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Home > Anti-aging Research > Prebiotics

Prebiotics

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  • Science Reveals How Red Meat Harms the Heart - WebMD, 12/29/21 - "Researchers found that particular gut bacteria, more abundant in red-meat eaters, are key in turning a dietary nutrient called carnitine into a foe: a chemical known as TMAO, which helps promote blood-clotting and clogged arteries ... The traditional suspect was saturated fat, found almost exclusively in animal products. Saturated fat can boost "bad" LDL cholesterol, which contributes to cardiovascular disease ... But, Hazen said, research has shown that any ill effects of saturated fat are not enough to explain the excess heart disease risks linked to heavy red-meat consumption. There had to be other mechanisms ... Hazen, too, said he is a "big supporter" of using diet to change the gut microbiome, rather than adding certain bugs via probiotic supplements ... "Changing your diet changes the soil" that feeds gut microbes ... The researchers also analyzed stool samples from people who took part in the 2019 diet study. They found that when participants were eating a lot of red meat, their stool harbored more of the culprit E. timonensis microbes; when they switched to non-meat protein sources, those microbial levels dropped ... fermented foods like yogurt and kimchi, which contain certain microbes, can be good choices. But again, she stressed, overall diet is what's key in supporting a healthy gut" - What about prebiotics is your goal is to change the soil?
  • Body clock off-schedule? Prebiotics may help - Science Daily, 9/14/21 - "The animal study, published in the journal Brain, Behavior and Immunity, is the latest to suggest that prebiotics -- not to be confused with probiotics found in fermented foods like yogurt and sauerkraut -- can influence not only the gut, but also the brain and behavior ... Naturally abundant in many fibrous foods -- including leeks, artichokes and onions -- and in breast milk, these indigestible carbohydrates pass through the small intestine and linger in the gut, serving as nourishment for the trillions of bacteria residing there ... The authors' previous studies showed that rats raised on prebiotic-infused chow slept better and were more resilient to some of the physical effects of acute stress ... Rats that ate prebiotics more quickly realigned their sleep-wake cycles and core body temperature (which can also be thrown off when internal clocks are off) and resisted the alterations in gut flora that often come with stress ... Put simply: The animals that ingested the prebiotics hosted more good bacteria, which in turn produced metabolites that protected them from something akin to jet lag ... Why not just ingest the beneficial bacteria directly, via probiotic-rich foods like yogurt? ... That could also help, but prebiotics may have an advantage over probiotics in that they support the friendly bacteria one already has, rather than introducing a new species that may or may not take hold" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at iHerb.
  • Research shows consuming prebiotic supplements once a day has a positive impact on anxiety levels - Science Daily, 4/27/21 - "Researchers studied a group of 64 healthy female participants with no current or previous clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Participants received either a daily dose of the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or a placebo for 28 days ... This is an exciting study that brings together different dimensions in mental health research; finding prebiotic effects in a sub-clinical group shows promise for translational clinical research on multiple markers of mental health" - See galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) at Amazon.com.
  • Link between Alzheimer's disease and gut microbiota is confirmed - Science Daily, 11/16/20 - "A team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) in Switzerland, together with Italian colleagues from the National Research and Care Center for Alzheimer's and Psychiatric Diseases Fatebenefratelli in Brescia, University of Naples and the IRCCS SDN Research Center in Naples, confirm the correlation, in humans, between an imbalance in the gut microbiota and the development of amyloid plaques in the brain, which are at the origin of the neurodegenerative disorders characteristic of Alzheimer's disease ... This discovery paves the way for potentially highly innovative protective strategies -- through the administration of a bacterial cocktail, for example, or of pre-biotics to feed the "good" bacteria in our intestine" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb and probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Can't sleep? Prebiotics could help - Science Daily, 3/3/20 - "Most people are familiar with probiotics, friendly bacteria present in fermented foods like yogurt and sauerkraut. More recently, scientists have taken an interest in prebiotics -- dietary compounds that humans cannot digest but serve as nourishment for our microbiome, or the trillions of bacteria residing within us. While not all fibers are prebiotics, many fibrous foods like leeks, artichokes, onions and certain whole grains are rich in them ... rats on the prebiotic diet had a substantially different "metabolome," or make-up of metabolites. Theirs was higher in dozens of them, including fatty acids, sugars and steroids which may, via gut-brain signaling pathways, influence behavior. The rats' metabolome also looked different after stress ... For instance, the rats on the standard chow diet saw dramatic spikes in allopregnanolone precursor and Ketone Steroid, potentially sleep-disrupting metabolites, while those on the prebiotic diet saw no such spike ... The rats were fed very high doses of four specific prebiotics, including: galactooligosaccharides, which are present in lentils and cabbage; polydextrose (PDX) an FDA-approved food additive often used as a sweetener; lactoferrin, found in breast milk; and milk fat globular protein, abundant in dairy products." - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Anxiety might be alleviated by regulating gut bacteria - Science  Daily, 5/20/19 - "People who experience anxiety symptoms might be helped by taking steps to regulate the microorganisms in their gut using probiotic and non-probiotic food and supplements ... Of the 14 studies that had used probiotics as the intervention, more than a third (36%) found them to be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms, while six of the remaining seven studies that had used non-probiotics as interventions found those to be effective -- a 86% rate of effectiveness ... Some studies had used both the IRIF (interventions to regulate intestinal microbiota) approach and treatment as usual ... The authors say one reason that non-probiotic interventions were significantly more effective than probiotic interventions was possible due to the fact that changing diet (a diverse energy source) could have more of an impact on gut bacteria growth than introducing specific types of bacteria in a probiotic supplement ... There are two kinds of interventions (probiotic and non-probiotic interventions) to regulate intestinal microbiota, and it should be highlighted that the non-probiotic interventions were more effective than the probiotic interventions" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Prebiotics reduce body fat in overweight children - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either the prebiotic fiber -- oligofructose-enriched inulin -- or a placebo, once daily for 16 weeks. The prebiotic was provided as a white powder, mixed in water ... Powdered fiber, mixed in a water bottle, taken once a day is all we asked the children to change, and we got, what we consider, some pretty exciting results -- it has been fantastic ... Based on four-month intervention data, the annual projected body weight increase in the prebiotic group would be 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds), within the expected healthy range, whereas the projected increase in the placebo group was 8 kilograms (17.6 pounds), almost triple the expected yearly weight increase. Thus, supplementation with the prebiotic improved outcomes in children who were overweight or obese. Importantly, the researchers show that the prebiotic induced specific gut bacterial shifts compared to placebo" - [Abstract] - Note:  17.6 - 6.6 = 11 pounds difference or about a pound per month.  The abstract says they used 8 grams per day.  See inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary prebiotics improve sleep, buffer impacts of stress, says study - Science Daily, 2/25/17 - "Prebiotics are dietary fibers found naturally in foods like chicory, artichokes, raw garlic, leeks and onions. When beneficial bacteria digest prebiotic fiber, they not only multiply, improving overall gut health, but they also release metabolic byproducts. Some research suggests these byproducts can influence brain function ... the rats on the prebiotic diet spent more time in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, which is restful and restorative, than those on the non-prebiotic diet ... After being exposed to a stressor, the rats on the prebiotic diet also spent more time in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is believed to be critical for promoting recovery from stress, with research showing that those who get more REM sleep post-trauma are less likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder"
  • Prebiotics may help to cope with stress - Science Daily, 2/10/17 - "regular intake of prebiotics may promote beneficial gut bacteria and recovery of normal sleep patterns after a stressful episode"
  • Gut microbial mix relates to stages of blood sugar control - Science Daily, 3/5/15 - "men whose blood sugar control stayed normal over the year had more gut bacteria that are considered beneficial for metabolic health, whereas those who stayed prediabetic had fewer beneficial bacteria and more harmful bacteria ... she said it is possible that changing one's gut bacteria could prevent diabetes" - See  probiotic products at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 20 - "Thirteen trials, representing 513 adult participants with Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m² were included. Prebiotic supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.48, -0.02) and LDL-c (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.44, -0.00) concentrations in overall analysis, and reduced triglycerides (SMD -0.72; 95% CI -1.20, -0.23) and increased HDL-c (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.01, 0.97) concentrations in diabetic trials. Synbiotic supplementation reduced plasma fasting insulin (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.75, -0.02) and triglycerides (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.70, -0.15) concentrations"
  • Effect of Dietary Prebiotic Supplementation in Pre-diabetes - Medscape, 10/1/14 - "Thirty adults with pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose) aged between 40–60 years will be randomly assigned to receive either 10 grams of prebiotic (inulin/oligofructose) daily or 10 grams placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 12 weeks ... Supplementation of the diet with bifidogenic prebiotic fibres (such as inulin) may reduce or retard the accumulation of AGEs in individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Prebiotics have been shown to improve and restore optimal microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, potentially reducing AGE absorption and/or production by the human host. Preliminary investigations indicate that consuming a high-AGE diet is sufficient to favour the proliferation of potentially pathogenic colonic bacteria over more beneficial species. Consumption of glycated proteins,[34] fried meats[61] and toasted wheat flakes[62] encouraged the preferential growth of greater numbers of detrimental gram negative and sulphate-reducing colonic micro-organisms when compared to control diets. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) produced as a bacterial by-product of prebiotic fermentation act to lower the intestinal pH, inhibiting the growth of protein-degrading micro-organisms capable of producing potentially toxic metabolites. SCFAs also stimulate colonic smooth muscle contractions, speeding intestinal transit and limiting the time available for protein fermentation and putrefaction to occur in the gut.[63] Therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics may restore gut normobiosis and reduce AGE accumulation in humans at risk for type 2 diabetes development by the following mechanisms"

Abstracts:

  • Role of the microbiota in hypertension and antihypertensive drug metabolism - Hypertens Res 2021 Dec 9 - "In this review, we provide insights into host-microbiota interactions and summarize the evidence supporting the importance of the microbiota in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), modulate BP and vascular responses. Harmful gut-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide and several uremic toxins, exert proatherosclerotic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory effects. High-salt intake alters the composition of the microbiota, and this microbial alteration contributes to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension. In addition, the microbiota may impact the metabolism of drugs and steroid hormones in the host. The drug-metabolizing activities of the microbiota affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of antihypertensive drugs and contribute to the pathogenesis of licorice-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. Furthermore, the oral microbiota plays a role in BP regulation by producing nitric oxide, which lowers BP via its vasodilatory effects. Thus, antihypertensive intervention strategies targeting the microbiota, such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics (e.g., SCFAs), are considered new therapeutic options for the treatment of hypertension" - See Probiotic supplements at Amazon.com, Prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and postbiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Neuroprotective Potential of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: An Overview of Experimental Evidence - Front. Pharmacol., 23 August 2021 - "Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive and memory impairments (Kumar and Singh 2015). It also results in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles from abnormally phosphorylated tau and abnormal accumulation of amyloid plaques (Drummond and Wisniewski 2017). Animal models play a crucial role in defining disease-associated mechanisms and have been of prime importance in evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapeutic agents (Drummond and Wisniewski 2017). In a rodent model of AD, COS (chitosan oligosaccharides) (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg BW for 2 weeks) were found effective in reducing cognitive deficits in amyloid-β-1–42-induced rats ... A significant number of research findings have demonstrated the link between gut microbiota alterations on the onset of ASD. The beneficial effect of probiotic administration in ASD children is evaluated by many researchers as they are known to restore gut microbiota and downregulate ASD symptoms. Probiotic strains, viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus (Liu et al., 2017), Lactobacillus plantarum (Shaaban et al., 2018), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Kałużna-Czaplińska and Błaszczyk, 2012), and Bifidobacterium longum (Niu et al., 2019) have shown therapeutic potential towards ASD" - [Nutra USA] - See fructo-oligosaccharides supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides Support Normal Bowel Function and Improve Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial - Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2020 Dec;11 - "Patients received daily orally administrated 5-g intervention of the HMOs 2'-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose in a 4:1 mix ... Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements with abnormal stool consistency (mean and [95% confidence interval]: 90.7 [88.9–92.9] vs 57.2% [53.9–60.5], P < 0.0001), overall IBS Symptom Severity Score (323 [314–332] vs 144 [133–155], P < 0.0001) and health-rela,ted quality of life (50.4 [48.0–52.8] vs 74.6 [72.3–76.9], P < 0.0001). Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension" -  [Nutra USA] - See human milk oligosaccharides at Amazon.com.
  • Anxiolytic effects of a galacto-oligosaccharides prebiotic in healthy females (18–25 years) with corresponding changes in gut bacterial composition - Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15 - "Current research implicates pre- and probiotic supplementation as a potential tool for improving symptomology in physical and mental ailments, which makes it an attractive concept for clinicians and consumers alike ... We examined multiple indices of mood and well-being in 64 healthy females in a 4-week double blind, placebo controlled galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic supplement intervention and obtained stool samples at baseline and follow-up for gut microbiota sequencing and analyses. We report effects of the GOS intervention on self-reported high trait anxiety, attentional bias, and bacterial abundance, suggesting that dietary supplementation with a GOS prebiotic may improve indices of pre-clinical anxiety. Gut microbiota research has captured the imagination of the scientific and lay community alike, yet we are now at a stage where this early enthusiasm will need to be met with rigorous research in humans. Our work makes an important contribution to this effort by combining a psychobiotic intervention in a human sample with comprehensive behavioural and gut microbiota measures" - [Nutra USA] - See galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of co-administration of probiotics and prebiotics on chronic inflammation, and depression symptoms in patients with coronary artery diseases: a randomized clinical trial - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Feb 28 - "we are interested in exploring of anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus G (LGG), a probiotic strain, alone or in combination with a prebiotic, Inulin, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) ... This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was held on 96 patients with CAD. Patients were randomly allocated into four different groups: LGG [a capsule/day, contained 1.9 × 109 colony-forming unit of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus G], inulin (15 g/day), co-supplemented (LGG and inulin), and placebo. Participants consumed the supplements for two months. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), MacNew questionnaire and Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-Y) were used to assess depression, quality of life and anxiety, respectively. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Interleukin (IL)-10 were also measured ... Co-supplementation of probiotics and inulin in CAD subjects for eight weeks had beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, and inflammatory biomarkers. Adding inulin to probiotic supplements improved psychological outcomes and inflammatory biomarkers more effectively than two supplements separately" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of a Psychobiotic Supplement on Serum Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Depressive Patients: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 Sep 30 - "Psychobiotics are probiotics or prebiotics that, upon ingestion in adequate amounts, yield positive influence on mental health via microbiota-gut-brain axis regulation to modulate the circulating cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, or neurotrophins levels. We have recently shown that a psychobiotic combination (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175; CEREBIOME) significantly improved depression symptoms in patients with depression. Recent animal data suggest the influence of the gut microbiota on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which was shown to correlate with antidepressant response in depressive patients. Therefore, we conducted this exploratory post hoc analysis of BDNF levels to clarify the mechanism of action of this psychobiotic in our cohort ... We compared serum BDNF levels from participants at baseline and endpoint, and assessed the Pearson correlation between depression severity and BDNF levels for each intervention ... We found that post-intervention BDNF levels were significantly different between groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, BDNF levels increased significantly in the probiotic group compared to both the prebiotic (P < 0.001) and placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at iHerb.
  • Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Physiological Adaptation and Performance in Triathletes through Gut Microbiota Modulation - Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2315 - "Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been reported to have health-promoting activities (e.g., immunoregulation and cancer prevention) ... In our previous study, we found that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, with improved exercise performance ... The triathletes were assigned to two groups: an L. plantarum 128 supplement group (LG, 3 × 1010 colony-forming units (CFU)/day) and a placebo group (PG). Both groups continued with their regular exercise training for the next 4 weeks. The endurance performance, body composition, biochemistries, blood cells, microbiota, and associated metabolites were further investigated. PS128 significantly increased the athletes’ endurance, by about 130% as compared to the PG group, but there was no significant difference in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and composition between groups" - [Nutra USA]
  • Combined Amelioration of Prebiotic Resveratrol and Probiotic Bifidobacteria on Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Nutr Cancer 2020 May 21 - "Supplement of probiotics is considered as a promising strategy for NAFLD and obesity treatment ... We proposed that combination with a prebiotic substrate may improve the effects of probiotics. Thus, in this study, we investigated the separated and combined effects of Bifidobacteria and resveratrol (RSV) against obesity and NAFLD. NAFLD was caused by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 8 weeks. HFD-treated mice were orally treated with B. longum (1 × 109 CFU/mouse/day), RSV (100 mg/kg/day), and both of them from the fifth week. HFD feeding caused obesity and NAFLD as indicated by significantly increased body and liver weights, liver steatosis, elevated serum transaminases and lipid profiles, increased inflammation and imbalanced redox status. Based on these physical and biochemical parameters, inflammatory and antioxidant markers, individual administration of B. longum and RSV alleviated obesity and NAFLD, while coadministration of both products further enhanced the efficacy. These data suggested that combined prebiotic RSV and probiotic B. longum would be a potential candidate or adjuvant for the treatment of obesity and NAFLD" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at iHerb and resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resveratrol at iHerb.
  • Can Bugs be Drugs? The Potential of Probiotics and Prebiotics as Treatment for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Medscape, 10/16/19 - "The most promising strategies thus far developed to alter the microbiome in NAFLD-NASH are probiotics and prebiotics. However, pre- and probiotic treatment of NAFLD-NASH is relatively new and still under development. Actual understanding of the involved mechanisms is lacking and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition after treatment are rarely measured. Furthermore, large clinical trials with comparative endpoints are unavailable. Personalised treatment based on metagenomics gut microbiota analysis will probably be part of the future diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD-NASH" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Mid-life microbiota crises: middle age is associated with pervasive neuroimmune alterations that are reversed by targeting the gut microbiome - Mol Psychiatry. 2019 May 16 - "Male middle age is a transitional period where many physiological and psychological changes occur leading to cognitive and behavioural alterations, and a deterioration of brain function. However, the mechanisms underpinning such changes are unclear. The gut microbiome has been implicated as a key mediator in the communication between the gut and the brain, and in the regulation of brain homeostasis, including brain immune cell function ... Male young adult (8 weeks) and middle-aged (10 months) C57BL/6 mice received diet enriched with a prebiotic (10% oligofructose-enriched inulin) or control chow for 14 weeks. Prebiotic supplementation differentially altered the gut microbiota profile in young and middle-aged mice with changes correlating with faecal metabolites. Functionally, this translated into a reversal of stress-induced immune priming in middle-aged mice. In addition, a reduction in ageing-induced infiltration of Ly-6Chi monocytes into the brain coupled with a reversal in ageing-related increases in a subset of activated microglia (Ly-6C+) was observed. Taken together, these data highlight a potential pathway by which targeting the gut microbiome with prebiotics can modulate the peripheral immune response and alter neuroinflammation in middle age. Our data highlight a novel strategy for the amelioration of age-related neuroinflammatory pathologies and brain function" - [Nutra USA] - See oligofructose at Amazon.com.
  • Gut microbiota in common elderly diseases affecting activities of daily living - World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Nov 14 - "Gut microbiota are involved in the development or prevention of various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, and malignancy such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, atherosclerotic stroke and cardiovascular disease are major diseases associated with decreased activities of daily living (ADL), especially in elderly people. Recent analyses have revealed the importance of gut microbiota in the control of these diseases. The composition or diversity of these microbiota is different between patients with these conditions and healthy controls, and administration of probiotics or prebiotics has been shown effective in the treatment of these diseases. Gut microbiota may affect distant organs through mechanisms that include regulating the absorption of nutrients and/or the production of microbial metabolites, regulating and interacting with the systemic immune system, and translocating bacteria/bacterial products through disrupted mucosal barriers. Thus, the gut microbiota may be important regulators in the development of diseases that affect ADL" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Feeding the developing brain: Juvenile rats fed diet rich in prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions exhibit reduced anxiety-related behavior and modified gene expression in emotion circuits - Neurosci Lett. 2018 Jun 11;677:103-109 - "These data demonstrate that early life diets containing prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions can adaptively alter genes in neural circuits underlying emotion regulation and impact anxiety-related behavior" - [Nutra USA]
  • Longevity extension in Drosophila through gut-brain communication - Scientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 8362 (2018), 30 May 2018 - "With age, the body become less efficient at handling environmental stresses leading to a myriad of physiological imbalances including elevated inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and mitochondrial damage. There will never be a single therapeutic or dietary solution to manage the mounting chronic diseases associated with aging; however, maintaining a healthy gut microbiota through the use probiotic and prebiotic supplements can delay chronic disease onset and promote longevity by simultaneously affecting each of the main triggers of aging" - [Nutra USA] - See prebiotics and probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 27;9(11) - "Participants who took probiotics or prebiotics showed significant improvements in the H1N1 strain seroprotection rate (with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.83 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.19-2.82, p = 0.006, I² = 0%), the H3N2 strain seroprotection rate (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.59-5.10, p < 0.001, I² = 0%), and the B strain seroconversion rate (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.38-3.21, p < 0.001, I² = 0%). This meta-analysis suggested that probiotics and prebiotics are effective in elevating immunogenicity by influencing seroconversion and seroprotection rates in adults inoculated with influenza vaccines"
  • Synbiotic supplementation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 8 - "52 patients with NAFLD were supplemented twice daily for 28 wk with either a synbiotic or a placebo capsule ... Synbiotic supplementation in addition to lifestyle modification is superior to lifestyle modification alone for the treatment of NAFLD, at least partially through attenuation of inflammatory markers in the body" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
    • Synbiotics - Wikipedia - "Synbiotics refer to nutritional supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics"