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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 9/1/21

Low-sodium salt prevents stroke - Science Daily, 8/30/21 - "Participants in intervention villages were given free salt substitute (about 75% sodium chloride and 25% potassium chloride) as a replacement for regular salt and advised to use it for all cooking, seasoning and food preservation. They were also encouraged to use the salt replacement more sparingly than they previously used salt to maximise their sodium reduction. Sufficient salt substitute was provided to cover the needs of the entire household (about 20 g per person per day). Participants in control villages continued their usual habits ... The risk of stroke was reduced with salt substitute compared to regular salt (29.14 versus 33.65 per 1,000 patient-years; rate ratio [RR] 0.86"

Brain refreshing: Why the dreaming phase matters - Science Daily, 8/25/21 - "rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is when you tend to dream a lot ... There was a massive flow of red blood cells through the brain capillaries during REM sleep, but no difference between non-REM sleep and the awake state, showing that REM sleep is a unique state ... Given that reduced blood flow in the brain and decreased REM sleep are correlated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, which involves the buildup of waste products in the brain, it may be interesting to address whether increased blood flow in the brain capillaries during REM sleep is important for waste removal from the brain" - Note:  That made me happy.  I dream from the time I go to sleep until the time I get up in the morning.  It's like a DVR that never stops playing.

Low-to-Moderate Coffee Intake in Midlife Tied to Heart Benefits - Medscape, 8/28/21 - "light-to-moderate coffee drinking, defined as 0.5 to 3 cups per day, was associated with a 21% lower risk for stroke, a 17% lower risk for death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and a 12% lower risk for death from all causes, as well as more favorable cardiac MRI findings, compared with nondrinkers (<0.5 cup per day) during a median 11-year follow-up ... Heavy coffee drinkers, defined as those consuming more than 3 cups per day, on the other hand, likewise had more favorable cardiac MRI findings, but with similar (not lower) rates of stroke and CVD or all-cause mortality compared with nondrinkers"

EMPEROR-Preserved: Empagliflozin Scores HFpEF Breakthrough - Medscape, 8/27/21 - "The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin achieved in EMPEROR-Preserved what no other agent could previously do: unequivocally cut the incidence of cardiovascular death or hospitalization in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) ... Treatment with empagliflozin (Jardiance) led to a significant 21% relative reduction in the rate of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), compared with placebo, among 5,988 randomized patients with HFpEF during a median 26 months of follow-up, proving that patients with HFpEF finally have a treatment that gives them clinically meaningful benefit, and paving the way to an abrupt change in management of these patients, experts said ... A second sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 ) inhibitor, dapagliflozin (Farxiga), is also an option for treating HFrEF based on results in the DAPA-HF trial, and the DELIVER trial, still in progress, is testing dapagliflozin as a HFpEF treatment in about 6,000 patients, with results expected in 2022 ... This showed a consistent and robust benefit from empagliflozin for reducing HHF across a wide spectrum of patients with heart failure, ranging from patients with left ventricular ejection fractions of less than 25% to patients with ejection fractions as high as 64% ... patients with reduced ejection fractions showed a significant 49% relative reduction in the incidence of serious renal outcomes" - Note:  If you can't get empagliflozin, ReliableRxPharmacy sells dapagliflozin.

Dapagliflozin in HFrEF May Cut Arrhythmias, Sudden Death: DAPA-HF - Medscape, 8/27/21 - "The addition of dapagliflozin to standard therapy reduced the relative risk for the primary composite endpoint of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death by 21%, compared with placebo" - See dapagliflozin at ReliableRxPharmacy.

SGLT2 inhibitors: the story continues to unfold - European Heart Journal, 8/23/21 - "The sodium–glucose co-transport protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have had a huge impact on the clinical scene, such as for treatment of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and heart failure. The renal protection provided by these agents has also been very impactful, with a potential delay in the time-related reduction of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that occurs in patients with CKD.1 However, to date, the true mechanism of SGLT2is, such as in the early and profound reduction in heart failure hospitalizations, still eludes us.2,3 Each new finding regarding an SGLT2i is met with enthusiasm as we unravel the whys and the hows. Certainly, a diuretic effect may be present, but this does not answer the question and neither does increased glucose excretion, since the effects in non-diabetics are equally impressive. Fortunately, the pharmaceutical industry has sponsored large randomized controlled trials of SGLT2is in various patient groups, providing the ideal arena for exploring effects by subgroups, asking critical questions, and establishing interesting hypotheses, yet to be proven."

Sacubitril/valsartan for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and resistant hypertension: one shot for a double strike? - European Heart Journal, 8/15/21 - "hypertension and HFpEF co-exist in >95% of subjects,5 and a large proportion of HFpEF patients have uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) levels despite the use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. Indeed, resistant hypertension, defined as the failure to achieve recommended BP targets despite appropriate lifestyle measures and treatment with optimal or best-tolerated doses of three or more drugs which should include a diuretic [typically an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and a calcium channel blocker (CCB)]1,6, accounts for 10–20% of HFpEF patients ... Sac/Val appeared to be more effective than valsartan alone in treating resistant hypertension in HFpEF. Patients treated with Sac/Val achieved a 4.8 mmHg SBP reduction (–7.0 to –2.5 mmHg) compared with –3.9 mmHg (–6.6 to –1.3 mmHg) in the valsartan group. Consistent results were obtained in individuals with apparent MRA-resistant hypertension [–8.8 mmHg (–14.0 to –3.5 mmHg) vs. –6.3 (–12.5 to –0.1 mmHg) in the Sac/Val and valsartan groups, respectively]. Sac/Val improved the achievement of SBP control at 16 weeks by 22% compared with valsartan alone [47.9% vs. 34.3%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95% CI 1.30–2.43]. In patients with apparent MRA-resistant hypertension, the proportions were 43.6% vs. 28.4%, respectively, with an adjusted OR of 2.63"

Gut bacteria and flavonoid-rich foods are linked and improve blood pressure levels - AHA, 8/23/21 - "Eating 1.6 servings of berries per day (one serving equals 80 grams, or 1 cup) was associated with an average reduction in systolic blood pressure levels of 4.1 mm Hg, and about 12% of the association was explained by gut microbiome factors ... Drinking 2.8 glasses (125 ml of wine per glass) of red wine a week was associated with an average of 3.7 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure level, of which 15% could be explained by the gut microbiome." - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.

FDA Okays Empagliflozin for HFrEF - Medscape, 8/19/21 - "The FDA based its decision on results from the EMPEROR-Reduced study, first reported in August 2020, that showed treatment of patients with HFrEF with empagliflozin on top of standard therapy for a median of 16 months cut the incidence of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure by 25% relative to placebo, and by an absolute 5.3%, compared with placebo-treated patients ... Patients enrolled in EMPEROR-Reduced had chronic heart failure in New York Heart Association functional class II-IV and with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, the standard ejection fraction criterion for defining HFrEF. Half the enrolled patients had diabetes, and analysis showed no heterogeneity in the primary outcome response based on diabetes status at enrollment ... Subsequent to the report of results from the EMPEROR-Reduced trial nearly a year ago, heart failure experts declared that treatment with an agent from the SGLT2 inhibitor class had become a "new pillar of foundational therapy for HFrEF," and they urged rapid initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor (along with other appropriate medications) at the time of initial diagnosis of HFrEF"

Teens who use cannabis frequently more likely to have premature baby - Science Daily, 8/19/21 - "babies born to parents (aged 29 and over) who had used cannabis every day for a period of time between the ages of 15-17 were estimated to be considerably more likely to be born preterm or to have a low birth weight, when compared to babies born to parents who hadn't used cannabis as teenagers ... There is already evidence that frequent adolescent cannabis use increases the risks for poor mental health, but our results indicate there may be further effects that individuals may not anticipate ... The more we study heavy cannabis use in the teens, the more problematic it looks. Given growing political and industry drivers for legalisation of use, there is a pressing need for bigger and better research into understanding harms arising from heavy adolescent use"

The good herb: Buckwheat liquor helps cells clean house - Science Daily, 8/16/21 - "When the researchers looked more closely at specific components of tartary buckwheat extract, they found that one component, quercetin, had the same effects as the extract. What's more, both tartary buckwheat extract and quercetin prompted liver cells to clean up protein aggregates through a process known as aggrephagy ... Our findings suggest that tartary buckwheat extract and quercetin induce not only autophagy, but also aggrephagy ... Given that protein aggregates in liver cells are closely linked to alcoholic liver disease, these findings suggest that quercetin could be a useful treatment for patients with this condition. It may also hold promise for treatment of other diseases associated with protein aggregation, such as Alzheimer's" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Vitamin D may protect against young-onset colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 8/17/21 - "Vitamin D has known activity against colorectal cancer in laboratory studies ... total vitamin D intake of 300 IU per day or more -- roughly equivalent to three 8-oz. glasses of milk -- was associated with an approximately 50% lower risk of developing young-onset colorectal cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Benefits of time-restricted eating depend on age and sex  - Science Daily, 8/17/21 - "TRE is good not only for metabolic disease but also for increased resilience against infectious diseases and insulin resistance ... regardless of age, sex or weight loss profile, TRE strongly protected against fatty liver disease, a condition that affects up to 100 million Americans and for which no medicine has been approved ... although the females on TRE were not protected from weight gain, they still showed metabolic benefits, including less-fatty livers and better-controlled blood sugar ... TRE may protect both males and females from sepsis-induced death -- a particular danger in ICUs, especially during the pandemic. After administering a toxin that induced a sepsis-like condition in the mice, the researchers monitored survival rates for 13 days and found that TRE protected both male and female mice from dying of sepsis ... TRE didn't just protect against fatty liver disease, diabetes, and death from sepsis; it even enabled male mice to preserve and add muscle mass and improve muscle performance (the effect did not hold for females)."

Histamine could be a key player in depression, according to study in mice - Science Daily, 8/17/21 - "Inflammation -- a blanket term describing an immune response -- triggers the release of histamine in the body. This increases blood flow to affected areas to flood them with immune cells. While these effects help the body fight infections, both long-term and acute inflammation is increasingly linked to depression. Inflammation accompanies infections but can also be caused by stress, allergic responses and a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative disease"

Abstracts from this week:

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Dietary Supplements Consumed During Pregnancy and Lactation and Child Neurodevelopment: A Systematic Review - J Nutr 2021 Aug 12 - "Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation has profound effects on the development and lifelong health of the child. Long-chain PUFAs are particularly important for myelination and the development of vision during the perinatal period ... Limited evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may result in favorable cognitive development in the child. There was insufficient evidence to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on other developmental outcomes" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Lignan Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug 17 - "Increased long-term intake of lignans was associated with a significantly lower risk of total CHD in both men and women. Possible synergistic effects may exist between lignan and fiber intake in relation to CHD risk reduction, possibly through enhancing the production of enterolignans" -

Comparative pharmacokinetics of Theracurmin, a highly bioavailable curcumin, in healthy adult subjects - Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 23 - "In conclusion, this study showed similar systemic exposure between the two Theracurmin products. The absorption of curcumin after the administration of Theracurmin was significantly enhanced compared with curcumin powder" - See Theracurmin at Amazon.com.

Serum leptin is associated with increased pulse pressure and the development of arterial stiffening in adult men: results of an eight-year follow-up study - Hypertens Res 2021 Aug 12 - "Those who had baseline leptin levels above the median had a greater risk of developing arterial stiffening (odds ratio: 2.5, p < 0.05) and a greater increase in pulse pressure over time (beta: 2.1, p < 0.05), also after adjustment for confounders. The results of this prospective study indicate a predictive role of circulating leptin levels for vascular damage, independent of body weight and blood pressure"

Association of Statins with Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Intensive Glycemic Therapy - Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Aug 12 - "total mortality (TM) ... Statins may alleviate the risk of TM in T2DM patients receiving intensive glycemic therapy"

Serum Magnesium Is Inversely Associated With Heart Failure, Atrial Fibrillation, and Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Care 2021 Aug - "We investigated whether serum magnesium (Mg2+) was prospectively associated with macro- or microvascular complications and mediated by glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), in type 2 diabetes (T2D) ... The average baseline serum Mg2+ concentration was 0.80 ± 0.08 mmol/L. During 6.1 years of follow-up, serum Mg2+ was inversely associated with major macrovascular, 0.87 (95% CI 0.76; 1.00); HF, 0.76 (95% CI 0.62; 0.93); and AF, 0.59 (95% CI 0.49; 0.72). Serum Mg2+ was not associated with AMI, CHD, CVA, and PAD. During 5.1 years of follow-up, serum Mg2+ was inversely associated with overall microvascular events, 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.91); 0.89 (95% CI 0.82; 0.96) for CKD, 0.77 (95% CI 0.61; 0.98) for diabetic retinopathy, and 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.92) for diabetic foot. HbA1c mediated the associations of serum Mg2+ with HF, overall microvascular events, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic foot." - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

Effects of canagliflozin on serum potassium in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: the CREDENCE trial - Eur Heart J 2021 Aug 23 - "Hyperkalaemia is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and limits the optimal use of agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD, sodium‒glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide cardiorenal protection, but whether they affect the risk of hyperkalaemia remains uncertain ... Among patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibition with canagliflozin may reduce the risk of hyperkalaemia in people with T2DM and CKD without increasing the risk of hypokalaemia"

Sacubitril-valsartan as a treatment for apparent resistant hypertension in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction - Eur Heart J 2021 Aug 15 - "Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) frequently have difficult-to-control hypertension. We examined the effect of neprilysin inhibition on 'apparent resistant hypertension' in patients with HFpEF in the PARAGON-HF trial, which compared the effect of sacubitril-valsartan with valsartan ... Sacubitril-valsartan may be useful in treating apparent resistant hypertension in patients with HFpEF, even in those who continue to have an elevated blood pressure despite treatment with at least four antihypertensive drug classes, including an MRA"

Chronic consumption of a high linoleic acid diet during pregnancy, lactation and post-weaning period increases depression-like behavior in male, but not female offspring - Behav Brain Res 2021 Aug 18 - "Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an essential role in brain development. Emerging data have suggested a possible link between an imbalance in PUFAs and cognitive behavioral deficits in offspring. A diet rich in high linoleic acid (HLA), typically from preconception to lactation, leads to an increase in the ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in the fetus. Arising research has suggested that a deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids is a potential risk factor for inducing autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like behavioral deficits. However, the impact of a high n- diet during preconception, pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning on the brain development of adolescent offspring are yet to determine ... Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed with either an HLA or low linoleic acid (LLA) control diet for 10 weeks before mating, then continued with the same diet throughout the pregnancy and lactation period. Female and male offspring at 5 weeks old were subjected to behavioral tests to assess social interaction behavior and depression-/anxiety-like behavior. Our result showed that chronic consumption of an HLA diet did not affect sociability and social recognition memory, but induce depression-like behavior in male but not in female offspring" - Note: Linoleic acid is an omega-6.

Erectile Dysfunction and Treatment: An Analysis of Associated Chronic Health Conditions - Urology 2021 Aug 21 - "Our study found that a diagnosis of ED was strongly associated with concomitant diagnoses of depression, hypertension, diabetes and several autoimmune diseases. Receiving treatment for ED varied between chronic health conditions"

Effect of Dietary Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Cognitive Function in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Aug 20 - "Cognitive dysfunctions are increasing alarmingly around the world, and researchers are exploring preventive measures for improving brain performance. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a naturally occurring coenzyme in foods, exhibits potent antioxidant activity, and improves diverse functions which include mitochondrial activation, growth, repair, protection of nerve cells by increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and NGF receptors; and suppression of fibril formation and aggregation of amyloid β ... evaluated the efficacy and safety of PQQ disodium salt powder (mnemoPQQ®) for improved cognitive function after 12 weeks of supplementation in healthy Japanese male and female (age 40 to <80 Y) ... Significant improvements were observed on the Cognitrax's cognitive function domain score on "composite memory", "verbal memory", "reaction time", "complex attention", "cognitive flexibility", "executive function", and "motor speed" in the mnemoPQQ® group as compared to the placebo group. The DECO and the MMSE-J scores were also significantly improved in the mnemoPQQ® group. No adverse events were observed." - See pyrroloquinoline quinone at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Capsaicin and Its Effects on Body Weight - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Aug 12 - "Capsaicin is a bioactive compound found in the fruits (i.e., peppers) of the plant genus Capsicum, which is widely used in many cultures. Besides many health effects of this compound, it can also be effective in body weight control through various mechanisms such as regulating lipolysis in adipocytes, increasing the feeling of satiety, stimulating energy expenditure, and reducing energy intake ... Capsaicin can decrease hunger through hormones in the gastrointestinal tract ... Capsaicin can increase energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue ... Capsaicin can increase lipolysis in white adipose tissue" - See capsicum at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Lycopene Reduces Cholesterol Absorption and Prevents Atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- Mice by Downregulating HNF-1α and NPC1L1 Expression - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 25 - "These results indicated that lycopene inhibited intestinal cholesterol absorption and protected against HFD-induced atherosclerosis through inhibiting HNF-1α and NPC1L1 expression. Lycopene exhibits a potential antiatherosclerotic effect through suppressing intestinal cholesterol absorption" - See lycopene at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Phenolic Acid Extract Alleviates Ultraviolet B-Irradiation-Induced Photoaging in a Hairless Mouse Skin Photodamage Model - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Aug 2 - "Here, we evaluated the in vivo skin-protective effects of topical applications of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer extract (PG2) and its phenolic acid- (PA-) based components against UVB-induced skin photoaging. PG2 or PA applied to skin of hairless mice after UVB-irradiation alleviated UVB-induced effects observed in untreated skin, such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), increased epidermal thickness, and decreased stratum corneum water content without affecting body weight. Moreover, PG2 and PA treatments countered reduced mRNA-level expression of genes encoding filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase-1 (TGM1), and hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) caused by UVB exposure and reduced UVB-induced collagen fiber degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes encoding MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Meanwhile, topical treatments reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA-level expression in photodamaged skin, leading to the inhibition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA-level expression. Thus, ginseng phenolic acid-based preparations have potential value as topical treatments to protect skin against UVB-induced photoaging" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Ginsenoside Rk3 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development through Targeting the Gut-Liver Axis - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 20 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Our previous reports showed that ginsenoside Rk3 provided excellent efficacy in alleviating the intestinal inflammatory response and protecting the liver, but its mechanism for HCC prevention remains to be explored. Here, the results suggested that Rk3 displayed potent antitumor effects against a dimethyl nitrosamine- and CCl4-induced HCC mouse model. Results revealed that Rk3 application inhibited liver injury, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. In parallel, Rk3 lowered the inflammatory response by decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducing apoptosis, and blocking the cell cycle. Meanwhile, Rk3 effectively ameliorated the gut microbiota dysbiosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the LPS-TLR4 signaling pathway, which was inhibited by Rk3, plays a key role in preventing HCC. To conclude, our research provides valuable insights into how Rk3 application targets the gut-liver axis and suppresses HCC development, suggesting that Rk3 might be a promising candidate for clinical treatment of HCC" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Hydrolyzed Chicken Meat Extract Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Middle-Aged Mouse by Regulating M1/M2 Microglial Polarization - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 17 - "Aging is the most common cause of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The pathological hallmarks of age-dependent neuropathology consist of chronic neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, gliosis, learning disability, and cognitive decline. A novel hydrolyzed bioactive peptide mixture extracted from chicken meat, that is, hydrolyzed chicken extract (HCE) has been previously demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in rodents and humans. However, the mechanism of HCE on age-related neurological disorders remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to clarify the impact and mechanism of isolated bioactive components (BCs) from HCE on age-dependent neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in middle-aged mice. We found that both BC and HCE supplementation ameliorated age-induced memory loss, alleviated hippocampal neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, followed by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. BC and HCE treatment also ameliorated age-dependent morphological anomalies and alleviated microgliosis and astrogliosis. In parallel, BC and HCE treatment showed a significant decrease in the NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling, which were associated with the enhancement of antioxidative enzymes activities. Furthermore, BC treatment attenuated the neuroinflammatory phenotypes by the decrease in M1-polarized microglia and the increase in M2-polarized microglia in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we found that cyclo(Phe-Phe), one of the cyclopeptides purified from BC, showed notable anti-inflammatory effects in BV2 cells. Taken together, BC might be used as a dietary supplement for alleviating age-dependent neuropathology in middle-aged individuals" - See collagen UC-II at Amazon and collagen supplements at Amazon.com.

Preventive and Prebiotic Effect of α-Galacto-Oligosaccharide against Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Mice - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 25 - "β-Galacto-oligosaccharide (β-GOS) showed great potential in ulcerative colitis (UC) adjuvant therapy. Herein, the preventive and prebiotic effect of enzymatic-synthesized α-linked galacto-oligosaccharide (α-GOS) was investigated in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and gut microbiota dysbiosis mice. Compared with β-GOS, the α-GOS supplement was more effective in improving preventive efficacy, promoting colonic epithelial barrier integrity, and alleviating inflammation cytokines. Moreover, the activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation was significantly inhibited by both α-GOS and β-GOS. Gut microbiota analysis showed that α-GOS treatment reshaped the dysfunctional gut microbiota. The subsequent Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis indicated that these gut microbiota changes were significantly correlated with the inflammatory parameters. These results suggested that the enzymatic-synthesized α-GOS is a promising therapeutic agent in UC prevention and adjuvant treatment by maintaining intestinal homeostasis" - See β-Galacto-oligosaccharide at Amazon.com.

Vitamin C and scar strength: analysis of a historical trial and implications for collagen-related pathologies - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Aug 16 - "The findings show that a vitamin C intake that averages to 10 mg/d over a mean follow-up of 11.5 mo was associated with a 42% weakened scar strength when compared with 80 mg vitamin C intake/d (P < 0.001). The observed dose-response curve between scar strength and vitamin C intake suggests that the daily vitamin C intake needed to prevent collagen-related pathologies is in the range recommended by the National Academy of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority (75 to 110 mg/d), not the WHO recommendation (45 mg/d). The findings also show that a vitamin C intake that averages to 65 mg/d over a mean follow-up of 6.5 mo failed to restore the normal wound-healing capacity of vitamin C-depleted tissues; such tissues had a 49% weaker scar strength when compared with nondepleted tissues (P < 0.05). Thus, average daily vitamin C intakes ~50% higher than the WHO recommends may fail to treat existing collagen-related pathologies. It is concluded that the prior lack of statistical analyses of a landmark trial may have led to a misleading narrative on the vitamin C needs for the prevention and treatment of collagen-related pathologies" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and iHerb.com.

The effect of French maritime pine bark extract supplementation on inflammation, nutritional and clinical status in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial - Phytother Res 2021 Aug 12 - "Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the anti-inflammatory properties of French maritime pine bark extract and the neuroprotective effects, we aimed to evaluate the effects of its supplementation on TBI ... the intervention group received 150 mg of French maritime pine bark extract supplementation (Oligopin) with enteral nutrition for 10 days ... Supplementation, significantly decreased IL-6 (β = -53.43 pg/ml, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -91.74, -15.13, p = .006), IL-1β (β = -111.66 pg/ml, 95% CI = -183.79, -39.5402, p = .002) and C-reactive protein (β = -19.99 mg/L, 95% CI = -27.23, -12.76, p > .001) in the intervention group compared to control group after 10 days. Clinical scores including acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and sequential organ failure assessment were reduced (β = -3.72, 95% CI = -5.96, -1.49, p = .001and β = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.23, -0.90, p < .001, respectively), and Nutric score was reduced compared to control group (β = -.60, 95% CI = -1.08, -0.12, p = .01). The survival rate was higher by 15% in the intervention group compared to control group. Oligopin supplementation in TBI patients in ICU reduced inflammation and improved the clinical status and malnutrition score and thereby reducing the mortality rate" - See pine bark extract at Amazon.com.

The effects of Cynara scolymus L. supplementation on liver enzymes: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Clin Pract 2021 Aug 12;e14726 - "A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarise studies conducted on the effects of artichoke supplementation on liver enzymes ... Artichoke supplementation elicited significant reductions in liver enzymes, especially among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" - See artichoke extract at Amazon.com.

Beneficial effects of a combination of Clostridium cochlearium and Lactobacillus acidophilus on body weight gain, insulin sensitivity and gut microbiota in high-fat diet induced obese mice Nutrition, 4 Aug 21 - "Species L. acidophilus and butyrate producer C. cochlearium have been shown potential anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that the combination of C. cochlearium and L. acidophilus (CC-LA) has beneficial effects on body weight control and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet induced obese (DIO) mice ... thirty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). The experimental group (CC-LA) was administered with CC-LA mixture and fed ad libitum with high-fat diet. High-fat diet (HF) control and low-fat diet (LF) control groups were treated with the same dose of sterile water as CC-LA group. After 17 weeks of dietary intervention, the CC-LA group showed 17% less body weight gain than the HF group did ... This study provided evidence that the CC-LA combination reduced obesity and improved glucose metabolism in high fat diet treated DIO mice, potentially mediated by the modulation of gut microbiota" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Probiotics as a New Regulator for Bone Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Aug 2 - "Spinal and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was not affected significantly by probiotic consumption. In 37 animal experiments, probiotic or symbiotic feeding mostly had effects on bone health parameters. Some strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus including L. reuteri, L. casei, L. paracasei, L. bulgaricus, and L. acidophilus have indicated beneficial effects on bone health parameters. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that probiotic supplementation might improve bone health" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Combination of Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4231 and MG4244 attenuates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed obese mice - Benef Microbes 2021 Aug 4 - "Administration of the Limosilactobacillus strains decreased body weight gain, liver and adipose tissue weight, and glucose tolerance. Serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and leptin were reduced, while adiponectin increased. The administration of Limosilactobacillus strains improved the histopathological features of liver tissue, such as hepatic atrophy and inflammatory penetration, and significantly reduced the content of triglyceride in the liver. Limosilactobacillus administration discovered a significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes in the epididymal tissue. Limosilactobacillus treatment significantly reduced the expression of important regulators in lipid metabolism, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte-protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase in the epididymal tissue. Also, Limosilactobacillus lowered sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1-c and FAS in the liver tissue" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Effect of probiotics supplementation on disease progression, depression, general health, and anthropometric measurements in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials - Int J Clin Pract 2021 Aug 11;e14724 - "Probiotics may have a promising role in chronic autoinflammatory diseases. The current systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of probiotics on disease progression, depression, general health, and anthropometric measurements in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients ... Our findings revealed that probiotics supplementation can improve disease progression, suppress depression, and general health in MS patients" - See See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Lactobacillus johnsonii Attenuates Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis by Regulating Inflammatory Responses and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice - J Nutr 2021 Aug 12 - "Probiotics are beneficial in intestinal disorders. However, the benefits of Lactobacillus johnsonii in experimental colitis remain unknown ... L. johnsonii supplementation is a promising nutritional strategy for preventing C. rodentium-induced colitis in mice" - See Lactobacillus johnsonii at Amazon.com.

The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Vitamin D Levels in Adults of Different Ethnicities: Findings from the West China Health and Aging Trend Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(7):909-913 - "Sarcopenia is a condition associated with progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function resulting in substantial negative health outcomes and disability in older adults ... Among middle-aged and older adults of multiple ethnicities in western China, we found that inadequate vitamin D was an independent predictor of sarcopenia risk specifically in males" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 12 - "We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD-deficiency might be a novel common pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and adiposity on disease severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Management of Cognitive Dysfunction - The journal of nutrition, health & aging volume 25, pages819–820 (2021) - "The first of the nootropics introduced to treat dementia was the ergotoxine derivative, hydergine. A meta-analysis found that hydergine significantly improved cognition based on global ratings (8). However, these effects were considered to be modest ... Recently, our group has shown in an epidemiological study that the tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccine markedly reduces dementia in persons receiving it compared to unvaccinated individuals (14). This may be because of activation of regulatory T cells. This effect is much greater than seen with the available drugs for the treatment of dementia ... Metformin in persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus reduces dementia (17, 18). The prevalence of dementia has been reduced in the USA over the last decade, most probably due to the treatment of hypertension ... Most importantly, there are a number of nutritional and psychological interventions that appear to reduce dementia (Table 2). These include especially fruit and vegetable diets such as the Mediterranean (21) or the MIND diets (22). Extra virgin olive oil further decreases the chance of developing cognitive dysfunction by reducing inflammatory damage in the brain (23, 24). There is some evidence that yogurt (25) and curcumin (26) may also decrease the development of cognitive dysfunction. Oligomannate, which is derived from seaweed, decreases microbiome inflammatory response similar to yogurt and improves cognition" - See metformin at ReliableRX and oligomannate at Amazon.com.


Proton pump inhibitors may contribute to progression or development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-A sequence symmetry analysis approach - J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Aug 25 - "Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used to treat and prevent gastro-oesophageal conditions, are well-tolerated but have been associated with risk including pneumonia. The extent to which initiation of PPIs can contribute to other respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely unknown ... long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) for COPD ... Initiation of omeprazole was associated with a 29% increased risk of initiating a LABD (ASR = 1.29 95% CI 1.22-1.36). Initiation of esomeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole or lansoprazole was associated with 25%, 15%, 8% and 8% increased risk, respectively" 

The associations between whole grain and refined grain intakes and serum C-reactive protein - Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Aug 17 - "Epidemiological studies suggest that whole grain intake has inverse associations with low-grade inflammation, but findings regarding refined grains are inconclusive ... The results of this study suggest that higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower concentrations of hs-CRP and higher intake of refined grains is associated with higher concentrations. However, especially the association with whole grain intake was attenuated after adjusting for fibre intake from grains, suggesting that cereal fibre may partly explain the association" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com.

Associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 16 - "Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stage 1 to 2 AKI according to the KDIGO criteria" - See thiamine at Amazon.com.

Associations of choline intake with hypertension and blood pressure among older adults in cross-sectional 2011 - 2014 NHANES differ by body mass index and comorbidity status - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 12;1-22 - "Blood pressure (BP) is a known cardiovascular risk factor that is hypothesized to be inversely related to choline intake. A previous study suggested that this association may be more apparent in older adults and may differ according to demographic and health characteristics ... Choline intake interacted with BMI (P-interaction=0.04) such that choline intake tended to be associated with lower odds of hypertension among people with BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (OR [95% CI]: 0.64 [0.4,1.00]; P=0.052). Choline intake was not associated with systolic BP (mean±SEM change per 100 mg of choline: -1.03±0.74 mmHg; P=0.16). In contrast, its relation to diastolic BP differed by cardiovascular comorbidity (P-interaction=0.03) with a non-significant (P=0.13) negative direction of association observed among those who were free of comorbidities and a non-significant (P=0.26) positive direction observed among those with comorbidities. Collectively, these results suggested that the associations of choline intake with BP levels and hypertension risk among older adults are dependent on other risk factors" - See choline at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Association of coffee and genetic risk with incident dementia in middle-aged and elderly adults - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Aug 23 - "Compared to non-coffee drinking, heavy instant coffee drinking (> 6 cups/day) and moderate decaffeinated coffee drinking (1-3 cups/day) were associated with a higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19-1.34) and AD (HR 1.41-1.51), while moderate ground coffee drinking was associated with a lower risk of dementia (HR, 0.78; P = 0.001) and vascular dementia (HR, 0.58; P < 0.001). Among participants at high genetic risk, heavy coffee drinking was associated with a 95% (HR; 1.95, 95% CI, 1.21-3.16) higher risk of AD than non-coffee drinking. We found an interaction between coffee and genetic risk in relation to AD"

Metformin and leucine increase satellite cells and collagen remo - FASEB J 2021 Sep;35(9):e21862 - "Loss of muscle mass and strength after disuse followed by impaired muscle recovery commonly occurs with aging. Metformin (MET) and leucine (LEU) individually have shown positive effects in skeletal muscle during atrophy conditions but have not been evaluated in combination nor tested as a remedy to enhance muscle recovery following disuse atrophy in aging ... Together, the dual treatment of MET and LEU was able to increase muscle function, satellite cell content, and reduce collagen accumulation, thus improving muscle quality during disuse and recovery in aging" - See metformin at ReliableRX and leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.

Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant supplementation improves 8 km time trial performance in middle-aged trained male cyclists - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 18, Article number: 58 (2021) - "19 middle-aged (age: 44 ± 4 years) recreationally trained (VO2peak: 58.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg− 1·min− 1, distance cycled per week during 6 months prior to study enrollment: 158.3 ± 58.4 km) male cyclists completed 45 min cycling at 70% VO2peak followed by an 8 km time trial after 28 days of supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg·day− 1) and a placebo ... Mean completion time for the time trial was 1.3% faster with MitoQ (12.91 ± 0.94 min) compared to placebo (13.09 ... These data suggest that MitoQ supplementation may be an effective nutritional strategy to attenuate exercise-induced increases in oxidative damage to lipids and improve cycling performance" - [Nutra USA] - See MitoQ at Amazon.com.

Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 on Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Self-Reported Insomniacs: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial - Nutrients 2021, 13(8) - "Recent animal studies have supported that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) can reduce the severity of anxiety and depression. However, previous studies did not focus on the sleep quality and mood of humans ... Forty participants between 20 and 40 years of age with self-reported insomnia were randomly assigned to two groups, a PS128 group and a placebo group, in a double-blind trial. Participants took two capsules of either PS128 or a placebo after dinner for 30 day ... Compared to the control group, the PS128 group showed significant decreases in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores, fatigue levels, brainwave activity, and awakenings during the deep sleep stage. Their improved depressive symptoms were related to changes in brain waves and sleep maintenance. These findings suggest that daily administration of PS128 may lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms, fatigue level, cortical excitation, and an improvement in sleep quality during the deep sleep stage. Daily consumption of PS128 as a dietary supplement may improve the depressive symptoms and sleep quality of insomniacs, although further investigation is warranted" - [Nutra USA] - See lactobacillus plantarum ps128 at Amazon.com.

Effects of a Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacognize®) on stress, fatigue, quality of life and sleep in adults with self-reported poor sleep: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - J Func Foods, Oct 2021 - "immunoglobulin A (sIgA), α-amylase (sAA) ... Based on the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Bacopa monnieri did not improve sleep patterns more than the placebo; however, it was associated with greater improvements in emotional wellbeing, general health, and pain-related symptoms. Bacopa monnieri was also associated with greater reductions in sIgA and sAA compared to the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See Bacopa monnieri at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

US: Tesla Offers Model 3 SR+ LFP Battery Option, Quicker Delivery - InsideEV.com, 8/27.21  - "According to info sent by Tesla to its customers (see tweets below), the estimated EPA range of the Tesla Model 3 SR+ with LFP battery is 253 miles (407 km), compared to 263 miles (423 km) in the current version with NCA battery.

That's 10 miles (16 km) difference, but there are also some advantages. The LFP batteries can be charged to 100% State of Charge (SOC) within the available SOC window, without much worry about its longevity.

In the case of NCA (a higher voltage chemistry), the default recommended daily charging level is close to 90%. As a result, the range would be 237 miles (381 km), which means that the LFP should be better on average by 16 miles (26 km) or 6.7% and worse by 10 miles or about 4% when NCA is fully charged.

To achieve a similar range, using a less energy dense battery (heavier), the capacity is probably slightly higher in the LFP version (a level of 60 kWh).

As the fast charging characteristics appear to be as good if not better in the case of LFP, we guess that the LFP is a reasonable choice ... Elon Musk: "I’d personally slightly opt for iron pack, as it wants to be charged to 100%, whereas nickel prefers ~90%."

My Tesla referral link: http://ts.la/bernard39137

Tesla referral link

Health Focus (Hypertension):