 1), those with a moderate fruit intake (quartile 3) had a 36% lower odds of developing diabetes within 5 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.92) after adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, education, socioeconomic status, income, body mass index, smoking, cardiovascular disease, parental history of diabetes, and consumption of alcohol, vegetables, red meat, processed meat, and calories"
  • One cup of leafy green vegetables a day lowers risk of heart disease - Science Daily, 5/4/21 - "Researchers examined data from over 50,000 people residing in Denmark taking part in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study over a 23-year period. They found that people who consumed the most nitrate-rich vegetables had about a 2.5 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure and between 12 to 26 percent lower risk of heart disease ... The greatest reduction in risk was for peripheral artery disease (26 percent), a type of heart disease characterised by the narrowing of blood vessels of the legs, however we also found people had a lower risk of heart attacks, strokes and heart failure ... the optimum amount of nitrate-rich vegetables was one cup a day and eating more than that didn't seem to give any additional benefits"
  • Association of habitual intake of fruits and vegetables with depressive symptoms: the AusDiab study - Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 29 - "Australian men and women (n = 4105) aged > 25 years from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline, 5 and 12 years ... At 12 years, 425 (10.4%) participants had "any depressive symptoms". Habitual FV intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms at 12 years. After adjustment, participants in quartile 2 of FV intake (Q2; median 317 g/day) had a 20% lower odds of having any depressive symptoms (OR [95% CI] 0.80 [0.69, 0.95]) in comparison to those in the lowest quartile of FV intake (Q1; median 223 g/day). Yellow/orange/red and leafy green vegetables were the key vegetable types driving this association. Higher vegetable diversity (4-6 different vegetables/day) was associated with a 24-42% lower odds of having depressive symptoms when compared to < 3 different vegetables/day. The associations remained similar after further adjusting for diet quality"
  • Green leafy vegetables essential for muscle strength - Science Daily, 3/24/21 - "Researchers examined data from 3,759 Australians taking part in Melbourne's Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute AusDiab study over a 12-year period. They found those with the highest regular nitrate consumption had 11 per cent stronger lower limb strength than those with the lowest nitrate intake. Up to 4 per cent faster walking speeds were also recorded ... The research found nitrate-rich vegetables, such as lettuce, spinach, kale and even beetroot, provided the greatest health benefits"
  • Does consuming fruit during pregnancy improve cognition in babies? - Science Daily, 3/4/20 - "Results show that infant animal models of mothers who had their diets supplemented with fruit juice performed significantly better on tests of memory -- consistent with the previous study"
  • More Fruits and Veggies in Midlife May Preserve Cognition - Medscape, 11/30/18 - "midlife dietary patterns predicted the risk of subjective cognitive complaints 18 to 22 years later"
  • Orange juice, leafy greens and berries may be tied to decreased memory loss in men - Science Daily, 11/21/18 - "The men who consumed the most vegetables were 34 percent less likely to develop poor thinking skills than the men who consumed the least amount of vegetables ... The men who drank orange juice every day were 47 percent less likely to develop poor thinking skills than the men who drank less than one serving per month ... people who ate larger amounts of fruits and vegetables 20 years earlier were less likely to develop thinking and memory problems, whether or not they kept eating larger amounts of fruits and vegetables about six years before the memory test"
  • The Whole Truth About Whole Fruits - WebMD, 5/31/17 - "Conversely, drinking fruit juice every day had the opposite effect, increasing the chances of diabetes by 21 percent. One possible reason: the spikes in blood sugar that the concentrated sugars in juice can cause"
  • Babies Don’t Need Juice, Pediatricians Say - NBC News, 5/22/17 - ""Fruit juice offers no nutritional benefits for infants younger than 1 year," it said. Juice is loaded with sugar and calories and doesn't have the fiber that whole fruit has"
  • People think juice is good for them. They’re wrong - Washington Post, 4/26/17 - "The truth is that fruit juice, even if it is freshly pressed 100 percent juice, is little more than sugar water. Yet many Americans believe that juice is good for them. In one survey of parents of young children, 1 in 3 believed that juice was at least as healthy as fruit. We are inundated with the message that juice is healthy. Juice bars abound in gyms, spas and health food stores, while government programs supply large quantities of juice to low-income children and pregnant mothers. The commercial juice industry is happy to build on this idea, like POM Wonderful’s tagline “Drink to your health” or Juicy Juice’s containers extolling the (mostly added) 120 percent of recommended daily vitamin C in their products. While the Internet is busy laughing at news of the Juicero juicing machine that doesn’t actually need the $400 WiFi-enabled machine, what people should really be talking about is a much simpler fact — the product takes healthy fruits and vegetable and makes them much less healthy"
  • Lack of fruits and vegetables increases global heart disease burden - American Heart Association, 3/7/17 - "disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) ... Low intake of fruits accounted for 57.3 million DALYs; ... Low intake of vegetables accounted for 44.6 million DALYs; ... Countries with the highest level of socio-economic development had the lowest burden of heart disease attributed to low fruit and vegetable consumption"
  • Eating up to ten portions of fruit and vegetables a day may prevent 7.8 million premature deaths worldwide - Science Daily, 2/23/17 - "The team found that although even the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day reduced disease risk, the greatest benefit came from eating 800g a day (roughly equivalent to ten portions -- one portion of fruit or vegetables if defined as 80g) ... Eating up to 800g fruit and vegetables a day -- or 10 portions -- was associated with a 24 per cent reduced risk of heart disease, a 33 per cent reduced risk of stroke, a 28 per cent reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a 13 per cent reduced risk of total cancer, and a 31 per cent reduction in dying prematurely. This risk was calculated in comparison to not eating any fruit and vegetables"
  • Eating seven or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day reduces your risk of death by 42 percent - Science Daily, 3/31/14 - "seven or more portions reduces the specific risks of death by cancer and heart disease by 25% and 31% respectively. The research also showed that vegetables have significantly higher health benefits than fruit ... Compared to eating less than one portion of fruit and vegetables, the risk of death by any cause is reduced by 14% by eating one to three portions, 29% for three to five portions, 36% for five to seven portions and 42% for seven or more ... fresh vegetables had the strongest protective effect, with each daily portion reducing overall risk of death by 16%. Salad contributed to a 13% risk reduction per portion, and each portion of fresh fruit was associated with a smaller but still significant 4% reduction ... The researchers found no evidence of significant benefit from fruit juice, and canned and frozen fruit appeared to increase risk of death by 17% per portion"
  • Natural plant compound prevents Alzheimer's disease in mice - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "A chemical that's found in fruits and vegetables from strawberries to cucumbers appears to stop memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer's disease in mice ... In experiments on mice that normally develop Alzheimer's symptoms less than a year after birth, a daily dose of the compound -- -a flavonol called fisetin -- -prevented the progressive memory and learning impairments" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Experts Confirm That Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Reduces Risk of Mortality - Science Daily, 9/26/13 - "sample analyzed includes 25,682 deaths (10,438 due to cancer and 5,125 due to cardiovascular disease) among the 451,151 participants studied over more than 13 years ... a combined fruit and vegetable consumption of more than 569 grams per day reduces the risk of mortality by 10% and delays the risk of mortality by 1.12 years compared to a consumption of less than 249 grams per day ... for every 200 gram increase in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, the risk falls by 6% ... A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality by 15%" - Note: 569 grams is 20 ounces.
  • Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality - Medscape, 9/13/13 - "Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010 ... Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death"
  • Consumption of Certain Fruits Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 8/29/13 - "Eating certain whole fruits may reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes ... However, juice consumption may up the risk for diabetes ... combined data from 3 studies: the Nurses' Health Study (n = 66,105), Nurses' Health Study II (n = 85,104), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 36,173) ... blueberries: HR, 0.74 ... grapes and raisins: HR, 0.88 ... apples and pears: HR, 0.93 ... bananas: HR, 0.95 ... grapefruit: HR, 0.95"
  • Higher intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women - Science Daily, 8/23/13 - "analyzed data collected from 185,885 older adults over a period of 12.5 years, of which 581 invasive bladder cancer cases were diagnosed (152 women and 429 men) ... women who consumed the most fruits and vegetables had the lowest bladder cancer risk. For instance, women consuming the most yellow-orange vegetables were 52% less likely to have bladder cancer than women consuming the least yellow-orange vegetables. The data also suggested that women with the highest intake of vitamins A, C, and E had the lowest risk of bladder cancer. No associations between fruit and vegetable intake and invasive bladder cancer were found in men"
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of ER Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 1/25/13 - "total fruit and vegetable intake was statistically significantly linked to a lower risk of ER- breast cancer, but not with risk of overall breast cancer or risk of ER+ breast tumors. The results showed that the lower risk was mostly associated with higher vegetable consumption. "These findings support the value of examining etiologic factors in relation to breast cancer characterized by hormone receptor status in large pooled analyses because modest associations with less common breast cancer subtypes may have been missed in smaller studies," ... the findings of the study support the emphasis on greater intake for vegetables (and to a lesser extent fruit) to lower the risk of ER- breast cancer. However, they also write that, "interpretation of these findings may also be challenged by the known effects of other potential confounders, including the aggregation of health behaviors.""
  • Many apples a day keep the blues at bay - Science Daily, 1/23/13 - "On days when people ate more fruits and vegetables, they reported feeling calmer, happier and more energetic than they normally did ... After further analysis we demonstrated that young people would need to consume approximately seven to eight total servings of fruits and vegetables per day to notice a meaningful positive change. One serving of fruit or vegetables is approximately the size that could fit in your palm, or half a cup"
  • Do Fruits and Veggies Make You More Attractive? - WebMD, 3/7/12 - "changes in the redness and yellowness of skin in white people may be linked to the number of servings of fruit and vegetables they eat on a daily basis. These antioxidant-rich foods, which are loaded with plant-based pigments, seem to affect skin tone ... They suggest it's the carotenoids -- the red, yellow, and orange pigments in fruits and vegetables -- that play an important role in skin tone. Foods such as carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, and apricots are rich in beta-carotene, as are some dark green vegetables, including spinach and kale ... Another carotenoid is lycopene, which is found in tomatoes and pink grapefruits" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma - Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec 20:1-9 - "Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.7; Ptrend = 0.002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0.4; 95 % CI 0.2, 0.6; P < 0.001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0.7; 95 % CI 0.4, 1.1) or grain fibre (OR 1.0; 95 % CI 0.6, 1.5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0.01) (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9) (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (Pinteraction = 0.001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (Pinteraction = 0.03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk"
  • Vegetables, fruits, grains reduce stroke risk in women - Science Daily, 12/1/11 - "They used a standard database to determine participants' total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which measures the free radical reducing capacity of all antioxidants in the diet and considers synergistic effects between substances ... For women with no history of cardiovascular disease who had the highest TAC, fruits and vegetables contributed about 50 percent of TAC ... Other contributors were whole grains (18 percent), tea (16 percent) and chocolate (5 percent) ... Women without cardiovascular disease with the highest levels of dietary TAC had a statistically significant 17 percent lower risk of total stroke compared to those in the lowest quintile ... Women with history of cardiovascular disease in the highest three quartiles of dietary TAC had a statistically significant 46 percent to 57 percent lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke compared with those in the lowest quartile"
  • Apple juice's other health risk: It'll make you fat - MSNBC, 12/1/11 - "Apple juice has few natural nutrients, lots of calories and, in some cases, more sugar than soda has. It trains a child to like very sweet things, displaces better beverages and foods, and adds to the obesity problem, its critics say ... Only 17 percent of the apple juice sold in the U.S. is produced here. The rest comes from other countries, mostly China, Argentina, Chile and Brazil"
  • Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Oct 29 - "We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls ... An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk"
  • Eating green veggies improves immune defenses - Science Daily, 10/13/11 - "green vegetables -- from bok choy to broccoli -- are the source of a chemical signal that is important to a fully functioning immune system. They do this by ensuring that immune cells in the gut and the skin known as intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) function properly ... After feeding otherwise healthy mice a vegetable-poor diet for two to three weeks, I was amazed to see 70 to 80 percent of these protective cells disappeared"
  • Eating your greens can change the effect of your genes on heart disease - Science Daily, 10/11/11 - "The research, which represents one of the largest gene-diet interaction studies ever conducted on cardiovascular disease, involved the analysis of more than 27,000 individuals from five ethnicities -- European, South Asian, Chinese, Latin American and Arab -- and the affect that their diets had on the effect of the 9p21 gene. The results suggest that individuals with the high risk genotype who consumed a prudent diet, composed mainly of raw vegetables, fruits and berries, had a similar risk of heart attack to those with the low risk genotype"
  • Juice concentrates may boost skin-from-within - Nutra USA, 9/14/11 - "Skin hydration improved by 9% while skin thickness increased by 6% following 12 weeks of supplementation with a micronutrient-dense concentrate of a range of fruit and vegetables including cherry, apple, broccoli, cranberry, orange, pineapple, spinach, and tomato ... skin microcirculation also improved by almost 40% following supplementation with the juice concentrate, which could boost the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the skin and thereby boosting health" - [Abstract] - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex, 60 Caplets.  I'll save you the multi-level-marketing Juice Plus mark-up.
  • Cooked Green Vegetables, Dried Fruit, Legumes, and Brown Rice Associated With Fewer Colon Polyps - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "Eating legumes at least three times a week and brown rice at least once a week was linked to a reduced risk of colon polyps by 33 percent and 40 percent respectively ... Results also show that consuming cooked green vegetables once a day or more, as compared to less than five times a week, was associated with a 24 percent reduction in the risk of rectal/colon polyps. Consuming dried fruit three times a week or more, versus less than once a week, was associated with a 26 percent reduced risk"
  • High levels of dietary nitrate might in part explain the vascular benefits of diets rich in leafy greens - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule that helps maintain the contractility and health of vascular smooth muscle cells, and multiple studies have linked vascular pathology to a decreased level of NO ... NO is synthesized from arginine by an enzyme called nitric oxide synthase (NOS) ... after vessel injury in the rat, the NOS pathway is disrupted, but a secondary pathway that generates NO from nitrate is activated. Furthermore, supplementing rats with nitrate before inducing vessel injury markedly limited the extent of the damage, while a diet low in nitrate exacerbated it ... high levels of dietary nitrate might in part explain the vascular benefits of diets rich in leafy greens, but warn that high dose supplementation could lead to the generation of carcinogenic molecules"
  • Want more efficient muscles? Eat your spinach - Science Daily, 2/1/11 - "dietary nitrate feeds into a pathway that produces nitric oxide with the help of friendly bacteria found in our mouths. Nitric oxide has been known for two decades as a physiologically important molecule. It opens up our blood vessels to lower blood pressure, for instance ... Among the more consistent findings from nutritional research are the beneficial effects of a high intake of fruit and vegetables in protection against major disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes ... the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these effects is still unclear, and trials with single nutrients have generally failed. It is tempting to speculate that boosting of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway may be one mechanism by which vegetables exert their protective effects"
  • Eating vegetables gives skin a more healthy glow than the sun, study shows - Science Daily, 1/11/11 - "people who eat more portions of fruit and vegetables per day have a more golden skin colour, thanks to substances called carotenoids. Carotenoids are antioxidants that help soak up damaging compounds produced by the stresses and strains of everyday living, especially when the body is combating disease. Responsible for the red colouring in fruit and vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes, carotenoids are important for our immune and reproductive systems ... given the choice between skin colour caused by suntan and skin colour caused by carotenoids, people preferred the carotenoid skin colour" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and risk of coronary heart disease in Italian women: the EPICOR Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 22 - "aimed to investigate the association between consumption of fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 29,689 women enrolled between 1993 and 1998 ... A strong reduction in CHD risk among women in the highest quartile of consumption of leafy vegetables (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90; P for trend = 0.03) and olive oil (hazard ratio: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.99; P for trend = 0.04) was found. In contrast, no association emerged between fruit consumption and CHD risk"
  • More fruits and vegetables unlikely to protect against cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 12/10/10
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis - BMJ. 2010 Aug 18;341:c4229 - "greater intake of green leafy vegetables was associated with a 14% (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.97) reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes (P=0.01). The summary estimates showed no significant benefits of increasing the consumption of vegetables, fruit, or fruit and vegetables combined"
  • Cancer protective effect of fruits and vegetables may be modest at best - Science Daily, 4/6/10
  • Good Diet May Aid Ovarian Cancer Survival - WebMD, 3/4/10 - "five years, 75% of the women who ate less than one serving a week of yellow vegetables were alive, compared to about 82% of those who had three or more servings of yellow vegetables a week ... When the researchers looked at red meat lovers vs. avoiders, "we found almost a threefold risk of dying for those women who ate four or more servings of red meat a week compared to those who ate less than one serving per week over the 11-year study period"
  • Phytochemicals In Plant-based Foods Could Help Battle Obesity, Disease - Science Daily, 10/21/09 - "Eating more plant-based foods, which are rich in substances called phytochemicals, seems to prevent oxidative stress in the body, a process associated with obesity and the onset of disease ... Diets low in plant-based foods affect health over the course of a long period of time ... This is related to annual weight gain, low levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. Those are the onset processes of disease that debilitate people later in life"
  • Few Eating Enough Fruits, Veggies - WebMD, 9/29/09 - "Only 14% of U.S. adults and 9.5% of U.S. teens meet the government's goals for eating enough fruits and vegetables"
  • Orange Juice Worse For Teeth Than Whitening Agents - Science Daily, 6/30/09 - "the effects of 6 percent hydrogen peroxide, the common ingredient in professional and over-the-counter whitening products, are insignificant compared to acidic fruit juices. Orange juice markedly decreased hardness and increased roughness of tooth enamel"
  • Diet May Reduce Risk Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 6/3/09 - "a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruit, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, and excessive dairy products and calcium intake may be helpful in preventing prostate cancer, and for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer ... Specifically, consumption of tomatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, green tea, and vitamins including Vitamin E and selenium seemed to propose a decreased risk of prostate cancer. Consumption of highly processed or charcoaled meats, dairy products, and fats seemed to be correlated with prostate cancer"
  • Fruit and veg may slash colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 5/11/09 - "Over 8.8 years of follow-up ... the highest average intakes of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 14 per cent reduction in colorectal cancer risk, and a 24 per cent reduction in the risk of colon cancer" - [Abstract]
  • How Plants Protect Us From Disease - Science Daily, 4/19/09 - "Everyday foods, beverages, and spices contain healthful compounds that help us fight harmful inflammation. And, in doing that, these phytochemicals—the resveratrol in red wine or the catechins in green, white and black teas, for instance—may also reduce our risk of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including cancer and diabetes"
  • Plums Poised To Give Blueberries Run For The Money - Science Daily, 1/28/09 - "one relatively inexpensive plum contains about the same amount of antioxidants as a handful of more expensive blueberries ... one benefit the team found was that the phytonutrients in plums inhibited in vitro breast cancer growth without adversely affecting normal cell growth"
  • Mediterranean Diet Reduces Long-term Risk Of Subsequent Weight Gain And Obesity Among Adults - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "increased fruit and vegetable intake was associated with significantly lower risk of a medium WG (3,41 kg) over 10 years among adults of a Spanish Mediterranean population. Dietary strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake to prevent and control overweight and obesity should be promoted more vigorously"
  • Apple Juice Can Delay Onset Of Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "drinking apple juice helped mice perform better than normal in maze trials, and prevented the decline in performance that was otherwise observed as these mice aged ... mice receiving the human equivalent of 2 glasses of apple juice per day for 1 month produced less of a small protein fragment, called "beta-amyloid" that is responsible for forming the "senile plaques" that are commonly found in brains of individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease"
  • Breast Cancer: Diet High In Vegetables, Fruit And Fiber May Cut Risk Of Cancer Recurrence In Women Without Hot Flashes - Science Daily, 12/30/08 - "A secondary analysis of a large, multicenter clinical trial has shown that a diet loaded with fruits, vegetables and fiber and somewhat lower in fat compared to standard federal dietary recommendations cuts the risk of recurrence in a subgroup of early-stage breast cancer survivors – women who didn't have hot flashes – by approximately 31 percent. These patients typically have higher recurrence and lower survival rates than breast cancer patients who have hot flashes"
  • Berry Compound Reduces Aging Effect - Science Daily, 12/28/08 - "in aging rats, pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive decline and that improved working memory was linked to pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus region of the brain"
  • Can Fruits, Vegetables Cut Colon Cancer Risk? - WebMD, 9/11/08 - "Based on those answers, the researchers concluded that men who ate the most fruits and vegetables were 26% less likely to develop colorectal cancer than men who ate the least ... No decrease in risk associated with fruit and vegetable consumption was seen for women"
  • Green Vegetables, Fruit Intake Linked to Lower Risk for Diabetes in Women - Medscape, 7/8/09 - "Women who have a higher intake of green leafy vegetables and fruit have a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, whereas those who have a higher intake of fruit juices may have an increased risk for the disease ... An increase of 3 servings of total fruit and vegetable consumption per day was not linked to the development of diabetes (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 -1.05), However, an increase in whole fruit consumption of 3 servings per day was associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes (HR, 0.82 ... An increase of 1 serving per day of green leafy vegetables was linked to a slightly lower hazard of diabetes (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 - 0.98). In contrast, an increase of 1 serving per day of fruit juice consumption was associated with an increased risk for diabetes (HR, 1.18"
  • Dr. Mom Was Right -- And Wrong -- About Washing Fruits And Vegetables - Science Daily, 4/10/08
  • Finding the Right Prostate Cancer Diet - WebMD, 2/15/08 - "poultry and eggs double the risk of prostate cancer progression ... orange and yellow vegetables, such as squash, yams, and carrots, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cut the risk of recurrence by about half ... If you eat chicken or poultry, eat it without the skin ... the men's overall PSA doubling time was nearly four times slower after they began drinking pomegranate juice"
  • Natural Purple Pigments In Fruits, Vegetables And Berries, Such As Blueberries, May Help Prevent Obesity - Science Daily, 2/11/08 - "Anthocyanins fed as the whole blueberry did not prevent and may have actually increased obesity ... However, feeding purified anthocyanins from blueberries or strawberries reduced obesity"
  • Vegetables- and antioxidant-related nutrients, genetic susceptibility, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Jan 17 - "For the GSTM3 3-base insertion and higher total vegetable intake, the risk was 0.56 (0.35-0.92, p interaction = 0.03); for GSTP1 A114V and higher cruciferous vegetable intake, the risk was 0.52 (0.34-0.81, p interaction = 0.02); for OGG1 S326C and higher daily zinc intake, the risk was 0.71 (0.47-1.08, p interaction = 0.04) and for XRCC3 T241M and higher green leafy vegetable intake, the risk was 0.63"
  • Fruit, Vegetable Eaters Have Fewer Strokes - WebMD, 1/9/08 - "Specifically, vitamin C levels may prove to be a good predictive indicator of stroke risk, independent of known risk factors such as age, smoking history, blood pressure, and cholesterol, they write"
  • Cooking Veggies May Not Cut Nutrients - WebMD, 12/21/07 - "In some cases, the veggies lost antioxidants to cooking. But not all antioxidants decreased when cooked -- and in some cases, certain antioxidant levels rose when cooked"
  • Black Raspberries and Esophageal Cancer - Medscape, 12/10/07 - "Most important, 8-epiprostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) declined significantly after berry consumption (P < .05), with dramatic individual level declines occurring in 58% of the study patients" - See raspberry extracts at iHerb.
  • Is There an Anticancer Diet? - WebMD, 12/6/07 - "Raw cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, broccoli sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower seem to reduce bladder cancer risk by about 40%"
  • Diet And Cancer Prevention: New Evidence For The Protective Effects Of Fruits And Veggies - Science Daily, 12/6/07
  • Eating Fish, Omega-3 Oils, Fruits And Veggies Lowers Risk Of Memory Problems - Science Daily, 11/13/07 - "People who ate fruits and vegetables daily also reduced their risk of dementia by 30 percent compared to those who didn't regularly eat fruits and vegetables"
  • Fresh Fruits And Vegetables Retain Antioxidants Long After Purchase - Science Daily, 10/15/07
  • Fruits, Veggies Don’t Cut Colon Cancer - WebMD, 9/25/07 - "Overall, a higher intake of fruits and vegetables does not strongly reduce your risk of colon cancer"
  • Diet May Defy Kids' Asthma, Allergies - WebMD, 9/12/07 - "Kids who ate the most tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, green beans, and zucchini -- more than 40 grams per day -- were at least 62% less likely to wheeze, compared with kids who skimped on those vegetables ... The study also shows that kids who ate more than 60 grams of fish per day were 57% less likely to test positive for allergies as those who ate the least amount of fish (up to about 39 grams per day of fish)"
  • Breast Cancer: More Veggies Not Better - WebMD, 7/17/07 - "eating more than five daily servings of fruits and vegetables doesn't offer extra benefit"
  • Eating Apples And Fish During Pregnancy May Protect Against Childhood Asthma And Allergies - Science Daily, 5/20/07
  • Eat Your Fruits And Vegetables: One Extra Serving Per Day May Lower Your Risk Of Head And Neck Cancer - Science Daily, 4/16/07 - "participants who ate six servings of fruit and vegetables per day per 1000 calories had 29 percent less risk for head and neck cancer than did participants who consumed one and a half servings per 1000 calories per day"
  • Berries May Help Prevent Cancer - WebMD, 3/26/07
  • Blueberries tackle bowel cancer - BBC News, 3/26/07 - "The key ingredient, pterostilbene, is a natural antioxidant and mops up highly reactive molecules called free radicals that can trigger cancer growth ... Rats given a cancer-causing agent but then fed pterostilbene had far fewer pre-cancers in their bowels than other rats ... The blueberry compound also reduced inflammation and the rate of cell division in the bowel"
  • Fruit May Sway Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/20/07 - "The group that had the lowest risk of having an adenoma was the group that ate a lot of fruit and avoided meat, basically"
  • Canned Fruits, Veggies Healthy, Too - WebMD, 3/16/07
  • Veggies for Enlarged Prostate Risk - WebMD, 2/14/07 - "Data came from more than 32,000 male health care workers enrolled in a long-term health study that began in 1986 ... The men who consumed the most vegetables were 11% less likely to have BPH surgery or moderate to high BPH symptoms by 2000"
  • Worried About Prostate Cancer? Tomato-broccoli Combo Shown To Be Effective - Science Daily, 1/16/07 - "fed a diet containing 10 percent tomato powder and 10 percent broccoli powder to laboratory rats that had been implanted with prostate cancer cells ... The tomato/broccoli combo outperformed all other diets in shrinking prostate tumors ... The only treatment that approached the tomato/broccoli diet's level of effectiveness was castration ... To get these effects, men should consume daily 1.4 cups of raw broccoli and 2.5 cups of fresh tomato, or 1 cup of tomato sauce, or ½ cup of tomato paste"
  • Cloudy Apple Juice Has Clear Benefits - WebMD, 1/16/07 - "cloudy -- or unclarified -- apple juice contains up to four times the polyphenols as some types of clear apple juice"
  • Nitrates Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 12/27/06 - "the nitrates in many vegetables may keep blood vessels healthy and lower blood pressure"
  • Drinking Juice May Stall Alzheimer's - WebMD, 8/31/06 - "people who drank fruit and vegetable juices more than three times a week were 76% less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those who drank juices less than once a week"
  • Berries May Help Keep Brain Sharp - WebMD, 8/24/06 - "The radiated rats that had eaten the plain chow performed worst on the maze tests and had the lowest dopamine levels of any of the rats ... But the berry-eating, radiated rats didn't show those shortfalls. Their test results were generally comparable to those of rats that hadn't been radiated"
  • Apple Juice May Boost Memory - WebMD, 8/4/06 - "consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as apples and apple juice can help reduce problems associated with memory loss"
  • Berries: super foods with cancer curing powers? - MSNBC, 6/23/06 - "berries are among the fruits highest in antioxidant content and that they are excellent sources of several phytochemicals that seem to help block cancer development"
  • Eat Your Veggies, Help Your Arteries - WebMD, 6/19/06 - "They found 38% less plaque in the arteries of mice that had eaten the vegetable-rich diet, compared with mice that had eaten no vegetables"
  • Veggies may keep breast cancer from returning - MSNBC, 4/14/06 - "After about seven years, women who began with the highest levels of carotenoids in their blood showed 43 percent less risk of developing breast cancer again when compared to women with the lowest carotenoid levels"
  • Vegetarian Diet May Help Weight Loss - WebMD, 4/3/06
  • Fruits, Veggies Not as Vitamin Rich as in Past, Says New Data - ABC News, 3/1/06 - "Of the 13 major nutrients found in fruits and vegetables, six have declined substantially ... recently grown crops have shown decreases of up to 38 percent in protein, calcium, vitamin C, phosphorus, iron and riboflavin when compared with produce from past decades"
  • Fruits, Veggies Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 1/26/06 - "People who reported eating more than five daily servings of fruits and vegetables had the lowest stroke risk. They were 26% less likely to have a stroke over 13 years than those who ate fruits and vegetables fewer than three times daily"
  • Veggies in Diet May Cut Lung Cancer Risk - WebMD, 9/27/05 - "the people who consumed the highest amount of phytoestrogens from food had nearly half the lung cancer risk as those with the lowest phytoestrogen intake from food" - [Abstract]
  • High-vegetable Diet Linked To Protection Against Pancreatic Cancer - Science Daily, 9/19/05 - "fruits and vegetables -- particularly vegetables -- is associated with about a 50 percent reduction in the risk of developing pancreatic cancer"
  • New Study Shows High-Carb, Vegan Diet Causes Major Weight Loss - Doctor's Guide, 9/9/05 - "A low-fat, plant-based diet is more effective at helping women lose weight and improve insulin sensitivity than an omnivorous diet ... a low-fat, primarily vegan diet may slow the progression of prostate cancer"
  • How Fruits, Veggies May Fight Arthritis - WebMD, 8/19/05 - "a modest increase in antioxidants from brightly colored fruits and vegetables -- equivalent to a glass of orange juice a day -- was associated with a lower risk of inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis"
  • Study: Fruits, Veggies May Help Avoid Cataracts - WebMD, 6/17/05 - "Over 10 years, the group had a total of 2,067 cataract cases. The women who ate the most fruits and vegetables were 10% to 15% less likely to be in that group"
  • More Osteoporosis Seen With Raw Foods Diet - WebMD, 3/28/05
  • Raw Food Vegetarian Diet May Cause Low BMD Without Evidence of Increased Bone Turnover - Medscape, 3/28/05 - "People on a raw food (RF) vegetarian diet have low bone mineral density (BMD) but without evidence of increased bone turnover ... Although low bone mass is a risk factor for fracture, bone quality also plays a role. It is therefore possible that RF vegetarians with a low bone mass may not have an increased incidence of fractures because of good bone quality"
  • Fruits, Veggies May Not Cut Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/11/04
  • Anticancer Diet - Time, 11/15/04 - "eating at least 35 servings of fruits and vegetables a week can cut the risk of developing hormone-stimulated breast-cancer tumors by 35% in postmenopausal women ... leafy greens and colorful vegetables like carrots, squash, tomatoes and peppers, which are rich in lycopene and beta carotene, are especially potent cancer fighters"
  • Produce Fights Heart Disease, Not Cancer - WebMD, 11/2/04
  • Got Fruit? Bones Need More Than Milk - WebMD, 10/26/04 - "Most people eat a diet that generates acids ... This increase in acid levels is thought to reduce bone strength ... Eating foods that buffer the acidic foods builds strong bones ... Nutrients found in fruits and vegetables may be protective for bone health ... The teenage girls who ate a large amount of fruit had the strongest bones"
  • Plant Foods To The Rescue; Fruit, Vegetables Turn "Superhero" To Fight Disease - Intelihealth, 8/11/04 - "Some phytochemicals, or plant chemicals, knock out carcinogens and fight inflammation. Some regulate how quickly cells reproduce and spur old, damaged cells to self-destruct. Other plant chemicals perform "routine maintenance" on DNA ... most experts agree that the body needs a variety of these phytochemicals -- there are more than 25,000 of them -- to stay in top form"
  • Fruit May Help Prevent Macular Degeneration - WebMD, 6/14/04 - "people who ate three or more servings per day of fruits had a 36% lower risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) compared those who ate less than one-and-a-half servings per day"
  • Vegetables and fruits: Variety or powerhouse? - MSNBC, 6/11/04
  • Fruits, Vegetables May Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 6/3/04
  • Broccoli Sprouts May Protect Heart - WebMD, 4/28/04 - "For 14 weeks, researchers fed rats broccoli sprouts that were either rich in glucoraphanin or had been depleted of the compound. By the end of the study, they found rats fed the glucoraphanin-rich diet had decreased blood pressure and inflammation in the heart"
  • Power Your Diet With Powerhouse Foods - WebMD, 3/11/04 - "cauliflower ... lettuces such as romaine and red-leaf lettuce. Pile on the spinach. And eat lots of broccoli and Brussels sprouts ... carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, oranges, and grapefruit ... tomatoes, red peppers, and strawberries"
  • Higher Fruit, Vegetable Intake Associated With Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/03 - "Investigators observed a protective effect for infarction and a clearer one for hemorrhage associated with daily fruit and vegetable consumption; risk reduction for intracerebral hemorrhage was 32% in men and 30% in women"
  • Eating Fruit Linked to Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 4/2/03
  • Fruits: Cancer-Fighting Foods - WebMD, 2/19/03 - "Compared with those who ate the least fruit as children, those who ate the most were about 40% less likely to get cancer 60 years later ... a variety of nutritional factors might explain fruit's protective effects, such as their high antioxidant, fiber, and vitamin Content. But when they looked at the cancer-fighting impact of vitamins C, E, and beta carotene separately, no single nutrient emerged as the winner"
  • New Evidence Fruit and Vegetable Intake Reduces Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 5/28/02 - "systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased more in the intervention group than in the control group ... A reduction of two mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure results in a decrease of about 17 percent in the incidence of high blood pressure, six percent in the risk of coronary heart disease, and 15 percent in the risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack, they say"
  • Equal rights for dandelions! - USA Today, 4/30/02
  • Four New Studies Strongly Suggest That Components From Three Types [elderberry, chokeberry and bilberry]  Of Red Berry Fruits Help Arteries - Intelihealth, 4/22/02 - "Extracts from chokeberry and bilberry, but not elderberry, produce a direct dose-dependent relaxation of porcine coronary arteries, with chokeberry extract being the most potent. This relaxation was totally dependent on the vascular endothelium because the extracts did not significantly contract or relax arteries in which the endothelium was removed"
  • A Popular Japanese Plum [umeboshi], Now Available In The US, May Help Prevent The Onset Of Cardiac Disease - Intelihealth, 4/22/02
  • Green: The Color of a Healthy Diet - WebMD, 2/21/02
  • New research shows potassium-rich foods may lower your risk of stroke - HealthScout, 7/23/01
  • DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet Reduces Cholesterol, Long-Term Cardiac Risk - Doctor's Guide, 6/21/01
  • Study: Autumn Babies Live Longer - Intelihealth, 2/26/01 - "The authors said the difference may be related to nutrition during pregnancy. More fruits and vegetables are available during the summer and fall months than during the winter and spring months"


  • Association between overall fruit and vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable sub-types and blood pressure: the PRIME study (Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction) - Br J Nutr. 2020 May 4 - "A total of 10660 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1994. Blood pressure was measured in a clinic setting, and dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). After adjusting for potential confounders, both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly inversely associated with total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake however when results were examined according to the sub-type of fruit or vegetable (citrus fruit, other fruit, fruit juices, cooked vegetables and raw vegetables), only the other fruit and raw vegetable categories were consistently associated with reduced SBP and DBP. In relation to the risk of hypertension based on systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, the odds ratio for total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake (per fourth) was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91, 1.00), with the same estimates being 0.98 (CI % 0.94, 1.02) for citrus fruit intake (per fourth), 1.02 (CI % 0.98, 1.06) for fruit juice intake (per fourth), 0.93 (CI % 0.89, 0.98) for other fruit intake (per fourth), 1.05 (CI % 0.99, 1.10) for cooked vegetable intake (per fourth) and 0.86 (CI % 0.80, 0.91) for raw vegetable intake (per fourth). Similar results were obtained for DBP"
  • Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 25 - "Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91 ... Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk"
  • Polyphenol-rich juices reduce blood pressure measures in a randomised controlled trial in high normal and hypertensive volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2015 Jul 31:1-10 - "134 healthy individuals, aged 50-70 years, with high normal range BP (130/85-139/89 mmHg, seventy-two subjects) or stage 1-2 hypertension (140/90-179/109 mmHg, sixty-two subjects), were included. They consumed 500 ml/d of one of either (1) a commercially available polyphenol-rich juice based on red grapes, cherries, chokeberries and bilberries; (2) a juice similar to (1) but enriched with polyphenol-rich extracts from blackcurrant press-residue or (3) a placebo juice (polyphenol contents 245.5, 305.2 and 76 mg/100 g, respectively) ... Systolic BP significantly reduced over time (6 and 12 weeks, respectively) in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group in the first of the three measurements, both for the whole study group (6.9 and 3.4 mmHg; P= 0.01) and even more pronounced in the hypertensive subjects when analysed separately (7.3 and 6.8 mmHg; P= 0.04). The variation in the BP measurements was significantly reduced in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group (1.4 and 1.7 mmHg; P= 0.03). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that polyphenol-rich berry juice may contribute to a BP- and BP variability lowering effect, being more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects" - [Nutra USA]
  • Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study - Nutrients. 2015 Jul 15 - "Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance ... Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted"
  • Association Between Healthy Diet and Exercise and Greater Muscle Mass in Older Adults J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr 27 - "vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass"
  • Vegetable Intake, but Not Fruit Intake, Was Associated with a Reduction in the Risk of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Middle-Aged Korean Men - J Nutr. 2015 Apr 15 - "Total vegetable intake was linearly associated with cancer incidence but was nonlinearly associated with cancer mortality; by comparing ≥500 g/d with <100 g/d of total vegetable intake, the multivariable-adjusted RR for total cancer incidence was 0.72 ... No associations were found between total fruit intake and total cancer incidence and mortality"
  • Fiber intake and all-cause mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1498-1507 - "Baseline fiber intake and fruit consumption were significantly associated with lower risk of death [HRs for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.86; P = 0.015) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82; P = 0.004), respectively]" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vegetable, fruit and nitrate intake in relation to the risk of Barrett's oesophagus in a large Dutch cohort - Br J Nutr. 2013 Dec 5:1-11 - "The Netherlands Cohort Study recruited 120 852 individuals aged 55-69 years in 1986. Vegetable and fruit intake was assessed using a 150-item FFQ, and nitrate intake from dietary sources and drinking water was determined ... 16.3 years of follow-up ... Men exhibited a lower risk of Barrett's oesophagus in the highest v. the lowest quintile of total (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.66, 95 % CI 0.43, 1.01), raw (HR 0.63, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.99), raw leafy (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.86) and Brassica (HR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.41, 1.00) vegetable intake. No association was found for other vegetable groups and fruits. No significant associations were found between vegetable and fruit intake and Barrett's oesophagus risk among women. Total nitrate intake was inversely associated with Barrett's disease risk in men (HR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.25, 0.99) and positively associated with it in women (HR 3.77, 95 % CI 1.68, 8.45) (P for interaction = 0.04)"
  • Relations of raw and cooked vegetable consumption to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study - J Hum Hypertens. 2013 Nov 21 - "Here we report cross-sectional associations of vegetable intakes with BP for 2195 Americans ages 40-59 in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) using four standardized multi-pass 24-h dietary recalls and eight BP measurements ... Estimated average systolic BP differences associated with two s.d. differences in raw vegetable intake (68 g per 1000 kcal) and cooked vegetable intake (92 g per 1000 kcal) were -1.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.1, -0.8; P=0.001) and -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.5, -0.2; P=0.03) without body mass index (BMI) in the full model; -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.4, -0.2; P=0.02) and -0.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.0, 0.2; P=0.1) with additional adjustment for BMI. Among commonly consumed individual raw vegetables, tomatoes, carrots, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP. Among commonly eaten cooked vegetables, tomatoes, peas, celery, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP"
  • Dietary Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Meats/Beans as Potential Risk Factors of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Texas Case-Control Study - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Oct 29 - "This study was conducted at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to evaluate associations between consumption of vegetables, fruits, and meats with AML risk among Texas residents ... Overall, AML risk was significantly decreased among those who consumed the most dark green vegetables, seafood, and nuts/seeds; and it was significantly increased among greatest consumers of red meat. Among men, AML risk was lowest among those whose consumption was in the highest quartile for fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.69], poultry (OR = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.10-0.78), and seafood (OR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.16-0.96) compared to those in the lowest. Among women, risk was lowest among those whose consumption was in the highest quartile of dark-green vegetables (OR = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.12-.68), orange vegetables (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.17-.96) and nuts/beans (OR = 0.26, 95%CI = 0.11-0.60)"
  • An encapsulated juice powder concentrate improves markers of pulmonary function and cardiovascular risk factors in heavy smokers - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):18-25 - "75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 +/- 10.6 years, >20 cigarettes/d, duration ≥10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) ... FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T 0" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Aug 4 - "61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai ... Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk"
  • Nutrient-based dietary patterns of head and neck squamous cell cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar 27 - "The first pattern (meat-based pattern) was positively associated with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.81-4.15), whereas the third pattern (fruit-based) was strongly protective (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.27-0.63)"
  • Dietary intake of vegetables, folate, and antioxidants and the risk of Barrett's esophagus - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 19 - "When highest tertile of intake was compared with the lowest, the OR (95 % CI) was 0.46 (0.26-0.81) for dark green vegetables, 0.52 (0.30-0.90) for legumes, 0.50 (0.28-0.90) for total fiber, 0.45 (0.25-0.81) for isoflavones, 0.52 (0.30-0.67) for total folate, and 0.45 (0.26-0.79) for lutein, adjusting for multiple confounding factors including use of aspirin or proton pump inhibitor, gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms, and physical activity. The association for dark green vegetables was attenuated after adjustment for lutein, total fiber, and total folate (OR = 0.82; 95 % CI 0.30-2.22)"
  • Intakes of Fruits, Vegetables, and Related Vitamins and Lung Cancer Risk: Results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009) - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):51-61 - "investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 adult Chinese men who were recruited into the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits ... median follow-up of 5.5 yr ... Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53-0.98), 0.69 (0.51-0.94), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), 0.63 (0.44-0.88), and 0.64 (0.46-0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 15 - "computer searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual review of references ... A total of 32 studies involving 10,037 cases of ESCC were included in this meta-analysis. The SRRs for the highest vs. lowest intake were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.69) for vegetable intake and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.44-0.64) for fruit intake (P(heterogeneity) <0.001 for both). Similar results were observed in a linear dose-response analysis. There was evidence of non-linear associations for intakes of fruit (P(non-linearity) <0.001) and vegetables (P(nonlinearity) =0.041)"
  • Total and specific fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: A prospective study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 28 - "We prospectively followed 74,961 participants (34,670 women and 40,291 men) who had completed a food frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997 and were free from stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancer at baseline ... 10.2 years of follow-up ... The multivariable relative risk (RR) of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest category of total fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.97; P for trend = 0.01). The association was confined to individuals without hypertension (corresponding RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Among individual fruits and vegetable subgroups, inverse associations with total stroke were observed for apples/pears (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.98; P for trend = 0.02) and green leafy vegetables (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.81-1.04; P for trend = 0.03) ... Particularly consumption of apples and pears and green leafy vegetables was inversely associated with stroke"
  • Pretreatment dietary patterns, weight status, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma prognosis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 26 - "Consumption of a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, fish, poultry and whole grains and being overweight before diagnosis with head and neck cancer are associated with a better prognosis"
  • Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 13 - "searched on PubMed database from January 1966 through September 2012 to indentify case-control and cohort studies ... For vegetables, the summary relative risks (RRs) of NHL for high vs low intake for case-control, cohort and all studies were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.94; N=8), 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00; N=5) and 0.81 (95%CI, 0.71-0.92; N=13) ; and the corresponding RRs for intake of 1 serving per day were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.96; N=8), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00; N=5) and 0.92 (95%CI, 0.87-0.96; N=13). For fruits and vegetables combined, the summary RR for high vs low intake was 0.78 (95%CI, 0.66-0.92; N=4), and for intake of 1 serving per day was 0.95 (95%CI, 0.91-1.00; N=4) ... Fruits intake was generally not associated with total NHL, or any histological subtypes. Our findings suggest that intakes of vegetables, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not fruits alone, significantly reduce risk of NHL"
  • Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese - results of a prospective population-based study - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec 16:1-6 - "In a regression model that controlled for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease/health-related variables but not cognitive status, both fruits (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.98, P = 0.038) and vegetables (OR = 0.38, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.86, P = 0.021) were protective against depressive symptoms 4 years later. However, when the same regression model was also adjusted for cognitive status, only vegetables (OR = 0.40, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.95, P = 0.039) were protective against depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of eggs was close to being significant in both regression models (P = 0.087 and 0.069, respectively). Other food categories including meat/poultry, fish, seafood, dairy, legumes, grains and tea showed no significant associations"
  • Dietary patterns and risk of oesophageal cancers: a population-based case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-10 - "We conducted a population-based case-control study, which included 365 oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 426 oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (OGJAC) and 303 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases, with frequency matched on age, sex and geographical location to 1580 controls ... A high score on the meat-and-fat pattern was associated with increased risk of all three cancers: multivariable-adjusted OR 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30, 3.46) for OAC; 1.88 (95 % CI 1.21, 2.94) for OGJAC; 2.84 (95 % CI 1.67, 4.83) for OSCC (P-trend < 0.01 for all three cancers). A high score on the pasta-and-pizza pattern was inversely associated with OSCC risk (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.96, P for trend = 0.009); and a high score on the fruit-and-vegetable pattern was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk of OGJAC (OR for Q4 v. Q1 0.66, 95 % CI 0.42, 1.04, P = 0.07) and significantly decreased risk of OSCC (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.70, P for trend = 0.002). High-fat dairy foods appeared to play a dominant role in the association between the meat-and-fat pattern and risk of OAC and OGJAC"
  • Impact of Consumption of Vegetable, Fruit, Grain, and High Glycemic Index Foods on Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 - "Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96; P trend = 0.02], as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P trend = 0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P trend = 0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer"
  • Colours of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of CHD - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 8:1-8 - "For each 25 g/d increase in the intake of the sum of all four colours of fruit and vegetables, a borderline significant association with incident CHD was found (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.01). No clear associations were found for the colour groups separately. However, each 25 g/d increase in the intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CHD (HR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.55, 1.00). Carrots, their largest contributor (60 %), were associated with a 32 % lower risk of CHD (HR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.98). In conclusion, though no clear associations were found for the four colour groups with CHD, a higher intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables and especially carrots may protect against CHD"
  • Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 24:1 - "A protective independent effect was observed for the highest tertile of total fruit consumption (OR: 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.45, P value = 0.001). Within the group of fruits, a significant inverse association was observed for bananas and kiwis (P for trends: 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The risk of SCC decreased monotonically with increasing intake frequency of oranges (P value for trend = 0.01). The effect of total vegetable consumption on esophageal SCC was not significant, although a reduction in risk was observed in the highest tertile of intake (OR: 0.66, CI: 0.23-1.87, P value = 0.43). The results of the present study suggest a reasonable association between fruit consumption and esophageal SCC in a Middle Eastern high-risk population"
  • Foods and Food Groups Associated With the Incidence of Colorectal Polyps: The Adventist Health Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 4:1 - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits ... Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. <5/wk = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) and dried fruit (OR 3+ times/wk vs. <1 time/wk = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.99). Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps"
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study - Eur Heart J. 2011 Jan 18 - "average of 8.4 years ... Participants consuming at least eight portions (80 g each) of fruits and vegetables a day had a 22% lower risk of fatal IHD [relative risk (RR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.95] compared with those consuming fewer than three portions a day. After calibration of fruit and vegetable intake to account for differences in dietary assessment between the participating centres, a one portion (80 g) increment in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 4% lower risk of fatal IHD (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-1.00, P for trend = 0.033). Conclusion Results from this large observational study suggest that a higher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of IHD mortality. Whether this association is causal and, if so, the biological mechanism(s) by which fruits and vegetables operate to lower IHD risks remains unclear"
  • Dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer - Br J Cancer. 2010 Dec 14 - "only that characterised by high consumption of fruit and salad was associated with a reduced risk, with stronger associations observed for tumours not expressing oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Compared with women in the lowest quintile of the factor score, the hazard ratio for women in the highest quintile was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.70-1.21; test for trend, P=0.5) for ER-positive or PR-positive tumours and 0.48 (95% CI=0.26-0.86; test for trend, P=0.002) for ER-negative and PR-negative tumours"
  • Lifetime Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Arterial Pulse Wave Velocity in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Circulation. 2010 Nov 29 - "Vegetable consumption in childhood was inversely associated with adulthood PWV (β=-0.06, P=0.02), and this association remained significant (β=-0.07, P=0.004) when adjusted for traditional risk factors (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking). Vegetable consumption was also an independent predictor of PWV in adulthood when adjusted for lifestyle or traditional risk factors (β=-0.08, P=0.002 and β=-0.07, P=0.0007, respectively). Persistently high consumption of both fruits and vegetables from childhood to adulthood was associated with lower PWV compared with persistently low consumption (P=0.03 for both). The number of lifestyle risk factors (the lowest quintile for vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, physical activity, and smoking) in childhood was directly associated with PWV in adulthood (P=0.001). This association remained significant when adjusted for the number of lifestyle risk factors in adulthood ... lifetime lifestyle risk factors, with low consumption of fruits and vegetables in particular, are related to arterial stiffness in young adulthood"
  • Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 24 - "The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer"
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 1 - "After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers"
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):460-8 - "Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner"
  • Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24 - "Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival ... Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends"
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Colorectal Adenomas - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 17 - "The odds ratio for upper tertile intake compared with lower was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51-0.86) for total fruits, 0.64 (95% CI = 0.47-0.87) for berries, 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56-0.92) for fruit juice, and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58-0.96) for green vegetables. This study provides additional evidence that high total fruit intake and certain fruit and vegetable intakes may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and head and neck cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study - Int J Cancer. 2007 Dec 18 - "Results from this large prospective observational study are consistent with previous case-control studies and support the hypothesis that total fruit and vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer"
  • Dietary patterns and surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case control study in Western Australia - BJU Int. 2007 Dec 5 - "BPH risk was not associated with the 'Health Conscious' or 'Western' patterns, but there was a lower risk with an increasing score for the 'Vegetable' pattern (odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.98). BPH risk was significantly and inversely related to the intake of total vegetables, dark yellow vegetables, other vegetables, tofu and red meat. There was a higher risk of BPH with increasing intake of high-fat dairy products"
  • Intake of fruits, vegetables, and soy foods in relation to breast cancer risk in Korean women: a case-control study - Nutr Cancer. 2007;57(1):20-7 - "Increasing consumption of grapes was linked to a significant protective effect against risk of breast cancer (OR=0.66; 95% CI=0.41-0.86; P<0.01). Among the vegetables, reduced risk was observed with high tomato intake (OR=0.62; 95% CI=0.38-0.81; P<0.01). Among soy foods, high consumption of cooked soybeans, including yellow and black soybeans, had an association with reduced breast cancer (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.45-0.91; P<0.02)"
  • Fruit and vegetable intakes, dietary antioxidant nutrients, and total mortality in Spanish adults: findings from the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1634-42 - "A high intake of fresh fruit, root vegetables, and fruiting vegetables is associated with reduced mortality, probably as a result of their high content of vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and lycopene"
  • Dietary patterns and blood pressure change over 5-y follow-up in the SU.VI.MAX cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1650-6 - "high fruit and vegetable intakes may be associated with a lower increase in BP with aging"
  • The effects of a high-fruit and -vegetable, high-fiber, low-fat dietary intervention on serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 May 9 - "A low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable dietary intervention had minimal impact on serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 overall, but in lean subjects the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in serum glucose concentration"
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):523-9 - "Vegetable consumption was inversely associated with BPH (fifth compared with first quintile-OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99; P for trend = 0.03), whereas fruit intake was not. Consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in beta-carotene (P for trend = 0.004), lutein (P for trend = 0.0004), or vitamin C (P for trend = 0.05) was inversely related to BPH. With increasing vitamin C intake from foods, men were less likely to have BPH (P for trend = 0.0009). Neither alpha- nor gamma-tocopherol intake from foods was associated with BPH"
  • Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):252-62 - "Dietary supplementation with concentrated RGJ improves the lipoprotein profile, reduces plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers and oxidized LDL, and may favor a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk"
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cataract in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1417-1422 - "Compared with women in the lowest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake, women with higher intakes had modest 10-15% reduced risks of cataract"
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive decline in aging women - Ann Neurol 2005;57:713-720 - "Fruits were not associated with cognition or cognitive decline. However, total vegetable intake was significantly associated with less decline. Specifically, on a global score combining all tests, women in the highest quintile of cruciferous vegetables declined slower (by 0.04 unit; 95% confidence interval, 0.003, 0.07; p trend = 0.1) compared with the lowest quintile. Women consuming the most green leafy vegetables also experienced slower decline than women consuming the least amount (by 0.05 unit; 95% confidence interval, 0.02, 0.09; p trend < 0.001). These mean differences were equivalent to those observed for women about 1 to 2 years apart in age"
  • Frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease in France and Northern Ireland: the PRIME study - Br J Nutr. 2004 Dec;92(6):963-72 - "There was no evidence for any association between vegetable intake and total CHD events. In conclusion, frequency of citrus fruit, but not other fruits, intake is associated with lower rates of acute coronary events in both France and Northern Ireland"
  • Intake of fruits, vegetables and selected micronutrients in relation to the risk of breast cancer - Epidemiology, 3/10/03