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Home > Anti-aging Research > Inulin

Inulin (glycemic index 14)

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Inulin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants"
  • How Sugar Substitutes Stack Up - National Graphics, 7/17/13 - "Xylitol is five percent less sweet than sugar, but it has 40 percent fewer calories (9 calories versus sugar's 16) and a low glycemic index" - Note: Sounds like a no-brainer. Add 5% more if you want the same sweetness. I snack on pumpkin pie. For the sugar part, I replace it with a third inulin, a third trehalose and a third xylitol. See inulin at Amazon.com, trehalose at Amazon.com and xylitol at Amazon.com.
  • Inulin: Is This Commonly Used Fiber Additive Friend or Foe? - Medscape, 9/19/19 - "The amount of inulin that should be consumed depends on individual tolerance and goals. In adults with specific conditions, the following amounts are recommended[19]: For those with diabetes: 10 g/day for 8 weeks ... For weight loss: 10-30 g/day for 6-8 weeks ... To lower high triglycerides: 14 g/day ... To relieve constipation: 12-40 g/day for 4 weeks" - Note:  I posted my ice cream recipe several times where I substituted have the sugar with inulin.
  • Curiosity, Skepticism Over New Algae-Derived Chinese Alzheimer's Drug - Medscape, 11/14/19 - "Oligomannate is a drug manufactured from an oligosaccharide extracted from marine algae and is the first novel drug approved for AD globally since 2003 ... The drug works on the gut microbiome. It reportedly reconditions dysbiosis of gut microbiota, inhibits the abnormal increase of intestinal flora metabolites, and modulates peripheral and central inflammation, thereby reducing amyloid protein deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation to improve cognitive function" - See oligosaccharide at Amazon.com.
  • What is inulin, and why is it showing up in so many food products? - Washington Post, 6/12/19 - "Both inulin and FOS are extracted from chicory root fiber, a natural dietary fiber that is extracted using hot water from a plant that’s part of the dandelion family ... Longer-chain inulin has a creamy mouthfeel, so it’s often used to help reduce the fat content in products. Short-chain inulin (FOS) tastes slightly sweet, so it’s used to help reduce some of the sugar and sugar substitutes in foods and beverages. Inulin supplements and some foods and beverages will use a blend of short- and longer-chain inulin ... Chicory root fiber passes through your small intestine and then is fermented by the bacteria in your large intestine. As noted above, taking in too much too quickly can lead to digestive discomfort — which can happen with any fiber. In addition, some people seem to be more sensitive to inulin and FOS than others, and may need to limit their consumption ... Inulin does have some digestive benefits. A blend of short- and long-chain inulin has been shown to reduce discomfort and help with constipation. The fiber increases the amounts of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli bacteria in the gut. The European Food Safety Association has approved the claim that consuming at least 12 grams of chicory inulin or FOS a day eases constipation ... Inulin and FOS also may reduce our calorie intake and blood-sugar levels and increase calcium absorption ... Chicory root fiber seems to slow down stomach emptying and suppresses appetite signals in the brain, which could help you eat less ... A weight-loss study of 44 people with pre-diabetes who were receiving counseling from a dietitian found that the group taking inulin supplements for 18 weeks had a weight loss of 7.6 percent of body weight, compared with a weight loss of 4.9 percent in the group taking cellulose, another type of fiber ... Inulin also seems to lower glucose and insulin levels after meals in average-weight and overweight people ... In prehistoric times — when we were eating far more vegetables and gnawing at roots — it’s estimated that our ancestors consumed about 135 grams of inulin a day. I wouldn’t recommend aiming for those levels, given what our digestive levels are now accustomed. But we can realistically reach much lower levels that promote health benefits ... Randal Buddington, professor at the University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, likens increasing your inulin intake to exercising more. “If a couch potato starts exercising with a very intense workout, the pain and agony may very well keep them from continuing. If they start slow, and gradually build up, the benefits will increase and the person will continue.”" - See inulin at Amazon.com.  See my write-up in my 5/29/19 newsletter on using inulin to replace half the sugar in an ice cream recipe.  That and xanthan gum makes the creamiest ice cream you'll find.
  • Prebiotics reduce body fat in overweight children - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either the prebiotic fiber -- oligofructose-enriched inulin -- or a placebo, once daily for 16 weeks. The prebiotic was provided as a white powder, mixed in water ... Powdered fiber, mixed in a water bottle, taken once a day is all we asked the children to change, and we got, what we consider, some pretty exciting results -- it has been fantastic ... Based on four-month intervention data, the annual projected body weight increase in the prebiotic group would be 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds), within the expected healthy range, whereas the projected increase in the placebo group was 8 kilograms (17.6 pounds), almost triple the expected yearly weight increase. Thus, supplementation with the prebiotic improved outcomes in children who were overweight or obese. Importantly, the researchers show that the prebiotic induced specific gut bacterial shifts compared to placebo" - [Abstract] - Note:  17.6 - 6.6 = 11 pounds difference or about a pound per month.  The abstract says they used 8 grams per day.  See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Rats fed a dietary fiber supplement had better weight control - Science Daily, 4/8/15 - "Despite having constant access to food high in fat and sugar, rats given supplemental oligofructose fibre gained about one third less weight than the control group ... microbiota in obese rats given oligofructose were changed to be more similar to those of lean animals. Gut hormones were also affected by the oligofructose, including an increase of a hormone that helps control the sensation of satiety -- the feeling of being full ... In a 2009 human study that she led, adults receiving supplements of oligofructose lost on average one kilogram over a 12 week period -- and perhaps more importantly, didn't continue to gain weight" - See oligosaccharide at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Dietary Prebiotic Supplementation in Pre-diabetes - Medscape, 10/1/14 - "Thirty adults with pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose) aged between 40–60 years will be randomly assigned to receive either 10 grams of prebiotic (inulin/oligofructose) daily or 10 grams placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 12 weeks ... Supplementation of the diet with bifidogenic prebiotic fibres (such as inulin) may reduce or retard the accumulation of AGEs in individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Prebiotics have been shown to improve and restore optimal microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, potentially reducing AGE absorption and/or production by the human host. Preliminary investigations indicate that consuming a high-AGE diet is sufficient to favour the proliferation of potentially pathogenic colonic bacteria over more beneficial species. Consumption of glycated proteins,[34] fried meats[61] and toasted wheat flakes[62] encouraged the preferential growth of greater numbers of detrimental gram negative and sulphate-reducing colonic micro-organisms when compared to control diets. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) produced as a bacterial by-product of prebiotic fermentation act to lower the intestinal pH, inhibiting the growth of protein-degrading micro-organisms capable of producing potentially toxic metabolites. SCFAs also stimulate colonic smooth muscle contractions, speeding intestinal transit and limiting the time available for protein fermentation and putrefaction to occur in the gut.[63] Therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics may restore gut normobiosis and reduce AGE accumulation in humans at risk for type 2 diabetes development by the following mechanisms" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • What are fructooliogosaccharides and how do they provide digestive, immunity and bone health benefits? - Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "Fructooliogosaccharides are naturally found in chicory, onions, asparagus, wheat, tomatoes and other fruits, vegetables and grains. They also can be derived from cane sugar and seaweed for use as a low-calorie (1.5 -- 2 Kcal/g) food sweetener and supplement. As scFOS provides approximately 30-to-50 percent of the sweetness of regular sugar, it can be used to enhance flavor and lower the amount of sugar in a food product ... In addition, scFOS are considered prebiotics. After they are consumed, fructooliogosaccharides move to the large intestine to stimulate the production of microbiota in the colon and gastrointestinal track ... The regular addition of scFOS to the diet is "ideal for maintaining mineral density and (bone) strength ... Most Americans, including many formula-fed infants and children, do not get enough scFOS"
  • Inulin plus resistant starch could be super-prebiotic - Nutra USA, 6/29/10 - "the combination of the ingredients not only boosted levels of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the animals’ intestine, but also improved intestinal function"
  • Artificial Sweetener May Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 11/20/09 - "Systolic blood pressure dropped an average of 6.9 points in the OFS group, compared with 3.5 in the placebo group ... Diastolic blood pressure decreased an average of 7.3 points in the OFS group vs. 2.3 in the placebo group ... Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein ( LDL or “bad” cholesterol), and triglycerides also dropped more in participants given OFS than in those who took placebo tablets" - See:

    • Fructooligosaccharide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose or oligofructan, is a class of oligosaccharides used as an artificial or alternative sweetener. FOS exhibits sweetness levels between 30 and 50 percent of sugar in commercially-prepared syrups. [1] Its use emerged in the 1980s in response to consumer demand for healthier and calorie-reduced foods. The term oligosaccharide refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (in the case of FOS, fructose molecules). Oligo means few, and saccharide means sugar"
    • See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Lifelong prebiotic supplements may enhance survival: rat study - Nutra USA, 4/24/08 - "In terms of survival, at 18 months of age, all the animals in the prebiotic group were still alive, compared to 76 per cent in the control group. After 24 months, 81 per cent of the rats in the prebiotic group were alive, compared to only 52 per cent of controls" - [Abstract]
  • Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals - Nutrition Science News, 7/00 - "Plasma total cholesterol was reduced by 7.9 percent and total triglycerides by 21.2 percent in young men consuming a 50 g serving of a breakfast cereal fortified with 18 percent inulin for four weeks during a study conducted at the University of Milan, Italy"

Abstracts:

  • The role of functional oligosaccharides as prebiotics in ulcerative colitis - Food Funct 2022 Jul 4 - "The current studies on UC implicate a strong correlation between host gut microbiota immunity and the pathogenesis of UC. Meanwhile, more and more functional oligosaccharides have been reported as prebiotics to alleviate UC, since many of them can be metabolized by gut microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The present review is focused on the structure, sources and specific applications of various functional oligosaccharides related to the prevention and treatment of UC. The available evidence for the usage of functional oligosaccharides in UC treatment are summarized, including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), chito-oligosaccharides (COS), alginate-oligosaccharides (AOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), stachyose and inulin" - See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • The role of functional oligosaccharides as prebiotics in ulcerative colitis - Food Funct 2022 Jun 15 - "The current studies on UC implicate a strong correlation between host gut microbiota immunity and the pathogenesis of UC. Meanwhile, more and more functional oligosaccharides have been reported as prebiotics to alleviate UC, since many of them can be metabolized by gut microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The present review is focused on the structure, sources and specific applications of various functional oligosaccharides related to the prevention and treatment of UC"
  • The impact of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides on gut dysbiosis and inflammation in obesity and diabetes related kidney disease - Food Funct 2022 May 18 - "Recent studies have reported that gut dysbiosis aggravates the progression of obesity and diabetes by increasing the production of uremic toxins in conjunction with gut barrier dysfunction which then leads to increased passage of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the blood circulatory system eventually causing systemic inflammation. Therefore, the modification of gut microbiota using a prebiotic supplement may assist in the restoration of gut barrier function and reduce any disturbance of the inflammatory response ... The evidence confirms that FOS supplementation could improve the pathological changes associated with obesity and diabetes related kidney disease, however, knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved is still limited and needs further elucidation" - See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Inulin activates FXR-FGF15 signaling and further increases bile acids excretion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Feb 10 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder defined as the presence of intrahepatic lipid deposition and steatosis as well as chronic inflammation without excessive alcohol consumption. Our previous studies found that inulin could dramatically improve lipid metabolism disorders in NAFLD murine models ... we found that inulin treatment significantly reversed the abnormal accumulation of bile acids in high-fat-induced NAFLD mice. Furthermore, our data confirmed that inulin supplementation attenuates NAFLD via restoring the activity of FXR accompanied by increasing hepatic bile acids de novo synthesis and further enhancing bile acids excretion in mice"
  • Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Enhance Iron Absorption Via Modulation of Protein Expression and Gut Microbiota in a Dose-response Manner in Iron-deficient Growing Rats - Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Feb 20 - "Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children is one of the most common nutrition-related health conditions worldwide. Prebiotic oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), have shown to affect iron absorption in anemic subjects, but the results in previous studies were inconsistent, thus the underlying mechanism and the effective dose of GOS in mitigating anemia remain unclear ... For the first time, the present study provided evidence that GOS supplementation induced a dose-response effect on iron absorption and gut microbiota in the established model, suggesting a positive role of GOS in ameliorating IDA in children" - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com and iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Oligofructose-enriched inulin intake, gut microbiome characteristics and the V̇O2peak response to high-intensity interval training in healthy inactive adults - J Nutr 2021 Dec 15 - "The gut microbiome has been associated with cardiorespiratory fitness ... Forty sedentary and apparently healthy adults (n = 31 females; age = 31.8±9.8 years, BMI = 25.9±4.3 kg·m-2) were randomly allocated to: i) six weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min bouts at 85-95% HRpeak, interspersed with 3 min of active recovery, 3·week-1) + 12 g·day-1 of FOS-enriched inulin (HIIT-I) or ii) six weeks of supervised HIIT (3·week-1, 4×4 min bouts) + 12 g·day-1 of maltodextrin/placebo (HIIT-P) ... FOS-enriched inulin supplementation did not potentiate HIIT-induced improvements in V̇O2peak, but led to gut microbiome changes possibly associated with greater ventilatory threshold improvements in healthy inactive adults"
  • Fructooligosaccharides on inflammation, immunomodulation, oxidative stress, and gut immune response: a systematic review - Nutr Rev 2021 Dec 30 - "Studies suggest that FOS supplementation is positively associated with an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, thus enhancing the gut immune system, which may be beneficial for the host's health"
  • Fructooligosaccharides Increase in Plasma Concentration of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Rats - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Dec 15 - "(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) undergoes auto-oxidation at physiological pH and therefore may be poorly absorbed in the intestine. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), comprising a group of 1-kestose, nystose, and 1F-β fructofuranosyl-nystose, are fermentable by gut bacteria and converted mainly into lactate. This study was conducted to determine whether dietary FOS may help to increase the plasma concentration of EGCG in rats by preventing it from auto-oxidation ... Because EGCG concentrations in the cecal digesta of rats fed the FOS-containing diet maintained comparatively high levels, FOS likely contributed to the protection of EGCG from auto-oxidation. In conclusion, FOS reduced the pH of the lumen of the intestine, kept EGCG intact to a certain degree, and consequently allowed EGCG to be taken into the blood circulation from the intestine" - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com.
    • Prebiotics: A look at FOS & Inulin - optibacprobiotics.com - "The principal difference between these two prebiotics is their structural difference. Fructooligosaccharides are shorter chain molecules and are linear in their molecular structure, whereas inulin is slightly longer and has more cross-links in its structure"
  • Neuroprotective Potential of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: An Overview of Experimental Evidence - Front. Pharmacol., 23 August 2021 - "Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive and memory impairments (Kumar and Singh 2015). It also results in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles from abnormally phosphorylated tau and abnormal accumulation of amyloid plaques (Drummond and Wisniewski 2017). Animal models play a crucial role in defining disease-associated mechanisms and have been of prime importance in evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapeutic agents (Drummond and Wisniewski 2017). In a rodent model of AD, COS (chitosan oligosaccharides) (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg BW for 2 weeks) were found effective in reducing cognitive deficits in amyloid-β-1–42-induced rats ... A significant number of research findings have demonstrated the link between gut microbiota alterations on the onset of ASD. The beneficial effect of probiotic administration in ASD children is evaluated by many researchers as they are known to restore gut microbiota and downregulate ASD symptoms. Probiotic strains, viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus (Liu et al., 2017), Lactobacillus plantarum (Shaaban et al., 2018), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Kałużna-Czaplińska and Błaszczyk, 2012), and Bifidobacterium longum (Niu et al., 2019) have shown therapeutic potential towards ASD" - [Nutra USA] - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Prebiotic Food Intake May Improve Bone Resorption in Japanese Female Athletes: A Pilot Study - Sports (Basel) 2021 Jun 4 - "The aim of the present study was to clarify the influence of inulin and lactulose-fortified prebiotic food intakes on bone metabolism turnover among Japanese female athletes. The participants included 29 female athletes aged 18-25 years. They were requested to consume their habitual foods or drinks with one pack of prebiotic food every day for 12 weeks ... The occupation ratio of Bifidobacterium spp. was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks (18.0 ± 8.3% and 17.6 ± 8.5%, respectively) compared to that of pre-intervention (11.7 ± 7.3%) (p = 0.019 and p = 0.035, respectively). The serum TRACP-5b level was significantly decreased at 12 weeks (363 ± 112 mU/dL) compared to that at baseline (430 ± 154 mU/dL) (p = 0.018). These results suggest that the prebiotic food used in this study might have beneficial effects on bone health and gut microbial environment among female athletes" - [Nutra USA] - See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Improvement of colonic healing and surgical recovery with perioperative supplementation of inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides - Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27 - "galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) ... Dietary supplementation with inulin and GOS may improve anastomotic healing and reinforce the gut barrier in mice" - See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of co-administration of probiotics and prebiotics on chronic inflammation, and depression symptoms in patients with coronary artery diseases: a randomized clinical trial - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Feb 28 - "we are interested in exploring of anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus G (LGG), a probiotic strain, alone or in combination with a prebiotic, Inulin, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) ... This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was held on 96 patients with CAD. Patients were randomly allocated into four different groups: LGG [a capsule/day, contained 1.9 × 109 colony-forming unit of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus G], inulin (15 g/day), co-supplemented (LGG and inulin), and placebo. Participants consumed the supplements for two months. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), MacNew questionnaire and Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-Y) were used to assess depression, quality of life and anxiety, respectively. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Interleukin (IL)-10 were also measured ... Co-supplementation of probiotics and inulin in CAD subjects for eight weeks had beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, and inflammatory biomarkers. Adding inulin to probiotic supplements improved psychological outcomes and inflammatory biomarkers more effectively than two supplements separately" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Prebiotic dietary fibre intervention improves fecal markers related to inflammation in obese patients: results from the Food4Gut randomized placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Nutr 2021 Feb 5 - "Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are prebiotic dietary fibre (DF) that may confer beneficial health effects, by interacting with the gut microbiota ... articipants received either 16 g/d native inulin (prebiotic n = 12) versus maltodextrin (placebo n = 12), coupled to dietary advice to consume inulin-rich versus inulin-poor vegetables for 3 months, in addition to dietary caloric restriction ... Both placebo and prebiotic interventions lowered energy and protein intake. A substantial increase in Bifidobacterium was detected after ITF treatment (q = 0.049) supporting our recent data obtained in a larger cohort. Interestingly, fecal calprotectin, a marker of gut inflammation, was reduced upon ITF treatment ... Our study demonstrates that ITF-prebiotic intake during 3 months decreases a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation in obese patients. Our data point to a potential contribution of microbial lipid-derived metabolites in gastro-intestinal dysfunction related to obesity" - [Nutra USA]
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides lower serum lipid levels and suppress high-fat/high-sugar diet-induced inflammation by elevating serum and gut levels of short-chain fatty acids - J Int Med Res. 2019 Dec 31 - Note:  It doesn't show that abstract but I guess the title summarizes it.
  • Moderate intensity exercise training combined with inulin-propionate ester supplementation increases whole body resting fat oxidation in overweight women - Metabolism. 2019 Nov 29 - "Our previous work has shown that oral supplementation with inulin propionate ester (IPE) reduces intra-abdominal fat and prevents weight gain and that oral propionate intake enhances resting fat oxidation. The effects of IPE combined with exercise training on energy substrate utilisation are unknown ... Moderate intensity exercise training programmes when combined with daily oral IPE supplementation may help overweight women to achieve increase in fat oxidation"
  • Inulin and metformin ameliorate polycystic ovary syndrome via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota in mice - Endocr J. 2019 Jul 3 - "Mice were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), model group (MOD), inulin group (INU), metformin group (MET). The last three groups were fed 6 mg of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) per 100 g body weight and 60% high-fat diet to generate mice model. After 21 days of intervention, mice were euthanized and associated indications were investigated. Body weight (BW) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased, but estradiol (E2) levels were increased in INU or MET group, respectively. Ovary HE staining demonstrated that inulin or metformin ameliorated PCOS morphology. Inflammatory indicators from plasma and ovary including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A were decreased in INU or MET group. Moreover, IL-10 in ovary of INU or MET group was increased. Sequencing and analysis of gut microbiota showed that compared to MOD group, Bifidobacterium was increased, but Proteobacteria, Helicobacter and Parasutterella were decreased in INU group. Helicobacter was decreased in MET group. Correlation analysis showed that gut microbiota was correlated with inflammatory factors. Our results revealed that inulin and metformin alleviated PCOS via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota, which may contribute to potential clinical therapy for the disease"
  • Mid-life microbiota crises: middle age is associated with pervasive neuroimmune alterations that are reversed by targeting the gut microbiome - Mol Psychiatry. 2019 May 16 - "Male middle age is a transitional period where many physiological and psychological changes occur leading to cognitive and behavioural alterations, and a deterioration of brain function. However, the mechanisms underpinning such changes are unclear. The gut microbiome has been implicated as a key mediator in the communication between the gut and the brain, and in the regulation of brain homeostasis, including brain immune cell function ... Male young adult (8 weeks) and middle-aged (10 months) C57BL/6 mice received diet enriched with a prebiotic (10% oligofructose-enriched inulin) or control chow for 14 weeks. Prebiotic supplementation differentially altered the gut microbiota profile in young and middle-aged mice with changes correlating with faecal metabolites. Functionally, this translated into a reversal of stress-induced immune priming in middle-aged mice. In addition, a reduction in ageing-induced infiltration of Ly-6Chi monocytes into the brain coupled with a reversal in ageing-related increases in a subset of activated microglia (Ly-6C+) was observed. Taken together, these data highlight a potential pathway by which targeting the gut microbiome with prebiotics can modulate the peripheral immune response and alter neuroinflammation in middle age. Our data highlight a novel strategy for the amelioration of age-related neuroinflammatory pathologies and brain function" - [Nutra USA]
  • Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 25;10(5) - "Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake - Nutrients. 2017 Dec 18;9(12) - "The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic (n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo (n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day (p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively)" - [Nutra USA] - See oligofructose at Amazon.com.
  • Inulin-type fructans and whey protein both modulate appetite but only fructans alter gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity: a randomized controlled trial - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 21 - "125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: 1) Control; 2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); 3) Whey protein; 4) ITF + Whey protein ... Compared to Control, body fat was significantly reduced in the Whey protein group at 12wks. Hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were all lower with ITF, Whey protein and ITF + Whey protein compared to Control at 12 wks. Microbial community structure differed from 0 to 12 wks in the ITF and ITF +Whey Protein groups (i.e. increased Bifidobacterium) but not Whey Protein or Control ... Adding ITF, whey protein or both to snack bars improved several aspects of appetite control. Changes in gut microbiota may explain in part the effects of ITF but likely not whey protein" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Targeting the gut microbiota with inulin-type fructans: preclinical demonstration of a novel approach in the management of endothelial dysfunction - Gut. 2017 Apr 4 - "inulin-type fructans (ITFs) supplementation ... ITF supplementation totally reverses endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric and carotid arteries of n-3 PUFA-depleted Apoe-/- mice via activation of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase/NO pathway. Gut microbiota changes induced by prebiotic treatment consist in increased NO-producing bacteria, replenishment of abundance in Akkermansia and decreased abundance in bacterial taxa involved in secondary BA synthesis. Changes in gut and liver gene expression also occur upon ITFs suggesting increased glucagon-like peptide 1 production and BA turnover as drivers of endothelium function preservation" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oligofructose decreases serum lipopolysaccharide and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with overweight/obesity - Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Mar;25(3):510-513 - "Participants were randomized to 21 g of oligofructose (n = 20; BMI 30.4 kg/m2 ) or a maltodextrin placebo (n = 17; BMI 29.5 kg/m2 ) for 12 weeks ... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) ... Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ... Plasma LPS concentrations were reduced by 40% in the oligofructose group over 12 weeks compared to a 48% increase in the placebo group ... Oligofructose reduces metabolic endotoxemia and PAI-1. Incorporating prebiotics into the diet through supplements or functional foods may help mitigate some markers of obesity-associated inflammation" - [Nutra USA] - See oligofructose at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of synbiotic supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2016 Sep 29:1-8 - "Patients in the synbiotic group received a daily capsule that contained three viable and freeze-dried strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum (2×109 colony-forming units/g each) plus 800 mg inulin for 6 weeks ... After 6 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation led to a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (-1·5 (sd 5·9) v. +4·8 (sd 11·5) µIU/ml, P=0·005), homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (-0·4 (sd 1·3) v. +1·1 (sd 2·7), P=0·003) and homoeostatic model assessment for β cell function (-5·1 (sd 24·2) v. +18·9 (sd 45·6), P=0·008) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·01 (sd 0·01) v. -0·007 (sd 0·02), P=0·02). In addition, synbiotic intake significantly decreased serum TAG (-14·8 (sd 56·5) v. +30·4 (sd 37·8) mg/dl, P<0·001) and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations (-3·0 (sd 11·3) v. +6·1 (sd 7·6) mg/dl, P<0·001) compared with the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Br J Nutr. 2014 May 22:1-8 - "placebo-controlled pilot study on thirty-eight subjects with the metabolic syndrome; they were supplemented with either synbiotic capsules containing 200 million of seven strains of friendly bacteria plus fructo-oligosaccharide or placebo capsules twice a day for 28 weeks ... After 28 weeks of treatment, the levels of fasting blood sugar and insulin resistance improved significantly in the G1 group"
  • Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides - Br J Nutr. 2013 May 28:1-11 - "The present study suggests that milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development and maturation of the intestinal immune response and that bovine milk may be an attractive commercially viable source of oligosaccharides for such applications"
  • Prebiotics to Fight Diseases: Reality or Fiction? - Phytother Res. 2012 Dec 27 - "This review focuses on the short-chain low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) which are metabolized by gut microbiota serving as energy source, immune system enhancers or facilitators of mineral uptake. Intake of foods containing LDCs can improve the state of health and may prevent diseases as for example certain forms of cancer. Given the large number of different molecules belonging to LDCs, we focused our attention on fructans (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides), galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starches and their therapeutic and protective applications. Evidence is accumulating that LDCs can inhibit bacterial and viral infections by modulating host defense responses and by changing the interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Animal studies and studies on small groups of human subjects suggest that LDCs might help to counteract colorectal cancer, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The action mechanisms of LDCs in the human body might be broader than originally thought, perhaps also including reactive oxygen species scavenging and signaling events"
  • Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Feb 22;11:29 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years ... Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria ... The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group"
  • Beneficial effects of catechin-rich green tea and inulin on the body composition of overweight adults - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 28:1-6 - "The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin affects body weight and fat mass in obese and overweight adults. A total of thirty subjects were divided into a control group and an experimental group who received 650 ml tea or catechin-rich green tea plus inulin. A reduction of body weight ( - 1.29 (sem 0.35) kg) and fat mass (0.82 (sem 0.27) kg) in the experimental group was found after 6 weeks, and no adverse effects were observed. After refraining from consumption for 2 weeks, sustained effects on body weight and fat mass were observed. We conclude that continuous intake of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin for at least 3 weeks may be beneficial for weight management" - Note: 1.29 kg is 2.8 pounds.  See inulin products at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides improve insulin sensitivity along with the suppression of adipocytokine secretion from mesenteric fat cells in rats - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 2:1-8 - "Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are known to have beneficial effects on health. However, the effects of FOS on insulin resistance have not been fully clarified. We observed the effects of FOS feeding on insulin sensitivity and adipocytokine release from abdominal adipocytes in weaning rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 weeks old, were divided into three groups and fed a sucrose-based American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 growth diet (control), the control diet containing 5 % FOS for 5 weeks (FOS-5wk) or the control diet for 2 weeks followed by the 5 % FOS diet for 3 weeks (FOS-3wk). Tail blood was collected after fasting for 9 h on day 33 of feeding, and glucose and insulin levels were measured. On the last day, rats were anaesthetised and killed after the collection of aortic blood. Small- and large-intestinal mesenteric fat tissues were immediately excised, and the release of adiponectin, leptin and TNF-α was evaluated from the subsequently isolated adipocytes. The weight of the large-intestinal mesenteric fat, fasting blood insulin level and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance decreased in a time-dependent manner, and were much lower in the FOS-5wk group than in the control group. These values were correlated with aortic blood leptin levels. The secretion rate of leptin from the isolated mesenteric adipocytes in the small intestine, but not in the large intestine, was lower in the FOS-fed groups than in the control group. In conclusion, FOS feeding improved insulin sensitivity accompanied by the reduction in large-intestinal fat mass and leptin secretion from the mesenteric adipocytes of the small intestine"
  • Effects of lifelong intervention with an oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats on general health and lifespan - Br J Nutr. 2008 Apr 11;:1-8 - "a diet with 10 % of an oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy1) ... During the whole intervention period, male rats receiving Synergy1 (SYN1-M) displayed lower body weight, cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerolaemia compared with the controls (Cont-M). The survival rate at 24 months of age of SYN1-M rats was 35.3 % greater than that of Cont-M rats. In female rats, the Synergy1 supplementation (SYN1-F) group also reduced body weight, cholesterol and triacylglycerolaemia levels, but results were less consistent over the experiment. The survival rate at 24 months of age in SYN1-F rats was 33.3 % greater compared with that of the control (Cont-F) group. To conclude, lifelong intervention with Synergy1 improved biological markers during ageing and survival rate (lifespan) of rats"
  • Addition of inulin to a moderately high-carbohydrate diet reduces hepatic lipogenesis and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in humans - Am. J. of Clin. Nutri, 3/03